Science.gov

Sample records for gallon water storage

  1. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.J.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  2. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  4. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  5. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  6. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  7. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  8. Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

  9. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  10. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  11. Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  14. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  15. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  16. 124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report: 27 year-old dies inside of a six million gallon storage tank, June 7, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-14

    On June 7, 1985, a father and son inspection team, under contract to a petroleum company, were inspecting the seals between the internal panels of a floating roof and the sides of 150,000 barrel storage tank containing regular gasoline (8006619). The victim entered the tank through the access hatch at the top of the tank and proceeded down the access ladder to the floating panel inside the tank. The victim then walked around the tank on top of the floating panel inspecting the rubber seals between the walls of the tank and the floating panel. The father remained on the outside, on top of the tank. He called the rescue squad when his son was 7 minutes overdue. Two hours after the father reported the victim was overdue, the body was located on the opposite side of the tank, approximately 150 feet from the ladder. An additional two hours were needed to retrieve the victim. The victim was wearing an open circuit, self contained breathing apparatus in the demand mode, but the face mask was found on top of his head, not over his face. The only system of communication between the two men was tapping on the wall of the tank with a small rock. A tape recorder was being used by the victim to record the condition of the tank walls. The victims voice on the tape suggested that the respirator face piece was not in place. Recommendations included developing written procedures for working in confined spaces, constant communication should be maintained between the worker and the standby person, and the use of pressure demand self contained breathing apparatus in dangerous environments.

  18. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  19. Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for

  20. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  2. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ..., electric resistance technologies. 74 FR 65852, 65680-81 (Dec. 11, 2009). As the December 2009 NOPR also... conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and electric instantaneous models... Rated Storage x Rated Storage Volume in gallons). Volume in gallons). Electric Storage For tanks with...

  3. Catchment water storage: Models vs Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have seen a great deal of progress in development of hydrological models that can simulate both the dynamic streamflow response and the hydrochemical flux response of a catchment. In general terms, streamflow response is driven by water deficit in the catchment, whereas hydrochemical response is driven by water storage. Therefore, models that can simultaneously predict both responses must succeed in representing these two related, but different, quantities. This presentation will consider how much information we can gain from field studies to quantify the joint deficit/storage state of a catchment. In particular, examples from two New Zealand experimental catchments in lowland and high country locations will be used to link typical measurements available with the information required by hydrological - hydrochemical models. I will then use the example catchments to assess how well the structure of a typical hydrological-hydrochemical model is supported by field measurements. In particular, can we quantify catchment storage and link this to flow response? Can we incorporate our knowledge of plant water use into such a model, including timing and depth of water withdrawn by the plant? What can field measurements tell us about spatial variability in hydrological-hydrochemical response and can this be represented in the model? I will conclude by discussing what we can learn from field data about the major challenges ahead in catchment storage modelling.

  4. Tunnels and dikes of the Koolau Range, Oahu, Hawaii, and their effect on storage depletion and movement of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirashima, George Tokusuke

    1971-01-01

    Ground water impounded by dikes in the Koolau Range is a major source of water for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, and many tunnels have been bored into the range to develop it. All water-development tunnels, except Waihee tunnel, have depleted storage in the rocks they penetrate and are now discharging at rates that are but fractions of the rates possible at full storage. Rocks above the floor of the water-development part of Waihee tunnel have never been completely dewatered, and storage can be manipulated by regulating outflow. Thus, storage for this tunnel can be increased during periods of low demand and discharged at high rates during periods of high demand. A measure of the rate of drainage or depletion of storage is the recession constant b in the recession-curve equation Qt=Q0e-b t. The higher the value of b, the faster water can be drawn from storage or returned to storage through artificial recharge. Mathematical analysis of the flow-recession curve of Waihee tunnel shows that (1) its recession constant is 0.00401, (2) net storage (exclusive of recharge) is 2,200 million gallons (6,800 acre-feet), and (8) initial discharge from full storage would be about 19 million gallons per day. Analysis of flow-recession curves for Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and Haiku tunnel shows that these tunnels have drainage characteristics that are similar to those of Waihee tunnel. The composite recession constant computed for the four tunnels north of Waiahole is about one-third as large as that computed for the Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and the tunnels to the south. The difference is due to an abrupt change in spacing of dikes north of Waiahole. At and south of Waiahole Stream, dikes are spaced tens or hundreds of feet apart; north of Waiahole, they are spaced inches or a few feet apart. Storage could be restored by bulkheading at the controlling dike or dikes after an analysis is made of the flow-recession curve for each tunnel. Such analyses will show which

  5. 1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. Beyond peak water storage? A global estimate of declining water storage in reservoirs and snow packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Water storage is one of the primary mechanisms for coping with increasing variability of water supply and demand that can be expected with growing population and a changing climate. Man-made reservoirs can currently store about 15% of the global annual runoff. A similar amount of water is stored in one of the most important natural storage components - seasonal snow packs. The amount of water stored in each of those man-made and natural systems is roughly equivalent to the total annual anthropogenic water withdrawals. Storage in seasonal snow packs is declining as a result of climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt. At the same time, reservoir storage is declining as a result of sedimentation and limited construction of new reservoirs. We use a global hydrological model, combined with a global data set of ~6000 large reservoirs to simulate changes in reservoir and snow pack water storage and analyze impacts of those changes on seasonal water availability using a set of scenarios for changing climate conditions. Reservoir sedimentation is simulated using global erosion and sedimentation data sets and validated with observed reservoir storage loss. Results indicate annual loss rates between 0.5 and 1.0% of the installed capacity for most reservoirs, outpacing the storage increases through the construction of new reservoirs for the last decades so that reservoir storage is declining globally. With most reservoirs being about 50 years old, these losses threaten the sustainability of reservoir operation and can pose significant challenges to water resources management. Similarly, seasonal snow storage is declining at about 0.5% per year for the last 20 years. Even without changes in the magnitude of total precipitation, there can be significant changes in basin hydrology if there are climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt, potentially away from the period (summer) when demand for irrigation, water supply, or hydropower production is high. These shifts

  9. WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

  10. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... water storage facilities. (a) Systems using uncovered finished water storage facilities must comply...

  11. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  12. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, Dominik; Frolking, Steve; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2013-09-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply and demand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can be significantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment of reservoir storage loss in conjunction with vulnerability to storage loss has not been done. We estimated the loss in reservoir capacity for a global data set of large reservoirs from 1901 to 2010, using modeled sediment flux data. We use spatially explicit population data sets as a proxy for storage demand and calculate storage capacity for all river basins globally. Simulations suggest that the net reservoir capacity is declining as a result of sedimentation (˜5% compared to the installed capacity). Combined with increasing need for storage, these losses challenge the sustainable management of reservoir operation and water resources management in many regions. River basins that are most vulnerable include those with a strong seasonal flow pattern and high population growth rates such as the major river basins in India and China. Decreasing storage capacity globally suggests that the role of reservoir water storage in offsetting sea-level rise is likely weakening and may be changing sign.

  13. 41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE SAW (L TO R)-LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  14. General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  15. General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  17. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  18. Estimation of water withdrawal and distribution, water use, and wastewater collection and return flow in Cumberland, Rhode Island, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.; Craft, P.A.; Bratton, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Water-use data collected in Rhode Island by different State agencies or maintained by different public suppliers and wastewater- treatment facilities need to be integrated if these data are to be used in making water- resource management decisions. Water-use data for the town of Cumberland, a small area in northeastern Rhode Island, were compiled and integrated to provide an example of how the procedure could be applied. Integration and reliability assessment of water-use data could be facilitated if public suppliers, wastewater- treatment facilities, and State agencies used a number of standardized procedures for data collection and computer storage. The total surface water and ground water withdrawn in the town of Cumberland during 1988 is estimated to be 15.39 million gallons per day, of which 11.20 million gallons per day was exported to other towns. Water use in Cumberland included 2.51 million gallons per day for domestic use, 0.68 million gallons per day for industrial use, 0.27 million gallons per day for commercial use, and 0.73 million gallons per day for other use, most of which were unmetered use. Disposal of waste- water in Cumberland included 2.03 million gallons per day returned to the hydrologic system and 1.73 million gallons per day exported from Cumberland for wastewater treatment. Consumptive use during 1988 is estimated to be 0.43 million gallons per day.

  19. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  20. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  1. Streamflow sensitivity to water storage changes across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghuijs, Wouter R.; Hartmann, Andreas; Woods, Ross A.

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial water storage is the primary source of river flow. We introduce storage sensitivity of streamflow (ɛS), which for a given flow rate indicates the relative change in streamflow per change in catchment water storage. ɛS can be directly derived from streamflow observations. Analysis of 725 catchments in Europe reveals that ɛS is high in, e.g., parts of Spain, England, Germany, and Denmark, whereas flow regimes in parts of the Alps are more resilient (that is, less sensitive) to storage changes. A regional comparison of ɛS with observations indicates that ɛS is significantly correlated with variability of low (R2 = 0.41), median (R2 = 0.27), and high flow conditions (R2 = 0.35). Streamflow sensitivity provides new guidance for a changing hydrosphere where groundwater abstraction and climatic changes are altering water storage and flow regimes.

  2. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  3. Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  4. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  5. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ``an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.`` It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research.

  6. Nitrogen sparging and blanketing of water storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, O.

    2000-04-01

    In many industrial processes, including most utility and industrial steam systems, good deaerated makeup and condensate water is stored in open-to-air storage tanks where it is contaminated by oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and dirt before it is used. This contamination can be prevented by nitrogen sparging and blanketing of storage tanks.

  7. 29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 104, mess hall in lower left, building 101, administration, recreation, and storage building in center, and building 103, non-commissioned officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far right, looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  8. Evolution of Forest Precipitation Water Storage Monitoring Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, J.; Lundquist, J. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation intercepted by forests plays a major role in the hydrologic cycle for more than one fourth of the global land area. Direct in situ measurement of intercepted precipitation is a challenging task. We discuss and compare measurement methods for forest precipitation interception beyond classical budgeting methods, with an emphasis on estimating the critical water storage component for rain and snow, then recommend future directions for the improvement of water storage estimation and monitoring. Comparison of techniques estimating water storage shows that methods submerging tree components produce the largest storage capacity values. Indirect methods typically result in the lowest water storage estimates. Whole tree lysimeters have been used with great success, yet are unable to separate trunk vs. canopy storage components. Remote sensing technologies, particularly signal attenuation, may permit this separation. Mechanical displacement methods show great promise and, perhaps as a result, have the greatest variety of techniques. Relating wind sway to canopy water storage via accelerometers also shows great promise, yet is in the proof-of-concept stage at present. Recommended future directions for forest water storage estimation are, to (1) apply these methods individually under different conditions to identify further strengths/weaknesses, (2) apply methods in tandem to identify complimentary strengths and limitations, (3) improve scaling techniques for element- and tree-specific techniques, (4) increase temporal monitoring resolution to capture intrastorm processes that may drive interception loss, and (5) foster synergies between communities developing methodologies for specific precipitation types as differing methods often rely on similar underlying measurement principles. Through addressing these research needs, we hope the scientific community can develop an "integrated" monitoring plan incorporating multiple measurement techniques to characterize

  9. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27’, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  10. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  11. 16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. Hondius Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  12. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. Rethinking Water Scarcity: The Role of Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Water scarcity, in its simplest sense, can be defined as a shortage in the availability of freshwater relative to demand. Freshwater shortages directly affect food security, access to safe drinking water, hygiene and public health, and environmental well-being. Water scarcity can also retard economic development and promote civil strife. Robust measures of water scarcity are therefore required to inform water policy and help allocate resources to mitigate these effects.

  14. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  15. Chilled water storage system reduces energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, D.P. )

    1993-04-01

    This article describes the conversion of an industrial central chiller plant from conventional live-load operation to full-shift thermal energy storage. The topics of the article include project design, project implementation, interactive pressure/temperature control, energy efficiency, operations and maintenance and cost effectiveness.

  16. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  17. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  18. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  19. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  20. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  1. Ecohydrology of dry regions: storage versus pulse soil water dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauenroth, William K.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Although arid and semiarid regions are defined by low precipitation, the seasonal timing of temperature and precipitation can influence net primary production and plant functional type composition. The importance of precipitation seasonality is evident in semiarid areas of the western U.S., which comprise the Intermountain (IM) zone, a region that receives important winter precipitation and is dominated by woody plants and the Great Plains (GP), a region that receives primarily summer precipitation and is dominated by perennial grasses. Although these general relationships are well recognized, specific differences in water cycling between these regions have not been well characterized. We used a daily time step soil water simulation model and twenty sites from each region to analyze differences in soil water dynamics and ecosystem water balance. IM soil water patterns are characterized by storage of water during fall, winter, and spring resulting in relatively reliable available water during spring and early summer, particularly in deep soil layers. By contrast, GP soil water patterns are driven by pulse precipitation events during the warm season, resulting in fluctuating water availability in all soil layers. These contrasting patterns of soil water—storage versus pulse dynamics—explain important differences between the two regions. Notably, the storage dynamics of the IN sites increases water availability in deep soil layers, favoring the deeper rooted woody plants in that region, whereas the pulse dynamics of the Great Plains sites provide water primarily in surface layers, favoring the shallow-rooted grasses in that region. In addition, because water received when plants are either not active or only partially so is more vulnerable to evaporation and sublimation than water delivered during the growing season, IM ecosystems use a smaller fraction of precipitation for transpiration (47%) than GP ecosystems (49%). Recognizing the pulse-storage dichotomy in

  2. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  3. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of proof of spirituous... weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of proof of spirituous liquor. This table may be used to ascertain the weight of any given number of wine gallons (at 60...

  4. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  5. Energy conservation with chilled-water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, D.

    1993-05-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is widely recognized as a demand-side management technology for shifting cooling electrical demand from peak daytime periods to off-peak nighttime and weekend periods when utilities have reserve generating capacity. TES has enabled users to significantly reduce their electricity costs by reducing peak demand and taking advantage of lower off-peak usage rates, often with large utility incentive payments and sometimes with reduced capital costs. It has also enabled utilities to reduce peaks and fill valleys, thereby improving system load factors, reducing reliance on peaking units, increasing utilization of base load units and postponing the construction of additional generating units. Because TES has been so strongly categorized as a demand-shifting technology, its potential for energy conservation has received little recognition. And, certainly, there are many existing TES systems that use more electricity than conventional cooling systems and are beneficial only for shifting demand. However, recent advances in the technology have produced more efficient and better integrated TES systems that use less electricity and natural gas than conventional cooling/heating systems. To apprise engineers of thermal energy storage's potential for energy conservation, this article will study the design and operation of a TES system in one industrial retrofit application.

  6. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  7. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  8. Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material Using Ethanol Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Yasunari, Yuki

    Ethanol water mixture has a liquidus line ( or crystallizing line) and a solidus line (or melting line) that are separated, and therefore it can have both liquid and solid phases existing together. With advances in low temperature technology in recent days, ethanol water mixture is attaching more and more attention as an environment-friendly coolant or as a thermal storage material. In the present study, we observed the crystallization process in the mixture and carried out experiments to evaluate fluidity of the mixture, with the objective of utilizing an ethanol water mixture as a coolant or a thermal energy storage material. Crystal formation and growing process within a minute droplet of a binary mixture was modeled. As a result, we found a novel method to produce a fluid latent heat storage material continuously and an apparent coefficient of viscosity show that rotational speed and solid phase fraction have a strong effect on the fluidity of the mixture.

  9. Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE

    PubMed Central

    Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

    2013-01-01

    [1] A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world’s largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54 ≤ Ef ≤ 0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation. PMID:24563556

  10. Water storage at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2011-01-01

    Storage is a major component of a catchment water balance particularly when the water balance components are evaluated on short time scales, that is, less than annual. We propose a method of determining the storage-discharge relation using an exponential function and daily precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and baseflow during the dormant season when evapotranspiration (ET) is low. The method was applied to the 22-year data series of the 0.41-ha forested Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia. The relation of cumulative daily precipitation minus daily runoff and PET versus baseflow was highly significant (r2=0.92, p<0.0001), but the initial storage for each year varied markedly. For the 22-year study period, annual precipitation and runoff averaged 1240 and 380mm, respectively, whereas the absolute catchment storage range was ~400mm, averaging 219mm annually, which is attributed to contributions of soil water and groundwater. The soil moisture of a catchment average 1-m soil depth was evaluated and suggests that there was an active (changes in soil storage during stormflow) and passive (a longer-term seasonal cycle) soil water storage with ranges of 40-70 and 100-120mm, respectively. The active soil water storage was short term on the order of days during and immediately after rainstorms, and the passive or seasonal soil storage was highest during winter when ET was lowest and lowest during summer when ET was highest. An estimate of ET from daily changes in soil moisture (ETSM) during recessions was comparable with PET during the dormant season (1.5mmday-1) but was much lower during the growing season (June through August); monthly average SMET and PET ranged from 2.8 to 4.0mmday-1 and from 4.5 to 5.5mmday-1, respectively. The growing season difference is attributed to the overestimation of PET. ETSM estimates were comparable with those derived from hillslope water balances during sprinkling experiments. Master recession curves derived from the

  11. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wood, B.D.; Ji, L.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

  12. Arctic hillslope hydrologic response to changing water storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport from terrestrial to aquatic environments depends on dynamics of water storage and flux. In the arctic, these dynamics are related to changes in permafrost and hydrological conditions that vary with climate across multiple scales. In order to predict the continued trajectory of arctic landscape and ecosystem evolution, observed changes to the hydrologic regime and riverine nutrient fluxes require properly scaled, mechanistic explanations. We address this issue at the hillslope scale by quantifying hydrologic response to changing storage as part of a collaborative effort to understand the coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic hillslopes. Hillslopes underlain by continuous permafrost experience gradual, summer-season increases in potential water storage through active layer thaw, as well as stochastic changes in available water storage as soil moisture conditions change due to storm events, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow. Preferential flowpaths called water tracks are ubiquitous features draining arctic hillslopes and are the focus of our study. We predict that water track hydrologic response to precipitation is a function of snowmelt or storm characteristics and available storage. We hypothesize that ¬the ratio of runoff to precipitation will decrease as available storage increases, whether due to the seasonal increase in active layer thaw, or an extended dry period. Intensive snow and thaw depth surveys on a water track on the hillslopes of the Upper Kuparuk River watershed in northern Alaska during May to June 2013 reveal that snow persisted one week longer in a water track than the adjacent hillslope, and thus active layer thaw initiated earlier on the adjacent hillslope. Despite this earlier thaw timing, thaw depth in the water track exceeded that on the non-track hillslope within five days of being uncovered. Thaw, and thus subsurface storage, in water tracks remained greater than the rest of the hillslope for at least the

  13. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  14. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  15. Residue management to improve precipitation storage and water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful dryland crop production in semiarid environments is dependent upon efficient storage of precipitation and use of stored soil water supplies. The objectives of this presentation are to: 1. Summarize information regarding the effects of time of year; environmental parameters; residue orient...

  16. 32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building in center, and building 161, fallout shelter in lower right corner, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  17. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  18. 25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT AND PUMP HOUSE No. 1 ON THE LEFT. THE HOT METAL BRIDGE IS IN THE FAR BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Augmenting soil water storage using uncharred switchgrass and pyrolyzed biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is an amendment that can augment soil water storage; however, its projected cost per ton could be financially limiting at field application scales. It may be more monetarily convenient if an alternate amendment were available that could deliver similar soil enhancements. We compared two swi...

  20. View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at left of image to Launch Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. 28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building on right, Minnesota Department of Transportation communication tower in center, and Minnesota Bureau of Mines wind tunnel on left, looking southwest toward launch pad area - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  2. EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

  3. Cost effective closure of five 1,500,000 gallons underground tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meuse, R.J.; Balco, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Tank closure may be considered routine -- unless they are five 1.5 million-gallon bomb proof underground storage tanks and are located adjacent to a 14-story hotel and under an operating trucking terminal! The site is the former US Navy Fuel Storage Annex in East Boston, Massachusetts. This 4.2-million dollar program was implemented under the US Army Corps of Engineers Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP). The project demonstrated that intensive site study is not required to begin site closure, non-conventional approaches can be cost-effective and unanticipated events can be addressed without jeopardizing project objectives.

  4. Hot-water aquifer storage: A field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parr, A. D.; Molz, F. J.; Andersen, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    The basic water injection cycle used in a large-scale field study of heat storage in a confined aquifer near Mobile, Alabama is described. Water was pumped from an upper semi-confined aquifer, passed through a boiler where it was heated to a temperature of about 55 C, and injected into a medium sand confined aquifer. The injection well has a 6-inch (15-cm) partially-penetrating steel screen. The top of the storage formation is about 40 meters below the surface and the formation thickness is about 21 meters. In the first cycle, after a storage period of 51 days, the injection well was pumped until the temperature of the recovered water dropped to 33 c. At that point 55,300 cubic meters of water had been withdrawn and 66 percent of the injected energy had been recovered. The recovery period for the second cycle continued until the water temperature was 27.5 C and 100,100 cubic meters of water was recovered. At the end of the cycle about 90 percent of the energy injected during the cycle had been recovered.

  5. Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, C. R., (compiler)

    1978-01-01

    This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  7. Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

    1993-03-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

  8. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  9. False cyanide formation during drinking water sample preservation and storage.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Michael F; Blodget, Charles; Hoey, Corinna E; McSweeney, Nancy E; Epelman, Polina A; Rhode, Steven F

    2007-12-15

    Carefully controlled bench-scale and on-site experiments demonstrated that cyanide can form in the treated drinking water sample container during preservation and storage. In the bench-scale experiment, treated tap water samples were collected on 20 days over six months. The tap water samples were split and some of the splits were spiked with formaldehyde, a known ozone disinfection byproduct, held for three hours and tested for cyanide. Then they were preserved and held for 2-10 days. None of the 69 initial samples had cyanide detects, but 22 of 49 formaldehyde-spiked samples and three of the 20 unspiked samples developed detectable cyanide concentrations during storage. In the on-site experiment, six samples were collected at a finished water tap at an ozone/chloramination treatment plant over three days. Each sample was split, and a portion was spiked with formaldehyde. Each portion was analyzed in triplicate after three different procedures: (1) immediately distilled on-site, (2) stabilized on-site in a distillation tube and distilled back at the laboratory several days later, or (3) following the conventional procedure of preserving the sample to pH > 12 in a container and distilling the sample back at the laboratory. Only the samples handled in the conventional way had detectable amounts of cyanide. Both experiments demonstrated that cyanide can form during conventional preservation and storage, and it is likely that the cyanide detected for this treated drinking water was formed in the sample container as a consequence of the preservation and storage conditions. PMID:18200867

  10. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. PMID:23262407

  11. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements with respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to...

  12. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements with respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to...

  13. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements with respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to...

  14. Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1978-01-01

    The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Solar water-heating performance evaluation-San Diego, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes energy saved by replacing domestic, conventional natural gas heater with solar-energy subsystem in single-family residence near San Diego, California. Energy savings for 6 month test period averaged 1.089 million Btu. Collector array covered 65 square feet and supplied hot water to both 66-gallon solar storage tank and 40-gallon tank for domestic use. Natural gas supplied house's auxiliary energy.

  16. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  17. Replacement of tritiated water from irradiated fuel storage bay

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Kennedy, B.; Minichilli, A.; Mitchell, T.

    2015-03-15

    Recently, AECL developed a novel method to reduce tritium emissions (to groundwater) and personnel doses at the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor irradiated fuel storage bay (also known as rod or spent fuel bay) through a water swap process. The light water in the fuel bay had built up tritium that had been transferred from the heavy water moderator through normal fuel transfers. The major advantage of the thermal stratification method was that a very effective tritium reduction could be achieved by swapping a minimal volume of bay water and warm tritiated water would be skimmed off the bay surface. A demonstration of the method was done that involved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the swap process and a test program that showed excellent agreement with model prediction for the effective removal of almost all the tritium with a minimal water volume. Building on the successful demonstration, AECL fabricated, installed, commissioned and operated a full-scale system to perform a water swap. This full-scale water swap operation achieved a tritium removal efficiency of about 96%.

  18. SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

  19. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  20. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium

  1. Storage and recycling of water in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolfan-Casanova, N.

    2015-12-01

    Most natural samples originating from the mantle contain traces of water. It can be observed that water content varies laterally as a function of the geodynamic context, but also with depth in cratons. Basalts from mid-ocean ridges, which sample the convecting upper mantle, contain generally below 0.6 wt% H2O leading to 50-330 parts per million by weight in the source. Oceanic Islands Basalts are more hydrated with contents ranging from 0.6 to 1.1 wt%, leading to 350-1100 ppm wt H2O in the source. Arc basalts are even more hydrated with water contents ranging from 0.2 to 5-6 wt% H2O testifying of the recycling of water by subduction. Kimberlite magmas are also the proof that local saturation in volatiles is possible. Among xenoliths, the samples from cratons are very interesting because they may provide a depth profile of water. However, the variation of water content in olivine with depth differs from craton to craton, and is the result of a complex geological history. Also, olivine inclusions in diamond and olivine from peridotite xenoliths do not give the same message regarding to water activity. The water storage capacity of the mantle is defined as the maximum water or hydroxyl that can be incorporated in its constitutive minerals before a free fluid phase appears. It can be determined experimentally and confronted to geophysical observations, such as low seismic velocities, and electrical conductivity. In this talk we will review our current knowledge of water incorporation in NAMs as determined experimentally and compare it with available observations. New data concerning clinopyroxenes will be shown. The aim being to understand the deep water cycle.

  2. Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

  3. Arctic terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE satellite estimates and a land surface hydrology model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, F.; Alsdorf, D.; Shumb, C.; Lettenmaier, D.

    2008-12-01

    Continental water storage plays a key role in the global hydrological cycle. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has provided a basis for estimating spatial and temporal variations of terrestrial water storage over areas order of 105 km2. These estimates show strong interseasonal and interannual variations in terrestrial water storage at high latitudes, which are attributable at least in part to the important role of snow water storage on the seasonal water cycle. Evaluation of the accuracy of the GRACE terrestrial water storage is complicated by the absence of direct observations of terrestrial water storage. Land surface hydrology models, forced with observations, provide an opportunity for evaluating GRACE estimates regionally and globally. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface hydrology model, which calculates the land surface water and energy balance, is used to evaluate the GRACE over the pan-Arctic region. The VIC model is driven by ECMWF analysis fields, which have been shown to give comparable hydrologic results to gridded observations at high latitudes, and are available in near-real time. The VIC runs cover the GRACE period 2002-2007. The VIC calculated total terrestrial water storage changes over major Arctic river basins are compared with GRACE estimates. Storage components simulated by VIC including snow, soil moisture, lake/wetland storage, and stream storage changes are segregated from the VIC simulations, and the contributions of each of these components to seasonal and interannual variations in GRACE terrestrial water storage are analyzed.

  4. Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.

  5. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  6. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  7. Fractal behavior of soil water storage at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenjun; Lin, Mi; Biswas, Asim; Si, Bing C.; Chau, Henry W.; Cresswell, Hamish P.

    2016-08-01

    Spatiotemporal behavior of soil water is essential to understand the science of hydrodynamics. Data intensive measurement of surface soil water using remote sensing has established that the spatial variability of soil water can be described using the principle of self-similarity (scaling properties) or fractal theory. This information can be used in determining land management practices provided the surface scaling properties are kept at deep layers. The current study examined the scaling properties of sub-surface soil water and their relationship to surface soil water, thereby serving as supporting information for plant root and vadose zone models. Soil water storage (SWS) down to 1.4 m depth at seven equal intervals was measured along a transect of 576 m for 5 years in Saskatchewan. The surface SWS showed multifractal nature only during the wet period (from snowmelt until mid- to late June) indicating the need for multiple scaling indices in transferring soil water variability information over multiple scales. However, with increasing depth, the SWS became monofractal in nature indicating the need for a single scaling index to upscale/downscale soil water variability information. In contrast, all soil layers during the dry period (from late June to the end of the growing season in early November) were monofractal in nature, probably resulting from the high evapotranspirative demand of the growing vegetation that surpassed other effects. This strong similarity between the scaling properties at the surface layer and deep layers provides the possibility of inferring about the whole profile soil water dynamics using the scaling properties of the easy-to-measure surface SWS data.

  8. Following the Water: A Controlled Study of Drinking Water Storage in Northern Coastal Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. Objectives We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. Methods We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. Results We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Conclusions Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important. PMID:19057707

  9. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: 6.79434×100 equals 679.43 pounds, net weight of 100 wine gallons of 190 proofs spirits. Example. It....60 pounds, net weight of 100 proof gallons of 190 proof spirits. The slight variation between...

  10. Evaluation of power generation operations in response to changes in surface water reservoir storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2013-06-01

    We used a customized, river basin-based model of surface water rights to evaluate the response of power plants to drought via simulated changes in reservoir storage. Our methodology models surface water rights in 11 river basins in Texas using five cases: (1) storage decrease of existing capacity of 10%, (2) storage decrease of 50%, (3) complete elimination of storage, (4) storage increase of 10% (all at existing locations), and (5) construction of new reservoirs (at new locations) with a total increase in baseline reservoir capacity for power plant cooling of 9%. Using the Brazos River basin as a sample, we evaluated power generation operations in terms of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability. As simulated water storage decreases, reliability generally decreases and resiliency and vulnerability remain relatively constant. All three metrics remain relatively constant with increasing reservoir storage, with the exception of one power plant. As reservoir storage changes at power plants, other water users in the basin are also affected. In general, decreasing water storage is beneficial to other water users in the basin, and increasing storage is detrimental for many other users. Our analysis reveals basin-wide and individual power plant-level impacts of changing reservoir storage, demonstrating a methodology for evaluation of the sustainability and feasibility of constructing new reservoir storage as a water and energy management approach.

  11. Acceleration of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, R.; Chao, B. F.; Heki, K.

    2008-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite has been producing scientific results on mass variations since its launch in 2002, particularly land water storage on seasonal and inter-annual timescales as the soil moisture reflects the time integration of fluxes of precipitation, evapo-transpiration and runoff. For example, in Amazon Basin (e.g. Tapley et al., 2004), Alaska glacial melting (e.g. Tamisiea et al., 2005), ENSO precipitation anomalies (Morishita and Heki, 2008), and seasonal land water storage with global hydrological model (Syed et al., 2008). If climate changes have trends of time scale longer than inter-annual, we can expect to see quadratic trends in land water time series now that over six years have passed since GRACE"fs launch and the time span is becoming long enough to study such trends, which signify the temporal acceleration in gravity, and hence climatic, changes. To look for such accelerations, we compute time series of equivalent water thicknesses in global land regions from monthly GRACE data of gravity anomaly, and model the changes with quadratic functions in addition to seasonal components. We repeat similar calculations for the GLDAS global hydrological model data as well. We found that the geographic distribution of the quadratic trends shows good agreement between GRACE and GLDAS, prominent in East Africa, East Europe, Ural Mountains, eastern North America and southern South America. Amplitudes of the signals are generally larger in GRACE than the corresponding GLDAS model. We also compare and verify such acceleration terms with trends in meteorological data of precipitation and evapo-transpiration.

  12. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly

  13. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements for uncovered...

  14. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements for uncovered...

  15. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  17. Evaluation of potential sources of water in Crater Lake Natonal Park, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, E.R.

    1967-01-01

    In the northern part of the park, where there are no springs or streams, artificial catchment aprons and storage facilities could be constructed to provide water to points of use. A 100- by 100-foot catchment apron and suitably sized storage tank could provide as much as 1,850 gallons per day for 120 days.

  18. Ground-water recharge to and storage in the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Guilford County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C., III; Harned, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground- water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Guilford County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground- water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 15 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an anlytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quantity of ground water in storage also are described. Guilford County covers approximately 658 square miles in the central part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 347,420; approximately 21 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies all of the county. Under natural conditions, recharge to the ground-water system in the county is derived from infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 19 gaging stations that measure streamflow within or from Guilford County were analyzed to produce daily estimates of ground-water

  19. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  20. Informing Hydrological Drought Response in Headwater Catchments Using Water Storage Estimated From GRACE: Storage-Flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, R.; Tyler, S. W.; Harpold, A. A.; Volk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the relationship between subsurface water storage and streamflow is challenging due to heterogeneity of surface-groundwater interactions in space and time. Hence, point measurements of storage from wells are insufficient to characterize the storage across a catchment, especially in mountainous environments with complex geology. Here, we present a novel approach to quantify the storage-flow relationship for catchments in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. For 23 gages in the Hydro-Climatic Data Network, the 7-day average annual minimum flow (drought flow) was computed for years 2003 to 2015. We then aggregated, for each gage, the associated storage time-series dataset from 1o gridded measurements of monthly Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Despite the significant mismatch between the spatial scales and temporal resolution, we found a strong empirical correlation between TWS and drought flow. From these relationships, we examined how physical characteristics of each catchment (such as size and geology) impact the observed nonlinear relationship between TWS and drought flow. Furthermore, we show how physical characteristics, such as geology/storage capacity, of catchments affect the sensitivity of decreasing flows to multi-year droughts. This research has the potential to help better quantify the streamflow-storage relationship in small mountainous catchments, as well as, classify catchments that may be more vulnerable to decreasing flows with multi-year droughts.

  1. Experimentally determined water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferot, A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.

    2010-12-01

    Trace amounts of hydrogen dissolved as defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) in the mantle are believed to play a key role in physical and chemical processes in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hence, the estimation of water storage in mantle phases and solubility mechanisms are important in order to better understand the effect of water. Experimental data on water solubility in NAMs are available for upper mantle minerals such as olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. However, the majority of studies are based on the study of single phases, and at temperatures or pressures that are too low for the Earth’s upper mantle. The aim of this study is to constrain the combined effects of pressure, temperature and composition on water solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene under upper mantle conditions. The solubility of water in coexisting orthopyroxene and olivine was investigated by simultaneously synthesizing the two phases at high pressure and high temperature in a multi-anvil press. Experiments were performed under water-saturated conditions in the MSH systems with Fe and Al at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 9 GPa and temperatures between 1175 and 1400°C. Integrated OH absorbances were determined using polarized infrared spectroscopy on doubly polished thin sections of randomly oriented crystals. Water solubility in olivine increases with pressure and decreases with temperature as has been described previously (Bali et al., 2008). The aluminum content strongly decreases in olivine with pressure from 0.09 wt% at 2.5 GPa and 1250°C to 0.04 wt% at 9 GPa and 1175°C. The incorporation of this trivalent cation in the system enhances water solubility in olivine even if present in trace amounts, however this behavior appears to reverse at high pressure. The effect of temperature on water solubility follows a bell-shaped curve with a maximum solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene at 1250°C. Aluminum is incorporated in orthopyroxene following the Tschermak substitution and strongly

  2. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2012-10-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information

  3. Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the

  4. Linking Nitrate Uptake and Water Storage in an Antarctic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. C.; McKnight, D. M.; Baeseman, J.

    2007-12-01

    A nitrate enrichment experiment was performed in Huey Creek, a glacial meltwater stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, to determine processes responsible for nitrate loss in a polar desert stream with no visible vegetation. Streamflow in Huey follows a diel cycle, resulting in temporal and spatial variability in two separate storage areas - a near-stream and far-lateral hyporheic zone. Near-stream hyporheic exchange occurred in only one of four monitored stream reaches, with a mean uptake rate of 0.042 umol N/m2/hr. Uptake rates could not be balanced by nitrite, ammonium, and nitrous oxide production, suggesting the importance of biomass as a source and sink of nitrogen. During high flows, nitrate loss is accompanied by a pulse of ammonium that accounts for an average of 42% of the total nitrate loss. Ammonium production is 4.4 times greater than nitrate loss during one hour of the flood, providing further evidence that nitrogen has been stored in the subsurface biomass, and is mineralized as a result of the fresh water penetrating the hyporheic zone. Properties of the far-lateral hyporheic zone were also flow-dependent. Exchange from stream to subsurface occurred during floods, when anabranches moved water laterally across the channel banks. Exchange back to the stream occurred with the recession of flood stage. Pulses of nitrate species downstream of this storage zone suggest significant denitrification in this far-lateral hyporheic zone. The first flood recession plume consisted mainly of nitrite, while the second was dominated by ammonium, suggesting a greater amount of denitrification in the second pulse. Both pulses were accompanied by high quantities of DOC (121 and 287% of mean background mass, respectively) - an unexpected result in this carbon-limited system. These results highlight the linkage between water and desert ecosystems, and challenge researchers to understand both spatial and temporal variability in potential ecological hotspots and

  5. Tree invasion effects on peat water storage capacity (La Guette peatland, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Stephane; Viel, Emelie; Gogo, Sebastien; Le Moing, Franck; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    In peatlands, carbon fluxes are mainly controlled by peat water saturation state, and this saturation state is an equilibrium between recharge/drainage fluxes and the peat storage capacity. The invasion of Sphagnum peatlands by vascular plants is a current problem in many peat-accumulating systems, raising the question of the relationships between vegetation changes and water storage capacity of peat horizons. To investigate this question, the water storage capacity of the "La Guette" peatland (France), invaded by Betula spp was monitored at the watershed scale since 2008 using a water balance approach and was estimated during the 20th century using historical photographs showing the drainage network and the land cover change. During this period, the site clearly experienced a vegetation change as the site was treeless in 1944. Two main results arise from this experimental device: (1) In this disturbed peatland, tree consumption amplifies the summer drought and the resulting water table drawdown allows an increase of air entrapment in the peat. Even if runoff flows occurred after this drought, the water storage capacity is affected, with about 30% of air that remains trapped in the peat porosity 6 months after the drought period. The effects of a single drought on peat water storage capacity are observed over more than a single hydrological cycle, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of droughts decreasing the peat water storage capacity. (2) Tree invasion is found to drive the drainage network morphology. Hydrological model calibrated for the study site suggested that the development of drainage network had reduced the water storage capacity of the peatland. These observations evidenced a positive feedback between vegetation dynamics and water storage capacity: tree invasion changes the drainage network geometry that decreases the peat water storage capacity, which in return may favor tree development. These two results highlight that the peat water storage

  6. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  7. Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

  8. Variability in land water storage from GRACE and ENVISAT, and rainfall in South American river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, L.; Cazenave, A.; Bonnet, M.; Rotunno, O.

    2008-12-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the capability of GRACE to capture important aspects of the hydrological cycle, in particular seasonal and interannual fluctuations in land water storage of large river basins. Part of this behaviour can be immediately assigned to seasonal/interannual fluctuations of precipitation. In this study, we investigate existing correlations between GRACE water storage (two GRACE products are used and compared, the GRGS and GSFC/Mascons solutions), ENVISAT-based surface water levels and precipitation data over four large river basins of South America (Orinoco, Amazon, Tocantins and Parana). At the seasonal time scale, precipitation and total water storage correlate well in the Parana basin, with a few weeks lag of storage with respect to forcing. Over the Amazon, Tocantins and Orinoco, the two variables also correlate well. But in some years, storage response to forcing is enhanced, suggesting that other terms of the water balance (e.g., runoff) play a significant role. To investigate this, discharge data at the most downstream stations in these river basins are analysed, while the water balance is studied using outputs of global hydrological models available over the same time span as GRACE data. We also analyse water level data from ENVISAT altimetry over the main rivers. Finally, we study the interannual connection between rainfall and water storage, using among others, Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). Compared to the seasonal cycle, the interannual signal displays larger regional variability both in precipitation and water storage.

  9. Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1992-07-06

    In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

  10. Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1992-07-06

    In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

  11. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  12. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... invoice referring to spirits of turpentine in containers of 10 gallons content or less, shall mean...

  13. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... invoice referring to spirits of turpentine in containers of 10 gallons content or less, shall mean...

  14. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate. PMID:22508123

  15. Heat transfer characteristics of a high temperature sensible heat storage water heater using cast iron as a storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Jotshi, C.K.; Goswami, D.Y.; Klausner, J.F.; Hsieh, C.K.; Leung, M.; Li, H.; Malakar, S.; Colacino, F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the heat transfer characteristics of high temperature sensible heat storage in cast iron for water heating applications. An experimental setup consisting of a cast iron cylinder and a tube running through its center was fabricated and tested. The experimental data were compared with the theoretical model. It was observed that the contact resistance between the cast iron and the tube plays a dominant role in extracting the heat. An approximate contact resistance prediction was obtained by assuming the resistance due to the air gap modulated by a correction factor, which accounts for the contacting surface area. Based on the results from the experimental setup and theoretical modeling a prototype storage water heater using cast iron blocks as the storage material was designed, fabricated and tested.

  16. Measuring water storage fluctuations in lake Dongting, China, by Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiqun; Xu, Kaiqin; Yang, Yonghui; Qi, Lianhui; Hayashi, Seiji; Watanabe, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    Although satellite radar altimetry was developed and optimized for open oceans, it has been used to monitor variations in the level of inland water-bodies such as lakes and rivers. Here, for the first time, we have further used the altimetry-derived variation of water level for estimating the fluctuation of water storage as an addition to the present in situ water storage estimation systems to be used in remote areas and in emergency situation such as in the events flooding monitoring and for studying the effect of climate change. Lake Dongting, the second largest lake in China, influenced frequently by flooding, was, therefore, chosen to demonstrate the potential of the technique. By using the concept of an "assumed reference point", we converted Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry data on water level variations in Lake Dongting to "water level" data. The "water level" time-series data and in situ water storage were used to establish a rating curve. From the rating curve, we converted data on "water level" derived from seven years (1993-1999) of Topex/Poseidon data to actual water storage in Lake Dongting. The result reveals that the seasonal and annual fluctuations of water storage occurred during the 1990s with a more frequent flooding at the late 1990s' especially the flooding in whole catchment level in 1998 and 1999. The study supports the usefulness of satellite altimetry for dense and continuous monitoring of the temporal variations in water dynamic in moderate to large lakes. PMID:16502025

  17. Relating GRACE terrestrial water storage variations to global fields of atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Isabelle Seneviratne, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in atmospheric dynamics all influence terrestrial water storage, with impacts on ecosystems functions, human activities and land-climate interactions. Here we explore to which degree atmospheric variables can explain GRACE estimates of terrestrial water storage on different time scales. Since 2012, the most recent GRACE gravity field solutions (Release 05) can be used to monitor global changes in terrestrial water storage with an unprecedented level of accuracy over more than a decade. In addition, the release of associated gridded and post-processed products facilitates comparisons with other global datasets such as land surface model outputs or satellite observations. We investigate how decadal trends, inter-annual fluctuations as well as monthly anomalies of the seasonal cycle of terrestrial water storage can be related to fields of atmospheric forcing, including e.g. precipitation and temperature as estimated in global reanalysis products using statistical techniques. In the majority of the locations with high signal to noise ratio, both short and long-term fluctuations of total terrestrial water storage can be reconstructed to a large degree based on available atmospheric forcing. However, in some locations atmospheric forcing alone is not sufficient to explain the total change in water storage, suggesting strong influence of other processes. Within that framework, the question of an amplification or attenuation of atmospheric forcing through land-surface feedbacks and changes in long term water storage is discussed, also with respect to uncertainties and potential systematic biases in the results.

  18. Thermal analysis of the 10-gallon and the 55-gallon DOT-6M containers with thermal boundary conditions corresponding to 10CFR71 normal transport and accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L.C.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Moss, M.; Haseman, G.M.; Fowler, W.E.; Roth, E.P.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the heat transfer analysis of the 10-gallon and 55-gallon 6M containers. The analysis was performed with boundary conditions corresponding to a normal transport condition and a hypothetical accident condition. Computational results indicated that the insulation material in the 6M containers will adequately protect the payload region of the 6M containers. 26 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of proof of spirituous liquor. 30.65 Section 30.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  20. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation

  1. Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

  2. A New Global Metric of Water Scarcity Accounting for the Role of Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.; Gaupp, F.; Dadson, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world's 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 680 'basin-country units' (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. We find that, so far, storage capacity in most basins is able to buffer inter- and intra-annual water variability . However, when hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into basin-country units enabled assessment of upstream dependency in trans-boundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardising environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  3. Assessing soil water storage distribution under sprinkler irrigation by coupling 3D simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Uday; Shabeeb, Ahmed; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This work analyzed the variability of sprinkler irrigation application over a bare soil, both in terms of water application efficiency and uniformity, by integrating and comparing the information on the irrigation depth data (ID), as measured by catch cans, soil water storage in the upper root zone, as measured by TDR probes, and a 3D simulations of water flow in soils. Three irrigation tests were performed at three different pressures (2, 3 and 4 bar). A lateral water redistribution was observed and simulated after each irrigation event by comparing spatial distributions of site-specific water application efficiency (AEs), as well as ratios of site-specific actual water storage increase (SWEs) and irrigation depth (IDs) to the water content before irrigation. Because of soil water redistribution processes, distribution uniformity based on soil storages was systematically higher than the catch can uniformity. The obvious consequence of lateral water redistribution processes was that the soil smoothing action on non-uniformity observed at the surface increased both with depth and over time. At a given depth the uniformity of soil water storages always attained the same value, whatever the pressure considered and the catch can-based uniformity coefficient. It was concluded that, for the case of random distribution of ID, the uniformity of water storages is driven by the soil behavior rather than by the irrigation system.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  5. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Maui Pumped Storage Project, which would use effluent water from the existing West Maui sewage... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary...

  6. Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-03-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

  7. Estimation of local water storage change by space- and ground-based gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangcun; Sun, Heping; Xu, Jianqiao; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    We estimated local water storage change by combining space- and ground-based gravimetry in this paper. The gravity change from GRACE was first divided into local and global parts according to potential theory. We then subtracted the GRACE-derived global field from ground gravimeter results to obtain local gravity change which is directly induced by the local water storage. Finally we inferred the local water storage change. We used superconducting gravimeter (SG) data recorded from June 2008 to June 2012 at Wuhan station and GRACE satellite gravimetric data to estimate the local water storage change. To validate the inferred local water storage change, the water table records of a well which is several meters away from SG station were compared. Furthermore, the equivalent water heights from hydrological models and GRACE were used also for comparisons. The comparisons show that the results from combining SG and GRACE data are better than those from either GRACE data alone or hydrological models, which demonstrates the efficiency of the combination method to derive local water storage.

  8. Total water storage dynamics derived from tree-ring records and terrestrial gravity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Heinrich, Ingo; Merz, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    For both societal and ecological reasons, it is important to understand past and future subsurface water dynamics but estimating subsurface water storage is notoriously difficult. In this pilot study, we suggest the reconstruction of subsurface water dynamics by a multi-disciplinary approach combining hydrology, dendrochronology and geodesy. In a first step, nine complete years of high-precision gravimeter observations are used to estimate water storage changes in the subsurface at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. The record is extended to 63 years by calibrating a hydrological model against the 9 years of gravimeter observations. The relationship between tree-ring growth and water storage changes is evaluated as well as that between tree-ring growth and supplementary hydro-meteorological data. Results suggest that tree-ring growth is influenced primarily by subsurface water storage. Other variables related to the overall moisture status (e.g., Standardized Precipitation Index, Palmer Drought Severity Index, streamflow) are also strongly correlated with tree-ring width. While these indices are all indicators of water stored in the landscape, water storage changes of the subsurface estimated by depth-integral measurements give us the unique opportunity to directly reconstruct subsurface water storage dynamics from records of tree-ring width. Such long reconstructions will improve our knowledge of past water storage variations and our ability to predict future developments. Finally, knowing the relationship between subsurface storage dynamics and tree-ring growth improves the understanding of the different signal components contained in tree-ring chronologies.

  9. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  10. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  11. Monitoring gravity and water storage changes in northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    The humid sudanian zone of West-Africa undergoes a monsoon climate, implying a strong seasonality in water storage changes (WSC). The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims at monitoring both these local and non-local hydrological contributions with the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is located in hard-rock basement context in Djougou, northern Benin, and is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rainfall, soil moisture, water table, evapotranspiration, ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared to hydrological data and to physically-based or conceptual hydrological models calibrated on these data. This presentation shows the results and limitations of each gravimeter in the context of WSC retrieval. This site was first measured with a FG5 absolute gravimeter four times a year from 2008 to 2013. This can be considered as a high sampling rate, given the remote location and the complexity of FG5 carriage and installation. It allowed to derive an average specific yield for the local aquifer, and preliminary estimates of seasonal WSC (up to 120 nm/s2 - 270mm). Yet the lack of continuity in the data avoids further investigations. The SG-060 superconducting gravimeter has been installed in 2010 in order to monitor gravity response to WSC in a continuous way. A strong drift is present (230nm/s2/yr), and FG5 data together with a-priori information on WSC are needed for estimating its effect. Also, frequent power-failures lead to some significant gaps and offsets during which fast WSC may occur (e.g. rain), yielding to a challenging correction for these events. The retrieval of inter-annual WSC suffers from these strong and limiting instrumental effects. At higher frequencies, up to a few days, continuous gravity monitoring may help to quantify evapotranspiration (ET), a poorly

  12. Integrated Modeling Approach for Verifying Water Storage Services for a Payment for Environmental Service Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, G.; Shukla, S.; Guzha, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic models have been used for improved understanding of how an ecosystem's hydrologic response to human intervention and may provide substantial insight into the viability of payment for environmental services (PES) programs. Little is currently known about how hydrologic models can contribute to the design and evaluation of PES programs. Increased water storage is a desired environmental service (ES) for the Florida Everglades' watershed to reduce nutrient loads and excessive flows to lakes and estuaries in the region. We present monitoring and modeling results to verify the water storage PES for two ranch sites (wetland and watershed scales) located in the Northern Everglades region located north of the Lake Okeechobee (LO). Verification of the water storage PES using at least 3 years of hydrologic data was inconclusive due to variable rainfall during pre- and post-PES periods. An integrated surface and groundwater model, MIKE-SHE/MIKE11, was used to help verify the water storage service as well as predict ecological responses for different water storage scenarios (different levels of storage). The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using field measurements and was able to effectively simulate the surface and groundwater levels for the watershed (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency, NSE = 0.54 to 0.82) and for surface water levels within wetlands (NSE = 0.54 to 0.84). Scenario analyses for storage levels showed an inverse relationship between board heights for water control structures and flows at the watershed outlet. Changes in flow were marginal when board heights approached a maximum indicating movement of water into subsurface storage. Combining simulation results with field measurements showed reduced flows and increased subsurface storage (2 cm/yr.), a desired outcome for protecting LO and estuarine systems from excessive flows. Simulated wetland water levels were combined with LIDAR-based topography to predict inundation for wetlands at the two

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  14. Soil-Water Storage Predictions for Cultivated Crops on the Záhorská Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarabicová, Miroslava; Minarič, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of climate change on the soil-water regime of the Záhorská lowlands. The consequences of climate change on soil-water storage were analyzed for two crops: spring barley and maize. We analyzed the consequences of climate change on soil-water storage for two crops: spring barley and maize. The soil-water storage was simulated with the GLOBAL mathematical model. The data entered into the model as upper boundary conditions were established by the SRES A2 and SRES B1 climate scenarios and the KNMI regional climate model for the years from 2071 to 2100 (in the text called the time horizon 2085 which is in the middle this period). For the reference period the data from the years 1961-1990 was used. The results of this paper predict soil-water storage until the end of this century for the crops evaluated, as well as a comparison of the soil-water storage predictions with the course of the soil-water storage during the reference period.

  15. EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

  16. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  17. SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

  18. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment...

  19. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment...

  20. Estimation of groundwater recharge from water storage structures in a semi-arid climate of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharda, V. N.; Kurothe, R. S.; Sena, D. R.; Pande, V. C.; Tiwari, S. P.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryGroundwater recharge from water storage structures under semi-arid conditions of western India has been estimated by employing water table fluctuation (WTF) and chloride mass balance (CMB) methods. Groundwater recharge was estimated as 7.3% and 9.7% of the annual rainfall by WTF method for the years 2003 and 2004, respectively while the two years average recharge was estimated as 7.5% using CMB method. A Recharge function depicting the relationship between potential recharge from storage structures and successive day averaged storage depths was better exhibited by a power function. A diagnostic relationship correlating the rainfall to the potential recharge from water storage structures has been developed to explain the characteristics of the storage structures for a given geographical location. The study has revealed that a minimum of 104.3 mm cumulative rainfall is required to generate 1 mm of recharge from the water storage structures. It was also inferred that the storage structures have limited capacity to induce maximum recharge irrespective of the amount of rainfall and maximum recharge to rainfall ratio is achieved at a lower rainfall than the average annual rainfall of the area. An empirical linear relationship was found to reasonably correlate the changes in chloride concentration with water table rise or fall in the study area.

  1. 43. ARAIII Water storage tank ARA709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ARA-III Water storage tank ARA-709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow of ARA-611 at lower right corner of view. Ineel photo no. 3-18. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  3. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Fountain, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  4. [Water storage capacity of qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forest canopy in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-hua; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Xu, Zhong-lin; Peng, Shou-zhang; Wang, Yao

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of direct measurement and regression analysis, this paper estimated the water storage capacity of Picea crassifolia forest canopy in Guantan in Qilianshan Mountains, based on the observed throughfall and the laboratory experimental data about the water storage capacity of various canopy components in 2008. Due to the impacts of various factors, differences existed in the canopy water storage capacity estimated by the two methods. The regression analysis was mainly impacted by the measurement approaches of the throughfall, the maximum water storage capacity estimated being 0.69 mm, whereas the direct measurement was mainly impacted by tree height, diameter at breast height, plant density, and leaf area index, with the estimated maximum water storage capacity being 0.77 mm. The direct measurement showed that the maximum water storage capacity per unit area of the canopy components of the forest was in the order of barks (0.31 mm) > branches (0.28 mm) > leaves (0.08 mm). PMID:22126029

  5. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  6. Study of Disinfection By-Products and Long Term Storage of Drinking Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, G.; White, D.; Garland, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the challenges facing many of Alaska's communities is providing safe and reliable drinking water from sources containing high concentrations of natural organic material (NOM). These highly colored waters, locally referred to as "tundra tea," often result in the formation of disinfectant byproducts during treatment. Since surface water sources in the Arctic are often frozen for 6-9 months per year, communities are often forced to either store raw water for treatment during the winter or treat and store enough drinking water during the summer to last through the winter. Because long-term storage practices are somewhat unique to water treatment in the rural Northern communities, the practice has not been thoroughly studied and there is limited published information on how water quality is affected by extended storage. Anecdotal evidence and data collected by field engineers indicate that significant changes are occurring and that the quality of the treated water can be adversely impacted. The University of Alaska Small Drinking Water System Technical Assistance Center (ATTAC) is conducting fundamental and applied research to help Alaska's small communities provide safe and reliable drinking water. One research focus area is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in small drinking water systems. Studies to characterize the NOM present in Alaskan surface waters and demonstrations of NOM removal technologies have been have been conducted over the past several years. The study presented here examined the formation of disinfection by-products during long-term storage of water from five small Alaskan water systems. Results from this research suggest that long-term storage has a significant impact on DBP formation. The results suggest that the NOM escaping treatment is likely to react in the storage tank resulting in DBP concentrations that are well above the estimated DBP formation potential.

  7. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  8. The impact of impervious water-storage parametrization on urban climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the representation of the water balance in urban land-surface models, we present a new impervious water-storage parametrization that assumes a distribution of water reservoirs. It has been implemented in TERRA-URB, a new urban parametrization for COSMO-CLM's standard land-surface module TERRA-ML. The water-storage capacity and the maximal wet surface fraction of the urban impervious land cover consisting of streets and buildings are estimated for Toulouse centre by matching the modelled and observed evapotranspiration (ET) rates. They amount to 1.31 ± 0.20 kg m-2} and 12 ± 4%, respectively. The model successfully reproduces the timespan and magnitude of increased ET for both urban observations campaigns CAPITOUL and BUBBLE. Our sensitivity study reveals that water-storage parametrization largely affects the performance of modelled ET rates. Hereby, the simulation employing the new water-storage parametrization is improved compared to arbitrary or existing water-storage parametrizations. The ET, surface sensible heat exchange and upwelling infra-red radiation are all affected until 12 day-time hours after rainfall on average. The modelled annual-mean ET during the CAPITOUL campaign from the urban land in Toulouse is an order of magnitude lower than that observed for the natural surroundings.

  9. Using GRACE Total Water Storage Changes to constrain River Routing Models in the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Linage, C.; Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Ray, R. L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    The GRACE mission provides monthly to 10-day maps of Total Water Storage Anomalies corresponding to the vertically integrated land water storage (soil moisture and groundwater) as well as storage in river channels and floodplains (surface waters). The surface water component is an important contributor to total water storage in the Amazon River basin as shown by improved agreement between GRACE observations and model simulations when runoff is routed through the river network as compared to no river routing. We use the Community Land Model version 3.5 to model land water storage along with runoff by accounting for a simple ground water model. Surface and subsurface runoff predictions are then routed using two different routing models: a simple cell-to-cell routing scheme (e.g. Branstetter and Famiglietti, 1999) and the Hillslope River Routing (Beighley et al. 2010). We evaluate model performances against the spatio-temporal variations of GRACE data by carrying out a Singular Value Decomposition of the cross-covariance matrix. We also compare the two models in the light of their respective intrinsic capabilities. We finally investigate the impact of the precipitation data on model outputs by using TRMM products instead of GLDAS (CMAP) products.

  10. Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

  11. Estimated water use in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Water-use data for 1980 are summarized in this report for 16 counties in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Data include total use of ground water and surface water for each of five water-use categories. The 1980 withdrawals for each category were as follows: 290 million gallons per day for public supply, 63 million gallons per day for rural, 325 million gallons per day for industry, 416 million gallons per day for irrigation, and 6,605 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation. Withdrawals totaled 7,699 million gallons per day and included 983 million gallons per day of ground water and 6,716 million gallons per day of surface water. Excluding thermoelectric power generation, all water withdrawn was freshwater except 38 million gallons per day of saline ground water withdrawn for industrial use in Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  12. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  13. Seasonal patterns of water storage as signatures of the climatological equilibrium between resource and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

    2014-09-01

    Water is accumulated in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the resource to various demands like hydropower production, irrigation, water supply or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively optimizes the use of the resource during a given time period. One of its by-products is the estimation of the marginal storage water value (MSWV), defined by the marginal value of the future goods and benefits obtained from an additional unit of storage water volume. Knowledge of the MSWV makes it possible to determine a posteriori the storage requirement scheme that would have led to the best equilibrium between the resource and the demand. The MSWV depends on the water level in the reservoir and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This study uses the inter-annual average of both the storage requirement scheme and the MSWV cycle as signatures of the best temporal equilibrium that is achievable in a given resource/demand context (the climatological equilibrium). For a simplified water resource system in a French mountainous region, we characterize how and why these signatures change should the climate and/or the demand change, mainly if changes are projected in the mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) as well as in the water demand for energy production and/or maintenance of a minimum reservoir level. Results show that the temporal equilibrium between water resource and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of MSWV changes when, for example, earlier water storage is required to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand. Finally, understanding how MSWV signatures change helps to understand changes in the storage requirement scheme.

  14. Decline in recycled water quality during short-term storage in open ponds.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jennifer; Warnken, Jan; Teasdale, Peter R; Arthur, J Michael

    2009-12-01

    Changes were assessed in urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent quality during short-term storage in open surface ponds. Water quality was monitored over five years at the inlets and outlets of open storage ponds located at three biological nutrient removal plants. Pond influent temperature, rainfall and sewage inflow were not found to be major factors. However, there was a trend for water temperature to be correlated negatively with nitrogenous nutrient and positively with faecal coliform values. The observed increases in faecal coliforms, nutrients and chemical oxygen demand were most likely caused through avian faecal contamination. These increases challenge the notion that pond storage has a positive or negligible effect on effluent quality. The observed one to two orders of magnitude increase in faecal coliforms may affect reuse scheme viability by limiting the range of uses under Australian water recycling guidelines. Potential improvements to short-term recycled water storage management at WWTPs could include the integration of monitoring requirements in WWTP discharge licences and recycling guidelines and the monitoring of all water quality parameters, including microbiological ones, at the point of entry into the recycled water distribution system, after WWTP storage, rather than directly post-disinfection. PMID:19590127

  15. Land water storage change from satellite altimetry and GRACE; Inference on sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cretaux, J.

    2009-12-01

    Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 6-year time span (mid-2002 to mid-2008) using satellite altimetry and space gravimetry data from GRACE. Satellite altimetry allows determination of surface water volume change while GRACE data provide vertically-integrated water storage change. The 32 largest river basins are considered as well as lakes not included in the 32 basins (Caspian and Aral seas). We focus on the year to year variability and construct a combined water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The mean trend in total water storage adjusted over this 6-year time span is positive and amounts to 114 +/- 24 km3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Orinoco, Ob, Nile, Niger, Zambezi, Tocantins and Volga. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Yukon, Eyre, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Eyre, Murray and Mekong basins. Lakes volume change is slightly negative over the 2002-2008 time span (~ -16 km3/yr). Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2008 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.27 +/- 0.07 mm/yr. The time series for each basins clearly show that year to year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. Another interesting results of the study is the significant correlation (0.7) between (detrended) year-to- year variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion) and GRACE-based land water storage contribution.

  16. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d. PMID:25989554

  17. Impact of soil water storage and distribution on snowmelt generated streamflow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowmelt is the primary source of water generating streamflow in much of the western USA and Canada. The amount and timing of this streamflow, which affects a number of management decisions, is directly related to the amount and timing of snowmelt, soil water storage and transmission. The impact of...

  18. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. PMID:27083523

  19. Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

  20. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  1. Global land water storage change from GRACE over 2002-2009; Inference on sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Becker, Mélanie; Cazenave, Anny; Crétaux, Jean-François; Ramillien, Guillaume

    2010-03-01

    Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 7-year time span (August 2002 to July 2009) using space gravimetry data from GRACE. The 33 World largest river basins are considered. We focus on the year-to-year variability and construct a total land water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The short-term trend in total water storage adjusted over this 7-year time span is positive and amounts to 80.6 ± 15.7 km 3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Zambezi, Orinoco and Ob basins. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Aral, Euphrates, Indus and Parana. Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2009 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.22 ± 0.05 mm/yr. The time series for each basin clearly show that year-to-year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. We also compare the interannual variability of total land water storage (removing the mean trend over the studied time span) with interannual variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion). A correlation of ˜0.6 is found. Phasing, in particular, is correct. Thus, at least part of the interannual variability of the global mean sea level can be attributed to land water storage fluctuations.

  2. Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, S.C.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Donna

    2010-08-01

    Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

  4. Water harvest- and storage- location assessment model using GIS and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, H.; Schneider, U. A.; Löw, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study describes a globally applicable method to determine the local suitability to implement water supply management strategies within the context of a river catchment. We apply this method, and develop a spatial analysis model named Geographic Water Management Potential (GWAMP). We retrieve input data from global data repositories and rescale these data to 1km spatial resolution to obtain a set of manageable input data. Potential runoff is calculated as an intermediate input using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) equation. Multi Criteria Evaluation techniques are used to determine the suitability levels and relative importance of input parameters for water supply management. Accordingly, the model identifies, potential water harvesting- and storage sites for on-farm water storage, regional dams, and soil moisture conservation. We apply the model to two case-study locations, the Sao-Francisco and Nile catchments, which differ in their geographic and climatic conditions. The model results are validated against existing data on hydrologic networks, reservoir capacities and runoff. On average, GWAMP predictions of sites with high rain water storage suitability correlate well (83%) with the locations of existing regional dams and farm tanks. According to the results from testing and validation of the GWAMP we point out that the GWAMP can be used identify potential sites for rain water harvesting and storage technologies in a given catchment.

  5. Land Water Storage within the Congo Basin Inferred from GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2006-01-01

    GRACE satellite gravity data is used to estimate terrestrial (surface plus ground) water storage within the Congo Basin in Africa for the period of April, 2002 - May, 2006. These estimates exhibit significant seasonal (30 +/- 6 mm of equivalent water thickness) and long-term trends, the latter yielding a total loss of approximately 280 km(exp 3) of water over the 50-month span of data. We also combine GRACE and precipitation data set (CMAP, TRMM) to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Congo Basin. We find that the seasonal water storage tends to saturate for anomalies greater than 30-44 mm of equivalent water thickness. Furthermore, precipitation contributed roughly three times the peak water storage after anomalously rainy seasons, in early 2003 and 2005, implying an approximately 60-70% loss from runoff and evapotranspiration. Finally, a comparison of residual land water storage (monthly estimates minus best-fitting trends) in the Congo and Amazon Basins shows an anticorrelation, in agreement with the 'see-saw' variability inferred by others from runoff data.

  6. Greenhouse gas implications of a 32 billion gallon bioenergy landscape in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Wang, W.; Khanna, M.; Long, S.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Hartman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable bioenergy for transportation fuel and greenhouse gas (GHGs) reductions may require considerable changes in land use. Perennial grasses have been proposed because of their potential to yield substantial biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and reduce GHG emissions by storing soil carbon. Here, we implemented an integrated approach to planning bioenergy landscapes by combining spatially-explicit ecosystem and economic models to predict a least-cost land allocation for a 32 billion gallon (121 billion liter) renewable fuel mandate in the US. We find that 2022 GHG transportation emissions are decreased by 7% when 3.9 million hectares of eastern US land are converted to perennial grasses supplemented with corn residue to meet cellulosic ethanol requirements, largely because of gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage. If renewable fuel production is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by 12%, because it induces more cellulosic biofuel and land under perennial grasses (10 million hectares) than under the mandate alone. While GHG reducing bioenergy landscapes that meet RFS requirements and do not displace food are possible, the reductions in GHG emissions are 50% less compared to previous estimates that did not account for economically feasible land allocation.

  7. Effects of water sample preservation and storage conditions on nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.C.; Alva, A.K.; Calvert, D.V.; Zhang, M. |

    1995-12-31

    USEPA method 300 requires water samples should be stored at 4 C immediately after collection and NO{sub 3}-N concentration analyzed within 48 hr of sample collection. Many research and commercial laboratories find it is difficult to meet this holding time. Water samples are often stored for several days at 4 C or {minus}20 C until analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of groundwater sample pretreatment, storage temperatures, and holding times on concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N. The storage of samples at 25 C decreased concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N by 1.7% and 12.5% for 48 hr and 50 days, respectively. No significant changes were observed during the 50 days storage at 4 C or {minus}20 C. Acidification of water samples at 4 C had no significant effect on NO{sub 3}-N concentration up to 50-day holding time.

  8. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  9. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

  10. Two strategies by epiphytic orchids for maintaining water balance: thick cuticles in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Sun, Mei; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are an important component of tropical and subtropical flora, and serve vital ecological functions in forest hydrology and nutrient fluxes. However, they often encounter water deficits because there is no direct contact between their roots and the soil. The strategies employed by epiphytes for maintaining water balance in relatively water-limited habitats are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the anatomical traits, water loss rates, and physiology of leaves and pseudobulbs of four Dendrobium species with different pseudobulb morphologies to understand the roles of leaf and pseudobulb in maintaining water balance of epiphytic orchids. Our results showed that two species (D. chrysotoxum and D. officinale), with lower rates of water loss, have thicker leaves and upper cuticles, but lower epidermal thickness and leaf dry mass per area. In contrast, the other two species (D. chrysanthum and D. crystallinum) with thinner cuticles and higher rates of water loss, have less tissue density and greater saturated water contents in their pseudobulbs. Therefore, our results indicate that these latter two species may resist drought by storing water in the pseudobulbs to compensate for their thin cuticles and rapid water loss through the leaves. Under the same laboratory conditions, excised pseudobulbs with attached leaves had lower rates of water loss when compared with samples comprising only excised leaves. This implies that epiphytic orchids utilize two different strategies for sustaining water balance: thick cuticles to conserve water in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs. Our results also show that Dendrobium species with thin cuticles tend to have pseudobulbs with high water storage capacity that compensates for their faster rates of water loss. These outcomes contribute to our understanding of the adaptive water-use strategies in Dendrobium species, which is beneficial for the conservation and cultivation of epiphytic orchids

  11. Two strategies by epiphytic orchids for maintaining water balance: thick cuticles in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Sun, Mei; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are an important component of tropical and subtropical flora, and serve vital ecological functions in forest hydrology and nutrient fluxes. However, they often encounter water deficits because there is no direct contact between their roots and the soil. The strategies employed by epiphytes for maintaining water balance in relatively water-limited habitats are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the anatomical traits, water loss rates, and physiology of leaves and pseudobulbs of four Dendrobium species with different pseudobulb morphologies to understand the roles of leaf and pseudobulb in maintaining water balance of epiphytic orchids. Our results showed that two species (D. chrysotoxum and D. officinale), with lower rates of water loss, have thicker leaves and upper cuticles, but lower epidermal thickness and leaf dry mass per area. In contrast, the other two species (D. chrysanthum and D. crystallinum) with thinner cuticles and higher rates of water loss, have less tissue density and greater saturated water contents in their pseudobulbs. Therefore, our results indicate that these latter two species may resist drought by storing water in the pseudobulbs to compensate for their thin cuticles and rapid water loss through the leaves. Under the same laboratory conditions, excised pseudobulbs with attached leaves had lower rates of water loss when compared with samples comprising only excised leaves. This implies that epiphytic orchids utilize two different strategies for sustaining water balance: thick cuticles to conserve water in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs. Our results also show that Dendrobium species with thin cuticles tend to have pseudobulbs with high water storage capacity that compensates for their faster rates of water loss. These outcomes contribute to our understanding of the adaptive water-use strategies in Dendrobium species, which is beneficial for the conservation and cultivation of epiphytic orchids

  12. Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might

  13. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003-2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes. PMID:26506230

  14. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003–2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes. PMID:26506230

  15. Spatial variability of the subsurface water storage revealed by relative gravity measurements in Southwest Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, J.; Champollion, C.; Favreau, G.; Hinderer, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Mouyen, M.; Boucher, M.; Nazoumou, Y.; Oi, M.; Robert, O.; Le Moigne, N.; Deroussi, S.; Demarty, J.; Benarrosh, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge in water resources research is to document the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrological processes over short time and space scales. Indeed, the quality of model predictions for resource assessment is dependent on reliable datasets, representative of the hydrological regime and its variations. This issue is particularly sensitive in Sahelian Africa, where available hydrological datasets are scarce. In this study, the variability of the water storage was investigated at the subcatchment scale (< 1km) by an intensive microgravity field campaign. Weekly microgravity surveys were carried out in a small endoreic catchment in Southwest Niger, during three months of the rainy season in 2009. Gravity measurements were performed at 16 stations located near a temporary pond, where rapid infiltration towards the aquifer occurs. The highest (63 μGal) gravity signal was measured on a station located above the pond and is well explained by the direct effect of the pond water volume changes throughout the wet season. Gravity signals of smaller amplitude (≤ 22 μGal) were measured in the pond surroundings and coupled to hydrodynamic data (pond level, soil moisture and water table level) to evaluate the intraseasonal variability of the water storage in the vicinity of the pond. The gravity signals related to the water storage in the subsurface exhibits a significant spatial variability. The heterogeneity of the water storage in the vadose zone appears as the main reason for the dispersion of the gravity values at local scale. This experiment evidences the ability of time lapse microgravity survey to detect the spatial variations of the water storage at intraseasonal scale in Sahelian Africa. Combined with hydrodynamic data, such a spatially distributed dataset may be a useful tool to calibrate or validate hydrological models and should be taken into account for scaling issue such as satellite gravimetry validation.

  16. A 1985-2015 data-driven global reconstruction of GRACE total water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Isabelle Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    After thirteen years of measurements, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has enabled for an unprecedented view on total water storage (TWS) variability. However, the relatively short record length, irregular time steps and multiple data gaps since 2011 still represent important limitations to a wider use of this dataset within the hydrological and climatological community especially for applications such as model evaluation or assimilation of GRACE in land surface models. To address this issue, we make use of the available GRACE record (2002-2015) to infer local statistical relationships between detrended monthly TWS anomalies and the main controlling atmospheric drivers (e.g. daily precipitation and temperature) at 1 degree resolution (Humphrey et al., in revision). Long-term and homogeneous monthly time series of detrended anomalies in total water storage are then reconstructed for the period 1985-2015. The quality of this reconstruction is evaluated in two different ways. First we perform a cross-validation experiment to assess the performance and robustness of the statistical model. Second we compare with independent basin-scale estimates of TWS anomalies derived by means of combined atmospheric and terrestrial water-balance using atmospheric water vapor flux convergence and change in atmospheric water vapor content (Mueller et al. 2011). The reconstructed time series are shown to provide robust data-driven estimates of global variations in water storage over large regions of the world. Example applications are provided for illustration, including an analysis of some selected major drought events which occurred before the GRACE era. References Humphrey V, Gudmundsson L, Seneviratne SI (in revision) Assessing global water storage variability from GRACE: trends, seasonal cycle, sub-seasonal anomalies and extremes. Surv Geophys Mueller B, Hirschi M, Seneviratne SI (2011) New diagnostic estimates of variations in terrestrial water storage

  17. The influence of ENSO on global surface water storage using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. P.; Nerem, R.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly time variable gravity data for the period January 2003 to December 2010 were used to study the influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on global water storage variations. The datasets were detrended and seasonal variations removed. We corrected for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment [Paulson, 2007] and used the Swenson and Wahr [2006] method to destripe the dataset before the monthly gravity map is smoothed using a 500km half-width. We then studied the relationship between GRACE land water storage and ENSO by correlating with the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). Our results indicate that the tropical regions show a strong negative correlation (Borneo: -0.78, Amazon Basin: -0.69) and, arid regions show a strong positive correlation (Patagonia: 0.63). Remote regions such as the south coast of Alaska (0.57) and the Southeast coast of Greenland (0.56) also show a positive correlation. The Amazon Basin shows an increase of 50cm water equivalent per 1 MEI per year, which Please complete the information below correlation. The Amazon Basin shows an increase of 50cm water equivalent per 1 MEI per year, which explains ~15% of its variability. The lower basin of the Indus River experiences an increase of 30cm (water equivalent) per 1 unit MEI per year, which corresponds to ~26% of its variability. ENSO effects the precipitation and water storage in Central and northern South America as well as in Southeast Asia simultaneously. Regions such as the Congo Basin and Greenland show a lag of up to 3 months. Our results demonstrate the strong capability of GRACE to detect ENSO teleconnections in global water storage that has the potential for contributing to projections of short term water storage for resource planning and management.

  18. Stratified storage economically increases capacity and efficiency of campus chilled water system

    SciTech Connect

    Bahnfleth, W.P.; Joyce, W.S.

    1995-03-01

    This article describes how the addition of stratified chilled water storage to the Cornell University campus chilled water system has increased its capacity and efficiency and reduced its operating costs for less than the cost of a conventional chilled water plant expansion. While chilled water storage is not appropriate for all chilled water systems, the experience at Cornell indicates that it can be very cost effective when favorable conditions exist. It should receive serious consideration by owners of large systems who are investigating alternatives for system expansion. The benefits of variable speed chiller operation were found to be considerable. It is hoped that this successful application will stimulate further interest in the development and application of variable speed drive chillers.

  19. How to choose capacity of storage tank to utilize water on windless days

    SciTech Connect

    Jugadeesh, A.

    1983-12-01

    As wind flow is not constant throughout the month or year and varies from season to season and from time to time in a day, a storage tank (or reservoir) is essential to supplement water to the field on calm days. In this paper the storage capacity required at two places, namely, Veeraval and Jamnagar in Gujarat State is discussed. The first prerequisite to know the suitability of the windmill size at particular place is the diameter of the windmill which should match the monthly required energy for lifting water.

  20. Economic analysis of air-conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, B.J.; Papaprokopiou, N.D.

    1981-09-01

    This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or Styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

  1. Karstic water storage response to the recent droughts in Southwest China estimated from satellite gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chaolong; Luo, Zhicai

    2015-12-01

    The water resources crisis is intensifying in Southwest China (SWC), which includes the world's largest continuous coverage of karst landforms, due to recent severe drought events. However, because of the special properties of karstic water system, such as strong heterogeneity, monitoring the variation of karstic water resources at large scales remains still difficult. Satellite gravimetry has emerged as an effective tool for investigating the global and regional water cycles. In this study, we used GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data from January 2003 to January 2013 to investigate karstic water storage variability over the karst region of SWC. We assessed the impacts of the recent severe droughts on karst water resources, including two heavy droughts in September 2010 to May 2010 and August 2011 to January 2012. Results show a slightly water increase tend during the studied period, but these two severe droughts have resulted in significant water depletion in the studied karst region. The latter drought during 2011 and 2012 caused more water deficits than that of the drought in 2010. Strong correlation between the variations of GRACE-based total water storage and precipitation suggests that climate change is the main driving force for the significant water absent over the studied karst region. As the world's largest continuous coverage karst aquifer, the karst region of SWC offers an example of GRACE applications to a karst system incisively and will benefit for water management from a long-term perspective in karst systems throughout the world.

  2. Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T. S.; Rivera, A.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with the Great Lakes. The objective of this study is to examine the detectability of the groundwater storage change within the GLB using the monthly models from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, auxiliary soil moisture, snow and lake (SMSL) data, and predictions from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. A two-step filtering method is developed to optimize the extraction of GRACE signal. A two dimensional basin window weight function is also introduced to reduce ringing artifacts caused by the band-limited GRACE models in estimating the water storage change within the GLB. The groundwater storage (GWS) as deviation from a reference mean storage is estimated for the period of 2002 to 2009. The average GWS of the GLB clearly show an annual cycle with an amplitude range from 27 to 91 mm in water thickness equivalent (WTE), and a phase range of about two months. The estimated phases of GWS variations have a half year shift with respect to the phase of SMSL water storage variations which show peaks in March and April. The least squares estimation gives a GWS loss trend of from 2.3 to 9.3 km3/yr within the GLB for the period of study. This wide range of the GRACE GWS results is caused largely by the differences of soil moisture and snow storage from different land surface models (LSMs), and to a lesser extent by the GRACE commission and omission errors, and the GIA model error.

  3. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. PMID:24629940

  4. Non-linearities and thresholds in water partitioning, storage and release in different ecohydrological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Soulsby, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Water partitioning between transpiration, evaporation and runoff is controlled by climatic and water storage characteristics; yet our current knowledge of varying dominant retention and partitioning mechanisms remains limited. For some forested catchments with clear seasonal distinctions, recent work has revealed the existence of partitioned ecohydrological systems where plant - and stream-water are sourced from different subsurface water stores. It is still unclear what the roles of non-linearities are in different water-energy regimes and how soil and vegetation properties might influence such partitioning of water stores. This study aims to better understand the spatio-temporal controls on water residence times and hydrological responses at the catchment scale in a northern headwater catchment in Scotland. Here, the climate is usually consistently wet with low evapotranspiration rates. Within this context however, the study period involved an exceptionally dry summer. We explored non-linearities and thresholds in catchment input-output relationships and investigated the role of soil-water-vegetation interactions on water partitioning, storage, and release along different hillslopes during contrasting hydro-climatic conditions. Different ecohydrological units included poorly draining soils in riparian zones and freely draining soils on hillslopes, and both forested and non-forested sites were considered. Soil moisture dynamics and stable water isotope signatures of different waters (precipitation, stream-, soil -, and plant xylem-water) were examined throughout the year (winter and during the growing season that included the relatively dry summer) to identify plant water use, assess water movement, and explore vegetation-water linkages. The results indicate that threshold behaviour in runoff responses at the catchment scale can be linked to apparent differences between soil water dynamics and residence times of different hydropedological units. Linear input

  5. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: WATER POLLUTANTS FROM COAL STORAGE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a...

  6. Water storage and early hydrous melting of the Martian mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommier, A.; Grove, T. L.; Charlier, B.

    2012-06-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the near-solidus phase equilibria of a water-saturated analog of the Martian mantle. Experiments were performed at low temperatures (700-920 °C) and high pressure (4-7 GPa) using multi-anvil apparatus and piston cylinder device (4 GPa). The results of this study are used to explore the role of water during early melting and chemical differentiation of Mars, and to further our understanding of the near-solidus behavior in planetary mantle compositions at high pressure. Water has a significant effect on the temperature of melting and, therefore, on accretion and subsequent differentiation processes. Experiments locate the wet solidus at ∼800 °C, and is isothermal between 4 GPa and 7 GPa. The Martian primitive mantle can store significant amounts of water in hydrous minerals stable near the solidus. Humite-group minerals and phase E represent the most abundant hydrous minerals stable in the 4-7 GPa pressure range. The amount of water that can be stored in the mantle and mobilized during melting ranges from 1 to up to 4 wt% near the wet solidus. We discuss thermal models of Mars accretion where the planet formed very rapidly and early on in solar system history. We incorporate the time constraint of Dauphas and Pourmand (2011) that Mars had accreted to 50% of its present mass in 1.8 Myr and include the effects of 26Al radioactive decay and heat supplied by rapid accretion. When accretion has reached 30% of Mars current mass (∼70% of its present size), melting starts, and extends from 100 to 720 km depth. Below this melt layer, water can still be bound in crystalline solids. The critical stage is at 50% accretion (∼80% of its size), where Mars is above the wet and dry solidi with most of its interior melted. This is earlier in the accretion process than what would be predicted from dry melting. We suggest that water may have promoted early core formation on Mars and rapidly extended melting over a large portion of Mars

  7. Leaf Area and Water Content Changes after Permanent and Temporary Storage

    PubMed Central

    Juneau, Kevyn J.; Tarasoff, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of leaf morphology must be taken to develop models of ecosystem productivity and climate change projections. Once leaves are removed from a plant they begin to lose water and degrade. If specimens cannot be measured immediately after harvest, it is important to store the leaves in a manner that reduces morphological changes. If preserved specimens are used, estimates that closely match fresh measurements need to be calculated. This study examined the change in leaf area after storage treatments and developed models that can be used to more accurately estimate initial leaf area. Fresh leaf area was measured from ten plant species then stored in one of two common storage treatments. After storage, leaf area was re-measured and comparisons were made between species and growth forms. Leaf area decreased the most after permanent storage treatments and the least after temporary storage. Pressed leaves shrunk over 18% while cold storage leaves shrunk under 4%. The woody dicot growth form shrunk the least in all treatments. Shrinkage was positively correlated with initial water content and dissection index, a measure of leaf shape and complexity. PMID:22880051

  8. Long Term Water Storage Deteriorates Bonding of Composite Resin to Alumina and Zirconia Short Communication

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, T.T.; Matinlinna, J.P; Vallittu, P.K.; Lassila, L.V.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long term water storage and ageing on the bond strength of resin composite cement to yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide (zirconia) and dialuminium trioxide (alumina). Substrate specimens of alumina and zirconia were air particle abraded with dialuminium trioxide before priming and application of composite resin. Priming was made with gamma metharyloxy-trimethoxysilane or acryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane monomer after which the intermediate dimethacrylate resin was applied and photopolymerized. This was followed by curing particulate composite resin cement (Relyx ARC) to the substrate as a resin stub. The ageing methods of the specimens (n=6) were: (1) they stored four years in 37±1ºC distilled water, (2) thermocycled 8000 times between 55±1ºC and 5±1ºC, (3) stored first in water for four years and then thermocycled. Specimens which were stored dry, were used as controls. Bonding of composite resin was measured by shear-bond strength test set-up. Both thermocycling and long-term water storage decreased significantly shear bond strength values compared to the control group (from the level of 20 MPa to 5 MPa) regardless of the used primer or the type of the substrate. Combination of four years water storage and thermocyling reduced the bond strength even more, to the level of two to three megapascals. In can be concluded that water storage and thermocycling itselves, and especially combination of water storage and thermocycling can cause considerable reduction in the bond strength of composite resin cement to alumina and zirconia. PMID:24167535

  9. Groundwater, Soil Moisture, Snow Water Equivalent, and River Water in the Seasonal Variation of Total Terrestrial Water Storage in Major River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Yoshimura, K.; Kim, H.; Shen, Y.; Thanh, N. D.; Seto, S.; Kanae, S.

    2006-12-01

    Both the combined atmospheric-river basin water balance and the remote sensing by GRACE can estimate the variation of the total terrestrial water storage which consist the changes in ground water, soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and water in rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. What are the major components in the change of the total terrestrial water storage? One hand, the seasonal variation of the total water storage in major continental-scale river basins are estimated by the atmospheric-river basin water balance (AWB) method The global distribution of water vapor flux convergence was estimated using the ECMWF global analysis data for the period from 1986 through 1995. The 10 year mean value of the atmospheric water vapor convergence was adjusted to match with the climatological mean value of river runoff for 1961-1990. Then the seasonal changes of the total terrestrial water storage were estimated by AWB method combining the atmospheric water vapor convergence for major river basins and the runoff from the area. On the other hand, the components in the change of the total terrestrial water storage were investigated using the multi-model products forced by observed surface meteorology. Under the Global Land/Atmosphere Study (GLASS), the Phase 2 of the Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP-2) produced the first global (excluding Antarctica) 1x1 degree Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) of land-surface variables and fluxes for the 10-year period of 1986 1995 at the daily time scale. Thirteen land-surface models (LSMs) were driven by the best possible forcing data of the atmospheric conditions, such as precipitation, downward radiation, wind speed, air humidity and air temperature with temporal resolution of 3-hourly or higher. Water balance in major continental scale river basins were post-processed and the seasonal changes in ground water, soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and the water in river channel were analyzed using the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) and a

  10. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  11. Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water

    PubMed Central

    Mollineau, W. M.; Adogwa, A. O.; Garcia, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 106 spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5∘C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at −195∘C, thawed at 30∘ to 70∘C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 106 spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30∘C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1 cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage. PMID:20871831

  12. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  13. Satellite measurements of changes in water storage and their impact on vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating dynamics of groundwater at regional or global scale is difficult because we cannot directly measure the amount of water under the ground. Currently, ten years data of GRACE equivalent water thickness data are available to study global scale groundwater dynamics. GRACE data is useful to understand change in water storage at global scale, but the mechanisms of the water storage dynamics and its impacts on vegetation are not well understood. In this study, we tried to explain the interannual variations in the GRACE equivalent water thickness in relation to other satellite data, such as TRMM precipitation and MODIS land surface temperature. Then, we assessed the effect of dynamics of ground water on vegetation at both regional and global scale. At first, we decomposed the GRACE equivalent water thickness record into year-to-year variations and ten-year trend. The year-to-year variations in GRACE data are the result of annual water budget, while the ten-year trend in GRACE data can be explained by the trend in annual water storage and additional human water usage, especially irrigation. The year-to-year variation in GRACE data was spatially matched well with TRMM annual precipitation, but the high correlations with LST were found only in a few regions. The most of significant trend in GRACE data can be explained with long-term TRMM annual precipitation trend. The trend that cannot be explained by TRMM precipitation trend can be considered as the human water usage. Finally, we focused on the regional analysis in India to scrutinize the relationship among those satellite data including seasonal analysis. It is well known that irrigation in northwest India is exploiting groundwater and that was observed in GRACE data as decreasing trend in equivalent water thickness. On the other hand, western India showed increasing trend in NDVI for the last decades. TRMM data showed no significant trend in precipitation in India for the last decade. Those inconsistencies were

  14. Water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California inferred from GPS observation of loading deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical loading deformation in the Pacific mountain system is observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to more than 1 cm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise during the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study, we invert such GPS measurements of loading deformation for surface water variations in Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), and study seasonal, interannual and long-term trend water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California. The resulting GPS determination of the total water thickness change is compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics different physiographic provinces of western U.S. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April to October is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. With GPS monthly time series, we infer surface water variation at higher temporal (monthly) interval. The current California drought since 2011 is precisely quantified with GPS inversed surface water change. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, our GPS results indicate ~14 Gigaton/year water loss between 2011 to 2014, and this rate is much larger than that of the previous drought event (~9 Gigaton/year) between 2006 to 2009. Our results inferred from GPS show that rapid near-surface water decrease is occurring in Sierra Nevada Mountain, Klamath Mountain. In the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon, there is no significant water loss there. Because the GPS network in the western U.S. is dense enough and GPS position solutions can be derived very quickly, we conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system at high spatial resolution in near real time.

  15. Performance of Four Experimental High-btu-per-gallon Fuels in a Single Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonash, Edmund R; Metzler, Allen; Butze, Helmut F

    1955-01-01

    Performance characteristics of four hydrocarbon fuels having high Btu per gallon were determined in a single turbojet combustor. At simulated low-altitude operating conditions, the fuels with high Btu per gallon generally produced more carbon than did JP-4 and JP-5 fuels. The deposits were reduced appreciably with a fuel-oil additive. At high-altitude conditions, the high Btu-per-gallon fuels gave lower efficiencies than did JP-4 or JP-5 fuels. No attempts were made to improve performance by combustor design modification.

  16. Multi-scale hydropedological controls on water storage, mixing and release in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Birkel, Christian; Soulsby, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Water storage, mixing and flux processes regulate the generation of stream flow and the time scales for the transport of solutes and contaminants. Understanding the space and time variant dominant mechanisms on these processes in different landscapes and climates remains a key challenge in water resource research. The scope of this presentation is to provide an overview of new insights into the multiscale and integrated spatio-temporal controls of hydropedology on water storage, mixing and release in low energy, humid headwater catchments. We provide some examples from the Bruntland Burn experimental catchment (3.2 km2) in the Scottish Highlands. This area is characterised by high precipitation inputs, low evapotranspiration rates and storage reservoirs which are typically close to the threshold of saturation for most of the time. We explored water storage, mixing, and flow processes in the soil matrix, at different soil-vegetation plots, and along a hillslope transect. Sites included two common soil types (Histosols in the riparian zone and Podzols on hillslopes) and both forested (with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)) and non-forested areas. We also explored the integrated effects of the spatio-temporal dynamics in these processes at the catchment scale, using high resolution hydrometric and stable water isotope analyses. By comparing stable water isotopes of soil water held at different soil water tensions, we found that water held at high tensions (i.e. in the smaller pores) had a longer residence time than that held at lower tensions. However, these variations were small in the context of the differences observed in soil water storage and flow dynamics between soil types and their integrated control at the catchment scale. Storage dynamics in the different hydropedological units controlled hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and the stream network, runoff generation, and the evolution of catchment transit time distributions. It was found that vegetation

  17. Assimilation of GRACE Derived Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Reichle, R. H.

    2007-12-01

    GRACE has great potential to benefit hydrology, because no other observation system, ground- or space-based, has ever mapped variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS; the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, because its spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observing systems and because total terrestrial water storage is a variable unfamiliar to hydrologists, GRACE has yet to become a standard tool for hydrology. Land surface models (LSMs) simulate the redistribution of water and energy incident on the land surface, but their accuracy is limited by the quality of the input data used to parameterize and force the models, the model developers' understanding of the physics involved, and the simplifications necessary to depict the Earth system economically. The advantages of GRACE and LSMs can be harnessed by data assimilation, which synthesizes discontinuous and imperfect observations with our knowledge of physical processes, as represented in a LSM. The model fills observational gaps, provides quality control, and enables data from disparate measurement systems to be merged, while the observations anchor the results in reality. We have assimilated TWS anomalies derived from GRACE into the Catchment LSM. The experimental domain was the Mississippi River Basin. Monthly GRACE estimates were derived for each of the four major sub-basins. Assimilation was performed using an Ensemble Kalman smoother. In addition to simulating soil and snow water storages, the Catchment LSM accounts for variations in the elevation of the water table, making it appropriate for total terrestrial water storage applications. The assimilated results produced groundwater storage time series which more closely resembled piezometer based estimates, relative to the open loop (non-assimilating) simulations. These results emphasize the potential for GRACE to improve the accuracy of hydrologic model output, which will benefit water

  18. Monitoring water storage variations with a superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güntner, Andreas; Mikolaj, Michal; Reich, Marvin; Schröder, Stephan; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Water storage dynamics are notoriously difficult to monitor in a comprehensive way beyond the point scale. Superconducting gravimeters (SG) measure temporal variations of the Earth's acceleration of gravity with very high precision and temporal resolution. They have been shown to be sensitive to mass variations induced by hydrological processes in their surroundings, typically within a radius of few 100 meters around the instrument. Thus, in turn, SGs are unique instruments for monitoring water storage variations in the landscape in an integrative way, accounting for soil moisture, vadose zone and groundwater storage, snow, and surface water bodies if existent. Nevertheless, hydrological applications of SGs so far have usually been hindered by the instruments being located in observatory buildings. This infrastructure disturbs the local hydrology and causes many uncertainties due to the often poorly known geometry of the construction, non-natural flow paths of water, and unknown water storage variations below and/or on top of the infrastructure. By deploying the SG in a small enclosure, these disturbances and unknowns are minimized. We report on the first experiences with exposing a SG of the latest generation (iGrav) in a small housing of less than 1 m2 footprint to temperate hydro-meteorological conditions. The system has been set up on a grassland site at the Geodetic Observatory in Wettzell, Bavarian Forest, Germany, in early 2015. We present the technical layout and challenges in running the gravimeter system. Additionally, we report on the quality of data acquired so far and present comparisons to in-situ soil moisture monitoring with TDR and TOMST sensors, a lysimeter, and groundwater observations, and two SGs located in nearby observatory buildings. We discuss the value of SG observations for estimating water storage variations, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge beyond the point scale.

  19. Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

  20. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  1. Effective Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

  2. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  3. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  5. Combining phosphate and bacteria removal on chemically active filter membranes allows prolonged storage of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rotzetter, A C C; Kellenberger, C R; Schumacher, C M; Mora, C; Grass, R N; Loepfe, M; Luechinger, N A; Stark, W J

    2013-11-13

    A chemically active filtration membrane with incorporated lanthanum oxide nanoparticles enables the removal of bacteria and phosphate at the same time and thus provides a simple device for preparation of drinking water and subsequent safe storage without using any kind of disinfectants. PMID:23913409

  6. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section 1250.83 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation...

  7. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section 1250.83 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation...

  8. Dryland crop sequence and tillage influences on soil water storage: First 15 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices and cropping systems have greatly changed over the past half century. In the northern Great Plains, soil water storage during the non-crop period of annual cropping systems helps to stabilize crop yields. Our objectives were to determine the influences of six crop sequences an...

  9. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to translate a unique approach for the synthesis of self-assembled nanostructured carbon into industrially viable technologies for two important, large-scale applications: electrochemical double-layer capacitors (also referred to as ultracapacitors) for electrical energy storage, and capacitive deionization (CDI) systems for water treatment and desalination.

  10. Improvement of the variable storage coefficient method with water surface gradient as a variable

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The variable storage coefficient (VSC) method has been used for streamflow routing in continuous hydrological simulation models such as the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for more than 30 years. APEX operates on a daily time step and ...

  11. Water quality ramifications of manure storage and daily haul during winter and early spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure storage is supported by the United States Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a nutrient management strategy for controlling air and water quality. Daily haul is still a popular practice on the small farms in northeastern USA but receives criticism over the impact of spreading du...

  12. GPS as an independent measurement to estimate terrestrial water storage variations in Washington and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuning; Argus, Donald F.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) measures elastic ground loading deformation in response to hydrological mass variations on or near Earth's surface. We present a time series of change in terrestrial water storage as a function of position in Washington and Oregon estimated using GPS measurements of vertical displacement of Earth's surface. The distribution of water variation inferred from GPS is highly correlated with physiographic provinces: the seasonal water is mostly located in the mountain areas, such as the Cascade Range and Olympic Mountains, and is much smaller in the basin and valley areas of the Columbia Basin and Harney Basin. GPS is proven to be an independent measurement to distinguish between hydrological models. The drought period of 2008-2010 (maximum in 2010) and the recovery period of 2011-2012 in the Cascade Range are well recovered with GPS-determined time-variable monthly water mass series. The GPS-inferred water storage variation in the Cascade Range is consistent with that derived from JPL's GRACE monthly mass grid solutions. The percentage of RMS reduction is ~62% when we subtract GRACE water series from GPS-derived results. GPS-determined water storage variations can fill gaps in the current GRACE mission, also in the transition period from the current GRACE to the future GRACE Follow-on missions. We demonstrate that the GPS-inferred water storage variations can determine and verify local scaling factors for GRACE measurements; in the Cascade Range, the RMS reduction between GRACE series scaled by GPS and scaled by the hydrological model-based GRACE Tellus gain factors is up to 90.5%.

  13. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  14. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes.

    PubMed

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  15. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    PubMed Central

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0–5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  16. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  17. Motel solar-hot-water system--Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes system which meets 64 percent of hot water requirements of 120 room motel. Key system components include 1,000 square foot, roof-mounted collector array, 1,000 gallon storage tank, tube-in-shell heat exchanger, and three domestic hot-water tanks. Report contains calibration instructions for differential temperature controllers, shutdown procedures, and operation guidelines, performance analysis, and manufacturers' maintenance literature.

  18. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  19. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  20. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  1. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  2. Total energy food plant 21 million gallon ethanol facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    The Phase I Engineering study includes the following: process description, waste water treatment plant, material summary, energy chart, capital cost estimate, equipment list, personnel requirements, drawings list, specifications list, and project schedule. The economic and financial feasibility of the technical process, and environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic assessments for the project are reported. The costs for extending the following utilities to the property line of the selected site are presented: potable water, sewer system, electricity, roads for truck traffic, and rail service.

  3. Water resources of Jackson and Independence Counties, Arkansas; Contributions to the Hydrology of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albin, Donald R.; Hines, Marion S.; Stephens, John W.

    1967-01-01

    The present (1965) water use in Jackson and Independence Counties is about 55.6 million gallons per day, and quantities sufficient for any foreseeable use are available. Supplies for the large-scale uses--municipal, industrial, and irrigation--can best be obtained from wells in the Coastal Plain and from streams in the highlands. Wells in the Coastal Plain will yield 1,000-2,000 gallons of water per minute when screened at depths from 100 to 150 feet in alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The water will require treatment for the removal of iron and the reduction of hardness to be suitable for municipal and industrial uses. Wells in the highlands generally yield less than 50 gallons per minute of water that is of good quality, though hard. The dependable flow of .the White River at Newport is about 4.2 billion gallons per day. The dependable 'base flows of the small streams tributary to the White River in the Salem Plateau and Springfield Plateau sections range from 0.25 to 5 million gallons per day, and the dependable flow of Polk Bayou at Batesville is about 21 million gallons per day. These streams can be utilized for water supply with little or no artificial storage required. Streams in the Boston Mountains section and in the Arkansas Valley section recede to very low flow or to no flow during extended dry periods, but dependable, supplies can be obtained from these streams 'by construction of storage facilities Water from all the highland streams is af excellent chemical quality except that it generally is hard.

  4. Using Deuterium to trace movement and storage of water in Eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Wyczesany, Tomasz; Eamus, Derek; Pfautsch, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of trees to release water from storage compartments into the transpiration stream can mitigate damage to hydraulic functioning. However, the location and magnitude of these 'mobile' water sources still remains a topic of research. We conducted an experiment on two tree species that naturally grow in regions of high (Eucalyptus tereticornis) and low (E. sideroxylon) rates of annual precipitation. Deuterium enriched water (1350 ‰ label strength) was introduced into the transpiration stream of three trees per species for four consecutive days. Then the trees were felled and samples of all woody tissues were collected from different heights and positions of the stem. Water was extracted from all samples and the isotopic composition measured. Our results indicate that vertical water transport was more efficient in E. tereticornis while radial water transport was more pronounced in E. sideroxylon. The latter has a larger relative stem water storage capacity than E. tereticornis. This is probably related to differences in the hydraulic architecture across the two species, with a larger resistance of the xylem to cavitation in E. sideroxylon due to smaller vessel diameters, resulting in the trade-off of slower growth and lower tree height. Generally water in the phloem is a larger source for capacitance than water in the heartwood. Further integrative data analyses will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that allow trees to survive and adapt to drought.

  5. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  6. Influence of Water Storage and Bonding Material on Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Consani, Simonides; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Vedovello Filho, Mário; Santos, Eduardo Cesar Almada; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of water storage (24 h and 6 months), and Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC bonding materials on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to feldspathic ceramic. Four cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s. Each cylinder received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT or Fuji Ortho LC. Light-activation was carried out with 40 s total exposure time using Bluephase G2. Half the specimens for each bonding materials (n=20) were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h and the other half for 6 months. Shear bond strength testing was performed after storage times at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Transbond XT showed significantly higher bond strength (p<0.05) than Fuji Ortho LC. Significant differences in bond strength (p<0.05) were found when 24 h and 6 months storage times were compared between materials. ARI showed a predominance of score 0 for all groups, and higher scores at 1, 2 and 3 for 24 h storage time. In conclusion, storage time and bonding materials showed significant influence on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic. PMID:26647936

  7. Estimate of ground water in storage in the Great Lakes basin, United States, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Sheets, Rodney A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data from Regional Aquifer System Analyses (RASA) studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Great Lakes Basin, United States, during 1978-95, were compiled and used to estimate the total volume of water that is stored in the many aquifers of the basin. These studies focused on six regional aquifer systems: the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana; the Silurian- Devonian aquifers in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; the surficial aquifer system (aquifers of alluvial and glacial origin) found throughout the Great Lakes Basin; and the Pennsylvanian sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers and the Mississippian sandstone aquifer in Michigan. Except for the surficial aquifers, all of these aquifer systems are capable of yielding substantial quantities of water and are not small aquifers with only local importance. Individual surficial aquifers, although small in comparison to the bedrock aquifers, collectively represent large potential sources of ground water and therefore have been treated as a regional system. Summation of ground-water volumes in the many regional aquifers of the basin indicates that about 1,340 cubic miles of water is in storage; of this, about 984 cubic miles is considered freshwater (that is, water with dissolved-solids concentration less than 1,000 mg/L). These volumes should not be interpreted as available in their entirety to meet water-supply needs; complete dewatering of any aquifer is environmentally undesirable. The amount of water that is considered available on the basis of water quality and environmental, economic, and legal constraints has not been determined. The effect of heavy pumping in the Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee, Wis., areas, which has caused the regional ground-water divide in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system to shift westward, has been included in the above estimates. This shift in the ground-water divide has increased the amount of water in storage in the

  8. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  9. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

  10. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

  11. Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1gallon paint can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1-gallon paint can labeling machine (Standard-Knapp of Portland). Note spiral attachment on floor. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  13. Diagnosing Land Water Storage Variations in Major Indian River Basins using GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Aarti; Syed, Tajdarul H.

    2015-10-01

    Scarcity of freshwater is one of the most critical resource issue the world is facing today. Due to its finite nature, renewable freshwater reserves are under relentless pressure due to population growth, economic development and rapid industrialization. Assessment of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS), as an unified measure of freshwater reserve, is vital to understand hydrologic and climatic processes controlling its availability. In this study, TWS variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are analyzed in conjuction with multi-platform hydrologic observations for the period of 2003-2012. Here, the primary objective is to quantify and attribute the observed short-term variability of TWS and groundwater storage in the largest river basins of India (Ganga, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi). Alongside commendable agreement between TWS variations obtained from GRACE and water balance computation, results highlight some of the important deficiencies between the two. While monthly changes in TWS are highly correlated with precipitation, monthly TWS anomalies reveal a 1-2 month lag in their concurrence. Analysis of groundwater storage estimates demonstrate significant decline in the Ganga basin (- 1.28 ± 0.20 mm/month) but practically no change in the Mahanadi basin. On the contrary, groundwater storage in Godavari and Krishna basins reveal notable increase at the rate of 0.74 ± 0.21 mm/month and 0.97 ± 0.21 mm/month respectively. Subsequently, in order to assess the influence of quasi-periodic, planetary scale, variations in the Earth's climate system, groundwater storage anomalies are evaluated with reference to ENSO variability. Results manifest that in all the basins, with the exception of Ganga, groundwater storage is dominantly influenced by ENSO, with large decrease (increase) during El Niño (La Niña) events. In the Ganga basin, groundwater storage variations refer to possible amalgamation of human intervention and natural climate

  14. Remote Sensing of Soil Water Storage Capacity Using the Landsat and MODIS Image Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Umstot, T.; Wilson, J. L.; Allen, R.; Trezza, R.

    2014-12-01

    We will present a method for the quantitative assessment of the soil water storage capacity of each pixel in a Landsat or MODIS image using the information available in the historic Landsat and MODIS archives. The soil water storage capacity represents the maximum amount of water that can be stored in the soil and/or bedrock so that it is available for release into the atmosphere through transpiration by vegetation and/or evaporation from the land surface. First, the METRIC algorithm is used to convert 15 images representative for growing seasons in wet, dry and normal years into evaporative fraction maps. The evaporative fraction is an expression of the relative evapotranspiration and is strongly correlated to soil moisture conditions in the root zone: high and low evaporative fractions indicate, respectively, high and low root zone soil water contents. We use an experimental relationship to derive a normalized root zone soil moisture value between 0 (dry) to 1 (saturation) from the evaporative fraction. Then, the wetness score for each pixel is calculated as the sum of its 15 "normalized root zone soil moisture" values; it is a relative measure of the overall wetness of a pixel compared to other pixels with values between 0 and 15. Large and small values for the wetness score indicate, respectively, large and small values for the soil water storage capacity. The challenge is to convert the ranking of the wetness scores for each pixel into a quantitative soil water storage capacity. For this operation we use the hydrological Distributed Parameter Watershed Model (DPWM). After construction of seven physically realistic conversion functions between wetness score rank and soil water storage capacity, we evaluate the seven distributions of the differences between the 15 METRIC observed and DPWM simulated "normalized root zone soil moisture" maps. The conversion function that yields the smallest sum of differences is considered the optimal function and is used for

  15. Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, A. G.; Westbrook, C. J.; van der Kamp, G.

    2009-05-01

    There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h methods to accurately estimate volume for the range of wetland shapes occurring across the Prairie Pothole Region. These results were contrasted with two commonly implemented V-A regression equations to determine which method estimates volume most accurately. We used detailed topographic data for 27 wetlands in Smith Creek and St. Denis watersheds, Saskatchewan that ranged in surface area and basin shape. The full V-A-h method was found to accurately estimate storage (errors <3%) across wetlands of various shapes, and is therefore suitable for calculating water storage in the variety of wetland surface shapes found in the prairies. Both V-A equations performed poorly, with volume underestimated by an average of 15% and 50% Analysis of the simplified V-A-h method showed that volume errors of <10% can be achieved if the basin and shape coefficients are derived properly. This would involve measuring depth and area twice, with sufficient time between measurements that the natural fluctuations in water storage are reflected. Practically, wetland area and depth should be measured in spring, following snowmelt when water levels are near the peak, and also in late summer prior to water depths dropping below 10 cm. These guidelines for applying the simplified V-A-h method will allow for accurate volume estimations when detailed topographic data are not available. Since the V-A equations were outperformed by the full and simplified V-A-h methods, we conclude that wetland depth and basin morphology should be considered when estimating volume. This will improve storage estimations of natural and human

  16. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  17. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  18. Effects of field storage method on E. coli concentrations measured in storm water runoff.

    PubMed

    Harmel, Daren; Wagner, Kevin; Martin, Emily; Smith, Doug; Wanjugi, Pauline; Gentry, Terry; Gregory, Lucas; Hendon, Tina

    2016-03-01

    Storm water runoff is increasingly assessed for fecal indicator organisms (e.g., Escherichia coli, E. coli) and its impact on contact recreation. Concurrently, use of autosamplers along with logistic, economic, technical, and personnel barriers is challenging conventional protocols for sample holding times and storage conditions in the field. A common holding time limit for E. coli is 8 h with a 10 °C storage temperature, but several research studies support longer hold time thresholds. The use of autosamplers to collect E. coli water samples has received little field research attention; thus, this study was implemented to compare refrigerated and unrefrigerated autosamplers and evaluate potential E. coli concentration differences due to field storage temperature (storms with holding times ≤24 h) and due to field storage time and temperature (storms >24 h). Data from 85 runoff events on four diverse watersheds showed that field storage times and temperatures had minor effects on mean and median E. coli concentrations. Graphs and error values did, however, indicate a weak tendency for higher concentrations in the refrigerated samplers, but it is unknown to what extent differing die-off and/or regrowth rates, heterogeneity in concentrations within samples, and laboratory analysis uncertainty contributed to the results. The minimal differences in measured E. coli concentrations cast doubt on the need for utilizing the rigid conventional protocols for field holding time and storage temperature. This is not to say that proper quality assurance and quality control is not important but to emphasize the need to consider the balance between data quality and practical constraints related to logistics, funding, travel time, and autosampler use in storm water studies. PMID:26884357

  19. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  20. The Role of Plant Water Storage on Water Fluxes within the Coupled Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. W.; Duman, T.; Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    Plant water storage (PWS) contributes to whole-plant transpiration (up to 50%), especially in large trees and during severe drought conditions. PWS also can impact water-carbon economy as well as the degree of resistance to drought. A 1-D porous media model is employed to accommodate transient water flow through the plant hydraulic system. This model provides a mechanistic representation of biophysical processes constraining water transport, accounting for plant hydraulic architecture and the nonlinear relation between stomatal aperture and leaf water potential when limited by soil water availability. Water transport within the vascular system from the stem base to the leaf-lamina is modeled using Richards's equation, parameterized with the hydraulic properties of the plant tissues. For simplicity, the conducting flow in the radial direction is not considered here and the capacitance at the leaf-lamina is assumed to be independent of leaf water potential. The water mass balance in the leaf lamina sets the upper boundary condition for the flow system, which links the leaf-level transpiration to the leaf water potential. Thus, the leaf-level gas exchange can be impacted by soil water availability through the water potential gradient from the leaf lamina to the soil, and vice versa. The root water uptake is modeled by a multi-layered macroscopic scheme to account for possible hydraulic redistribution (HR) in certain conditions. The main findings from the model calculations are that (1) HR can be diminished by the residual water potential gradient from roots to leaves at night due to aboveground capacitance, tree height, nocturnal transpiration or the combination of the three. The degree of reduction depends on the magnitude of residual water potential gradient; (2) nocturnal refilling to PWS elevates the leaf water potential that subsequently delays the onset of drought stress at the leaf; (3) Lifting water into the PWS instead of HR can be an advantageous strategy

  1. Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

  2. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  3. Storage selection functions: A coherent framework for quantifying how catchments store and release water and solutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Benettin, Paolo; Harman, Ciaran J.; Hrachowitz, Markus; McGuire, Kevin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-06-01

    We discuss a recent theoretical approach combining catchment-scale flow and transport processes into a unified framework. The approach is designed to characterize the hydrochemistry of hydrologic systems and to meet the challenges posed by empirical evidence. StorAge Selection functions (SAS) are defined to represent the way catchment storage supplies the outflows with water of different ages, thus regulating the chemical composition of out-fluxes. Biogeochemical processes are also reflected in the evolving residence time distribution and thus in age-selection. Here we make the case for the routine use of SAS functions and look forward to areas where further research is needed.

  4. Soil water storage, rainfall and runoff relationships in a tropical dry forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

    2014-12-01

    In forested catchments, the exceedance of rainfall and antecedent water storage thresholds is often required for runoff generation, yet to our knowledge these threshold relationships remain undescribed in tropical dry forest catchments. We, therefore, identified the controls of streamflow activation and the timing and magnitude of runoff in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During a 52 day transition phase from the dry to wet season, soil water movement was dominated by vertical flow which continued until a threshold soil moisture content of 26% was reached at 100 cm below the surface. This satisfied a 162 mm storage deficit and activated streamflow, likely through lateral subsurface flow pathways. High antecedent soil water conditions were maintained during the wet phase but had a weak influence on stormflow. We identified a threshold value of 289 mm of summed rainfall and antecedent soil water needed to generate >4 mm of stormflow per event. Above this threshold, stormflow response and magnitude was almost entirely governed by rainfall event characteristics and not antecedent soil moisture conditions. Our results show that over the course of the wet season in tropical dry forests the dominant controls on runoff generation changed from antecedent soil water and storage to the depth of rainfall.

  5. Concurrent calcium peroxide pretreatment and wet storage of water hyacinth for fermentable sugar production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a novel concurrent process of pretreatment and wet storage was developed and investigated by applying calcium peroxide for preservation and conversion of fresh water hyacinth biomass to fermentable sugars. The effects of CaO2 loading concentration and moisture content on the lignin reduction, carbohydrate preservation and enzymatic saccharification of water hyacinth biomass were evaluated by experimental design using a response surface methodology. The data showed that the concurrent process could conserve 70% carbohydrates and remove 40% lignin from biomass of water hyacinth at the best condition in this study. The enzymatic digestibility and reducing sugar yield from the best condition of concurrent process were around 93% and 325mg/g (dry weight) of fresh biomass, respectively. The result suggested that the concurrent process developed in this work could be a potential alternative to consolidate the pretreatment and storage of aquatic plant biomass for fermentable sugar production. PMID:25461012

  6. Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2002-07-15

    The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified.

  7. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    PubMed

    Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25399802

  8. Integrating Stable Isotope Tracers with Rainfall-Runoff Models as Tools for Assessing Catchment-Scale Water Storage Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2012-12-01

    Water supplies and the ecohydrological function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are dependent on the storage and release of water from the unsaturated and saturated zone of catchments. Attempts to measure and estimate storage dynamics at operational catchment scales are hampered by spatial heterogeneity which makes interpolation of point measurements (e.g. of soil moisture and groundwater dynamics) difficult. Storage-discharge relationships from rainfall-runoff models can explicitly acknowledge that water storage is neither time nor space invariant and can be useful to assess catchment storage dynamics. However, input-output relationships of natural isotopic tracers such as oxygen-18 and deuterium usually show damping and time-lags in stream flow response to precipitation fluxes. Such damping behaviour implies large mixing volumes that are usually much greater than those suggested by dynamic storage changes estimated from water balance calculations in rainfall-runoff models. This larger volume is often referred to as "passive" storage or so-called "immobile" water available for mixing that hydraulically does not contribute to streamflow at least in the short-term. Thus, combining tracer based storage (passive) estimates with those inferred from dynamic model storage (active) estimates from runoff models has the potential to provide multi-proxy tools to investigate the concept of catchment storage in an integrated way. In this paper we explore the storage-discharge relationships of two nested (3.6 and 30 km2) montane catchments in Scotland using rainfall-runoff models: (a) a non-linear discharge sensitivity function and (b) a process-based conceptual model constrained by high resolution (daily), long-term (3 year) isotope time series. Both modelling approaches consistently simulated small seasonal storage fluctuations (ca. 40-50mm) in both catchments: consistent with the wet, cool climate. In contrast, input-output relationships of oxygen-18 tracer time series

  9. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  10. On Leakage andSeepage of CO2 from Geologic Storage Sites intoSurface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Lewicki, J.L.

    2005-10-14

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture ofanthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and its storage in deep geologicformations. The processes of CO2 seepage into surface water aftermigration through water-saturated sediments are reviewed. Natural CO2 andCH4 fluxes are pervasive in surface-water environments and are goodanalogues to potential leakage and seepage of CO2. Buoyancy-driven bubblerise in surface water reaches a maximum velocity of approximately 30 cms-1. CO2 rise in saturated porous media tends to occur as channel flowrather than bubble flow. A comparison of ebullition versus dispersive gastransport for CO2 and CH4 shows that bubble flow will dominate overdispersion in surface water. Gaseous CO2 solubility in variable-salinitywaters decreases as pressure decreases leading to greater likelihood ofebullition and bubble flow in surface water as CO2 migratesupward.

  11. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    PubMed

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water. PMID:26899531

  12. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline

  13. Using MODIS and GRACE to assess water storage in regional Wetlands: Iraqi and Sudd Marsh systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Both The Iraqi (Mesopotamian) Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, and the Sudd Marshlands, located in Sudan have been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. The Sudd wetlands are highly variable in size, averaging roughly 30,000 km2, but extending to as large as ~130,000 km2 during the wet seasons, while the Iraqi marshes are smaller, at ~15,000 km2, without the same extent of intra-annual variability. A combination of MODIS and GRACE images from 2003-2015 for the study areas were used to determine the time dependent change in surface water area (SWA) in the marshes, marshland extent and variability in total water storage. Combined open water area and vegetation abundance and cover, as determined by MODIS (NDVI and MNDWI), is highly correlated with total mass variability observed by GRACE (RL05 Tellus land grid). Annual variability in the Iraqi marshes correlates well with combined SWA and vegetation extent. Variability of vegetation in the Sudd marshes is seen to correlate well on an annual basis with water storage variation, and with a 2 month lag (water mass increases and decreases lead vegetation increases and decreases) when examined on a monthly basis. As a result, in both systems, the overall wetlands extent and health is observed to be water limited. Predictions for precipitation variability and human diversions of water through either dam storage or navigation modifications are predicted to lower water availability and lower variability in these systems. These two regional wetlands systems will shrink, with resulting loss in habitat and other ecosystem services.

  14. Terrestrial Water Storage Changes in the Tibetan Plateau in the Past Decade and the Possible Cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, F.; Su, F.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is the water stored on and below the land surface, which includes snow, ice, soil moisture, groundwater, and surface water. TWS is a fundamental component of the terrestrial hydrological cycle given that precipitation (P) reaching the land surface is balanced by evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and the change of terrestrial water storage (TWSC) [P=R+ET+TWSC]. As an integrated measure of surface and groundwater availability, TWS has significant implications for water resources management. The Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas (TP), which are characterized by high elevation, extensive glaciers, permafrost, snowpack, and mountain lakes, is known as the "roof of the world", the Third Pole, and also the water towers of Asia. Studies of meteorological observations, reanalysis data, and ice core records have suggested a warming trend over the TP in recent decades. Along with the rising temperature, the detected glacier melt, permafrost degradation, and lakes changes in the TP will thus affect the water storage changes and the hydrological cycle in the area. In this study, we examine the spatial-temporal variation of TWS change over the TP through the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data and the VIC land surface hydrologic model during 2004-2013. Meanwhile, the spatial-temporal characteristics of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and snow cover as well as the distribution of glaciers, lakes, and frozen soil are analyzed to examine the factors that might be responsible for the TWS changes in the TP. The objective of our study is to achieve a better understanding of the water balance change in the TP under the warming climate. Our work could provide a basis for conservation strategies and policy decisions for the fragile, invaluable eco-hydrological environment in the Tibet Plateau.

  15. Water storage under changing climates: A case study of small farm dams in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J.; Preston, N.; Jackson, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    In many regions of the world, climate change scenarios predict a trend towards drier conditions. In agricultural areas, less rainfall during planting and growing periods will exacerbate existing water supply issues, with communities striving to find alternative water storage options. In New Zealand, both government and agricultural interest groups are promoting the construction of storage ponds (both small-scale ponds for farm use and larger reservoirs for community use) to tackle this issue. This paper investigates the use of small farm dams as a means of providing secure water storage while also considering downstream environmental impacts. New Zealand has thousands of small stock water and irrigation dams that interrupt streamflow, primarily located on first-order streams. With climate change scenarios predicting a 3-4% decrease in annual precipitation in some regions, it is expected that dam numbers will increase in the future. However, little is known about the impact of these dams on the downstream environment in terms of water quantity, quality, sediment transfer, and stream morphology at either the local or regional scale. A combination of field-based methods and modelling is used to quantify the overall impact of farm dams on the downstream system in an agricultural catchment in the Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Results show that farm dams reduce overall discharge and flood peaks, but sustain winter flows for a longer duration between rainfall events. The dams also create a lowering of water quality and a decrease in the transfer of sediment, with aggradation occurring in downstream channel reaches. Implications at the wider catchment scale are discussed, along with improved management practices which could allow for both water security and the protection of the environment. Results have implications for regions of the world which face drier conditions under changing climate regimes and need environmentally and socio-economically sustainable water

  16. Total water storage dynamics in response to climate variability and extremes: Inference from long-term terrestrial gravity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Ferré, Ty; Troch, Peter; Merz, Bruno; Wziontek, Hartmut; Güntner, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial water storage is a basic element of the hydrological cycle and a key state variable for land surface-atmosphere interaction. However, measuring water storage in a comprehensive way for different storage compartments and beyond the point scale is a challenge. In this study, we explore a 10-year time series of total water storage changes derived from high-precision superconducting gravimeter observations in a headwater catchment in Southern Germany. In combination with hydro-meteorological data, we examine the relationship between gravity-derived water storage changes, climate, and river discharge. Distinct seasonal water storage dynamics observed by the gravimeter are strongly related to the meteorological forcing, in particular evapotranspiration. Intra-annual water storage variations demonstrate that the simplifying assumption of water storage averaging to zero at the annual scale is not valid for this catchment. At the event-scale, gravimeters provide a measure of the available subsurface water storage capacity, which can be useful for runoff prediction. During the Central European drought in 2003, the gravimeter data show a strong depletion of water storage and a long-term recovery that extended over a period of several years. In comparison to point measurements or different environmental indices, our findings suggest that depth-integrated gravimeter measurements give a more complete picture of the dynamics of a hydrologic system in response to climate variability and extremes. In view of the considerable costs of gravimeters concerning the infrastructure and measurements, we suggest the strategic deployment of gravimeters at selected sites of hydro-meteorological monitoring networks.

  17. Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, Deborah S.

    1980-01-01

    The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

  18. Seasonal water storage and delayed evapotranspiration across continents: Patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppel, Sylvain; Fan, Ying; Jobbagy, Esteban

    2016-04-01

    Storage and delayed evapotranspiration (ET) of precipitation (P) inputs by land ecosystems is critical regulating the timing and stability of plant production and the multiple ecological and economic processes that it supports. The extent to which actual ET (AET) can decouple from P inputs depends on the ecohydrologic system capacity to store water. This decoupling and its associated storage requirement can be particularly relevant at the seasonal scale in regions where, for instance, rainfalls are highly seasonal and/or P and potential ET (PET) are seasonally out of phase. Focusing on the 2003-2010 period, we explore, first, where on Earth this decoupling is likely to occur from a climate perspective by assessing the magnitude and duration of the expected seasonal land water transfers. These climate-based predictions are then compared with independent evidence derived from satellite observations of vegetation activity (MODIS) and water storage (GRACE), together with datasets of terrain attributes. We assess how land surface processes alter the "potential" seasonal hydrologic buffer provided by the local climatic conditions, in terms of volume and residence time. This analysis helps outlining the expected seasonal response of the land water cycle in the frame of likely climate and land use changes.

  19. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  20. Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

  1. Annual and seasonal water storage changes detected from GRACE data in the La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ayelen; Pacino, María Cristina

    2012-12-01

    The gravity does not remain constant, but changes over time depending on the redistribution of the masses. Aquatic environments, like a river basin, perform important functions in nature such as control of climate, floods and nutrients; and they also provide goods and services for humanity. To monitor these environments at large spatial scales, the satellite gravity mission GRACE provides time-variable gravity field models that reflect the Earth's gravity field variations due to mass transport processes, like continental water storage variations. The La Plata Basin is the second largest in South America and is a sample of the abundance, variety and quality of natural resources and possibilities offered in connection with the production of goods and services. The objective of this work is to analyze GRACE capability to monitor the water storage variations in the La Plata Basin. Firstly, GRACE solutions from four different processing centers are used to estimate the gravity trend and gravity amplitude over this basin. Afterwards, the calculated hydrological signal is used to obtain mass change models over this hydrographic system's area, using two different methods and for the period from 2002 to 2009. Next, the annual and seasonal water storage changes from GRACE solutions are validated in Argentina by rainfall data over the time periods where extreme weather conditions took place. The results indicate that GRACE detected the variations of the continental water storage in the La Plata Basin, and particularly, it detected the important decrease in the South of the basin. Moreover, a coherency between the estimates of water mass changes and rainfall data was found, which shows that GRACE also detected extreme weather events (such as drought and intense rain episodes) that occurred in the 2004-2009 period in Argentina.

  2. Integration of Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery and HACCP for Ensuring Drinking Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. I.; Ji, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of ASTR (Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery) and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is being attempted to ensure drinking water quality in a delta area. ASTR is a water supply system in which surface water is injected into a well for storage and recovered from a different well. During the process natural water treatment is achieved in the aquifer. ASTR has advantages over surface reservoirs in that the water is protected from external contaminants and free from water loss by evaporation. HACCP, originated from the food industry, can efficiently manage hazards and reduce risks when it is introduced to the drinking water production. The study area is the located in the Nakdong River Delta, South Korea. Water quality of this region has been deteriorated due to the increased pollution loads from the upstream cities and industrial complexes. ASTR equipped with HACCP system is suggested as a means to heighten the public trust in drinking water. After the drinking water supply system using ASTR was decomposed into ten processes, principles of HACCP were applied. Hazardous event analysis was conducted for 114 hazardous events and nine major hazardous events were identified based on the likelihood and the severity assessment. Potential risk of chemical hazards, as a function of amounts, travel distance and toxicity, was evaluated and the result shows the relative threat a city poses to the drinking water supply facility. Next, critical control points were determined using decision tree analysis. Critical limits, maximum and/or minimum values to which biological, chemical or physical parameters must be controlled, were established. Other procedures such as monitoring, corrective actions and will be presented.

  3. Surface Water Storage Capacity of Twenty Tree Species in Davis, California.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingfu; McPherson, E Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage capacity is known to vary widely among tree species, but it is little studied. This research measured surface storage capacities of 20 urban tree species in a rainfall simulator. The measurement system included a rainfall simulator, digital balance, digital camera, and computer. Eight samples were randomly collected from each tree species. Twelve rainfall intensities (3.5-139.5 mm h) were simulated. Leaf-on and leaf-off simulations were conducted for deciduous species. Stem and foliar surface areas were estimated using an image analysis method. Results indicated that surface storage capacities varied threefold among tree species, 0.59 mm for crape myrtle ( L.) and 1.81 mm for blue spruce ( Engelm.). The mean value across all species was 0.86 mm (0.11 mm SD). To illustrate application of the storage values, interception was simulated and compared across species for a 40-yr period with different rainfall intensities and durations. By quantifying the potential for different tree species to intercept rainfall under a variety of meteorological conditions, this study provides new knowledge that is fundamental to validating the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry as a green infrastructure strategy and designing functional plantings. PMID:26828174

  4. Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

  5. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  6. Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R

    2014-06-01

    The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage. PMID:24815520

  7. Water and lipid relations in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds and its effect on storage behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pukacka, S; Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Pukacki, P M; Wójkiewicz, E

    2003-04-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds indicate intermediate storage behaviour. Properties of water in seed tissues were studied to understand their requirements during storage conditions. Water sorption isotherms showed that at the same relative humidity (RH) the water content is significantly higher in embryo axes than cotyledons. This tendency maintains also after recalculating the water content for zero amount of lipids in tissues. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicated water crystallization exotherms in the embryo axes at moisture content (MC) higher than 29% and 16% in the cotyledons. In order to examine the occurrence of glassy state in the cytoplasm of beech embryos as a function of water content, isolated embryo axes were examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) of nitroxide TEMPO probe located inside axes cells. TEMPO molecules undergo fast reorientations with correlation time varied from 2 x 10(-9) s at 180 K to 2 x 10(-11) s at 315 K. Although the TEMPO molecules label mainly the lipid bilayers of cell membranes, they are sensitive to the dynamics and phase transformation of the cytoplasmic cell interior. The label motion is clearly affected by a transition between liquid and glassy state of the cytoplasm. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) raises from 253 to 293 K when water content decreases from 18% to 8%. Far from T(g) the motion is described by Arrhenius equation with very small activation energy E(a) in the liquid state and is relatively small in the glassy state where E(a)=1.5 kJ/mol for 28% H(2)O and E(a)=4.7 kJ/mol for 8% H(2)O or less. The optimal storage conditions of beech seeds are proposed in the range from 255 K for 15% H(2)O to 280 K for 9% H(2)O. PMID:12667610

  8. Storage of Stock Cultures of Filamentous Fungi, Yeasts, and Some Aerobic Actinomycetes in Sterile Distilled Water

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, M. R.; Padhye, A. A.; Ajello, L.

    1974-01-01

    Castellani's procedure for maintaining cultures of filamentous fungi and yeasts in sterile distilled water was evaluated. Four hundred and seventeen isolates of 147 species belonging to 66 genera of filamentous fungi, yeasts, and aerobic actinomycetes were maintained in sterile distilled water at room temperature over periods ranging from 12 to 60 months in four independent experiments. Of the 417 cultures, 389 (93%) survived storage in sterile distilled water. The selection of good sporulating cultures and sufficient inoculum consisting of spores and hyphae suspended in sterile distilled water were the most important factors influencing survival in water over a longer period of time. The technique was found to be simple, inexpensive, and reliable. PMID:4854418

  9. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  10. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, D

    2007-10-30

    The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

  11. Determinants of water circulation in a woody bamboo species: afternoon use and night-time recharge of culm water storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Goldstein, Guillermo; Sun, Mei; Ma, Ren-Yi; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-09-01

    To understand water-use strategies of woody bamboo species, sap flux density (Fd) in the culms of a woody bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland) was monitored using the thermal dissipation method. The daytime and night-time Fd were analyzed in the dry and rainy seasons. Additionally, diurnal changes in root pressure, culm circumference, and stomatal conductance (gs) were investigated to characterize the mechanisms used to maintain diurnal water balance of woody bamboos. Both in the dry and rainy seasons, daytime Fd responded to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in an exponential fashion, with a fast initial increase in Fd when VPD increased from 0 to 1 kPa. The Fd and gs started to increase very fast as light intensity and VPD increased in the morning, but they decreased sharply once the maximum value was achieved. The Fd response of this woody bamboo to VPD was much faster than that of representative trees and palms growing in the same study site, suggesting its fast sap flow and stomatal responses to changes in ambient environmental factors. The Fd in the lower and higher culm positions started to increase at the same time in the morning, but the Fd in the higher culm position was higher than that of the lower culm in the afternoon. Consistently, distinct decreases in its culm circumference in the afternoon were detected. Therefore, unlike trees, water storage of bamboo culms was not used for its transpiration in the morning but in the afternoon. Nocturnal sap flow of this woody bamboo was also detected and related to root pressure. We conclude that this bamboo has fast sap flow/stomatal responses to irradiance and evaporative demands, and it uses substantial water storage for transpiration in the afternoon, while root pressure appears to be a mechanism resulting in culm water storage recharge during the night. PMID:26232783

  12. The efficacy of combining satellite water storage and soil moisture observations as constraints on water balance estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Siyuan; van Dijk, Albert; Renzullo, Luigi; Tregoning, Paul; Walker, Jeffrey; Pauwels, Valentijn

    2016-04-01

    The ability to accurately estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) and its components (e.g. soil moisture, groundwater, surface water and snow) is of considerable value to water resources assessment. Due to the imperfection of both model predictions and observations, data assimilation methods have been widely applied to hydrological problems for optimal combination of model and observations. Recent studies on the assimilation of TWS data have shown its capability to improve simulated groundwater storages, but the assimilation of TWS only does not guarantee accurate estimation of surface soil moisture (SSM). We investigated the efficiency of data assimilation combining TWS change estimates, derived from temporal changes in Earth's gravity field measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), with SSM, retrieved from emitted microwave radiation at L-band observed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The global World Wide Water (W3) water balance model was used. The specific satellite data products used were the SMOS CATDS level 3 daily SSM product and the JPL mascon monthly GRACE product. Both the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were implemented to determine the best option for the assimilation of SSM observations only and the joint assimilation of SSM and TWS. The observation models, which map model states into observation space, are the top-layer soil relative wetness and monthly average TWS (i.e. aggregated daily top-, shallow-, deep-layer soil water storage, ground- and surface water storages). Three assimilation experiments were conducted with each method: a) assimilation of SSM data only; b) assimilation of TWS data only; c) joint assimilation of SSM and TWS data. Results were compared against in-situ soil moisture and groundwater observations, and the performance assessed with respect to open-loop results. Results for the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia demonstrate that the assimilation of SSM data only

  13. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  14. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects in Cassia excelsa Schrad seeds.

    PubMed

    Jeller, H; Perez, S C; Raizer, J

    2003-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curve in Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distilled water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000) osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20 degrees C. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distilled water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20 degrees C, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C, but were reverted by seed drying. PMID:12914415

  15. Water Storage Changes over the Tibetan Plateau Revealed by GRACE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Mu, Dapeng; Liu, Xin; Yan, Haoming; Sun, Zhongchang; Guo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    We use GRACE gravity data released by the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the Groupe de Recherches en Geodesie Spatiale (GRGS) to detect the water storage changes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A combined filter strategy is put forward to process CSR RL05 data to remove the effect of striping errors. After the correction for GRACE by GLDAS and ICE-5G, we find that TP has been overall experiencing the water storage increase during 2003-2012. During the same time, the glacier over the Himalayas was sharply retreating. Interms of linear trends, CSR's results derived by the combined filter are close to GRGS RL03 with the Gaussian filter of 300-km window. The water storage increasing rates determined from CSR's RL05 products in the interior TP, Karakoram Mountain, Qaidam Basin, Hengduan Mountain, and middle Himalayas are 9.7, 6.2, 9.1, -18.6, and -20.2 mm/yr, respectively. J. GUO et al. These rates from GRGS's RL03 products are 8.6, 5.8, 10.5, -19.3 and -21.4 mm/yr, respectively.

  16. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment. PMID:26727278

  17. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. A major risk factor, potentially jeopardizing the safety of the water supply, is the presense of microorganisms. Historically, the challenge of controlling microbial proliferation has been addressed through the maintenance of residual biocide levels. While chemical biocides are effective, their use requires carefeul consideration towards materials selection for the water storage containers, as surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are passivated stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system, ionic silver, will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium alloy, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium alloys, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose

  18. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in traditional brass and earthernware water storage vessels.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Puja; Chhibber, Sanjay; Reed, Robert H

    2005-07-01

    The detection and enumeration of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli is used to assess the extent of faecal contamination of drinking water. On the basis of this approach, the effectiveness of storing water contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria in brass or earthern vessels (mutkas) of the type used in rural India have been investigated. Suspensions of bacteria in sterile distilled water were maintained for up to 48 h in each vessel and enumerated by surface plate counts on nutrient agar (non-selective) and several selective coliform media at 37 degrees C either under standard aerobic conditions, or under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. using an anaerobic cabinet to prepare plates of pre-reduced growth medium or by inclusion of sodium pyruvate in the growth medium, with incubation of aerobically-prepared plates in an anaerobic jar. The counts obtained for E. coli decreased on short-term storage in a brass mutka; counts for selective media were lower than for equivalent counts for non-selective medium, with ROS-neutralised conditions giving consistently higher counts than aerobic incubation. However, after 48 h, no bacteria were cultivable under any conditions. Similar results were obtained using water from environmental sources in the Panjab, and from rural households where brass and earthern mutkas are used for storage of drinking water, with enumeration on selective coliform media (presumptive total coliforms). In all cases results indicated that, while storage of water in a brass mutka can inactivate E. coli and coliforms over a 48 h period, standard aerobic plate counting using selective media may not be fully effective in enumerating sub-lethally damaged bacteria. PMID:15928975

  19. Evaluation of an instrumental method to reduce error in canopy water storage estimates via mechanical displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Jan; Van Stan, John; Martin, Kael; Jarvis, Matthew; Lundquist, Jessica; Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    To improve water budgeting of forested catchments and inform relevant hydrologic theory regarding forest water cycling, the scientific community has been seeking simple, inexpensive, direct methods for determining rainwater storage on in-situ tree canopies. This paper evaluates an installation arrangement/routine for one such method: mechanical displacement sensors placed on the trunk to directly monitor compression under canopy water loading from rainfall. The evaluated installation routine aligns mechanical displacement sensors along orthogonal axes passing through the trunk's mechanical center to reduce wind-induced noise. Experimental attainment of neutral bending axes for a subject hard- and softwood tree suggest the routine is precise and approximates the trunk's mechanical center well regardless of differences in cellular axial stiffness between heart and sapwood. When installed in this precise sensor arrangement, bending tests of different direction produced consistent signal ratios between sensor pairs about -1 (1 unit compression/1 unit elongation), allowing the identification and removal of bending strains from raw strain signals to isolate the compression component attributable to canopy water storage. The same experiments performed on sensors 5cm off the computed mechanical center were unable to produce neutral bending axes or consistent signal ratios during directional bending. Results from the method evaluation were translated into a data processing technique that is applied to strain data from 2 sample storms (1 each for the hard- and softwood trees). Processed strain data showed clear synchronicities between rainfall and canopy loading, and periods of maximized canopy water loading (capacity). Our results indicate the evaluated arrangement/installation procedure for mechanical displacement sensors may provide scientists with simple, direct canopy water storage estimates at high temporal resolution and sensitivity.

  20. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  1. The behavioral regulation of thirst, water collection and water storage in honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Ostwald, Madeleine M; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-07-15

    This study investigated how a honey bee colony develops and quenches its collective thirst when it experiences hyperthermia of its broodnest. We found that a colony must strongly boost its water intake because evaporative cooling is critical to relieving broodnest hyperthermia, and that it must rapidly boost its water intake because a colony maintains only a small water reserve. We also clarified how a colony's water collectors know when to spring into action - by sensing either more frequent requests for fluid or greater personal thirst, or both. Finally, we found that the behavioral flexibility of a colony's water collectors enables them not only to satisfy their colony's current water needs but also to buffer their colony against future extreme water stresses by storing water in their crops and in their combs. PMID:27445400

  2. GPS observations of seasonal crustal deformation and long-term land subsidence in response to water storage changes in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. J.; De Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Observations of vertical land surface height from Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) GPS stations throughout California and the Western United States reveal significant seasonal and long-term land surface responses to water storage changes. Long-term land surface subsidence in the Central Valley is due to aquifer compaction resulting from ongoing groundwater depletion. Seasonal motion of the land surface due to elastic crustal loading provides insight about seasonal surface water loads such as snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and reservoir storage. This research explores the relationship between water storage changes observed by GRACE and Snotel and the land surface responses observed by GPS, and the potential for new applications of GPS for monitoring various components of water storage.

  3. Hydrologic effects of withdrawal of ground water on the West Fargo aquifer system, eastern Cass County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The West Fargo area, an area of 230 sq mi in eastern Cass County , is underlain by glaciofluvial sand and gravel deposits that form the West Fargo aquifer system. The aquifer system contains about 131,300 million gallons of available groundwater in storage. Recharge to the aquifer system is estimated to be about 600 to 650 million gallons per year. Discharge in 1980 is estimated to have been 683 million gallons. Pumping from the West fargo aquifer system began in the latter part of the 19th century. No records of pumpage were kept in the early years, but pumpage has averaged 613 million gallons/year near West Fargo at least since 1968. Water levels, which were near or above land surface at West Fargo in 1869, have declined to as much as 121.7 ft below land surface in 1981. In areas of little or no pumpage, water levels have declined much less. The rate of water-level decline in an observation well in the West Fargo South aquifer was as low as 0.2 ft/year, but increased to a rate of 2.1 ft/yr from 1976 through 1981 due to an increase of the average annual pumping rate of about 59.9 million gallons at a well field about 5 miles north. Water in the aquifer system contains from 332 to 2,960 mgs/L of dissolved solids and 25 to 975 mgs/L of chloride ions. (USGS)

  4. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstratemore » the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (<5000 m3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.« less

  5. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  6. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  7. Charging System Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Water Wave Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yanyan; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Limin; Chen, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhenliang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-24

    Ocean waves are one of the most promising renewable energy sources for large-scope applications due to the abundant water resources on the earth. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology could provide a new strategy for water wave energy harvesting. In this work, we investigated the charging characteristics of utilizing a wavy-structured TENG to charge a capacitor under direct water wave impact and under enclosed ball collision, by combination of theoretical calculations and experimental studies. The analytical equations of the charging characteristics were theoretically derived for the two cases, and they were calculated for various load capacitances, cycle numbers, and structural parameters such as compression deformation depth and ball size or mass. Under the direct water wave impact, the stored energy and maximum energy storage efficiency were found to be controlled by deformation depth, while the stored energy and maximum efficiency can be optimized by the ball size under the enclosed ball collision. Finally, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide strategies for improving the charging performance of TENGs toward effective water wave energy harvesting and storage. PMID:27491727

  8. Method of forming a solar collector or hot water storage tank and solar water heating apparatus using same

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.M.; Negley, M.E.

    1984-09-18

    The present invention relates to a method of forming a solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy. It also relates to articles of manufacture so formed and to solar water heating apparatus using said articles. Three methods of forming the panel or tank from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing such material around the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one form of the method, one of the sheets is coated with a layer of release agent, over all areas except the discrete areas and the peripheral areas so that only such uncoated areas will bond during cure. In another form, a sheet of non-adherent plastic slightly smaller than the two sheets and having holes or holidays to form the discrete areas is bonded between the two sheets. In a third form, the peripheral edges are first sealed to form a chamber, then the chamber is inflated and a forming die presses together the discrete areas only. Preferably, but not necessarily, reinforcing fibers may be employed or molded, into at least one of the uncured sheets. As articles of manufacture the absorber, or tank, each includes at least one inlet and one outlet at opposed edges of the so formed chamber. Further, the storage tank has a portion of the enclosed volume adapted to receive a heat exchanger. This is made possible by omission of the discrete bonded areas over about one-fourth of the area to the two sheets. In apparatus form, a solar absorption panel and a storage tank so formed (and interconnected inlet to outlet) are mounted back-to-back by an enclosing structure suitable for roof-top or ground-pad mounting and connection into a water system for solar heating of domestic water.

  9. The rates of solar energy storage and retrieval in a zeolite-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, R.; Hollebone, B. R.; Langford, C. H.; Shigeishi, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The salient features that determine the possible use of a water vapour-zeolite 13X system as a method of energy storage were investigated. Cycling studies over two months revealed no decrease in water capacity nor any structural deterioration. The rate at which water could be desorbed in a static situation was determined at various temperatures from 110 to 250 C. The adsorption isotherm and the heats of adsorption as a function of amount of adsorbed water were determined. The saturation capacity was 0.33 g H2O/g zeolite while the heat of adsorption declined from 90 to 50 kJ kJ/mol. The rate of heat development was found to be very high so that heat extraction from the store would not be a problem in any practical utilization of this system.

  10. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  11. Monitoring water storage variations in the vadose zone with gravimeters - quantifying the influence of observatory buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Marvin; Güntner, Andreas; Mikolaj, Michal; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Time-lapse ground-based measurements of gravity have been shown to be sensitive to water storage variations in the surroundings of the gravimeter. They thus have the potential to serve as an integrative observation of storage changes in the vadose zone. However, in almost all cases of continuous gravity measurements, the gravimeter is located within a building which seals the soil beneath it from natural hydrological processes like infiltration and evapotranspiration. As water storage changes in close vicinity of the gravimeter have the strongest influence on the measured signal, it is important to understand the hydrology in the unsaturated soil zone just beneath the impervious building. For this reason, TDR soil moisture sensors were installed in several vertical profiles up to a depth of 2 m underneath the planned new gravimeter building at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell (southeast Germany). In this study, we assess the influence of the observatory building on infiltration and subsurface flow patterns and thus the damping effect on gravimeter data in a two-way approach. Firstly, soil moisture time series of sensors outside of the building area are correlated with corresponding sensors of the same depth beneath the building. The resulting correlation coefficients, time lags and signal to noise relationships are used to find out how and where infiltrating water moves laterally beneath the building and towards its centre. Secondly, a physically based hydrological model (HYDRUS) with high discretization in space and time is set up for the 20 by 20 m area around and beneath the gravimeter building. The simulated spatial distribution of soil moisture in combination with the observed point data help to identify where and to what extent water storage changes and thus mass transport occurs beneath the building and how much this differs to the dynamics of the surroundings. This allows to define the umbrella space, i.e., the volume of the vadose zone where no mass

  12. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  13. Spatiotemporal evolution of water storage changes in India from the updated GRACE-derived gravity records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Dileep K.; Wahr, John

    2016-01-01

    Investigating changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) is important for understanding response of the hydrological cycle to recent climate variability worldwide. This is particularly critical in India where the current economic development and food security greatly depend on its water resources. We use 129 monthly gravity solutions from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the period of January 2003 to May 2014 to characterize spatiotemporal variations of TWS and groundwater storage (GWS). The spatiotemporal evolution of GRACE data reflects consistent patterns with that of several hydroclimatic variables and also shows that most of the water loss has occurred in the northern parts of India. Substantial GWS depletion at the rate of 1.25 and 2.1 cm yr-1 has taken place, respectively in the Ganges Basin and Punjab state, which are known as the India's grain bowl. Of particular concern is the Ganges Basin's storage loss in drought years, primarily due to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawals that sustain rice and wheat cultivation. We estimate these losses to be approximately 41, 44, and 42 km3 in 2004, 2009, and 2012, respectively. The GWS depletions that constitute about 90% of the observed TWS loss are also influenced by a marked rise in temperatures since 2008. A high degree of correspondence between GRACE-derived GWS and in situ groundwater levels from observation well validates the results. This validation increases confidence level in the application of GRACE observations in monitoring large-scale storage changes in intensely irrigated areas in India and other regions around the world.

  14. Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Antimony concentrations were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. Two of the brands were at or above the maximum allowable Sb concentration for drinking water in Japan (2 microg/L). Elevated concentrations of Sb in bottled waters are due mainly to the Sb2O3 used as the catalyst in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate (PET(E)). The leaching of Sb from PET(E) bottles shows variable reactivity. In 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. A mineral water from France in PET(E), purchased in Germany, yielded 725 ng/L when first tested, but 1510 ng/L when it was stored for 6 months at room temperature; the same brand of water, purchased in Hong Kong, yielded 1990 ng/L Sb. Pristine groundwater containing 1.7+/-0.4 ng/L Sb (n = 6) yielded 26.6+/-2.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) after storage in PET(E) bottles from Canada for 6 months versus 281+/-38 ng/L Sb (n = 3) in PET(E) bottles from Germany. Tap water bottled commercially in PET(E) in December 2005 contained 450+/-56 ng/L Sb (n = 3) versus 70.3+/-0.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) when sampled from a household faucet in the same village (Bammental, Germany), and 25.7+/-1.5 ng/L Sb (n = 3) from a local artesian flow. PMID:17396641

  15. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

  16. Repeat Microgravity Surveys for Estimating Ground-Water Storage Change, Recharge, and Specific Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Repeat microgravity surveys are being used in arid and semiarid regions to better define ground-water budgets and estimate specific yield. Repeated measurements at single stations or networks of stations are differenced to determine gravity change. Gravity change across a network of stations is integrated to estimate change in total mass and ground-water storage. Calculations are based on the assumption that there are no significant non-ground-water sources of mass change, such as movement of magma. Specific yield values can be estimated at observation-well sites where water-level and gravity changes are correlated. Ground-water budget components of inflow (recharge), outflow, and storage change are commonly uncertain. Rarely is any one component completely defined by measurement. Only outflow at discrete locations, such as wells and streams, can readily be measured. Inflow is difficult to measure because it is normally dispersed across large areas and occurs episodically. Storage change is normally calculated as a residual of outflow and inflow, and includes all of the uncertainties the other components. Ground-water budgets in heavily developed arid and semiarid basins are commonly dominated by storage change. Gravity methods can be used to estimate change, often leaving a single unknown, recharge, that can be estimated as a residual of measured or estimated outflow and storage change. Four types of gravity instruments are currently being used to measure changes in the distribution of mass on the Earth including: absolute meters, relative meters, super-conducting meters, and satellites. Modern absolute meters use lasers and precise clocks to measure the rate of fall of a mass in a vacuum. Relative meters use a very sensitive spring to measure differences in the force of gravity among sites. Super-conducting meters monitor the strength of a magnetic field necessary to levitate a mass against the changing gravity field. Variations in satellite orbits are also a

  17. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  18. Underground storage tanks soft waste dislodging and conveyance

    SciTech Connect

    Wellner, A.F.

    1993-10-01

    Currently 140 million liters (37 million gallons) of waste are stored in the single shell underground storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford. The wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s testing program for soft waste dislodging and conveyance technology. This program was initialized to investigate methods of dislodging and conveying soft waste. The main focus was on using air jets, water jets, and/or mechanical blades to dislodge the waste and air conveyance to convey the dislodged waste. These waste dislodging and conveyance technologies would be used in conjunction with a manipulator based retrieval system.

  19. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials. PMID:25581319

  20. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  1. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Ground water in the Piedmont Upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1980-01-01

    Aquifers in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland and Piedmont, are shown to be the sole or principal source of water. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The groundwater is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most groundwater occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in groundwater storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70% of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The groundwater quality is generally satisfactory without treatment and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on groundwater use are as follows; 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000 for commercial purposes; and 160,000 for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of those and other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the groundwater available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the groundwater conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province. (USGS)

  3. Balancing Storage - some very different management approaches in a water scarce Developing Country.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollow, Anthony John

    2010-05-01

    Balancing storage may be found in many different forms in South Africa. The first feature is often a large reservoir fairly high up the catchment, where losses are less, or even in a neighbouring catchment. The objective is to catch surplus water for later use. Alternatives include both within basin and interbasin transfers, either pumped over a catchment divide, or fed under gravity through a tunnel. Again there may be a reservoir at the start of the transfer scheme. This may be a large reservoir or may be a balancing storage reservoir. Transfers are required to make up for a deficiency of water in the demand area of the receiving catchment. The deficiency may be intermittent or continuous. Nevertheless, whatever the nature of the deficiency, it is important not to incur losses. The water will be more expensive than if it were possible to obtain it locally from within the demand area. When undertaking river regulation, one major concern is seeing expensive water flowing out to sea. Several different schemes are contrasted. One has been developed to run almost completely by gravity, others use the topography where possible with the aid of canals, gravity tunnels and pipelines. However, in some circumstances expensive electricity is required to pump the water to be transferred. Nowadays with the ever increasing cost of electricity some way is required of reducing the cost. The usual approach is to use "off peak" electricity but river release flows do not always cooperate so there is a further risk of loss, due to the induced "peaks and troughs" in the river hydrograph as the pumps are switched on and off. Balancing storage becomes even more important in this case to act as a smoothing mechanism. Sometimes the storage may take the form of an on stream reservoir, at others a suitable site besides the river may be developed. This latter has another advantage in allowing the system to avoid abstracting the inevitably poor quality of water at the start of the first

  4. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil.

  5. Biodegradation of artificial monolayers applied to water storages to reduce evaporative loss.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, P; Herzig, M; Stuckey, N; Larsen, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeat applications of an artificial monolayer to the interfacial boundary layer of large agricultural water storages during periods of high evaporative demand remains the most commercially feasible water conservation strategy. However, the interfacial boundary layer (or microlayer) is ecologically distinct from subsurface water, and repeat monolayer applications may adversely affect microlayer processes. In this study, the natural cleansing mechanisms operating within the microlayer were investigated to compare the biodegradability of two fatty alcohol (C16OH and C18OH) and one glycol ether (C18E1) monolayer compound. The C16OH and C18OH compounds were more susceptible to microbial degradation, but the C18E1 compound was most susceptible to indirect photodegradation. On clean water the surface pressure and evaporation reduction achieved with a compressed C18E1 monolayer was superior to the C18OH monolayer, but on brown water the surface pressure dropped rapidly. These results suggest artificial monolayers are readily degraded by the synergy between photo and microbial degradation. The residence time of C18OH and C18E1 monolayers on clear water is sufficient for cost-effective water conservation. However, the susceptibility of C18E1 to photodegradation indicates the application of this monolayer to brown water may not be cost-effective. PMID:26465303

  6. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001–2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth’s water...

  7. Effect of storage method and associated holding time on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in surface water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessments were conducted to determine the effect of sample storage method and associated holding time on surface water nutrient concentrations from field sites. Six surface water sites and two nutrient spiked, laboratory water samples were evaluated for nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, filtered orthop...

  8. The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2001-01-01

    One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

  9. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  10. Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during

  11. Anthropogenic Effects on Total Water Storage from GRACE on Large South American Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, L.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Güntner, A.; Rotunno, O.

    2009-12-01

    Over continents, GRACE total water storage (TWS) solutions are expected to represent main surface, soil and groundwater stocks variability. Recent studies have showed that intensive groundwater resources withdrawal in India can be “captured” by GRACE. Another important anthropogenic impact on the natural water cycle is the building and operation of large dams. Even though they impact primarily the local water stock variations, one can expect subsequent changes on the water cycle and some evidence of this from GRACE. This would be particularly evident where the volume of stored water behind dams represents a significant proportion of the total TWS. In this study, we analyzed the effect on the water cycle of large dams over South American large watersheds. Most of Brazilians large dams are located in the Upper Paraná watershed, upstream the Itaipu dam. By performing a correlation analysis between the upstream integrated rainfall and the GRACE TWS series, we found a noticeable phase difference between the two quantities. The phase difference is larger over the utmost upstream region of Upper Parana watershed. We assumed that this pattern could be due to an effect of man-made reservoirs. We took into account the reservoirs storage and found that they induce an additional phase-lag of about 1 month in the TWS response to precipitation forcing. We also investigated dams’ impact on the simulations of the Water Gap Hydrological Model. The results also show a similar time delay similar, suggesting that the model correctly accounts for the dam effect. Finally we see similar lags, though smaller, over other South American river basins.

  12. Crop water stress indices correlated with soil water storage: Implications for variable rate irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water sensing methods are now coming to be used for irrigation scheduling of whole fields. However, newly introduced variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems require information about soil water content in many areas of a field, each called an irrigation management zone. Commonly available soil w...

  13. Chemical analyses of ground water for saline-water resources studies in Texas Coastal Plain stored in National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 4,269 water samples from wells in 66 counties in Texas have been processed into the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System by the Gulf Coast Hydrogeology Project of the U. S. Geological Survey. More than 65,000 chemical analyses of saline waters produced by oil test and production wells have been contributed to the project by major oil companies. The computerized tabulation and the computer-drawn map of the locations of sampling sites are the initial release of oil company, State, and Federal data in Texas Coastal Plain from the data bank.

  14. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  15. Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

  16. Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with a storage tank equipped with radial fins of rectangular profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using the package Fluent 6.3. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data of Chaouachi and Gabsi (Renew Energy Revue 9(2):75-82, 2006), an attempt to improve this solar system operating was made by equipping the storage tank with radial fins of rectangular profile. A second 3D CFD model was developed and a series of numerical simulations were conducted for various SWH designs which differ in the depth of this extended surface for heat exchange. As the modified surface presents a higher characteristic length for convective heat transfer from the storage tank to the water, the fins equipped storage tank based SWH is determined to have a higher water temperature and a reduced thermal losses coefficient during the day-time period. Regarding the night operating of this water heater, the results suggest that the modified system presents higher thermal losses.

  17. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  18. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

  20. Increases in the annual range of soil water storage at northern middle and high latitudes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Ying; Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-05-01

    Soil water storage is a fundamental signal in the land hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture can affect regional climate. In this study, we used simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to investigate changes in the annual range of soil water storage under global warming at northern middle and high latitudes. Results show that future warming could lead to significant declines in snowfall, and a corresponding lack of snowmelt water recharge to the soil, which makes soil water less available during spring and summer. Conversely, more precipitation as rainfall results in higher recharge to soil water during its accumulating season. Thus, the wettest month of soil water gets wetter, and the driest month gets drier, resulting in an increase of the annual range and suggesting that stronger heterogeneity in global water distribution (changing extremes) could occur under global warming; this has implications for water management and water security under a changing climate.

  1. Assessing Links Between Water and Carbon Storage in Indonesian Peatlands Using Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swails, E.; Reager, J. T., II; Randerson, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, K.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation and drainage of tropical peat swamp forests for conversion to other uses results in a loss of carbon storage through the clearing and burning of forest vegetation as well as decomposition of peat soils and increased frequency of fires following drainage. We used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage observations and a global forest cover change product to investigate trends in terrestrial water storage associated with land use conversion in Indonesian peatlands between 2002 and 2012. Our initial analysis indicated that secular trends in GRACE terrestrial water storage were consistent with the spatial distribution of peatlands drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations. A decreasing trend in GRACE terrestrial water storage measurements over the observation period indicated a substantial decrease in water table heights. Combining this information with measurements of bulk density and carbon content of surface peat layers, we estimated potential emissions from carbon stocks now vulnerable to oxidation. Independent measurements of fire carbon emissions were used to estimate the fraction of committed emission that was combusted. Our research represents the first known application of GRACE data to assess loss of soil carbon storage associated with depletion of soil water.

  2. Water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2011 and 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States--Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area. This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from the time before substantial groundwater irrigation development began (generally before 1950, and termed "predevelopment" in this report) to 2011 and from 2009-11. The report also presents total water in storage, 2011, and change in water in storage in the aquifer from predevelopment to 2011. The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in water in storage; and total water in storage for this report used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of about 62 acres. These methods were modified from methods used in previous reports in an attempt to improve estimates of water-level changes and change in water in storage.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2011, by well, ranged from a rise of 85 feet to a decline of 242 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 14.2 feet from predevelopment to 2011, and a decline of 0.1 foot from 2009-11. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2011 was about 2.96 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 246 million acre-feet since predevelopment.

  3. Water and climate risks to power generation with carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, E. A.; Hall, J. W.; Amezaga, J. M.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Leathard, A.

    2016-02-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) provides the opportunity to minimize atmospheric carbon emissions from fossil fuel power plants. However, CCS increases cooling water use and few studies have simulated the potential impacts of low flows on CCS power plant reliability. We present a framework to simulate the impacts of natural hydrological variability and climatic changes on water availability for portfolios of CCS capacity and cooling technologies. The methods are applied to the River Trent, the UK’s largest inland cooling water source for electricity generation capacity. Under a medium emissions climate change scenario, the projected median reductions in river flow by the 2040s was 43% for Q 99.9 very low flows and 31% in licensable abstractions between Q 99.9 and Q 91. With CCS developments, cooling water abstractions are projected to increase, likely exceeding available water for all users by the 2030s-2040s. Deficits are reduced when wet/dry hybrid tower cooling is used, which may increase reliability at low flows. We also explore alternative water licensing regimes, currently considered by the UK Government. Climate change and growing cooling demands, individually and jointly present risks that will be prominent by the 2030s, if unaddressed. These risks may be managed if water-efficient abstraction is prioritized when supplies are limited.

  4. Identification of prominent spatio-temporal signals in GRACE derived terrestrial water storage for India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, C.; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2014-11-01

    Fresh water is a necessity of the human civilization. But with the increasing global population, the quantity and quality of available fresh water is getting compromised. To mitigate this subliminal problem, it is essential to enhance our level of understanding about the dynamics of global and regional fresh water resources which include surface and ground water reserves. With development in remote sensing technology, traditional and much localized in-situ observations are augmented with satellite data to get a holistic picture of the terrestrial water resources. For this reason, Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission was jointly implemented by NASA and German Aerospace Research Agency - DLR to map the variation of gravitational potential, which after removing atmospheric and oceanic effects is majorly caused by changes in Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS). India also faces the challenge of rejuvenating the fast deteriorating and exhausting water resources due to the rapid urbanization. In the present study we try to identify physically meaningful major spatial and temporal patterns or signals of changes in TWS for India. TWS data set over India for a period of 90 months, from June 2003 to December 2010 is use to isolate spatial and temporal signals using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), an extensively used method in meteorological studies. To achieve better disintegration of the data into more physically meaningful components we use a blind signal separation technique, Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

  5. Mutagenic potential of water concentrates from the effluent of a waste oil storage pond

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.W.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1982-04-01

    An investigation to compare the mutagenic effects of water samples collected before and after a contaminated waste oil storage pond was dredged and to evaluate the utility of bioassays for the determination of the mutagenic potential of a complex mixture is presented. Water samples collected from the pond were analyzed in two biological systems capable of detecting mutagens and potential carcinogens (Salmonella/microsome assay and Bacillus subtillis DNA repair assay). Although the water samples contained compounds which were toxic to bacteria, the sample collected after the dredging operation exhibited a substantial reduction in its capacity to produce repairable DNA damage. The results indicate the potential utility of bioassays for the detection of mutagens in environmental samples. (JMT)

  6. Hydrological storage variations in a lake water balance, observed from multi-sensor satellite data and hydrological models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Alka; Seitz, Florian; Schwatke, Christian; Guentner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lakes and reservoirs account for 74.5% of continental water storage in surface water bodies and only 1.8% resides in rivers. Lakes and reservoirs are a key component of the continental hydrological cycle but in-situ monitoring networks are very limited either because of sparse spatial distribution of gauges or national data policy. Monitoring and predicting extreme events is very challenging in that case. In this study we demonstrate the use of optical remote sensing, satellite altimetry and the GRACE gravity field mission to monitor the lake water storage variations in the Aral Sea. Aral Sea is one of the most unfortunate examples of a large anthropogenic catastrophe. The 4th largest lake of 1960s has been decertified for more than 75% of its area due to the diversion of its primary rivers for irrigation purposes. Our study is focused on the time frame of the GRACE mission; therefore we consider changes from 2002 onwards. Continuous monthly time series of water masks from Landsat satellite data and water level from altimetry missions were derived. Monthly volumetric variations of the lake water storage were computed by intersecting a digital elevation model of the lake with respective water mask and altimetry water level. With this approach we obtained volume from two independent remote sensing methods to reduce the error in the estimated volume through least square adjustment. The resultant variations were then compared with mass variability observed by GRACE. In addition, GARCE estimates of water storage variations were compared with simulation results of the Water Gap Hydrology Model (WGHM). The different observations from all missions agree that the lake reached an absolute minimum in autumn 2009. A marked reversal of the negative trend occured in 2010 but water storage in the lake decreased again afterwards. The results reveal that water storage variations in the Aral Sea are indeed the principal, but not the only contributor to the GRACE signal of

  7. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  8. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  9. Quantification of peatland specific yield: toward a general peatland water storage indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgault, Marc-André; Larocque, Marie; Garneau, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are water saturated environment that can be connected to rivers and aquifers. This connectivity is in part controlled by peat properties such as hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (SY). For the last twenty years, many studies have quantified these parameters in peatlands, contributing to better understand peatland hydrological functions such as water storage, river base flows, and groundwater recharge. Nonetheless, the understanding of peatland water storage capacity is still very limited both at local and global scale, in part due to the lack of unique and simple method to quantify the spatial variations of these properties. The objective of this project is to 1) develop a new in situ method to quantify vertical specific yield variations and 2) evaluate the use of this method to quantify storage capacity of peatland. Using an approach based on the water table fluctuation (WTF) method, a program was developed in R to quantify vertical variation of SY with depth for the hydrologically active layer of five southern ombrotrophic peatland complexes of the St. Lawrence Lowlands (southern Quebec, Canada). In each peatland, three water table wells (2 cm diameter and 1 m deep) were installed upgradient, mi-gradient, and downgradient. The wells were instrumented to measure water levels every 5 minutes during summer 2014 and 2015. The range of mean annual water table depths varies from 9.4 to 49.3 cm below the peat surface. Near each piezometer, a 1 m long peat core was sampled using a box corer. Each core was divided into 7 x 7 x 7 cm3 peat cubes and analysed using gravitational drainage experiments. In one of the peatland complexes, a 25 x 60 x 40 cm3 peat sample was collected in the upgradient location. Using a tension table, specific storage was measured on this peat sample at 1.0 cm intervals between 0-20 cm and 2.5 cm intervals between 20-36 cm. The WTF method and the gravitational drainage experiments show similar results, confirming the validity

  10. Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2010-06-01

    The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

  11. Estimating Water Storage in Prairie Wetlands from a LiDAR DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, C. J.; Minke, A. G.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Guo, X.

    2010-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America contains millions of wetlands in shallow depressions that have potential to store a significant volume of surface water. Assessing and modeling the effect of wetland storage on streamflow requires accurate methods to quantify wetland water volume. Currently, many methods rely on utilizing the strong statistical relationships between area (A), volume (V), and depth (h) to estimate wetland storage. While V-A equations are commonly used throughout the PPR, equations that utilize the V-A-h relationship are not used extensively because detailed topographic data are required. This paper suggests a new approach for implementing V-A-h relationships to determine wetland volume from wetland characteristics extracted from a high resolution LiDAR digital elevation model. GIS analysis was used to generate elevation contours that represent potential surface areas measurements, as well as provide a measure of the change in area with depth. This data collection process was also automated to generate the necessary input for estimating volume through the V-A-h equations. These volumes were compared to estimates from two V-A equations commonly used in the PPR. Results demonstrate that the automated LiDAR V-A-h method provided a better estimate of wetland volume than the V-A equations. This new method could be useful in quantifying the capacity of prairie pothole wetlands to store water and modeling their role in attenuating streamflows at a variety of spatial scales.

  12. Water Solubility in Lower Mantle Minerals and the Role of Peridotite and Basalt in Water Storage in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litasov, K.; Ohtani, E.

    2002-12-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest water plays a key role in the geodynamics of the Earth's interior. Experimental data on water solubility in minerals of the Earth's mantle suggest that upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle could have different potential to store water. Transition zone should be an important water reservoir due to significant water solubility in wadsleyite and ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. However, water storage capacity of lower mantle is still very controversial. Meade et al. (1994) reported results of in situ FTIR measurement of water solubility in MgSiO3-perovskite and suggest water content of 60 ppm. Bolfan-Casanova et al. (2000; 2002) showed absence of water (<1 ppm H2O) in MgSiO3-perovskite and 20 ppm H2O in magnesiowustite. In the contrary Murakami et al., 2002 measured 0.1-0.4 wt% H2O in peridotite-related Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite, 0.3-0.4 wt% H2O in Ca-perovskite and about 0.2 wt% H2O in magnesiowustite. Recently, we obtained data on phase relation in hydrous MORB at 20-26 GPa (Litasov and Ohtani, 2002) and found, that stability field of Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite shifts to the lower pressure. This fact suggests that these perovskites of exotic Fe-rich composition may also accommodate water. Our new FTIR data on water solubility in lower mantle minerals at 25 GPa and 1200-1600°C suggest water content in pure MgSiO3-perovskite is <90 ppm (bands at 3397, 3423, 3448, and 3482 cm-1). Water content in Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite (Al2O3=13-17 wt%; Mg#=58-61) observed in MORB is <100 ppm (bands at 3397 and 3423 cm-1). Water content in Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite (Al2O3=5-6 wt.%; Mg#=88-90) observed in peridotite is 1400-1800 ppm (band at 3397 cm-1). Water content in magnesiowustite (Mg0.8Fe0.2O) is 20-60 ppm (band at 3320 cm-1). Therefore, we confirmed that peridotite-related Mg-perovskite is a major water reservoir in the lower mantle; however role of Ca-perovskite and magnesiowustite is not clear. Using data on water solubility in Mg

  13. Investigating the variation of terrestrial water storage under changing climate and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Niu, G. Y.; Zhang, X.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) consists of groundwater, soil moisture, snow and ice, lakes and rivers and water contained in biomass. The water storage, especially the subsurface storage, is an essential property of the catchment, which controls climate, hydrological and biogeochemical processes at different scales. During the past decades, climate and land cover change has been proved to exert significant influences on hydrological processes which in turn alters the TWS variation. In order to better understand the interaction and feedback mechanism between TWS and earth system, it is necessary to quantify the effects of climate and land cover change on TWS variation. Direct estimation of total TWS has been made possible by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites that measures the earth gravity field. At present, few efforts were made to explicitly investigate the TWS variation under changing climate and land cover. GRACE data has its own limitations. One is its temporal coverage is short, it's only available since 2002, which is not sufficient to reflect the trend due to climate and land cover change. The other reason is that it cannot distinguish different components contributing to TWS. The limitation of TWS observation data can be overcame by numerical models developed to reproduce or to predict different earth system processes. After calibration and validation, with limited observations, these models can be trusted to extend our knowledge to where observations are not available both in time and space. In this study, based on Noah-MP LSM and satellite and ground data, we aim to: (1) Investigate the variation of total TWS as well as its components over Upper Colorado River Basin from 1990 to 2014. (2) Identify the major factors that control the TWS variation. (3) Quantify how the changing climate and land cover affect TWS variation in the same period.

  14. Drought effects on evapotransiration and subsurface water storage in the southern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, R. C.; Goulden, M.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Conklin, M. H.; Hartsough, P. C.; O'Geen, T. T.; Hopmans, J. W.; Safeeq, M.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) at three elevations in the southern Sierra Nevada show the extent to which subsurface water storage in the regolith provides a buffer against multi-year dry periods. ET in a 2000-m elevation mixed-conifer forest showed a 24% decrease in ET in water-year 2014, the third dry year, as compared to the wet year of 2011. This decrease reflected reduced transpiration for the July to September period. Over half of the annual ET in both wet and dry years came from below the 1-m depth mapped soil, and with come coming from below the 2.5 m depth of our soil-moisture measurements. The ability of trees to access water from these depths does provide a 2-3 year buffer for ET, which also depends on forest density and the balance between perennial overstory and annual understory vegetation. An equally dense lower-elevation pine-oak forest (1160 m) showed nearly a 50% decrease in ET during the third year of drought, with significant visible effects on vegetation. While this lower elevation forest may have as much or more subsurface storage as does that at 2000-m elevation, the combination of lower precipitation as one goes down in elevation and very high forest density provides only a one-year buffer for ET in dry years. Regaining resiliency in this forest will only occur with significant reductions in biomass and commensurate lowering of ET. In a 400-m elevation oak savannah ET responds to annual precipitation, with essentially no multi-year buffer provided by subsurface storage.

  15. Effect of Water Stress and Storage Time on Anthocyanins and Other Phenolics of Different Genotypes of Fresh Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Luna, María C; Bekhradi, Farzaneh; Ferreres, Federico; Jordán, María J; Delshad, Mojtaba; Gil, María I

    2015-10-28

    This study describes the effect of water stress and storage time on the content of anthocyanins and other phenolics in different genotypes of fresh sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Purple and green Iranian cultivars and a Genovese variety were exposed to a control (100% of the field capacity, FC) and to water stress of mild and severe deficit irrigation treatments (25 and 50 DI corresponding to 75 and 50% FC, respectively). The individual characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and the MS fragmentation pathway of anthocyanins are described. A 50% increase in the anthocyanin content was observed in 50 DI after storage. Water stress markedly enhanced the content of phenolic acids after storage in the three genotypes. Water stress can be an efficient way to help the sustainability of water resources, enriching the content of phenolic compounds that may be beneficial to human health. PMID:26473474

  16. Hybrid Gravimetry for the Monitoring of Water Storage Changes in the Critical Zone of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Séguis, L.; Calvo, M.; Pfeffer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Time-lapse gravimetry is known to be a powerful tool to monitor mass redistributions near the Earth's surface and hence is of interest in various fields (volcanology, hydrology, glaciology, geothermics, C02 sequestration). Hybrid gravimetry relies on the combined use of different types of instruments measuring the earth's gravity changes i.e. relative spring gravimeters (RG) and superconducting gravimeters (SG), as well as ballistic absolute gravimeters (AG) in a specific study. We show here that hybrid gravimetry is able to provide new constraints on underground water storage changes. We will focus on two special cases in West Africa which were investigated in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project: one is located in the semi-arid Sahelian zone in Wankama (Niger) and another one in Djougou (Benin) in the humid, hard-rock basement zone. In Wankama, both time-lapse AG and RG are available. In an innovative field survey during 3 months of the rainy season in 2009, we merged relative microgravimetry on a network of 12 stations, magnetic resonance soundings, and hydrological measurements to evaluate both surface and subsurface water storage variations. We show that most of the gravity variations originate from heterogeneities in the vadose zone highlighting the potential of time lapse microgravity surveys for detecting intraseasonal water storage variations in the critical zone. In Djougou, we will present the hydrology results coming from the use of the hybrid gravimetry approach based on a continuous record of a GWR SG installed since 2010 complemented with FG5 AG episodic measurements (4 times a year between 2008 and 2011 then yearly). In addition we also set up repeated micro-gravimetric measurements with a Scintrex CG5 RG on a dense network (more than 100 surveys and 15 stations) around the base station. The continuous SG record allows to bring additional insight on the space and time variable gravity (and hence water storage changes) in

  17. Dynamics of biogenic gas bubbles in peat: Potential effects on water storage and peat deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, E.; Waddington, J. M.; Price, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    Dynamics of biogenic bubbles in peat soils were studied at a field site in southern Québec, Canada. The maximum gas content measured in this study varied spatially with a maximum seasonal increase in volumetric gas content of 0.15. The size of changes in total gas content of a 1 m deep profile was comparable to the seasonal water storage change. Changes in bubble volume in the saturated zone alter the water table level and, consequently, the water content in the unsaturated zone and the apparent water budget. In highly compressible soils (and floating root mats), buoyancy forces from bubbles also cause relations between the surface and the water table to change. These effects cannot be omitted in modeling the hydrology of peatlands. Our results indicate a great spatial variability of trapped bubbles. Using pressure transducers sealed to the surface, we found pressure deviations indicating small areas closed off by bubbles clogging the pores. The hydrological influence of these areas may be considerable as they may restrict or deflect water flows. Open pipe piezometers did not show these pressure deviations, possibly because the closed zones were too small to influence the head in pipes or because of less amount of gas close to the pipe screen.

  18. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction

  19. Understanding changes in terrestrial water storage over West Africa between 2002 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher; Awange, Joseph; Agutu, Nathan; Kuhn, Michael; Heck, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    With the vast water resources of West Africa coming under threat due to the impacts of climate variability and human influence, the need to understand its terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes becomes very important. Due to the lack of consistent in-situ hydrological data to assist in the monitoring of changes in TWS, this study takes advantage of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly gravity fields to provide estimates of vertically integrated changes in TWS over the period 2002-2014, in addition to satellite altimetry data for the period 1993-2014. In order to understand TWS variability over West Africa, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a second order statistical technique, and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA) are employed. Results show that dominant patterns of GRACE-derived TWS changes are observed mostly in the West Sahel, Guinea Coast, and Middle Belt regions of West Africa. This is probably caused by high precipitation rates at seasonal and inter-annual time scales induced by ocean circulations, altitude and physiographic features. While the linear trend for the spatially averaged GRACE-derived TWS changes over West Africa for the study period shows an increase of 6.85 ± 1.67 mm/yr, the PCA result indicates a significant increase of 20.2 ± 5.78 mm/yr in Guinea, a region with large inter-annual variability in seasonal rainfall, heavy river discharge, and huge groundwater potentials. The increase in GRACE-derived TWS during this period in Guinea, though inconsistent with the lack of a significant positive linear trend in TRMM based precipitation, is attributed to a large water surplus from prolonged wet seasons and lower evapotranspiration rates, leading to an increase in storage and inundated areas over the Guinea region. This increase in storage, which is also the aftermath of cumulative increase in the volume of water not involved in surface runoff, forms the huge freshwater availability in this region. However, the

  20. Water-Soluble Electrospun Nanofibers as a Method for On-Chip Reagent Storage

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Minhui; Jin, Shengquan; Nugen, Sam R.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform. PMID:25586029

  1. Estimating Terrestrial Water Storage Changes in the Colorado River Basin: Atmospheric Data Analysis, Satellite Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troch, P. A.; Seneviratne, S.; Hirschi, M.; Hurkmans, R.; Hasan, S.; Durcik, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Colorado River basin covers about 637 000 km2 and spreads over the southwestern United States and a small portion of Mexico. Much of the basin is arid, and runoff derives from the high elevation snow pack over the Rocky Mountains, which contributes about 70% of the annual runoff. A secondary source of water for the basin is the summer monsoon precipitation. The Colorado River system is one of the most heavily regulated for providing water supply, irrigation, flood control, and hydropower to a large area of the U.S. Southwest. Estimating intra- and inter-annual variability of water storage in the basin is important for sustainable water management. In this paper, an overview is given on how terrestrial water storage changes can be estimated. Fifty (50) years (1955-2005) of re-analysis data from ECMWF (European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) is used together with observed and natural stream flow to derive monthly atmospheric and terrestrial water balances (Seneviratne et al., 2004; Hirschi et al., 2006). The resulting water storage changes in the Colorado basin exhibit a strong annual and a weaker decadal cycle. Correlation with different climate variability indices (ENSO, PDO, AMO) is examined. We compare these water storage change estimates with those derived from the NARR (North-American Regional Re-analysis) time series (1979 to 2005). Three years (2002-2005) of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data are then used to estimate monthly terrestrial water storage changes from estimates of geoid anomalies over the area. We find a close relationship between both independent estimation procedures. Both the annual cycle and the amplitude agree very well, although a slight phase shift of about a month is observed. To further examine the water storage changes we apply a land surface hydrologic model (VIC: Variable Infiltration Capacity) forced with observations spanning the period between 1950 and 2000 and compiled by Maurer et al

  2. The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

    2013-05-01

    Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

  3. The Mantle Transition-Zone Water Filter Model: Implications for Volatile Transport and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Karato, S.; Leahy, G.; Richard, G.; Jing, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The transition-zone water-filter model of mantle convection was proposed (Bercovici and Karato, Nature v425, p39, 2003) to reconcile geochemical observations of isolated chemical mantle reservoirs (evident in distinct chemical signatures of OIB and MORB) with geophysical, especially seismological evidence for whole mantle circulation and mixing. The model proposed that as the background ambient mantle upwelling (rising in response to the downward flux of subducting slabs) moves out of the high-water-solubility transition zone into the less-solubile upper mantle above 410km, it undergoes water supersaturation and partial melting that filters out incompatible elements. The remaining solid phase continues to ascend and supplies relatively dry and depleted materials to the MORB source region; however, in contrast to recent "bulk water storage capacity" arguments, the water transported up by the solid phase is less than solidus water limit which is itself considerably less than the sub-eutectic solubility limit. The residual melt is presumed denser than the surrounding solid and is thus trapped at the 410km boundary until slab entrainment recirculates the enriched material back into the deeper mantle. The filtering effect is suppressed for hotter mantle plumes because of their greater ascent rates, allowing plumes to generate more enriched OIBs. Experimental data implies that while melting is likely under a broad range of conditions, the presence of a dense melt likely requires dense volatiles, such as K2O, in addition to water. Theoretical models of a melt layer structure and the circulation of volatiles suggests a relatively thin melt-rich layer that can be efficiently entrained by reaction with ambient downgoing mantle (mantle dragged down by slabs). Moreover, circulation of entrained water is focussed in the transition zone by slabs lingering at the 660km, thereby providing a mechanism to keep the transition zone hydrated and water concentration well mixed.

  4. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  5. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  6. 27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... table provides a method for use in ascertaining the wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and/or proof.... It is desired to ascertain the wine gallons and proof gallons of a tank of 190 proof spirits weighing 81,000 pounds. 81,000×0.14718=11,921.58=11,921.6 wine gallons....

  7. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; van der Hoek, Wim; Cairncross, Sandy; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2002-07-01

    Even if drinking water of poor rural communities is obtained from a 'safe' source, it can become contaminated during storage in the house. To investigate the relative importance of this domestic domain contamination, a 5-week intervention study was conducted. Sixty-seven households in Punjab, Pakistan, were provided with new water storage containers (pitchers): 33 received a traditional wide-necked pitcher normally used in the area and the remaining 34 households received a narrow-necked water storage pitcher, preventing direct hand contact with the water. Results showed that the domestic domain contamination with indicator bacteria is important only when the water source is relatively clean, i.e. contains less than 100 Escherichia coli per 100 ml of water. When the number of E. coli in the water source is above this value, interventions to prevent the domestic contamination would have a minor impact on water quality compared with public domain interventions. Although the bacteriological water quality improved, elimination of direct hand contact with the stored water inside the household could not prevent the occasional occurrence of extreme pollution of the drinking water at its source. This shows that extreme contamination values that are often thought to originate within the domestic domain have to be attributed to the public domain transmission, i.e. filling and washing of the water pitchers. This finding has implications for interventions that aim at the elimination of these extreme contaminations. PMID:12100444

  8. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from

  9. Storage Stability of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Circulating Electrolyzed Water and Their Property Changes after Application.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Meng-Meng; Ahn, Juhee; Ma, Yan-Na; Chen, Shi-Guo; Ye, Xing-Qian; Liu, Dong-Hong; Ding, Tian

    2016-03-01

    Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been recognized as an effective bactericidal agent with free chlorine, but its limitations include its instability and its great dependence on equipment. Newly developed circulating electrolyzed water (CEW) with a higher available chlorine concentration (ACC) could successfully overcome these limitations. In this study, SAEW (ACC of 20 mg/L), CEW1 (ACC of 200 mg/L), and CEW2 (ACC of 20 mg/L) were evaluated for changes in properties (pH, oxidization reduction potential [ORP], and ACC) during storage in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) and after washing pork and lettuce. Additionally, the washed pork and lettuce were evaluated for total viable counts, pH and general appearance. The results showed that CEW1 with a higher ACC has better stability than SAEW with a lower ACC for the storage and washing experiments, and CEW still remained stable after dilution with distilled water. The property indices of EW were greatly affected for the pork-washing experiments compared with the lettuce-washing experiments, probably due to the existence of alkaline and organic materials on the surface of pork. Furthermore, EWs were more effective for inactivating microbes in lettuce than in pork, while there was no significant difference in tissue pH and the general appearance of pork and lettuce. These findings indicated that CEW with a higher ACC shows potential for reducing foodborne pathogens on pork and lettuce without effects on their physicochemical characteristics, and it can be applied in a diluted form. PMID:26869019

  10. Space flight micro-fungi after 27 years storage in water and in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Parent, S L

    1998-01-01

    Four species of micro-fungi were selected for study in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) mycology experiments. Trichophyton terrestre, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetomium globosum were selected from a series of preflight test fungi for the MEED mycology studies during the 2 years prior to the actual flight (Volz, 1971a, 1972b). Conidia of T. terrestre, ascospores of C. globosum and yeast cells of R. rubra and S. cerevisiae were suspended in sterile distilled water and loaded into wet and dry cuvettes for exposure to specific space flight parameters according to the filters built into the space flight hardware (Volz, 1971b). Living cells were found in the original inocula and phenotype water storage after 27 years. Colony cells were also examined after 27 years of continuous culture. PMID:10093232

  11. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  12. [Effect of water storage and intrapulpal pressure on microleakage of three restorative materials].

    PubMed

    Balogh, A E; Bouter, D; Fazekas, A; Degrange, M

    2000-09-01

    Three different restorative materials, Z100 composite, F2000 compomer and Vitremer glass ionomer cement are currently proposed for Class V restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of water storage and the simulated intrapulpal pressure (sIP) on the quality of the margins of class V restorations located both in enamel and dentin. The water resorption of restorative materials containing hydrophilic groups (compomers and glass ionomer cements) can favourably modify the marginal sealing ability by hydroscopic expansion. The influence of the sIP was specific to the material. While F2000 compomer and Vitremer glass ionomer cement were un-influenced by sIP, with Z100 composite a significant difference could be observed. It was concluded that F2000 compomer and Vitremer glass ionomer cement showed significantly less microleakage, which means a better marginal sealing ability than Z100 composite. PMID:11057023

  13. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

  14. Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anyana; McFarland, Deborah A; Singh, Ritu; Quick, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Providing safe water to >1 billion people in need is a major challenge. To address this need, the Safe Water System (SWS) - household water treatment with dilute bleach, safe water storage, and behavior change - has been implemented in >20 countries. To assess the potential sustainability of the SWS, we analyzed costs in Zambia of "Clorin" brand product sold in bottles sufficient for a month of water treatment at a price of $0.09. We analyzed production, marketing, distribution, and overhead costs of Clorin before and after sales reached nationwide scale, and analyzed Clorin sales revenue. The average cost per bottle of Clorin production, marketing and distribution at start-up in 1999 was $1.88 but decreased by 82% to $0.33 in 2003, when >1.7 million bottles were sold. The financial loss per bottle decreased from $1.72 in 1999 to $0.24 in 2003. Net program costs in 2003 were $428,984, or only $0.04 per person-month of protection. A sensitivity analysis showed that if the bottle price increased to $0.18, the project would be self-sustaining at maximum capacity. This analysis demonstrated that efficiencies in the SWS supply chain can be achieved through social marketing. Even with a subsidy, overall program costs per beneficiary are low. PMID:17878553

  15. Climate change and water storage variability over an arid endorheic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Xi; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) plays an important role in regional climate and water resources management, especially in arid regions under global change context. However, serious lack of in-situ measurements in remote alpine mountains is hindering our current understanding of regional TWS change in the Tarim River Basin (TRB), a large and typical arid endorheic area in Northwest China of Central Asia. To solve the problem, four different hydrology products from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, model simulations from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in conjunction with in-situ measurements, are utilized to investigate patterns and underlying causes of TWS and its component changes. An excess of precipitation over evapotranspiration (ET) plus runoff contributes to an increase of TWS. The phase of Total Soil Moisture (TSM) lags that of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), indicating a recharge from snowmelt to TSM. Increasing TWS together with decreasing SWE resulted in an increase of subsurface water. Our results are of great value to amend basin-wide water management and conservation strategies for the similar arid regions considering climate change.

  16. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  17. Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4 · 2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O with no FeSO4 · 2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions. PMID:24682481

  18. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-03-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

  19. Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

  20. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Land Surface Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system of satellites provides observations of large-scale, monthly terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In. this presentation we describe a land data assimilation system that ingests GRACE observations and show that the assimilation improves estimates of water storage and fluxes, as evaluated against independent measurements. The ensemble-based land data assimilation system uses a Kalman smoother approach along with the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). We assimilated GRACE-derived TWS anomalies for each of the four major sub-basins of the Mississippi into the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Compared with the open-loop (no assimilation) CLSM simulation, assimilation estimates of groundwater variability exhibited enhanced skill with respect to measured groundwater. Assimilation also significantly increased the correlation between simulated TWS and gauged river flow for all four sub-basins and for the Mississippi River basin itself. In addition, model performance was evaluated for watersheds smaller than the scale of GRACE observations, in the majority of cases, GRACE assimilation led to increased correlation between TWS estimates and gauged river flow, indicating that data assimilation has considerable potential to downscale GRACE data for hydrological applications. We will also describe how the output from the GRACE land data assimilation system is now being prepared for use in the North American Drought Monitor.

  1. Assessing Global Water Storage Variability from GRACE: Trends, Seasonal Cycle, Subseasonal Anomalies and Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-03-01

    Throughout the past decade, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has given an unprecedented view on global variations in terrestrial water storage. While an increasing number of case studies have provided a rich overview on regional analyses, a global assessment on the dominant features of GRACE variability is still lacking. To address this, we survey key features of temporal variability in the GRACE record by decomposing gridded time series of monthly equivalent water height into linear trends, inter-annual, seasonal, and subseasonal (intra-annual) components. We provide an overview of the relative importance and spatial distribution of these components globally. A correlation analysis with precipitation and temperature reveals that both the inter-annual and subseasonal anomalies are tightly related to fluctuations in the atmospheric forcing. As a novelty, we show that for large regions of the world high-frequency anomalies in the monthly GRACE signal, which have been partly interpreted as noise, can be statistically reconstructed from daily precipitation once an adequate averaging filter is applied. This filter integrates the temporally decaying contribution of precipitation to the storage changes in any given month, including earlier precipitation. Finally, we also survey extreme dry anomalies in the GRACE record and relate them to documented drought events. This global assessment sets regional studies in a broader context and reveals phenomena that had not been documented so far.

  2. Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

    2002-10-10

    Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

  3. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

  4. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  5. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  6. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001–2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

  7. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  8. Determination of root-zone water storage in a desert woodland using a two-layer moisture balance model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-zone water storage (RWS) is a fundamental component of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. In the lower reaches of arid river basins in inland China, low water recharge and hence low RWS have been associated with a series of ecological and environmental problems. Developing an improved unders...

  9. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  10. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  12. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  13. Water use optimization in zero energy cool chambers for short term storage of fruits and vegetables in coastal area.

    PubMed

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Khan, Md K; Sahoo, N R

    2010-08-01

    Suitability of zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) for short term storage of fruits and vegetables was studied in coastal districts of Orissa. Quantity of water applied in ZECC was standardized. The optimum water level of 75 l/day and 90 l/day was required to achieve a steady and conducive storage environment for storage of fruits and vegetables in summer and winter months, respectively. The chamber was kept average temperature of its environment less by 5-8°C than the outside temperature and maintained more than 90% RH. The ZECC was very effective in extending the storage life of potato, tomato, brinjal, mango, banana and spinach by 3 to 15 days as compared to ambient conditions. PMID:23572666

  14. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in...

  15. The socioecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics across spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, Kimberly J.; Steiff, Michael; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Basu, Nandita B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH tanks at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale, water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to-capacity ratio greater than 2. At the catchment scale, the presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by

  16. Satellite Observations of Groundwater Storage Variations and Their Application for Water Security Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Li, B.; Kumar, S.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Fresh water demand is steadily increasing around the world due to population growth, economic development, and people's desire for a "western" lifestyle and diet. Where surface water availability is not sufficient or consistent, groundwater is often the resource of choice for agriculture, industry, and municipal and domestic uses. However, unlike lake levels, aquifer levels are unseen and are not easily measured. This can create the illusion of an infinite water source and impede efforts to monitor and conserve groundwater. Moreover, even where depth-to-water measurements do exist, they often are not digitized, centralized, and accessible. The GRACE satellites are a partial solution to this problem, enabling space-based estimates of groundwater variability at regional scales that are not limited by political boundaries. Here we discuss emerging trends in groundwater storage around the world based on GRACE observations and how they can be combined with other information in order attribute these apparent trends and support sub-regional scale analyses of changing groundwater availability.

  17. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel built-in-storage solar water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptan, I.N.; Kilic, A.

    1996-11-01

    In this work, a novel built-in-storage type solar water heater of about 871 capacity has been investigated theoretically and experimentally for the case of no draw-off. The solar water heater which performs the dual function of absorbing and storing hot water is made of 5 pipes, each of length 1.8 m and diameter 12 cm. A baffle plate is placed inside each pipe. The experiments have been performed inside the laboratory using an artificial Sun consisting of 27 lamps. The water temperatures have been measured at various locations in the system. In the theoretical study, transient performance of the system is predicted by solving the mathematical model consisting of energy balance equations written for each control volume comprising one length of pipe. These equations are converted to finite difference form and then solved by a personal computer. The experimental results have been compared with the numerical model and a good agreement has been found between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L.; Sohn, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

  20. Drought analysis of the Haihe river basin based on GRACE terrestrial water storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  1. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  2. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance carbon sequestration. Despite global recognition of wetlands as carbon sinks, information regarding carbon dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating carbon sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve carbon storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC), carbon sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of carbon sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective management of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance carbon sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.

  3. Calculation of the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon liquid-helium dewar

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.

    1983-01-04

    The writing of a computer program to calculate the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon dewar was motivated by the writing of a Fermilab engineering note on the safety of the dewar which is presently being installed at the Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier. The calculation is intended to verify that the pressure in the inner vessel will not rise above a safe level in a catastrophic venting situation.

  4. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. 31.36 Section 31.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales...

  5. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  6. Sensitivity of reservoir storage and outflow to climate change in a water-limited river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Gao, H.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Voisin, N.

    2015-12-01

    During the past several decades, numerous reservoirs have been built across the world for a variety of purposes such as flood control, irrigation, municipal water supplies, and hydropower. Consequently, streamflow timing and magnitude are altered significantly by reservoir operations. In addition, the hydrological cycle can be modified substantially by a changing climate. Therefore, a distributed hydrological model which has an embedded reservoir component is essential for representing these effects in future water management planning strategies. In this study, a multi-purpose reservoir module was integrated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The DHSVM model was selected because of its high spatial and temporal resolution and because of its explicit representation of the physical processes. Prescribed operating rules, which are designed to reduce flood risk and enhance water supply reliability, were adopted in this module. The integrated model was tested over a water-limited basin (i.e. the central Brazos River Basin, Texas). Both the calibration and validation results suggest that the model performed robustly at daily, weekly, and monthly levels. Subsequently, the effect of climate sensitivity on reservoir storage and outflow was assessed by perturbing precipitation within a range from -30% to 30% and temperature from -2 °C to 2 °C. Results suggest that both variables are more sensitive to precipitation than temperature. However, there are more uncertainties associated with future precipitation than temperature. It was also found that the sensitivities vary significantly by season. Enabled with the new reservoir component, the DHSVM model provides a platform for projecting future water availability estimations under flow regulation, climate change, and land cover/land use changes. We expect this integrated model to be beneficial for sustainable water resources management.

  7. A semi-analytical model for predicting water quality from an aquifer storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Ali; Klammler, Harald; Brown, Chris; Hatfield, Kirk

    2006-10-01

    SummaryAquifer storage and recovery (ASR) involves the injection of freshwater in an aquifer through wells for the purpose of creating a subsurface water supply that is recovered at a later time, often using the same wells, to meet seasonal, long-term, emergency, or other demands. In this paper a numerically efficient semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the quality of water recovered by an ASR system given data on the qualities of ambient and injected waters, hydraulic properties of the aquifer, ambient hydraulic gradient, and system operations. It is assumed the ASR well is installed in a stratified aquifer such that the semi-analytical ASR model (SASRM) simulates the fate of water injected under steady-state conditions into each stratum. It is also assumed that a sharp and mobile interface separates injected water from ambient groundwater such that in situ mixing of water within and between strata does not occur. SASRM assigns particles to define the location the interface in all strata and then follows the migration of these particles under ambient and induced flow conditions. During water recovery, the transient location of the interface is simulated in each stratum and this information is used to quantify the fractions of ambient and injected water extracted at the well-head and the quality of water recovered. To mimic the effects of dispersion, a Latin Hypercube sampling strategy is used to assign hydraulic conductivities according to a predefined probability distribution to the layers of a conceptually stratified aquifer. The volumetric fraction of water received or delivered from any given lithologic unit is assumed proportional to the transmissivity of the stratum normalized to the total aquifer transmissivity interrogated by the ASR well. SARSM is numerically verified against MT3DMS and then calibrated and validated using field data from an ASR system located in Boynton Beach, FL. The field demonstration shows SASRM is capable of predicting

  8. The relationship of increasing trends in GRACE observed total water storage to landscape changes in the Southern Taiga Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Huang, J.; Chasmer, L.; Ambadan, J. T.; Connon, R.; Stone, L.

    2014-12-01

    The southern margin of discontinuous permafrost in Canada is highly sensitive to climate change. Warming to this region causes rapid thaw and disappearance of permafrost resulting in large changes to ecological and hydrological processes. Changes in hydrology result from permafrost thaw induced subsidence and conversion of tree-covered peat plateaus into bogs and channel fens. . Bogs, fens and plateaus have contrasting hydrological functions. The elevated plateaus with their shallow root zone due to frozen soils convert a relatively high proportion of hydrological input to runoff which they convey to adjacent channel fens and bogs. Bogs are largely water storage features and are typically surrounded by raised peat plateaus, while channel fens transmit water to streams and rivers. In the Scotty Creek watershed, within the southern Taiga Plains regions of Canada's Northwest Territories, numerous researchers have documented the decline of peat plateaus as a proxy for areal loss of permafrost terrain, and concomitant increases of wetland coverage. Analysis of spatial trends in global total water storage as measured by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites suggest a increasing trend of 6+/-1 mm/year water equivalent units over this region during the period 2003-2013. Analysis of a water budget constructed for the Scotty Creek watershed suggest that this long term trend is only weakly associated to the moderate increases to precipitation while the statistically significant increasing trends observed in discharge in this watershed would likely result in opposite sign. Further, seasonal trend analysis of the GRACE total water storage observations suggest that much of the increase in total water mass over this region occurs over the warm season suggesting that larger snowpacks are not driving the mass increase. In this presentation the changes to total water storage are compared to the trends of landscape change over this region to corroborate the

  9. Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment on the reduction of nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Huiying; Wan, Yangfang; Liu, Haijie

    2015-03-01

    Leafy vegetables are the major source of nitrite intake in the human diet, and technological processing to control nitrite levels in harvested vegetables is necessary. In the current work, the effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the nitrite and nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage was studied. EOW treatment, including slightly acidic electrolyzed water and acidic electrolyzed water, was found to effectively reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage; levels in the late period were 30 to 40% lower than that of the control. However, the nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage were not influenced by EOW treatment. The reduction of nitrite levels in EOW-treated fresh spinach during storage can be attributed to the inactivation of nitrate reductase directly and to the reduction of bacterial populations. Our results suggest that treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water may be a better choice to control nitrite levels in fresh vegetables during storage. This study provided a useful method to reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach. PMID:25719879

  10. Variations in water storage in China over recent decades from GRACE observations and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, X.; Wu, J. J.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    We applied Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Tellus products in combination with Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) simulations and data from reports, to analyze variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in China as a whole and eight of its basins from 2003 to 2013. Amplitudes of TWS were well restored after scaling, and showed good correlations with those estimated from models at the basin scale. TWS generally followed variations in annual precipitation; it decreased linearly in the Huai River basin (-0.56 cm yr-1) and increased with fluctuations in the Changjiang River basin (0.35 cm yr-1), Zhujiang basin (0.55 cm yr-1) and southeast rivers basin (0.70 cm yr-1). In the Hai River basin and Yellow River basin, groundwater exploitation may have altered TWS's response to climate, and TWS kept decreasing until 2012. Changes in soil moisture storage contributed over 50 % of variance in TWS in most basins. Precipitation and runoff showed a large impact on TWS, with more explained TWS in the south than in the north. North China and southwest rivers region exhibited long-term TWS depletions. TWS has increased significantly over recent decades in the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River, southeastern coastal areas, as well as the Hoh Xil, and the headstream region of the Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau. The findings in this study could be helpful to climate change impact research and disaster mitigation planning.

  11. Assimilating GRACE terrestrial water storage data into a conceptual hydrology model for the River Rhine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B.; Weerts, A.; van de Giesen, N.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key component of the terrestrial and global hydrological cycles, and plays a major role in the Earth’s climate. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellite mission provided the first space-based dataset of TWS variations, albeit with coarse resolution and limited accuracy. Here, we examine the value of assimilating GRACE observations into a well-calibrated conceptual hydrology model of the Rhine river basin. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were applied to assimilate the GRACE TWS variation data into the HBV-96 rainfall run-off model, from February 2003 to December 2006. Two GRACE datasets were used, the DMT-1 models produced at TU Delft, and the CSR-RL04 models produced by UT-Austin . Each center uses its own data processing and filtering methods, yielding two different estimates of TWS variations and therefore two sets of assimilated TWS estimates. To validate the results, the model estimated discharge after the data assimilation was compared with measured discharge at several stations. As expected, the updated TWS was generally somewhere between the modeled and observed TWS in both experiments and the variance was also lower than both the prior error covariance and the assumed GRACE observation error. However, the impact on the discharge was found to depend heavily on the assimilation strategy used, in particular on how the TWS increments were applied to the individual storage terms of the hydrology model.

  12. Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.H. ); Cosgrove, D.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

  13. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected

  14. Anthropogenic CO2 estimates in the Southern Ocean: Storage partitioning in the different water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Paula C.; Pérez, F. F.; Khatiwala, S.; Ríos, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Southern Ocean (SO) remains a key issue in our understanding of the global carbon cycle and for predicting future climate change. A number of recent studies suggest that 30 to 40% of ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) occurs in the SO, accompanied by highly efficient transport of CANT by intermediate-depth waters out of that region. In contrast, storage of CANT in deep and bottom layers is still an open question. Significant discrepancies can be found between results from several indirect techniques and ocean models. Even though reference methodologies state that CANT concentrations in deep and bottom layers of the SO are negligible, recent results from tracer-based methods and ocean models as well as accurate measurements of 39Ar, CCl4 and CFCs along the continental slope and in the Antarctic deep and bottom waters contradict this conclusion. The role of the SO in the uptake, storage and transport of CANT has proved to be really important for the global ocean and there is a need for agreement between the different techniques. A CO2-data-based ("back-calculation") method, the CT0 method, was developed with the aim of obtaining more accurate CANT concentration and inventory estimates in the SO region (south of 45°S). Data from the GLODAP (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project) and CARINA databases were used. The CT0 method tries to reduce at least two of the main caveats attributed to the back-calculation methods: the need for a better definition of water mass mixing and, most importantly, the unsteady state of the air-sea CO2 disequilibrium (ΔCdis) term. Water mass mixing was computed on the basis of results from an extended Optimum Multi-Parametric (eOMP) analysis applied to the main water masses of the SO. Recently published parameterizations were used to obtain more reliable values of ΔCdis and also of preformed alkalinity. The variability of the ΔCdis term (δCdis) was approximated using results from an ocean carbon cycle model

  15. Estimated water use in Florida, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  17. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  18. Impact of changes in GRACE derived terrestrial water storage on vegetation growth in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We use GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) and ERA-interim air temperature, as proxy for available water and temperature constraints on vegetation productivity, inferred from MODIS satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), in Northern Eurasia during 2002-2011. We investigate how changes in TWS affect the correlation between NDVI and temperature during the non-frozen season. We find that vegetation growth exhibits significant spatial and temporal variability associated with varying trend in TWS and temperature. The largest NDVI gains occur over boreal forests associated with warming and wetting. The largest NDVI losses occur over grasslands in the Southwestern Ob associated with regional drying and cooling, with dominant constraint from TWS. Over grasslands and temperate forests in the Southeast Ob and South Yenisei, wetting and cooling lead to a dominant temperature constraint due to the relaxation of TWS constraints. Overall, we find significant monthly correlation of NDVI with TWS and temperature over 35% and 50% of the domain, respectively. These results indicate that water availability (TWS) plays a major role in modulating Eurasia vegetation response to temperature changes.

  19. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from −4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to −6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by −5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground. PMID:26813800

  20. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground. PMID:26813800

  1. Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge

  2. First principles study on defectives BN nanotubes for water splitting and hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andressa C.; Rupp, Caroline J.; Baierle, Rogério J.

    2016-06-01

    First principles calculations within the spin polarized density functional approximation have been addressed to investigate the energetic stability, electronic and optical properties of defective BN nanotubes. Our results show that the presence of carbon impurities interacting with vacancies gives rise to defective electronic levels inside the nanotube band gap. By calculating the absorbance index, we have obtained a strong inter-band optical absorption in the visible region (around 2.1 eV) showing that defective BN nanotubes could be an efficient catalytic semiconductor material to be used within solar energy for water splitting. In addition, we observe that the adsorption energy for one and two H2 molecules on the defective surface is in the desired window for the system to be useful as a hydrogen storage medium.

  3. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir

  4. Recovery of several volatile organic compounds from simulated water samples: Effect of transport and storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, L.C.; Schroder, L.J.; Brooks, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Solutions containing volatile organic compounds were prepared in organic-free water and 2% methanol and submitted to two U.S. Geological Survey laboratories. Data from the determination of volatile compounds in these samples were compared to analytical data for the same volatile compounds that had been kept in solutions 100 times more concentrated until immediately before analysis; there was no statistically significant difference in the analytical recoveries. Addition of 2% methanol to the storage containers hindered the recovery of bromomethane and vinyl chloride. Methanol addition did not enhance sample stability. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in results from the two laboratories, and the recovery efficiency was more than 80% in more than half of the determinations made. In a subsequent study, six of eight volatile compounds showed no significant loss of recovery after 34 days.

  5. Influence of lateral subsurface flow and connectivity on soil water storage in land surface modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonggun; Mohanty, Binayak P.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral surface/subsurface flow and their connectivity play a significant role in redistributing soil water, which has a direct effect on biological, chemical, and geomorphological processes in the root zone (~1 m). However, most of the land surface models neglect the horizontal exchanges of water at the grid or subgrid scales, focusing only on the vertical exchanges of water as one-dimensional process. To develop better hydrologic understanding and modeling capability in complex landscapes, in this study we added connectivity-based lateral subsurface flow algorithms in the Community Land Model. To demonstrate the impact of lateral flow and connectivity on soil water storage we designed three cases including the following: (1) with complex surface topography only, (2) with complex surface topography in upper soil layers and soil hydraulic properties with uniform anisotropy. and (3) with complex surface topography and soil hydraulic properties with spatially varying anisotropy. The connectivity was considered as an indicator for the variation of anisotropy in the case 3, which was created by wetness conditions or geophysical controls (e.g., soil type, normalized difference vegetation index, and topographic index). These cases were tested in two study sites (ER 5 field and ER-sub watershed in Oklahoma) comparing to the field (gravimetric and remote sensing) soil moisture observations. Through the analysis of spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of soil moisture predictions from the study cases, surface topography was found to be a crucial control in demonstrating the variation of near surface soil moisture, but not significantly affected the subsurface flow in deeper soil layers. In addition, we observed the best performance in case 3 representing that the lateral connectivity can contribute effectively to quantify the anisotropy and redistributing soil water in the root zone. Hence, the approach with connectivity-based lateral subsurface flow was able to better

  6. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  7. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 ± 0.18 mm yr-1 in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 ± 64 km3 yr-1 in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  8. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieng, Habib B.; Champollion, Nicolas; Cazenave, Anny; Wada, Yoshihide; Schrama, Ernst; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS(the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to+0.30 ± 0.18mmyr‑1 in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of ‑108 ± 64 km3 yr‑1 in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  9. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  10. Habitat and biodiversity of on-farm water storages: a case study in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Markwell, Kim A; Fellows, Christine S

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners' motivations in making farm pond management decisions.The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover.The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across

  11. Twenty-five ways to raise your chilled-water temperature differential

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    This paper recommends practical methods of achieving high chilled-water temperature differentials invariable-flow hydronic cooling systems. After high chilled-water temperature differentials are realized, more Btus (J/s) of cooling will be accomplished per gallon (liter) of chilled-water distributed, and pressure losses and pumping energy will decline considerably. Also, water chiller capacities no longer will be limited by maximum evaporator flow rates and chilled-water storage tanks will store many more ton-hours (megajoules) of cooling. This fundamental approach provides significant, enduring improvements in the performance of variable-flow hydronic cooling systems with great leverage.

  12. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  13. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  14. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  15. Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  18. The effect of water activity and storage temperature on the growth of Aspergillus flavus in medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Rashmi; Gupta, Chandra Prakash; Shukla, Gyanesh; Kundu, Madan Gopal; Bhatnagar, Satyendra Prasad; Katiyar, Chandra Kant

    2008-08-01

    The quality control of medicinal herbs post harvesting or after collection becomes very critical because of susceptibility to fungal invasion during storage depending on the temperature and humidity of the storage area. The information on moisture equilibrium is important on the process and storage of foods which can be extended to medicinal herbs. In the present study, the growth of Aspergillus flavus was observed on selected ten medicinal herbs with water activity aw above 0.81 when stored at 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 40 +/- 2 degrees C except for Picrorhiza kurrooa and Alpinia galanga which were found to have anti-fungal properties. Aspergillus flavus did not grow in any samples of medicinal herbs with water activity aw below 0.81 at temperatures of 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 40 +/- 2 degrees C. Also Aspergillus flavus did not grow in any samples of medicinal herbs with water activity aw above 0.81 when stored below 10 +/- 2 degrees C. Therefore it can be concluded that the contamination of medicinal herbs with aflatoxins can be minimized by controlling water activity and storage temperature. Sorption isotherms (desorption) can be interpreted to determine the optimum drying which can lower the water activity to the level required for preventing growth of Aspergillus flavus and also for ensuring quality of medicinal herbs which may get destroyed upon over drying. Furthermore, it also saves incremental cost in prolonged drying over the optimum drying. PMID:18553273

  19. Storage Dynamics and Non-Linear Connectivity between Landscape Units Control Runoff Generation and Stream Water Age Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the influence of storage dynamics and non-linearities in hydrological connectivity on runoff generation and stream water ages, using a long-term record of daily isotopes in precipitation and stream flow. These were used to test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model for a Scottish catchment. The model tracks tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores representing steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands and deeper groundwater (i.e. the main landscape units involved in runoff generation). Storage is largest in groundwater and on the steep hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in smaller stores in the riparian peat. The model also couples the ecohydrological effects of different vegetation communities in contrasting landscape units, by estimating evaporation, resulting moisture deficits and the ages of evaporated waters, which also affect the generation and age of runoff. Both stream flow and isotope variations are well-captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts the mean age of runoff as ~1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies from ~1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the riparian peatland dominate, to around 4 years in dry periods, when groundwater sustains flow. Hydrological connectivity between the units varies non-linearly with storage which depends upon antecedent conditions and event characteristics. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting non-stationary ages. Improving the representation of storage dynamics and quantifying the ages of water fluxes in such models gives a more complete conceptualisation of the importance of the soil water fluxes in critical zone processes and a framework for tracking diffuse pollutants in water quality assessment.

  20. The effects of water sample treatment, preparation, and storage prior to cyanotoxin analysis for cylindrospermopsin, microcystin and saxitoxin.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Lisa; Church, Jennifer L; Carpino, Justin; Faltin-Mara, Erin; Rubio, Fernando

    2016-02-25

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms occur in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs, and in brackish waters throughout the world. The wide variety of cyanotoxins and their congeners can lead to frequent exposure of humans through consumption of meat, fish, seafood, blue-green algal products and water, accidental ingestion of contaminated water and cyanobacterial scum during recreational activities, and inhalation of cyanobacterial aerosols. Cyanotoxins can also occur in the drinking water supply. In order to monitor human exposure, sensitive analytical methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are often used. Regardless of the analytical method of choice, some problems regularly occur during sample collection, treatment, storage, and preparation which cause toxin loss and therefore underestimation of the true concentration. To evaluate the potential influence of sample treatment, storage and preparation materials on surface and drinking water samples, the effects of different types of materials on toxin recovery were compared. Collection and storage materials included glass and various types of plastics. It was found that microcystin congeners LA and LF adsorbed to polystyrene, polypropylene, high density polyethylene and polycarbonate storage containers, leading to low recoveries (<70%), cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin did not adsorb to the containers tested. Therefore, this study shows that glass or polyethylene terephthalate glycol containers are the materials of choice for collection and storage of samples containing the cyanotoxins cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxin. This study also demonstrated that after 15 min chlorine decreased the concentration of microcystin LR to <40%, microcystin LA and saxitoxin to <15%, therefore quenching of drinking water samples immediately upon sample collection is critical for accurate analysis. In addition, the effect of various drinking water treatment

  1. Experimental study of soil water storage capacity on rocky slopes in the Negev Highlands, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikel, Harald; Kuhn, Nikolaus; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    - February) were analyzed. Based on experiments, analysis of rainfall records, soil properties and infiltration rates, it was possible to estimate the recurrence interval of events generating sufficient runoff to wet soil patches to a degree that is suitable for plant growth. The preliminary results indicate that a minimum effective rainfall amount of 2.5 mm in the soil patch contribution area is required to saturate soil patches with water. Such low rainfall events are relatively frequent in this region of the Negev, indicating that there is potential to frequently fill soil pore volume. The storage capacity of the soil is particularly relevant for plant water supply during periods without rain. Our results therefore show that the impact of climate change in drylands can only be predicted by taking the soil water storage capacity into account. The study also illustrates how rainfall simulation experiments and the analysis of meteorological records can be combined as a tool for the assessment of environmental change.

  2. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the

  3. Gasoline leaking from underground storage tanks: impact on drinking water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Page, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    Of the 1.4 million underground storage tanks (USTs) now in use for storing gasoline, it is estimated that 10-35% are leaking or fail to pass a tightness test. In order to assess the potential for pollution of drinking water due to gasoline leaking from USTs, it is necessary to understand the complex composition of gasoline, the movement of individual gasoline components through the soil matrix to the water table and their transport via groundwater movement to receptor wells. The primary factors that contribute to the environmental movement of gasoline components are water solubility, soil-sorption, biodegradation, and rainfall. Gasoline is a complex mixture of at least 150 hydrocarbons with about 60-70% paraffins and 25-30% aromatics. Of these, the aromatics are of greatest concern due to their water solubility and resistance to biodegradation. Benzene, toluene, and xylenes are of particular concern. Another chemical of concern is methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE), a hydrocarbon now being added in large quantities in many brands as an octane-enhancer. MTBE has been found in many wells as the first chemical arriving at receptor wells following a gasoline leak or spill. Models are available for predicting concentrations at receptor wells; however, site specific input, e.g., soil type, biodegradation, and rainfall, are necessary for the meaningful and reliable application of the models. Movement of chemicals through the environment is a slow process; often it may take several years for a chemical to move from a leaking tank to the nearest receptor well.

  4. Multi-scale linkages between forest water use, catchment storage, and streamflow dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Forests exert an explicit control on streamflow dynamics through their use of water stored within the catchment. While the connection between stored water and stream discharge dynamics has been studied for decades, forest hydrologists continue to struggle to understand how trees modulate these fluxes on timescales of hours to years. Here we present new data from the Alsea experimental forest in Western Oregon that examines coupled ecohydrological processes from tree to headwater catchment scales. We combine experimental forest removal and water isotope (18O and 2H) analysis of tree source water with more traditional hydrometric measurements and analysis (stream gauging and groundwater hydrology) to probe forest-catchment coupling mechanisms. Preliminary results show that removal of riparian zone Douglas-fir and red alder forest from first-order channels had no discernable effect on diel fluctuations in stream discharge. In contrast to this tightly coupled behavior, analysis of precipitation and stream water isotope signals (weekly sampling) indicate that the mean transit time of our stream water is in excess of 2.5 years. In between the extremes of diel streamflow fluctuations and multi-annual particle flux through the subsurface, water levels in shallow (5-8 m depth) and deep (37 m) fractured bedrock groundwater systems show evidence of storm rainfall response, but only after a storage deficit has been met through the course of the Pacific Northwest’s seasonal wetting cycle. Once activated, event-based groundwater level response was as much as 0.5 m and typically lagged the precipitation center of mass on the order of minutes to hours. During the same wetting period, streamflow runoff ratios increased from 1-5% under dry catchment conditions and plateaued at 65-85% when events occurred during moderately wet to very wet catchment conditions. Overall, our results suggest that while forests modulate small daily fluctuations in summer baseflow, they also set the

  5. Spatiotemporal variations in the water storage of closed lakes on the Tibetan Plateau and their climatic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liping; Yang, Ruimin

    2016-04-01

    The water storage of lakes responds sensitively to variations in climate.At the same time, lakes have an important influence on climate by altering the energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. In the present study, water storage changes in 114 closed lakes with areas greater than 50 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were estimated by integrating SRTM DEM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, Digital Elevation Model) and LandSat images. The results reveal that the total water storage increased by 102.64Gt from 1976-2013, a rate of 2.77Gt•yr-1. Specifically, thestorage changes between 2000 and 2013 account for 97% of the changes during the entire study period, resulting in an overall positive water balance of 7.67 Gt•yr-1. However, the pattern of water balance changes of the studied lakes exhibit significant differences from 1976-2013. Three main regions were distinguished according to the differences: the southeastern part of the inner TP (a slight increase followed by a sharp increase); large parts of the inner TP, except for the southeast (initially decreasing and then increasing); and large river valleys of the southern TP (mainly decreasing). Precipitation changes were identified as the dominant influencing the changes in lake water balances on the inner TP during the study period. Specifically, a large amount of precipitation resulted in the dramatic increase of lake water storage from 2000-2013. The influence of temperature on the lake water balance was changeable in different period. It made more significant contribution on the changes in lake water balance when the precipitation was low before 2000 than after as the steep rising precipitation. However, the different sensitivity of TP lakes to climate change confirmed in the present study is an important implications for the interpretation of past lake level records and for the understanding lakes change, even the land process in the future climate change.

  6. A Study on a Performance of Water-Spray-Type Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel with Vertical Heat Exchanger Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Sasaguchi, Kengo; Fukuda, Toshihito; Koyama, Shigeru

    A system with a water-embedded-trpe ice storage vessel is widely used because of its simple structure and compactness. However, the water-embedded-type ice storage vessel has a disadvantage, that is, the solidification rate is very small. The use of falling water film seems to be one of promising ways for solving this disadvantage. We have found in a previous study that the use of the falling water film is very effective, especially for high initial water temperatures. In the present study, we eexamined the performance of a faling-water-film-type ice thermal energy storage vessel with pratical size, having vertical heat exchanger plates. The ice making performance coefficient, η, increases with time, and it becomes am aximum value of 2.5, after that, it decreases gradually. In order to make ice efficiently, it is necessary to set a flow rate of refrigerant properly and to adjust a difference between the evaporating temperature of refrigerant and the freezing point of water so that the refrigerant evaporates in the heat exchanger plates overall.

  7. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled Water" Under ... and seltzer historically are regulated by FDA as soft drinks. Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages New ...

  8. A Preliminary Geomorphological Analysis of Water storage capacity: The Providence Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Critical Zone of Earth, as defined by NSF in 2007, is series of systems that extend from the top of the canopy to the bottom of the aquifer. The soil system has been used as the primary connection between the various systems. Knowledge of water storage capacity is essential for predicting water availability in the critical zone. Soil depth is one of the most important parameters used to study water storage capacity. Unfortunately, it is challenging to obtain an accurate representation of the degree of spatial variability of soil depth in a watershed. To obtain this data requires extensive and expensive surveys, which can be compounded in forested regions. We make the assumption that soil depth is a function of surface and subsurface geomorphological processes. The Providence Watershed, which is a Critical Zone Center (CZO) is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Providence Watershed is ~ 2.8 km2. The general trend of the watershed is northeast and ranges in elevation from 1,700 m to 2,100 m. The dominant vegetation cover is coniferous. In this area, we compiled indices from LIDAR imagery and compared these to hand-auguring profiles collected along Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) transects. Auguring profiles exist at a spacing of 123 m. The depths of these profiles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 m. We correlated the auguring data with nine indices. None of the correlations, which ranged from -0.50 to 0.21 (Pearson product-moment), were strong. The most significant finding of this study strengthens the important role that GPR can provide to capture the spatial heterogeneity present. GPR lines complimentary to geomorphological mapping can be used as an approach to obtain more accurate results in soil depth and bedrock topography mapping. The appropriate scale of work, however, depends on the understanding of the scale of processes controlling soil formation and erosion. This work is part of the collaborative effort of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone

  9. Changes in elastic modulus of adhesive and adhesive-infiltrated dentin during storage in water.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Genta; Inage, Hirohiko; Kawamoto, Ryo; Shimamura, Yutaka; Takubo, Chikako; Tamura, Yukie; Koga, Kensaku; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the elastic modulus of components at the resin-dentin interface with the use of an ultrasound device. Dentin slabs were obtained from freshly extracted bovine incisors shaped into a rectangular form. After demineralization, the dentin specimens were immersed in adhesives and polymerized. Adhesives were also polymerized and trimmed into the same shape as the dentin slabs. The specimens were then immersed in distilled water at 37 degrees C for up to one year. The ultrasound equipment employed in this study was a Pulser-Receiver, transducers and an oscilloscope. By measuring the longitudinal and shear wave sound velocities, the elastic modulus was determined. When the elastic modulus of adhesive resin-infiltrated demineralized dentin was compared with that of adhesives, slightly but significantly lower values were found for adhesives used in a self-etching primer system. On the other hand, a higher elastic modulus was observed for resin-infiltrated dentin than for an adhesive used in an etch and rinse system. The elastic modulus of the resin-infiltrated dentin prepared with the etch and rinse system was affected by long-term storage in distilled water. PMID:19106478

  10. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. ); Knoll, R.W. )

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Variations in the total water storage in the major river basins of India from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Swenson, S.

    2008-12-01

    We present an estimate of total water storage variations of the major river basins of India during the period of 2002 to mid 2008 from modelling of time-variable gravity field observed by GRACE satellite by utilising the scheme of Swenson and Wahr, (2002). The largest annual volume change is observed over the upper Ganga basin, followed by the lower Gnaga basin and the Yamuna basin of northern India. Basins of northern India show a declining trend of water storage over this time period, whereas the Godavari basin, the largest basin of central south India, as well as basins in central India show similar seasonal variations but increasing trends. It is interesting to note that these trends are prevalent over a decadal time period of ground water level and therefore the trend observed from GRACE data can be extrapolated backward. If these trends are sustained over a long time period, northern India and Bangladesh will lead to a major water crisis

  12. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  13. Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume previously lost during August 1940 to January 1993. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2008 ranged from a decline of 23.41 feet to a rise of 3.58 feet. The change in storage volume in the study area from August 1940 to July 2008 was a decrease of about 134,000 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 121,000 acre-feet, or about 47 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2008 in the central part of the study area, where city pumpage occurs, was a decrease of about 71,200 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 82,800 acre-feet, or about 54 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993 in the central part of the study area. The recovery in the central part of the study area probably was greater and more consistently maintained than in the study area as a whole because city pumpage has remained less than pre-1993 levels, whereas agricultural irrigation pumpage has been as much or more than pre-1993 levels in some years.

  14. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2012-10-26

    The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. PMID:22608116

  15. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  16. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

    1982-01-01

    The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  18. Ground-water supplies in the Murfreesboro area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Moran, Mary S.; Woods, E. Jean

    1977-01-01

    Ground water occurs in the Murfreesboro area in solution openings in the otherwise dense paleozoic limestones that underlie most of central Tennessee. Test drilling based on conceptual models of ground-water occurrence in carbonate-rock aquifers indicate that multimillion-gallon-per-day supplies could be developed from strategically located production wells in the Shiloh and Overall Creek localities. The Shiloh locality which encompasses an elongated synclinal depression in the bedrock has the potential to supply 5 to 8 million gallons per day. The Overall Creek locality which straddles a joint-oriented lineament has the potential to supply 3 to 6 million gallons per day. Some local springs could be used as a supplemental source of potable water, but storage facilities would be needed to offset poorly sustained flows during dry periods. An exception is Fox Camp Spring which appears to be a natural well. The quality of ground water in the Murfreesboro area is typically hard, moderately mineralized and moderately to highly alkaline. Although the shallowest aquifers are subject to bacterial contamination from the land surface, aquifers beneath a depth of 100 feet are prone to yield potable water. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  20. A study of water relations in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed that is characterized by complex storage behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sacandé, M; Buitink, J; Hoekstra, F A

    2000-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed is reputed to have limited tolerance to desiccation, to be sensitive to chilling and imbibitional stress, and to display intermediate storage behaviour. To understand this behaviour the properties of water in seed tissues were studied. Water sorption isotherms showed that at similar relative humidity (RH), the water content was consistently higher in axes than in cotyledons, mainly due to the elevated lipid content (51%) in the cotyledons. Using differential scanning calorimetry, melting transitions of water were observed at water contents higher than 0.14 g H2O g-1 DW in the cotyledons and 0.23 g H2O g-1 DW in the axes. Beside melting transitions of lipid, as verified by infrared spectroscopy, changes in heat capacity were observed which shifted with water content, indicative of glass-to-liquid transitions. State diagrams are given on the basis of the water content of seed tissues, and also on the basis of the RH at 20 degrees C. Longevity was considerably improved, and the sensitivity to chilling/subzero temperatures was reduced when axis and cotyledons were dehydrated to moisture contents < or = of approximately 0.05 g H2O g-1 DW. However, longevity during storage at very low water contents was limited. A possible mechanism for the loss of sensitivity to chilling/subzero temperatures at low water contents is discussed. The results suggest that dry neem seeds in the glassy state have great potential for extended storability, also at subzero temperatures. PMID:10938819

  1. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... = Vb × (Sb−Sc) Where: CRb = number of sulfur allotments or sulfur credits needed for the gasoline batch (ppm-gallons) Vb = Volume of the gasoline batch (gallons) Sb = Sulfur level of the gasoline batch...

  2. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... = Vb × (Sb−Sc) Where: CRb = number of sulfur allotments or sulfur credits needed for the gasoline batch (ppm-gallons) Vb = Volume of the gasoline batch (gallons) Sb = Sulfur level of the gasoline batch...

  3. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... = Vb × (Sb−Sc) Where: CRb = number of sulfur allotments or sulfur credits needed for the gasoline batch (ppm-gallons) Vb = Volume of the gasoline batch (gallons) Sb = Sulfur level of the gasoline batch...

  4. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... = Vb × (Sb−Sc) Where: CRb = number of sulfur allotments or sulfur credits needed for the gasoline batch (ppm-gallons) Vb = Volume of the gasoline batch (gallons) Sb = Sulfur level of the gasoline batch...

  5. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... = Vb × (Sb−Sc) Where: CRb = number of sulfur allotments or sulfur credits needed for the gasoline batch (ppm-gallons) Vb = Volume of the gasoline batch (gallons) Sb = Sulfur level of the gasoline batch...

  6. Statistical separation and forecast of water storage patterns over West Asia using GRACE data and climate indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Schumacher, Maike; Anyah, Richard; Awange, Joseph; Mostafaie, Abdorrahman

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that large parts of West Asia, specifically the arid Middle East region, exhibited a rapid loss of freshwater reserves during the past decade. A reliable estimation of large scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) changes and the ability of forecasting them, with respect to climate variability and change, are therefore essential for West Asia. This study first implemented a least squares inversion approach to separate the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived total water storage products over West Asia. Time series of separated terrestrial water and groundwater storage changes were then generated over the region, covering the period of 2003 to 2013. Forecasting scenarios were generated to predict TWS and GWS changes by applying low-degree autoregressive models which relate basin averaged TWS and GWS changes to input values of precipitation and evaporation as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation index as the remote controller of the region's climate. Dry, normal, and wet scenarios were designed to forecast West Asia's TWS and GWS variations over the period of 2013 to 2015. Our separated results over 2003 to 2013 indicated a decline in TWS and GW over the Middle East. A strong correlation was found between the NAO index and variability of water storage over West Asia, specifically during the period of 2005 to 2008. Dry forecasting scenarios indicated continuous GWS decline over the northwest part of Iran, entire Iraq and Syria, which have been already facing challenges of limited water resources. Key words: Forecsting GRACE-TWS; Groundwater; Signal Separation; Middle East

  7. Preliminary screening of thermal storage concepts for water/steam and organic fluid solar thermal receiver systems

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.J.; Karpuk, M.E.; Ullman, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary comparison of thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications was done generically for large and small solar systems with sensible and latent heat and two-stage storage concepts. Concepts were ranked based on the cost of delivered energy. A +- 20% uncertainty in subsystem cost was included in the analysis. Water/steam and organic fluid collector/receivers were studied separately. For the water/steam concept, Barstow technology (100 MW/sub e/) was examined. A nitrite/nitrate salt with a low-cost solid medium was best for buffer storage; for diurnal storage, the two-stage draw salt/low-cost media and oil/rock concept was best. Phase change concepts require improvements on the concept analyzed to be attractive. For the organic fluid system, a Shenandoah total energy system was examined. The Syltherm trickle charge taconite concept was the most favorable and may be improved by replacing the taconite with a lower-cost oil-compatible medium. Salt concepts can be competitive with this system only if there is a low-cost solid medium that is compatible with the salt and the end use requires a large amount of storage. The phase change concept examined was found to be quite poor for this total energy application.

  8. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for storage of more than 60 gallons of...

  13. Assimilation of gridded terrestrial water storage observations from GRACE into a land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girotto, Manuela; De Lannoy, Gabriëlle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have a coarse resolution in time (monthly) and space (roughly 150,000 km2 at midlatitudes) and vertically integrate all water storage components over land, including soil moisture and groundwater. Data assimilation can be used to horizontally downscale and vertically partition GRACE-TWS observations. This work proposes a variant of existing ensemble-based GRACE-TWS data assimilation schemes. The new algorithm differs in how the analysis increments are computed and applied. Existing schemes correlate the uncertainty in the modeled monthly TWS estimates with errors in the soil moisture profile state variables at a single instant in the month and then apply the increment either at the end of the month or gradually throughout the month. The proposed new scheme first computes increments for each day of the month and then applies the average of those increments at the beginning of the month. The new scheme therefore better reflects submonthly variations in TWS errors. The new and existing schemes are investigated here using gridded GRACE-TWS observations. The assimilation results are validated at the monthly time scale, using in situ measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture across the U.S. The new assimilation scheme yields improved (although not in a statistically significant sense) skill metrics for groundwater compared to the open-loop (no assimilation) simulations and compared to the existing assimilation schemes. A smaller impact is seen for surface and root-zone soil moisture, which have a shorter memory and receive smaller increments from TWS assimilation than groundwater. These results motivate future efforts to combine GRACE-TWS observations with observations that are more sensitive to surface soil moisture, such as L-band brightness temperature observations from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) or Soil Moisture Active Passive

  14. Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from a Global Land Surface Model Simulation with the Anthropogenic Impacts on Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, P. J.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.

    2013-12-01

    Among global water cycle components, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) is one of the most difficult to estimate. In this study, basin-scale regional TWS variations simulated by a global-scale land surface model, after validating with GRACE data and observed streamflow, are used to investigate the dominant TWS components as well as the interactions among TWS components over some largest river basins. The analysis is based on an integrated water resources assessment modelling framework developed by incorporating human impact schemes (i.e., reservoir operation, irrigation, withdrawal, groundwater pumping, and environmental flow requirements) into a land surface model - the Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO). MATSIRO simulates the majority of land hydrologic processes on a physical basis at the global 1° × 1° resolution. The terrestrial water storage (TWS) simulated consists of soil moisture, groundwater, river water, snow and ice, and the human impact components such as reservoir storage. The effects of irrigation and groundwater pumping on TWS variations are also considered in certain regions where their impacts are known to be significant (e.g. The High Plains Aquifer, US). Moreover, a comparison on the TWS components is made with the MATSIRO simulation without considering human impact. The difference between them is a direct measure on the extent to which human anthropogenic impacts affect regional hydrology.

  15. Effects of Scrophularia striata water extract on quality and shelf life of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during superchilled storage

    PubMed Central

    Jebelli Javan, A; Bolandi, M; Jadidi, Z; Parsaeimehr, M; Javaheri Vayeghan, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Scrophularia striata water extract on the quality and shelf life of the rainbow trout fillet during superchilled storage. Fish samples were treated with 1% and 3% S. striata water extract and then stored at -2°C for 20 days. The samples were analyzed periodically for chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results indicated that incorporation of S. striata water extract on rainbow fillets caused the delay of lipid peroxidation and hydrolytic spoilage in 3% treated sample in comparison with the control sample at the last day of the experiment (P<0.05). Moreover, fish fillets containing 3% S. striata water extract showed lower bacterial count than the control and 1% water extract supplemented samples (P<0.05) during the experiment. According to sensory analysis results, 3% treated samples were acceptable even at the end of the 20-day storage. It was concluded that the effect of S. striata extract on fish samples was to retain their good quality characteristics and extend the shelf life during superchilled storage. PMID:27175179

  16. Effects of Scrophularia striata water extract on quality and shelf life of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during superchilled storage.

    PubMed

    Jebelli Javan, A; Bolandi, M; Jadidi, Z; Parsaeimehr, M; Javaheri Vayeghan, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Scrophularia striata water extract on the quality and shelf life of the rainbow trout fillet during superchilled storage. Fish samples were treated with 1% and 3% S. striata water extract and then stored at -2°C for 20 days. The samples were analyzed periodically for chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results indicated that incorporation of S. striata water extract on rainbow fillets caused the delay of lipid peroxidation and hydrolytic spoilage in 3% treated sample in comparison with the control sample at the last day of the experiment (P<0.05). Moreover, fish fillets containing 3% S. striata water extract showed lower bacterial count than the control and 1% water extract supplemented samples (P<0.05) during the experiment. According to sensory analysis results, 3% treated samples were acceptable even at the end of the 20-day storage. It was concluded that the effect of S. striata extract on fish samples was to retain their good quality characteristics and extend the shelf life during superchilled storage. PMID:27175179

  17. Quantifying impacts of coupled chemical and physical heterogeneity on water quality evolution during Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Descourvieres, C.; Seibert, S.; Harris, B.; Atteia, O.; Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an important water management option in water-scarce regions. During wet periods surplus water is injected into suitable aquifers for storage and later recovery. ASR sites are, however, also ideal natural laboratories that provide opportunities for studying coupled physical and geochemical processes and water quality evolution at field-scale under well-controlled hydrological conditions. In this study, we use reactive transport modelling to assess the impacts of physical and chemical heterogeneities on the water quality evolution during the injection of oxic surface water into the anoxic, pyrite-bearing Leederville aquifer in Perth, Western Australia. Physical heterogeneity was identified from geophysical well logs and time lapse temperature logs. Those data were used to define the spatial, depth-varying alternation of three lithofacies (sandstone, siltstone and clay). Chemical heterogeneity was incorporated through distinct chemical zones, based on data derived from a comprehensive pre-trial geochemical characterization and from dedicated laboratory respirometer experiments. Calibration of flow and conservative transport parameters was constrained by the spatially varying measured chloride breakthrough behavior. Subsequent reactive transport modeling discerned the key geochemical processes that affected the water quality evolution during ASR. Clearly identified processes included oxidation of pyrite, mineralization of sedimentary organic carbon, ion exchange, dissolution of calcite and precipitation of ferrihydrite and siderite. We use the calibrated model to analyze the individual and the combined effects of the physical and chemical heterogeneities on the chemical composition of the recovered water during ASR.

  18. Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to the inaccurate water storage data, including both topologic parameters and operational rules. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using the satellite-based dataset Landsat, an empirical storage classification method, and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various levels of flow regulation facilities. The improved SWAT2005 is characterised by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the water surface area and volume of each type of water storage, ranging from small-sized ponds for water flow regulation to large-sized and medium-sized reservoirs for water supply and hydropower generation; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for the physical parameters and the human interference parameters. Both the original and improved SWAT2005 are applied to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin, and the results of these applications are compared. The improved SWAT2005 accurately models small- and medium-sized storages, indicating a significantly improved performance from that of the original model in reproducing streamflows.

  19. Monitoring and comparison of terrestrial water storage changes in the northern high plains using GRACE and in-situ based integrated hydrologic model estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyoum, Wondwosen M.; Milewski, Adam M.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced measurement of the variation of the terrestrial water cycle are imperative to better understand the dynamics, water availability, and evaluate impacts of global changes on the water cycle. This study quantified storage in the various terrestrial water compartments using an integrated hydrologic model (IHM) - MIKE SHE that simulates the entire terrestrial water cycle and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data in the intensively irrigated Northern High Plains (area ∼ 250,000 km2). The IHM, mainly constructed using in-situ data, was evaluated using field measured groundwater level, stream flow, and soil moisture data. The model was first used to calculate the incremental water storage for each water balance component (e.g. storage in the saturated zone) and then the GRACE equivalent terrestrial water storage anomaly. In the study area, storage in the saturated zone is the major component of the terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly. The GRACE-derived TWS anomaly and the anomaly simulated from the model are generally in agreement on a monthly scale with few discrepancies. Generally, both GRACE and the IHM results displayed a statistically significant increasing trend in the total TWS and groundwater storage anomalies from 2002-2013 over the Northern High Plains. This study demonstrates the applicability of an integrated hydrologic model to monitor TWS variations in a large area, and GRACE data and IHMs are capable of reproducing observed trends in TWS.

  20. The effect of fiber reinforcement type and water storage on strength properties of a provisional fixed partial denture resin.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Gülay; Keyf, Filiz

    2003-04-01

    Fracture resistance of provisional restorations is an important clinical concern. This property is directly related to transverse strength. Strengthening of provisional fixed partial dentures may result from reinforcement with various fiber types. This study evaluated the effect of fiber type and water storage on the transverse strength of a commercially available provisional resin under two different conditions. The denture resin was reinforced with either glass or aramid fiber or no reinforcement was used. Uniform samples were made from a commercially available autopolymerizing provisional fixed partial denture resin. Sixteen bar-shaped specimens (60 x 10 x 4 mm) were reinforced with pre-treated epoxy resin-coated glass fibers, with aramid fibers, or with no fibers. Eight specimens of each group, with and without fibers, were tested after 24 h of fabrication (immediate group), and after 30-day water storage. A three-point loading test was used to measure the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, and the modulus of elasticity. The Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance was used to examine differences among the three groups, and then the Mann-Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were applied to determine pair-wise differences. The transverse strength and the maximal deflection values in the immediate group and in the 30-day water storage group were not statistically significant. In the group tested immediately, the elasticity modulus was found to be significant (P = 0.042). In the 30-day water storage group, all the values were statistically insignificant. The highest transverse strength was displayed by the glass-reinforced resin (66.25MPa) in the immediate group. The transverse strength value was 62.04MPa for the unreinforced samples in the immediate group. All the specimens exhibited lower transverse strength with an increase in water immersion time. The transverse strength value was 61.13 MPa for the glass-reinforced resin and was 61.24 MPa for the

  1. Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Zhang, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to inaccurate water storage data. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using Landsat, a satellite-based dataset, an empirical storage classification method and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various sizes of flow detention and regulation facilities. The SWAT2005 is enhanced by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the surface area and volume of each type of water storages, ranging from small-sized flow detention ponds to medium- and large-sized reservoirs with the various flow regulation functions; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for both physical and human interference parameters. Through a real-world watershed case study, it is found that the improved SWAT2005 more accurately models small- and medium-sized storages than the original model in reproducing streamflows in the watershed. The improved SWAT2005 can be an effective tool to assess the impact of water storage on hydrologic processes, which has not been well addressed in the current modelling exercises.

  2. Effect of water content and temperature on seed longevity of seven Brassicaceae species after 5 years of storage.

    PubMed

    Mira, S; Estrelles, E; González-Benito, M E

    2015-01-01

    Maximising seed longevity is crucial for genetic resource preservation and longevity of orthodox seeds is determined by environmental conditions (water content and temperature). The effect of water content (down to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) ) on seed viability was studied at different temperatures for a 5-year storage period in taxonomically related species. Seeds of seven Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Eruca vesicaria, Malcolmia littorea, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium runcinatum) were stored at 48 environments comprising a combination of eight water contents, from 0.21 to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) DW and six temperatures (45, 35, 20, 5, -25, -170 °C). Survival curves were modelled and P50 calculated for those conditions where germination was reduced over the 5-year assay period. Critical water content for storage of seeds of six species at 45 °C ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 g·H₂O·g(-1) . The effect of extreme desiccation at 45 °C showed variability among species: three species showed damaging effects of drying below the critical water content, while for three species it was neither detrimental nor beneficial to seed longevity. Lipid content could be related to longevity, depending on the storage conditions. A variable seed longevity response to water content among taxonomically related species was found. The relative position of some of the species as long- or short-lived at 45 °C varied depending on the humidity at which storage behaviour was evaluated. Therefore, predictions of survival under desiccated conditions based on results obtained at high humidity might be problematic for some species. PMID:24804799

  3. Solar collector heat exchanger or hot water storage tank and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, B. S.

    1985-06-25

    A solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy is formed from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one form one of the sheets is coated with a layer of release agent, over all areas except the discrete areas and the peripheral areas so that only such uncoated areas will bond during cure. In another form, a sheet of non-adherent plastic, slightly smaller than the two sheets and having holes or holidays to form the discrete areas, is bonded between the two sheets. In a third form, the peripheral edges are first sealed to form a chamber, then the chamber is inflated and a forming die presses together the discrete areas only. Reinforcing fibers are employed or molded, into at least one of the uncured sheets. Woven fabric sheets may be stitched or fastened together, coated with a thermosetting plastic and then formed into a panel or tank chamber as above. In the solar collector panel embodiment, at least one of the reinforcing fibers is metal, most preferably, in a metal screen to equalize temperatures between the bonded discrete areas and areas overlying liquid carrying volumes of the panel.

  4. Effect of dentin location and long-term water storage on bonding effectiveness of dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    De Munck, Jan; Mine, Atsushi; Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; De Almeida Neves, Aline; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Dentin is a variable substrate with properties that change considerable in a single surface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding effectiveness to these different dentin locations and evaluate these differences over time. After bonding procedures with five different adhesives, small micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) beams were prepared and dichotomously divided in 'center' and 'periphery' dentin specimens. After 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months of water storage the µTBS of specimens of each group was determined, enabling a paired study design. The bond strengths of both etch&rinse adhesives were insensitive to regional variability. For the two-step self-etch adhesives, a marked increase in bond strengths was observed with increasing amount of intertubular dentin. Regional variability did not affect the long-term bonding effectiveness for any of the adhesives tested. In conclusion, only for the mild self-etch adhesives, µTBS to 'periphery' dentin was higher than for the 'center' specimens. PMID:21282894

  5. A study of screening the optimum sites for water storage at Dadu terrace using environmental index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Dadu Terrace in Taiwan is dominating with laterite area which having the characteristic of low soil infiltration rate. Large-scale development occurred rapidly due to urbanization at the top of the terrace. The increasing of impervious surface caused large amount of surface runoff during extreme rainfall event. Hence, the cities located at the skirts of the terrace are vulnerable to floods. It is important to find out the optimum sites for water storage to avoid debris and inundation related disasters. In this study, the suitable management units were delineated using the roads of Tai-No1, Tai-No1-2, County-125 and Taichung-77. The SCS Runoff Curve Number (CN) of pre- and post- development in the management units were also computed using maps of land use and soil. The spatial distribution of obvious difference in the potential maximum retention caused by the development could be easily filtered out. The hotspots can be delineated and employed as the depression sites for the multifunctional ponds construction.

  6. Globally gridded terrestrial water storage variations from GRACE satellite gravimetry for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Thomas, Maik

    2016-07-01

    Globally gridded estimates of monthly-mean anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) are estimated from the most recent GRACE release 05a of GFZ Potsdam in order to provide non-geodetic users a convenient access to state-of-the-art GRACE monitoring data. We use an ensemble of five global land model simulations with different physics and different atmospheric forcing to obtain reliable gridded scaling factors required to correct for spatial leakage introduced during data processing. To allow for the application of this data-set for large-scale monitoring tasks, model validation efforts, and subsequently also data assimilation experiments, globally gridded estimates of TWS uncertainties that include (i) measurement, (ii) leakage and (iii) re-scaling errors are provided as well. The results are generally consistent with the gridded data provided by Tellus, but deviate in some basins which are largely affected by the uncertainties of the model information required for re-scaling, where the approach based on the median of a small ensemble of global land models introduced in this paper leads to more robust results.

  7. Globally gridded terrestrial water storage variations from GRACE satellite gravimetry for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Globally gridded estimates of monthly-mean anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) are estimated from the most recent GRACE release 05a of GFZ Potsdam in order to provide non-geodetic users a convenient access to state-of-the-art GRACE monitoring data. We use an ensemble of five global land model simulations with different physics and different atmospheric forcing to obtain reliable gridded scaling factors required to correct for spatial leakage introduced during data processing. To allow for the application of this data-set for large-scale monitoring tasks, model validation efforts, and subsequently also data assimilation experiments, globally gridded estimates of TWS uncertainties that include (i) measurement, (ii) leakage, and (iii) re-scaling errors are provided as well. The results are generally consistent with the gridded data provided by Tellus, but deviate in some basins which are largely affected by the uncertainties of the model information required for re-scaling, where the approach based on the median of a small ensemble of global land models introduced in this paper leads to more robust results.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water.

    PubMed

    Chung, Han Young; Na, Eun Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Yoon, Hyunjin; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, Heebal; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticusis a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in humans who consumeV. parahaemolyticus-contaminated seafood.The FORC_023 strain was isolated from raw fish storage water, containing live fish at a sashimi restaurant. Here, we aimed to sequence and characterize the genome of the FORC_023 strain. The genome of the FORC_023 strain showed two circular chromosomes, which contained 4227 open reading frames (ORFs), 131 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. Although the genome of FORC_023 did not include major virulence genes, such as genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), it contained genes encoding other hemolysins, secretion systems, iron uptake-related proteins and severalV. parahaemolyticusislands. The highest average nucleotide identity value was obtained between the FORC_023 strain and UCM-V493 (CP007004-6). Comparative genomic analysis of FORC_023 with UCM-V493 revealed that FORC_023 carried an additional genomic region encoding virulence factors, such as repeats-in-toxin and type II secretion factors. Furthermore,in vitrocytotoxicity testing showed that FORC_023 exhibited a high level of cytotoxicity toward INT-407 human epithelial cells. These results suggested that the FORC_023 strain may be a food-borne pathogen. PMID:27073252

  9. High temperature postirradiation materials performance of spent pressurized water reactor fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Pasupathi, V.; Stellrecht, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Postirradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well-characterized pressurized water reactor rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510, and 571/sup 0/C in limited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding, which decreases the internal rod pressure. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal fuel-cladding chemical interaction layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized alpha-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress corrosion cracking, or fuel pellet degradation. If irradiation hardening does not reduce the stress rupture properties of Zircaloy, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C based on a stress-rupture mechanism is recommended to ensure a 1000-yr cladding lifetime.

  10. Linkage between canopy water storage and drop size distributions of leaf drips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, Kazuki; Watanabe, Ai; Hotta, Norifumi; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2013-04-01

    Differences in drop size distribution (DSD) of leaf drips among tree species have been estimated and physically interpreted to clarify the leaf drip generation process. Leaf drip generation experiments for nine species were conducted in an indoor location without foliage vibration using an automatic mist spray. Broad-leaved species produced a similar DSD among species whose leaves had a matte surface and a second similar DSD among species whose leaves had a coated surface. The matte broad leaves produced a larger and wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves. Coated coniferous needles had a wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves and different DSDs were observed for different species. The species with shorter dense needles generated a larger DSD. The leaf drip diameter was calculated through the estimation of a state of equilibrium of a hanging drop on the leaves based on physical theory. The calculations indicated that the maximum diameter of leaf drips was determined by the contact angle, and the range of DSDs was determined by the variation in contact length and the contact diameter at the hanging points. The results revealed that leaf drip DSD changed due to variations in leaf hydrophobicity, leaf roughness, leaf geometry and leaf inclination among the different tree species. This study allows the modelization of throughfall DSD. Furthermore, it indicates the possibility of interpreting canopy water processes from canopy water storage to drainage through the contact angle and leaf drip DSD. The part of this study is published in Nanko et al. (2013, Agric. Forest. Meteorol. 169, 74-84).

  11. Six oil/water separators reduce runoff contamination from storage terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Castelucci, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    The Gordon Terminal Service Company operates a 30-acre facility adjacent to the Ohio River for the custom-packing of oils and chemicals. During transfer and maintenance operations, oil had been occasionally spilled within diked retaining areas. Spilled material is collected in the retaining areas and, together with rain and snow drainage, flows to the plant's sewer system and then, after crude separation of oily waste, to Allegheny County Sanitary Authority (ACSA) facilities. To meet effluent standards set by the ACSA, Gordon was required to limit its plant effluent to a maximum of 15 ppm. Typical oil content had been in the less than 200 ppm range. To remove the tramp oil from the predominantly aqueous effluent stream, Gordon initially installed one corrugated plate oil/water separator at an in-ground location. The unit consists of an epoxy-coated steel tank that contains a pack of corrugated separator plates installed at a 45/sup 0/ angle. Since the initial oil/water separator was installed in 1974, Gordon Terminal Service Company has added five more units - four at the terminal and one at the jet fuel storage facility near the Pittsburgh International Airport which is also operated by Gordon Terminal. By strategically placing the separators, the company has been able to eliminate the potential for contaminating the municipal sewer facilities, keeping effluent from the plant to below 15 ppm oil. Plant effluent has been and is periodically monitored by the ACSA and has met effluent standards. All the units have proven to be relatively maintenance free, requiring only periodic inspection and flushing. Since the separators require no power or chemicals, operating costs have been virtually non-existent.

  12. Seasonal Water Storage Variations as Impacted by Water Abstractions: Comparing the Output of a Global Hydrological Model with GRACE and GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, Petra; Fritsche, Mathias; Eicker, Annette; Müller Schmied, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Better quantification of continental water storage variations is expected to improve our understanding of water flows, including evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge as well as human water abstractions. For the first time, total water storage (TWS) on the land area of the globe as computed by the global water model WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) was compared to both gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. The GRACE satellites sense the effect of TWS on the dynamic gravity field of the Earth. GPS reference points are displaced due to crustal deformation caused by time-varying TWS. Unfortunately, the worldwide coverage of the GPS tracking network is irregular, while GRACE provides global coverage albeit with low spatial resolution. Detrended TWS time series were analyzed by determining scaling factors for mean annual amplitude ( f GRACE) and time series of monthly TWS ( f GPS). Both GRACE and GPS indicate that WaterGAP underestimates seasonal variations of TWS on most of the land area of the globe. In addition, seasonal maximum TWS occurs 1 month earlier according to WaterGAP than according to GRACE on most land areas. While WaterGAP TWS is sensitive to the applied climate input data, none of the two data sets result in a clearly better fit to the observations. Due to the low number of GPS sites, GPS observations are less useful for validating global hydrological models than GRACE observations, but they serve to support the validity of GRACE TWS as observational target for hydrological modeling. For unknown reasons, WaterGAP appears to fit better to GPS than to GRACE. Both GPS and GRACE data, however, are rather uncertain due to a number of reasons, in particular in dry regions. It is not possible to benefit from either GPS or GRACE observations to monitor and quantify human water abstractions if only detrended (seasonal) TWS variations are considered. Regarding GRACE, this is

  13. Surface water storage variations in Anatolia and Surrounding Territories observed by GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Mercan, H.

    2012-04-01

    reference geopotential field, e.g., GGM01C. In this study, the surface water mass changes over Anatolia and the surrounding region located between 20-47 degree East longitudes and 30-48 degree North latitudes are computed based on the monthly SHC model and the regional inversion of the in situ potential difference observations. Two distinct solutions have different temporal and spatial resolutions even though the estimated accuracies are similar. The former is computed with a temporal resolution of one month and a spatial resolution of 300 km. The regional solution has computed with monthly and sub-monthly intervals with a spatial resolution as fine as 165 km. Both solutions have accuracies of 2-3 cm in terms of water column height. In addition, the results have been compared with the water level heights observed by Envisat tracks at the Ataturk dam reservoir between the years 2003-2009. Even though the GRACE monthly water storage estimates and the observed water level heights have different amplitudes, both follow a similar seasonal pattern.

  14. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  16. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  17. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high-resolution isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Dick, J.; Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-09-01

    To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time-variant stream water ages, we used a new long-term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ˜1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ˜1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments.

  18. Evaluating surface and subsurface water storage variations at small time and space scales from relative gravity measurements in semiarid Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Julia; Champollion, CéDric; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Hinderer, Jacques; Boucher, Marie; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Oï, Monique; Mouyen, Maxime; Henri, Christopher; Moigne, Nicolas; Deroussi, SéBastien; Demarty, JéRôMe; Boulain, Nicolas; Benarrosh, Nathalie; Robert, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    The acquisition of reliable data sets representative of hydrological regimes and their variations is a critical concern for water resource assessment. For the subsurface, traditional approaches based on probe measurements, core analysis, and well data can be laborious, expensive, and highly intrusive, while only yielding sparse data sets. For this study, an innovative field survey, merging relative microgravimetry, magnetic resonance soundings, and hydrological measurements, was conducted to evaluate both surface and subsurface water storage variations in a semiarid Sahelian area. The instrumental setup was implemented in the lower part of a typical hillslope feeding to a temporary pond. Weekly measurements were carried out using relative spring gravimeters during 3 months of the rainy season in 2009 over a 350 × 500 m2 network of 12 microgravity stations. Gravity variations of small to medium amplitude (≤220 nm s-2) were measured with accuracies better than 50 nm s-2, revealing significant variations of the water storage at small time (from 1 week up to 3 months) and space (from a couple of meters up to a few hundred meters) scales. Consistent spatial organization of the water storage variations were detected, suggesting high infiltration at the outlet of a small gully. The comparison with hydrological measurements and magnetic resonance soundings involved that most of the microgravity variations came from the heterogeneity in the vadose zone. The results highlight the potential of time lapse microgravity surveys for detecting intraseasonal water storage variations and providing rich space-time data sets for process investigation or hydrological model calibration/evaluation.

  19. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high‐resolution isotope data

    PubMed Central

    Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Dick, J.; Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time‐variant stream water ages, we used a new long‐term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer‐aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ∼1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ∼1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains fl