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1

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

Griffin, M.J. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Harris, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-10-01

2

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

3

Photograph of drawing building 523 and 100,000gallon water tank above ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photograph of drawing building 523 and 100,000-gallon water tank above it, dated 1979. Drawing in collection of Caretaker Site Office, Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Building No. 523, Delaware Avenue between East Fourth Street & Webster Avenue, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

4

40 Gallon Challenge issues a call to reduce residential water use  

E-print Network

they are each being developed, something new might be tried and discovered to be e#17;ective. ?So much water can be conserved through these voluntary programs that it?s almost like #19;nding new water without actually having any new water being produced...16 txH2O Fall 2013 Story by Katie Heinrich The #22;#30; Gallon Challenge, a nationwide residential water-conservation program, is helping Texans save water in ways new to them. #29;e continuing drought, coupled with increasing water demands...

Heinrich, Katie

2013-01-01

5

Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

1981-01-01

6

The average person in Pennsylvania uses about 62 gallons of water in their home each day. This fact sheet will help you determine how much water you currently use and the amount of water and money you could save  

E-print Network

in your home that are not mentioned above. For example, you might use water to fill humidifiers, fish1 The average person in Pennsylvania uses about 62 gallons of water in their home each day 1994 2.5 gpm Low-flow 1.5 gpm Clothes Washer (The average home washes about seven loads of laundry per

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

7

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2012-01-01

8

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P.J.

1996-01-01

9

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

10

27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight. 30.62 Section 30.62 Alcohol...showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight. The wine and proof gallon content by weight and proof of packages of distilled...

2010-04-01

11

Thermal Storage Systems at IBM Facilities  

E-print Network

In 1979, IBM commissioned its first large scale thermal storage system with a capacity of 2.7 million gallons of chilled water and 1.2 million gallons of reclaimed, low temperature hot water. The stored cooling energy represents approximately 27...

Koch, G.

1981-01-01

12

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

13

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey W.

2010-08-12

14

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of each month of the year) excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The two figures show that 2010 was the driest year since 2003. The drought in the Amazon was largely responsible, but an excess of water in 2009 seems to have buffered that drought to some extent. The drying trend in the 25-55 deg S zone is a combination of Patagonian glacier melt and drought in parts of Australia.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2011-01-01

15

Water storage concepts in hydrological catchment models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most hydrological catchment model some form of water storage is simulated, but the concepts of storage differ largely. While the simplest concepts might be appropriate when the main focus is runoff quantity, more complex concepts might be needed when also other variables are of interest. Besides its importance for the precipitation-runoff dynamics, water storage is also important because of its relation to catchment mean transit times. The water storage concepts range from simple lumped, box-type approaches to fully-distributed representations of soil water storage. The concepts differ also in which water stores are included; while conceptual runoff models often only consider the dynamic storage, more physically-based descriptions consider the entire water storage including, for instance, immobile water stores. Depending on model structure, the possible interactions between different water stores are represented in varying complexity. Yet another concept of water storage is used when water storage is estimated through tracer hydrological time series analysis. In this contribution the different concepts of water storage are compared both in principle and with concrete examples. One important aspect of water storage concepts is also the distinction between saturated and unsaturated water storage. A simple approach to quantify total storage amounts in the saturated and unsaturated zone, including the dynamic variations of these two stores, is demonstrated for a small Swedish catchment and compared to other approaches of storage estimations. In another study, it was found that catchment storage estimates based on a tracer respective modeling approach were highly correlated for a number of Scottish catchments, but differed in orders of magnitude. This example is used to discuss the effect of using different concepts when estimating water storage. It is generally important to be careful when interpreting water storage estimates, as they might largely depend on the concept used for quantification. The simplest approaches often only consider a fraction of the total water storage and do therefore not represent the real processes. More complex storage concepts, on the other hand, imply the need for more parameters and, thus, increased parameter uncertainty.

Seibert, J.

2011-12-01

16

Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for monitoring higher level parameters such as fauna diversity. The regenerating rainforest environment presents a number of interesting challenges for wireless sensor networks related to energy harvesting and to reliable low-power wireless communications through dense and wet vegetation. Located downstream from the Springbrook plateau, the Little Nerang and Hinze dams are the two major water supply storages for the Gold Coast region. In September 2009 we fitted methane, light, wind, and sonar sensors to our autonomous electric boat platform and successfully demonstrated autonomous collection of methane flux release data on Little Nerang Dam. Sensor and boat status data were relayed back to a human operator on the shore of the dam via a small network of our Fleck™ nodes. The network also included 4 floating nodes each fitted with a string of 6 temperature sensors for profiling temperature at different water depths. We plan to expand the network further during 2010 to incorporate floating methane nodes, additional temperature sensing nodes, as well as land-based microclimate nodes. The overall monitoring system will provide significant data to understand the connected catchment-to-storage system and will provide continuous data to monitor and understand change trends within this world heritage area.

Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

2010-05-01

17

ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

18

Integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH) developed from early systems comprised simply of a simple black tank placed in the sun. The ICSSWH, by its combined collection and storage function suffers substantial heat losses to ambient, especially at night-time and non-collection periods. To be viable economically, the system has evolved to incorporate new and novel methods of maximising

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; Brian Norton

2006-01-01

19

Assessment of energy storage technologies and systems. Phase 1: Electric storage heating, storage air conditioning, and storage hot water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings is analyzed. TES applications examined include storage electric (resistance) heating, storage air conditioning, and storage hot water heating. A system model, SIMSTOR, is employed to simulate TES-related effects upon daily and annual utility load profiles and to compare utility fuel and capital cost savings with TES-system costs. Case-study analyses of

J. G. Asbury; R. Giese; S. Nelson; L. Akridge; P. Graf; K. Heitner

1976-01-01

20

FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

PUIGH RJ

2009-05-14

21

Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature  

E-print Network

RWH systems has become a concern. Water temperature is a parameter of water quality and storage container color and shading affect this temperature. Four different colors and three different shadings were applied to twelve rainwater storage barrels...

Clayton, James Brent

2012-07-16

22

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

23

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

24

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

25

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-print Network

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

26

Creating solutions for water quality issues in New Jersey I know the rain barrel is just a 55 gallon drum and does not collect  

E-print Network

. Indeed, the Three Gorges Dam was motivated largely on the premise of flood control. In the summer of 2006 over the last three decades led to the on- going construction of the South-North Water Diversion will be one of the worst-impacted regions in the world if climate changes as pre- dicted (4). Three main

Goodman, Robert M.

27

Hot water storage tank for solar collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A baffled hot storage tank for solar collector systems is provided. The tank includes a concentric of the baffle and another circulation part at the top of the baffle. This configuration restricts the mixing of water allowing both a vertical temperature gradient and a lateral gradient to be maintained. The maintaining of hot water at the desired supply temperature is restricted to only the upper section of the center core inside the baffle. This location reduces radiant heat loss. Additionally, inlet and outlet pipes are also positioned to take advantage of the tank temperature gradients.

Roehl, James S.

1992-02-01

28

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

29

Temperature stratification in hot water solar thermal storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall efficiency of solar domestic hot water systems using liquid sensible heat storage can be enhanced by temperature stratification in the storage tank. An experimental apparatus was designed to study how the storage tank stratified for three different hot water load schedules (morning peak, evening peak and distributed), three solar-inputs (clear day, cloudy day and intermittent), three flow rates

S. M. Koldhekar

1981-01-01

30

Terrestrial water storage and polar motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study compares observed polar motion for the period 1900-1985 with meteorologic and hydrologic data for the world over the same period, in an effort to determine whether water storage, in combination with air mass redistribution, can account for the observed variance of polar motion. Monthly time series of estimated continental water storage and air mass excitation functions have been compared at the annual frequency and at the Chandler frequency using power, coherence, multiple coherence, and phase spectra. There is a discrepancy in accounting for more than half the variance of polar motion across a broad range of frequencies. Similar results have been obtained in recent studies of polar motion at frequencies above 1 cycle per year using modem space geodetic determinations of polar motion. The persistence of the discrepancey at the annual frequency and its broadband nature suggest a source of polar motion excitation due to air and water motion which has either not been correctly estimated or not yet identified.

Kuehne, John; Wilson, Clark R.

1991-01-01

31

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2010-10-01

32

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2011-10-01

33

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2012-10-01

34

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2013-10-01

35

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2014-10-01

36

Estimation of water withdrawal and distribution, water use, and wastewater collection and return flow in Cumberland, Rhode Island, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data collected in Rhode Island by different State agencies or maintained by different public suppliers and wastewater- treatment facilities need to be integrated if these data are to be used in making water- resource management decisions. Water-use data for the town of Cumberland, a small area in northeastern Rhode Island, were compiled and integrated to provide an example of how the procedure could be applied. Integration and reliability assessment of water-use data could be facilitated if public suppliers, wastewater- treatment facilities, and State agencies used a number of standardized procedures for data collection and computer storage. The total surface water and ground water withdrawn in the town of Cumberland during 1988 is estimated to be 15.39 million gallons per day, of which 11.20 million gallons per day was exported to other towns. Water use in Cumberland included 2.51 million gallons per day for domestic use, 0.68 million gallons per day for industrial use, 0.27 million gallons per day for commercial use, and 0.73 million gallons per day for other use, most of which were unmetered use. Disposal of waste- water in Cumberland included 2.03 million gallons per day returned to the hydrologic system and 1.73 million gallons per day exported from Cumberland for wastewater treatment. Consumptive use during 1988 is estimated to be 0.43 million gallons per day.

Horn, M.A.; Craft, P.A.; Bratton, Lisa

1994-01-01

37

WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

38

Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage  

E-print Network

of 35 psig was applied to the 36" diameter return header in the basement of the Central Utility Plant by a pressure-activated make-up valve. In addition, a hydro-pneumatic tank allowed for expansion. Chilled water was supplied at 42"F year... to approximately 6 million gallons, the size of existing hydro-pneumatic expansion tank in the basement of the Central Utility Plant was no longer adequate and it was removed. Also, the existing pressure activated make-up valve was converted to solenoid...

Fiorino, D. P.

39

Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-01-01

40

Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply and demand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can be significantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment of reservoir storage loss in conjunction with vulnerability to storage loss has not been done. We estimated the loss in reservoir capacity for a global data set of large reservoirs from 1901 to 2010, using modeled sediment flux data. We use spatially explicit population data sets as a proxy for storage demand and calculate storage capacity for all river basins globally. Simulations suggest that the net reservoir capacity is declining as a result of sedimentation (˜5% compared to the installed capacity). Combined with increasing need for storage, these losses challenge the sustainable management of reservoir operation and water resources management in many regions. River basins that are most vulnerable include those with a strong seasonal flow pattern and high population growth rates such as the major river basins in India and China. Decreasing storage capacity globally suggests that the role of reservoir water storage in offsetting sea-level rise is likely weakening and may be changing sign.

Wisser, Dominik; Frolking, Steve; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2013-09-01

41

Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

2011-01-01

42

Multisensor analysis of water storage variations of the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a multi-sensor analysis of water storage and surface height variations of the Caspian Sea, from mid-2002 through 2006. Data from three satellite missions (GRACE, Jason-1, and Aqua) are used to examine the relationship between changes in spatially averaged sea surface height (SSH) and water storage in and around the Caspian Sea. Two composite time series are constructed to

Sean Swenson; John Wahr

2007-01-01

43

Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

2013-03-01

44

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA GRACE mission now allows hydrologists to study terrestrial water storage variations for the world's largest river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Because these mega-basins contribute the majority of global runoff, GRACE data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in basin water storage behavior that are relevant for global climate studies. Here we calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing, and then parameterize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. This results in a basin-independent relationship between precipitation forcing and storage response as a function of temporal frequency and large-scale basin properties, quantifying fundamental global hydrology relationships that were previously unobservable. Results show that for very large basins, temperature, soil water-holding capacity and percent forest cover are the major controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are relatively unimportant. At annual timescales, temperature variability drives storage variability for basins with a mean temperature under 15 deg C, while land surface variables characterize storage variability for warmer basins. At interannual timescales, land surface variables are the largest influence on storage behavior in all basins, with more forested and deeper soiled basins showing reduced response to interannual variability in precipitation forcing. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of forest cover and soil capacity on basin residence times for global-scale studies, and imply that land-atmosphere processes such as precipitation recycling play a critical role in large-basin storage dynamics. The derived empirical relationships were accurate in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.

2012-12-01

45

Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

2008-01-01

46

Spent fuel heatup following loss of water during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the type of spent fuel storage accident that has been hypothesized to be the most severe, i.e., one that leads to a complete drainage of the water from the pool. The objective is to analyze the thermal-hydraulics phenomena involved when the storage racks and their contents become exposed to air, and to determine the conditions that could

A. S. Benjamin; D. J. McCloskey

1980-01-01

47

VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27?, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

48

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27?, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

49

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24

50

A global analysis of temporal and spatial variations in continental water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

While continental water storage plays a key role in the Earth's water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles, its temporal and spatial variations are poorly known, in particular, for large areas. This study analyzes water storage simulated with the Watergap Global Hydrology Model. The model represents four major storage compartments: surface water, snow, soil, and groundwater. Water storage variations are analyzed for

Andreas Güntner; Jochen Stuck; Susanna Werth; Petra Döll; Kerstin Verzano; Bruno Merz

2007-01-01

51

Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

2009-01-01

52

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54 ? Ef ? 0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation.

Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, James S.

2013-06-01

53

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE.  

PubMed

[1]?A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km(2)), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54???Ef ???0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation. PMID:24563556

Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

2013-06-01

54

Surface Water Storage Capacity of Street Trees in Davis, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall interception plays an important role in water resources redistribution of the hydrologic cycle. Canopy surface water detention and saturation storage capacities are important parameters that affect rainfall interception processes. Two types of surface water storage capacities that influence the interception dynamic processes are the surface water saturation storage capacity and the maximum surface storage capacity. Studies of rainfall interception in rural forest show that these values vary widely among tree species and geographic locations. Understanding the magnitude and dynamic of these storages are important for modeling urban hydrological processes. In this study, 20 urban tree species in Davis, California were measured in laboratory. The computer controlled measurement system included a rainfall simulator, a weighting measurement, and image collector components. The surface storages were calculated based on sample's weighing change of different rainfall intensity and sample's surface area which was estimated based image analysis method. Twelve rainfall intensities varied from 3.48 to 139.49 mm/hr were used in each tree species' measurement. The results shown that the surface storages varied widely among tree species and different grow seasons.

Xiao, Q.

2012-12-01

55

Rethinking Water Scarcity: The Role of Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity, in its simplest sense, can be defined as a shortage in the availability of freshwater relative to demand. Freshwater shortages directly affect food security, access to safe drinking water, hygiene and public health, and environmental well-being. Water scarcity can also retard economic development and promote civil strife. Robust measures of water scarcity are therefore required to inform water policy and help allocate resources to mitigate these effects.

Taylor, Richard

2009-07-01

56

Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect

The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

Not Available

2011-04-01

57

Integrated collector-storage solar water heater with extended storage unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is one of the simplest designs of solar water heater. In ICSSWH systems the conversion of solar energy into useful heat is often simple, efficient and cost effective. To broaden the usefulness of ICSSWH systems, especially for overnight applications, numerous design modifications have been proposed and analyzed in the past. In the present

Rakesh Kumar; Marc A. Rosen

2011-01-01

58

Thermal Storage for Energy Efficient Structures (Poteet High School Case Study)  

E-print Network

Concrete lined steel. 12,000 gallon - with four headers arranged for dual temperature storage ( 190°F & 120'~). Top half recharged by boilers and bottom half recharged from kitchen product refrigeration waste heat. C. CHILLER Variable frequency... and yard irrigation. This was done to provide planning information for future schools. OPERATING CYCLES CHILLED WATER STORAGE RECHARGE The primary function of the chilled water storage capability is to provide cooling capability to any part...

Utesch, A. L.

1988-01-01

59

Coupling of waste water treatment with storage polymer production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage polymers in bacterial cells can be extracted and used as biodegradable thermoplastics. However, widespread applications\\u000a have been limited by high production costs. In this study, activated sludge bacteria in a conventional waste water treatment\\u000a system were induced, by controlling the carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the reactor liquor, to accumulate storage polymers.\\u000a Specific polymer yield increased to a maximum of

H. Chua; P. H. F. Yu; L. Y. Ho

1997-01-01

60

Decision support for integrated water-energy planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While

Vincent Carroll Tidwell; Leonard A. Malczynski; Peter Holmes Kobos; Cesar Castillo; William Eugene Hart; Geoffrey T. Klise

2009-01-01

61

A Feasibility Study of Geologic Water Storage in Arid Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important control on the carrying capacity of arid and semi-arid regions is the ability to develop and maintain a reliable water supply for domestic and agricultural use. In the semi-arid highlands of southern Peru, the pre-Columbian Incas developed a technique of collecting and storing basin yields by controlling the discharge boundary of an existing aquifer. This water resource management strategy has been dubbed "Geologic Water Storage" (Fairley, in review). Yield from at least one such system near Cuzco, Peru, has provided a reliable source of irrigation water for rural farmers to the present day. The geologic water storage systems of southern Peru suggested the possibility of developing a similar system to water stock in rural Idaho. Annual precipitation in Idaho is about one-third that of southern Peru, and obtaining an adequate stock water supply is often problematic. The application of a simple lumped capacitance model to a selected basin in central Idaho showed that it may be physically and economically feasible to modify the basin characteristics to prolong water availability at the site. A more detailed study of this problem, that includes field characterization of the site, is necessary to substantiate the model results. If further studies and field trials confirm the viability of geologic water storage, this approach may find applications in many rural and developing areas, both nationally and internationally.

Fairley, J. P.; Preuit, T.

2001-05-01

62

Water, gravity and trees: Relationship of tree-ring widths and total water storage dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water stored in the subsurface as groundwater or soil moisture is the main fresh water source not only for drinking water and food production but also for the natural vegetation. In a changing environment water availability becomes a critical issue in many different regions. Long-term observations of the past are needed to improve the understanding of the hydrological system and the prediction of future developments. Tree ring data have repeatedly proved to be valuable sources for reconstructing long-term climate dynamics, e.g. temperature, precipitation and different hydrological variables. In water-limited environments, tree growth is primarily influenced by total water stored in the subsurface and hence, tree-ring records usually contain information about subsurface water storage. The challenge is to retrieve the information on total water storage from tree rings, because a training dataset of water stored in the sub-surface is required for calibration against the tree-ring series. However, measuring water stored in the subsurface is notoriously difficult. We here present high-precision temporal gravimeter measurements which allow for the depth-integrated quantification of total water storage dynamics at the field scale. In this study, we evaluate the relationship of total water storage change and tree ring growth also in the context of the complex interactions of other meteorological forcing factors. A tree-ring chronology was derived from a Norway spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. Total water storage dynamics were measured directly by the superconducting gravimeter of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell for a 9-years period. Time series were extended to 63-years period by a hydrological model using gravity data as the only calibration constrain. Finally, water storage changes were reconstructed based on the relationship between the hydrological model and the tree-ring chronology. Measurement results indicate that tree-ring growth is primarily controlled by total water storage in the subsurface. But high uncertainties intervals of the correlation coefficient urges for the extension of the measurement period. This multi-disciplinary study, combining hydrology, dendrochronology and geodesy shows that temporal gravimeter measurements may give us the unique opportunity to retrieve the information of total water storage contained in tree-ring records to reconstruct total water storage dynamics. Knowing the relationship of water storage and tree-ring growth can also support the reconstruction of other climate records based on tree-ring series, help with hydrological model testing and can improve our knowledge of long-term variations of water storage in the past.

Creutzfeldt, B.; Heinrich, I.; Merz, B.; Blume, T.; Güntner, A.

2012-04-01

63

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2010-07-01

64

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2014-07-01

65

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2011-07-01

66

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2012-07-01

67

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2013-07-01

68

Arctic hillslope hydrologic response to changing water storage conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solute transport from terrestrial to aquatic environments depends on dynamics of water storage and flux. In the arctic, these dynamics are related to changes in permafrost and hydrological conditions that vary with climate across multiple scales. In order to predict the continued trajectory of arctic landscape and ecosystem evolution, observed changes to the hydrologic regime and riverine nutrient fluxes require properly scaled, mechanistic explanations. We address this issue at the hillslope scale by quantifying hydrologic response to changing storage as part of a collaborative effort to understand the coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic hillslopes. Hillslopes underlain by continuous permafrost experience gradual, summer-season increases in potential water storage through active layer thaw, as well as stochastic changes in available water storage as soil moisture conditions change due to storm events, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow. Preferential flowpaths called water tracks are ubiquitous features draining arctic hillslopes and are the focus of our study. We predict that water track hydrologic response to precipitation is a function of snowmelt or storm characteristics and available storage. We hypothesize that ¬the ratio of runoff to precipitation will decrease as available storage increases, whether due to the seasonal increase in active layer thaw, or an extended dry period. Intensive snow and thaw depth surveys on a water track on the hillslopes of the Upper Kuparuk River watershed in northern Alaska during May to June 2013 reveal that snow persisted one week longer in a water track than the adjacent hillslope, and thus active layer thaw initiated earlier on the adjacent hillslope. Despite this earlier thaw timing, thaw depth in the water track exceeded that on the non-track hillslope within five days of being uncovered. Thaw, and thus subsurface storage, in water tracks remained greater than the rest of the hillslope for at least the subsequent two months. Deeper thaw coupled with a slight topographic depression in the water tracks relative to the adjacent hillslopes generates a hydraulic gradient that directed water not only downslope, but also across slope into the water tracks. We expected that steeper hydraulic gradients across slope and into water tracks would increase hillslope soil water contributions and increase the specific conductivity of water flowing through the water track. We also expect hillslope contributions to scale with water track catchment characteristics such as drainage area and slope. We test these hypotheses by monitoring water table fluctuations in gridded wells on the hillslope and in our six intensive study sites throughout the summer. Our results provide direct evidence that active layer thaw and the timing and amount of precipitation are important controls on water and solute flux from arctic hillslopes. Depending on the magnitude of climate-induced changes to these controls, there will likely be important consequences for downslope ecosystems.

Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

2013-12-01

69

Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system.  

PubMed

Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been addressed. In this paper, performance of a constructed wetland based grey water recycling system was analysed by taking the constraint of residence time during storage into account using an object based household water cycle model. Two indicators, water saving efficiency (WSE) and residence time index (RTI), are employed to reflect the system's performance and residence time during storage respectively. Results show that WSE and RTI change with storage tank volumes oppositely. As both high WSE and RTI cannot be achieved simultaneously, it is concluded that in order to achieve the most cost-effective and safe solution, systems with both small grey and green tanks are needed, whilst accepting that only relatively modest water saving efficiency targets can be achieved. Higher efficiencies will only be practicable if water quality deterioration in the green water tank can be prevented by some means (e.g. disinfection). PMID:19796787

Liu, S; Butler, D; Memon, F A; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L; Jefferson, B

2010-01-01

70

Colorado River Basin Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics and Vegetation Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is an important hydrologic variable that defines the state of a river basin (e.g. floods and droughts) and vegetation response to the water availability and incoming energy. Direct determination of TWS is difficult due to insufficient in-situ data on space-time variability of hydrologic stores (snow, soil moisture, and groundwater) and fluxes (precipitation, evapotranspiration). To better understand

M. Durcik; P. A. Troch; H. V. Gupta

2009-01-01

71

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

72

Thermal storage efficiencies of two solar saltless water ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study between two types of solar ponds is presented. The first type has its free surface covered by a thin layer of transparent paraffin oil. The second type is covered by transparent glass floating devices. Each device disposes an air-vacuum chamber. The free water surface between these devices is covered by transparent paraffin oil also. The thermal storage

A. V Spyridonos; A. A Argiriou; J. K Nickoletatos

2003-01-01

73

Environmental assessment of solar thermal collectors with integrated water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal systems feed on a “clean” energy source. However, a complete analysis of the environmental performance of solar thermal collectors should take into account not only their operation phase, but also their whole life cycle. This paper reports the results of a life cycle assessment of a solar thermal collector with integrated water storage. The study, carried out by

Riccardo Battisti; Annalisa Corrado

2005-01-01

74

28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building on right, Minnesota Department of Transportation communication tower in center, and Minnesota Bureau of Mines wind tunnel on left, looking southwest toward launch pad area - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

75

WATER INFILTRATION AND STORAGE AFFECTED BY SUBSOILING AND SUBSEQUENT TILLAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential benefits of subsoiling are difficult to predict. Objectives were to determine effect of subsoiling on water infiltration/storage and evaluate longevity of soil structure following tillage. Tillage treatments were no subsoiling (NoSS), subsoiled (SS), and subsoiled plus secondary tillage ...

76

EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

77

Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

Showen, C. R., (compiler)

1978-01-01

78

SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

79

Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures. PMID:25507374

Jur?ev-Savi?evi?, Anamarija; Bradari?, Nikola; Pai?, Vlado Ozic; Muli?, Rosanda; Puntari?, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

2014-09-01

80

Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures. PMID:25420390

Jur?ev-Savi?evi?, Anamarija; Bradari?, Nikola; Pai?, Vlado Ozic; Muli?, Rosanda; Puntari?, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

2014-09-01

81

Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

Thomas, H.E.

1957-01-01

82

Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. PMID:23262407

Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

2013-01-30

83

76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000...Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of...Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located...generation of the project would be 120 gigawatt-hours...Pumped Storage Water Supply LLC;...

2011-05-13

84

76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 14143-000...Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice...a turnout to supply project effluent water to an existing...Pumped Storage Project would be 110...Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC,...

2011-05-27

85

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

2010-04-01

86

Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with\\/without phase change materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units

Sefa Tarhan; Ahmet Sari; M. Hakan Yardim

2006-01-01

87

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

2012-04-01

88

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

2013-04-01

89

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

2014-04-01

90

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

2011-04-01

91

Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

French, James J.

1978-01-01

92

Heat retaining integrated collector\\/storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated collector\\/storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) that can significantly reduce heat loss to ambient during non-collection periods has been developed. Two thirds of the ICS vessel is mounted within a concentrating cusp, McIntire ‘W’ modified concentrator and incorporates an inner heat retaining vessel. The remaining upper 1\\/3 of the vessel is situated outside the reflector cavity and is heavily

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2003-01-01

93

Storage performance of Fortune mandarins following hot water dips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially ripe ‘Fortune’ mandarins were dipped in water at 50 °C (Dip50), 52 °C (Dip52), 54 °C (Dip54), 56 °C (Dip56), or 58 °C (Dip58) for 3 min before storage at 6 °C for 30 days and 3 additional days at 20 °C (simulated shelf-life). Untreated fruits were used as control. Scanning electron microscopy of untreated fruit revealed rough and

M. Schirra; G. D'hallewin

1997-01-01

94

Thermal energy storage using sodium sulfate decahydrate and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

It appears that the major problem preventing use of sodium sulfate decahydrate for thermal energy storage can be avoided by using the composition which is at or slightly to the water-rich side of the invariant point in the phase diagram. A mixture of 68.2 w\\/o NaâSOâ x 10HâO and 31.8 w\\/o HâO is suggested for a TES material. (WDM)

D BISWAS

1977-01-01

95

Colorado River Basin Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics and Vegetation Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is an important hydrologic variable that defines the state of a river basin (e.g. floods and droughts) and vegetation response to the water availability and incoming energy. Direct determination of TWS is difficult due to insufficient in-situ data on space-time variability of hydrologic stores (snow, soil moisture, and groundwater) and fluxes (precipitation, evapotranspiration). To better understand intra and inter annual variability of TWS and vegetation response to waters storage changes we implemented three alternative methods to estimate TWS changes: (1) the Basin-Scale Water Balance (BSWB) using North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset; (2) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) forced with gridded meteorological data; and (3) new remotely sensed gravity field data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Vegetation is represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from MODIS and AVHRR estimates. Preliminary results show strong correlations between TWS data and its components (precipitation, modeled shallow, deep soil moisture, etc.) and vegetation greenness and different vegetation response times to available water in upper and lower basins. TWS data are generated in near-real time, stored in the SAHRA Geodatabase and available at http://voda.hwr.arizona.edu/twsc/sahra/.

Durcik, M.; Troch, P. A.; Gupta, H. V.

2009-12-01

96

77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Although water supply is one of...main stem projects, no specific...reservoir project from its present...use to M&I water supply (reallocation...reservoir projects. While water rights are...rights to water supply storage...

2012-07-19

97

WATER PROPERTIES IN FERN SPORES: SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS RELATING TO WATER AFFINITY, GLASSY STATES AND STORAGE STABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of ...

98

Optimization of storage reservoir considering water quantity and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many factors influence water quality within a reservoir. Deforestation, excessive erosion, introduction of new species, domestic and industrial waste disposal and agricultural runoff are only a few examples.It is well known by specialists in water resources management that water levels in a reservoir may also affect its quality. But how these processes occur and how appropriate water levels can be maintained are very hard questions to answer. This is because of the physical and biological processes occurring inside the water body, and also due to the various demands from society concerning water uses.Nowadays, through the use of models, knowledge of some of the conditions can enable us to predict future conditions. In many cases, reservoir models, such as physical models for water quality, may predict the future water quality situation. These models have been used successfully to enhance knowledge about the interactions among the different parts inherent to the water systems.Through the combination of water quality and optimization models, this study proposes a suitable methodology for the assessment of planning operations of a storage reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to consider a multipurpose reservoir, under different water demands and uses from societies, concerning reservoir water quality.The proposed optimization is realized through the use of dynamic programming combined with stochastic techniques that can handle the probabilistic characteristics of inflow quantity and quality. For the water quality assessment, the UNEP/ILEC one-dimensional model with two layers called PAMOLARE is applied. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out using a genetic algorithm model. Copyright

Chaves, Paulo; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Yamashiki, Yosuke

2003-10-01

99

A simplified method for forest water storage capacity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplification of direct methods to measure canopy storage capacity is presented. It is based on measurement of water retained by vegetal entities (needles, stems and branches) and the up-scaling of these measurements using the determination of the surface of canopy elements from common vertical photographs taken from the ground. The specific water retention capacities of Pinus sylvestris pine needles ranged between 0.104 and 0.043 mm, depending on the simulation of still air or windy conditions. These values are low when compared with the specific water retention capacity of branches and stems, 0.62 mm. The water retained in branches and stems, therefore, plays a key role in rainfall interception. The canopy storage results obtained are consistent with the spatial distribution of throughfall measured in five experimental plots located in a heterogeneous 40-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in a Mediterranean mountain area of the South Eastern Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain), and are 30% higher than the values estimated through indirect methods.

Llorens, P.; Gallart, F.

2000-12-01

100

Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

1982-01-01

101

Aspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1  

E-print Network

studied water release mechanisms. The storage capacity of a soil profile depends on soil depthAspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1 M. M. Gribb,2 H. P. Marshall,3 Abstract: Many catchment hydrologic and ecologic processes are impacted by the storage capacity of soil

Marshall, Hans-Peter

102

Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is understood about how storage of water on forest canopies varies during rainfall, even though storage changes intensity of throughfall and thus affects a variety of hydrological processes. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments using varying intensities yielded a better understanding of dynamics of rainfall storage on woody vegetation. Branches of eight species generally retained more water at

R. F. Keim; A. E. Skaugset; M. Weiler

2006-01-01

103

Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

Milly, P.C.D.

1994-01-01

104

Fuzzy Modeling of Continental Water Storage Changes Observed by GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-low satellite-to-satellite (SST) tracking mission, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), provides scientists an efficient and cost-effective way to map the Earth's static and monthly temporal gravity fields with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. One of the major objectives of GRACE is to measure the climate-sensitive signals generated by mass redistributions on Earth at spatial scales greater than several hundred km and temporal scales longer than 30 days. Studies including non-isotropic filtering of GRACE signals and alternate processing of GRACE data have enabled enhancement of temporal and spatial resolutions. Fuzzy logic based methods have been widely used by various disciplines for improving model prediction, control, classification etc. Its ability of providing linguistic description of the relations between the model components has made it a valuable tool for potential model improvements. In this study, fuzzy inference systems whose parameters are optimized by mathematical optimization algorithms, have been used to recover monthly or sub-monthly mean water storage anomalies (MWSA) in South America from the gravity variations observed by GRACE. To this end, regularly gridded MWSA was computed by averaging daily water storage anomalies derived from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) daily mean water storage (MWS) data. We tested the fuzzy logic algorithm on the GRACE Level 2 (L2) data products and the data products generated by processing Level 1B (L1B) data based on the energy conservation methods. Results from the obtained fuzzy model were tested with independent data that was not used for estimation of the model parameters. Performance of the resulting model was compared with those of other models previously used for detection of MWSA from GRACE observations.

Akyilmaz, O.; Han, S.; Shum, C.

2005-05-01

105

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOEpatents

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07

106

Evaluation of power generation operations in response to changes in surface water reservoir storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a customized, river basin-based model of surface water rights to evaluate the response of power plants to drought via simulated changes in reservoir storage. Our methodology models surface water rights in 11 river basins in Texas using five cases: (1) storage decrease of existing capacity of 10%, (2) storage decrease of 50%, (3) complete elimination of storage, (4) storage increase of 10% (all at existing locations), and (5) construction of new reservoirs (at new locations) with a total increase in baseline reservoir capacity for power plant cooling of 9%. Using the Brazos River basin as a sample, we evaluated power generation operations in terms of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability. As simulated water storage decreases, reliability generally decreases and resiliency and vulnerability remain relatively constant. All three metrics remain relatively constant with increasing reservoir storage, with the exception of one power plant. As reservoir storage changes at power plants, other water users in the basin are also affected. In general, decreasing water storage is beneficial to other water users in the basin, and increasing storage is detrimental for many other users. Our analysis reveals basin-wide and individual power plant-level impacts of changing reservoir storage, demonstrating a methodology for evaluation of the sustainability and feasibility of constructing new reservoir storage as a water and energy management approach.

Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Webber, Michael E.

2013-06-01

107

Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239  

SciTech Connect

The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

Chou, P

2011-12-14

108

Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.

Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.

1987-01-01

109

Langerhans Lab Protocols 5-20gallonTankMaintenance.docx 7/17/14 Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

water from the Aquatic Eco-Systems rack in BRF 223 to refill cleaned tanks using the clear tube coiled up at the upper right of the rack as you walk in the door. This tube runs at ~0.72 gallons the bottom of the tank. a. Position a waste water bucket below hose outflow (small end of siphon tube). b

Langerhans, Brian

110

GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly underestimated (27 km3) if reservoir storage changes were assumed uniform in the basin. Consequently, estimated groundwater contribution from GRACE would have been largely overestimated in this region if the actual distribution of water was not explicitly taken into account. Effects of point masses on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating estimating groundwater storage changes from GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved by combining independent water mass spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not the dominant mechanism. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO (Follow-On) observations.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

2013-12-01

111

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4 October) rainfall, evaporation and runoff were 200, 256, and 43 mm in 1996, respectively, and 310, 286 and 74 mm in 1997, giving negative budgets of -99 mm in 1996 and -50 mm in 1997. Approximately 60% of the total budget was caused by storage changes in the upper 40 cm of the bog and 40% by swelling/shrinking in the layers below. This mire breathing must be incorporated in future models of mire-water dynamics. The water content varied diversely among the different microrelief elements, much depending on the properties of moss and peat together with distance to water table. There also was a strong hysteresis in the relationships between groundwater level and measured volumetric water content, depending partly on pore-throat effects and partly on swelling/shrinking of the peat matrix. A seasonal variation of volumetric water content in a layer beneath water table was found to be larger than what could be justified by compression alone. We think that probable causes could be methane gas expansion together with temperature effects. The main conclusions of this study were: (i) water-transport and storage characteristics are distinctly different among hummocks, ridges and hollows, (ii) mire wetness cannot be deduced from groundwater levels only, and (iii) an important part of the total water storage was caused by swelling/shrinking of the peat, not by changes in unsaturated water content.

Kellner, Erik; Halldin, Sven

2002-01-01

112

Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs  

E-print Network

Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs Gallon the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Cups, cups, cups of water, Running down the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Gallons, gallons, gallons of water Rushing

113

Satellite based estimates of terrestrial water storage variations in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided a new tool to study terrestrial water storage variations (TWS) at medium and large spatial scales, providing quantitative measures of TWS change. Linear trends in TWS variations in Turkey were estimated using GRACE observations for the period March 2003 to March 2009. GRACE showed a significant decrease in TWS in the southern part of the central Anatolian region up to a rate of 4 cm/year. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model also captured this TWS decrease event but with underestimated trend values. The GLDAS model represents only a part of the total TWS variations, the sum of soil moisture (2 m column depth) and snow water equivalent, ignoring groundwater variations. Therefore, GLDAS model derived TWS variations were subtracted from GRACE derived TWS variations to estimate groundwater storage variations. Results revealed that decreasing trends of TWS observed by GRACE in the southern part of central Anatolia were largely explained by the decreasing trends of groundwater variations which were confirmed by the limited available well groundwater level data in the region.

Lenk, Onur

2013-07-01

114

Ground-water recharge to and storage in the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Guilford County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground- water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Guilford County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground- water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 15 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an anlytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quantity of ground water in storage also are described. Guilford County covers approximately 658 square miles in the central part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 347,420; approximately 21 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies all of the county. Under natural conditions, recharge to the ground-water system in the county is derived from infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 19 gaging stations that measure streamflow within or from Guilford County were analyzed to produce daily estimates of ground-water recharge in 15 drainage basins and subbasins in the county. The recharge estimates were further analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term recharge rates, as well as recharge duration statistics. Mean annual recharge in the 15 basins and subbasins ranges from 4.03 to 9.69 inches per year, with a mean value of 6.28 inches per year for all basins. In general, recharge rates are highest for basins in the northern and northwestern parts of the county and lowest in the southern and southeastern parts of the county. Median recharge rates in the 15 basins range from 2.47 inches per year (184 gallons per day per acre) to 9.15 inches per year (681 gallons per day per acre), with a median value of 4.65 inches per year (346 gallons per day per acre) for all basins. The distribution of recharge rates in the county suggests a correlation between recharge rates and hydrogeologic units (and derived regolith). The highest recharge estimates occur in the northwestern part of Guilford County in basins unlain by felsic igneous intrusive rocks and lesser areas of metasedimentary rocks. Recharge estimates in this area range from 6.37 to 9.33 inches per year. Basins in the southwestern, central, and northeastern parts of the county are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, and recharge estimates range from 5.32 to 5.51 inches per year. In the extreme southern and southeastern parts of the county, the lower Deep River subbasin and the lower Haw River subbasins have the lowest estimated recharges at 4.15 and 4.03 inches per year, respectively. Although the areas of these subbasins that lie within Guilford County are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, the larger part of these subbasins lies south and southeast of Guilford County in areas underlain by hydrogeologic units of metavolcanic origin. The distribution of recharge rates in the study area is almost the reverse of the distributio

Daniel, C. C., III; Harned, D.A.

1998-01-01

115

Impact of Reservoirs on GRACE Water Storage Estimates, Implications for Tigris-Euphrates and other regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes in basins globally, the impact of spatial distribution of mass storage within a basin is generally ignored. In this study, we evaluate the effects of concentrated masses from surface water reservoirs on basin scale estimates of water storage changes using numerical experiments and applications to different basins. While the spatial extent of reservoirs is much less than GRACE resolution, reservoir storage may represent a large fraction of storage changes in some basins. Results show that assuming uniform mass distribution for reservoirs may lead to underestimation or overestimation of basin water storage by up to a factor of two depending on reservoir location and extent within a basin. Several basins were examined including the Tigris-Euphrates and the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) basins, where availability of reservoir volume variations from satellite altimetry allows computation of their impact on GRACE water storage changes. Reservoirs are concentrated towards the basin center in the Tigris Euphrates basin, resulting in underestimation of seasonal variations and trends in water storage by a factor of 1.9 when reservoir storage is assumed to be uniformly distributed. Accurate representation of location and spatial extent of reservoirs indicates that changes in reservoir storage account for ~50% of total water storage decline during the drought from 2007 to 2010. Lake Nasser located near the edge of the Lower Nile Basin results in overestimation of water storage changes by a factor of two when a uniform mass distribution is assumed. In this desert region, volume variations in Lake Nasser account for ~ 95% of the seasonal water storage variations observed by GRACE. Accurate estimation of the impact of surface water on water storage changes is important, especially when extracting groundwater contribution from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of irregular water storage distributions is significant, GRACE based estimates of water storage changes will be improved when independent a priori information on reservoir water storages from other satellites (for e.g. upcoming SWOT satellite) can be used during GRACE processing.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Cretaux, J.

2012-12-01

116

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

117

Inferring Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Using ERA40 Reanalysis Data: The Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial water storage is an essential part of the hydrological cycle, encompassing crucial elements of the climate system, such as soil moisture, groundwater, snow, and land ice. On a regional scale, it is however not a readily measured variable and observations of its individual components are scarce. This study investigates the feasability of estimating monthly terrestrial water-storage variations from water-balance

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Pedro Viterbo; Daniel Lüthi; Christoph Schär

2004-01-01

118

A second law approach to characterizing thermally stratified hot water storage with application to solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of characterizing and evaluating the performance of hot water storage systems in terms of their temperature distribution. The change in exergy from the stratified state to the delivery state depends on the stored energy and the stratification. It can thus be used to define the storage efficiency for sensible heat storage devices. A new parameter

G. Rosengarten; G. Morrison; M. Behnia

1999-01-01

119

Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

1980-01-01

120

Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

Allen, R.D.

1983-11-01

121

Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

2011-01-14

122

GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not a major factor. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO observations.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

2012-10-01

123

Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

2012-04-01

124

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is desired to ascertain the weight of 100 proof gallons of 190...equals 357.60 pounds, net weight of 100 proof gallons of 190 proof spirits. The slight variation between this table and Tables...This table also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the...

2010-04-01

125

New methods for locating the moving gas/water boundary in underground storage reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Methods have been developed which permit the calculation of the approximate position of the moving gas-water boundary in underground gas storage reservoirs from data on storage pressures and distant observation well liquid levels. Locating the gas-water boundary in underground storage is important in the control of gas bubble growth and in monitoring against possible migration away from storage horizon. The mathematic procedures developed permit calculation of gas-water interface location as a function of time as it moves laterally in response to storage operations. Reasonable results and agreement with observations were obtained from the model using reservoir data from a large storage field. The sensitivity of results to possible errors in the reservoir data and the effect of location of the available key storage well are shown to provide practical guidelines defining limitations of the mathematic technique.

Udegbunam, E.O.; Tek, M.R.

1983-01-01

126

Enhanced performance prediction of solar collector\\/storage water heaters with reflector systems: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a state-of-the-art study of solar collector-cum-storage systems with one or more mirror boosters suitable for water heating applications. Three specific configurations for solar collector with storage viz., a shallow solar pond, rectangular built-in-storage and triangular built-in-storage have been considered and their thermal modelling results with two and four reflectors on the solar collection system are presented in

S. C. Kaushik; R. Kumar; H. P. Garg

1995-01-01

127

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-print Network

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01

128

Monitoring effective use of household water treatment and safe storage technologies in Ethiopia and Ghana  

E-print Network

Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) technologies dissemination is beginning to scale-up to reach the almost 900 million people without access to an improved water supply (WHO/UNICEF/JMP, 2008). Without well-informed ...

Stevenson, Matthew M

2009-01-01

129

Interspecific and intraspecific variations in water storage in epiphytic old forest foliose lichens  

E-print Network

Interspecific and intraspecific variations in water storage in epiphytic old forest foliose lichens in the water economy of lichens. Key words: chlorolichens, cyanolichens, photobionts, lichen anatomy, canopy lichens. Motsclés : chlorolichens, cyanolichens, photobiontes, anatomie des lichens, ouverture de là

Coxson, Darwyn

130

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

1980-01-01

131

Surface Water Storage Change as Evidence of Groundwater Gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the Alaskan Arctic and Subarctic receives a minimal amount of annual precipitation. Changes to regional precipitation patterns and the general transient warming expected in the next century's lake hydrology and the associated wetlands place the risk of lakes perforating the permafrost boundary on the forefront. Lake change on the Alaskan landscape due to permafrost degradation is going to be important to local ecosystems and in, for example, providing habitat for migratory waterfowl in the next decades and centuries. Permafrost presence, absence, and thickness are interconnected in the deciphering of groundwater gradients and projection of surface water presence, absence, disappearance, and appearance on the Alaskan landscape. Detailed efforts have been made to produce datasets of presence or absence of the permafrost on the Seward Peninsula and further efforts are in place to do the same for the entire state. Continuous permafrost can provide an impervious barrier to groundwater movement and most groundwater-surface water interaction occurs in areas of discontinuous permafrost. With permafrost thawing and open talik formation in discontinuous permafrost regions, surface water formerly perched above the permafrost can drain into the subpermafrost groundwater. In contrast, in areas where the local hydraulic gradient is upwards, subpermafrost groundwater may discharge at the surface as the confining layer of permafrost degrades and an open talik forms. Lake change, in the absence of changes in evaporation and surface flow, are governed by the local vertical flux of water. In this study we compile observations of surface water storage change in Alaska and conjecture that shrinking/ disappearing lakes are evidence of supra-permafrost groundwater downwelling. The resulting dataset serves as verification for our model of groundwater dynamics. The planned method for determining the ground water gradient and degree to which vertical percolation will be restricted is to analyze digital terrain information with hydrology, permafrost, soils, geology, and current climate data. To start the groundwater gradient computations we will focus on areas with known hydrologic phenomena and elaborate on a vector based gradient map referencing the steepness of the terrain and the precipitation on the surrounding higher elevations. Once the present groundwater and surface water situation is captured, based on the future subsidence of the permafrost in areas on the landscape, we propose to forecast the wetness and dryness across Alaska, capturing the uniqueness of each watershed's turn toward wetter and then drier over the next decades and centuries.

Bryan, R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Hinzman, K.

2007-12-01

132

Changes in terrestrial water storage vs. rainfall and discharges in the Amazon basin  

E-print Network

1 Changes in terrestrial water storage vs. rainfall and discharges in the Amazon basin Frédéric how the interannual variability of rainfall impacts the land water storage in the Amazon basin during discharges at the outlet of the major sub-basins of the Amazon over 2003-2010 to characterize

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

133

Solar water heaters with phase change material thermal energy storage medium: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent heat thermal energy storage is one of the most efficient ways to store thermal energy for heating water by energy received from sun. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of thermal energy storage incorporating with and without PCM for use in solar water heaters. The relative studies are classified on the basis of type of collector and the

Anant Shukla; D. Buddhi; R. L. Sawhney

2009-01-01

134

A Simulation Model for Predicting the Performance of a Built-in-Storage Solar Water Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simulation model for predicting the thermal performance of a built-in- storage (BIS) solar water heater. The model has been developed based on the energy balances on three main components: absorber plate, collector channel and storage tank. The thermosyphon flow rate of water in the system has also been modeled and an overall flow coefficient K7 is

Pachern Jans; Supachart Chungpaibulpatana; Bundit Limmeechokchai

135

Safe water treatment and storage in the home. A practical new strategy to prevent waterborne disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many parts of the developing world, drinking water is collected from unsafe surface sources outside the home and is then held in household storage vessels. Drinking water may be contaminated at the source or during storage; strategies to reduce waterborne disease transmission must safeguard against both events. We describe a two-component prevention strategy, which allows an individual to disinfect

E. D. Mintz; Reiff F; Tauxe R

1995-01-01

136

Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation potential in the presence of excess chlorine was measured. The role of mixing between injection water and ground water and the conservative or non-conservative behavior of trihalomethanes was studied by adding a conservative tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, to the injection water and monitoring its concentration in the extraction water. The potential for biodegradation of trihalomethanes by aquifer bacteria was assessed in laboratory experiments: Microcosms containing ground water or extraction water and sediment or concentrated bacteria were spiked with trihalomethanes, and the amount of trihalomethanes was monitored during an incubation period. The potential for sorption of trihalomethanes to aquifer sediments was assessed in laboratory experiments: Mixtures of sediment and water were spiked with trihalomethanes, and then the trihalomethane concentrations were measured after an equilibration period.

Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

2002-01-01

137

Thermal Storage Applications for Commercial/Industrial Facilities  

E-print Network

the 1.5 million square foot office tower, four 375,000 gallon concrete thermal storage tanks were installed. In concept, the building's chillers produce 40?F chilled water at night when electrical demand is low. The chilled water is stored... revealed an average on-peak demand of 5.9 watts per square foot during the on-peak period. Thanksgiving Tower, when utilizing its thermal storage tanks for cooling (and shutting down chillers), created a peak demand of only 2.6 /watts per square foot...

Knipp, R. L.

138

Effect of the storage tank thermal insulation on the thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using CFD simulations. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data from literature, we propose a geometrical change allowing limiting the main disadvantage of this solar system which is its high night losses due to the non-insulated storage tank surface. A second 3D CFD model of an ICSSWH in which the storage tank is partially insulated is developed and three values of this tank thermal insulated fraction are studied. Numerical results show that the partially insulated tank based ICSSWH presents lower thermal losses during the night and this night thermal losses coefficient is reduced from 14.6 to 11.64 W K-1 for the tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/4. Similarly, the modified system presents the advantage of its lower thermal losses even during the day. Regarding the thermal production, it is seen that the modified system presents higher water temperature at night and that for all the tank thermal insulation fractions. Concerning the operation of this modified system during the day, the water temperature is lower during the day and that up to 16 h but the water temperature which achieves 324 K for the storage tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/8 still sufficiently high to satisfy a family hot water needs.

Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

2014-10-01

139

GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.  

PubMed

Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate. PMID:22508123

Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

2012-01-01

140

How Much becomes CO² From a Gallon of Gas?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, students calculate precisely how much carbon dioxide is in a gallon of gasoline. A student worksheet provides step-by-step instructions as students calculate the production of carbon dioxide. The investigation is supported the textbook "Climate Change," part of "Global System Science," an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

141

An analysis of terrestrial water storage variations in Illinois with implications for the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in terrestrial water storage affect weather, climate, geophysical phenomena, and life on land, yet observation and understanding of terrestrial water storage are deficient. However, estimates of terrestrial water storage changes soon may be derived from observations of Earth's time-dependent gravity field made by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Previous studies have evaluated that concept using modeled soil

M. Rodell; J. S. Famiglietti

2001-01-01

142

Effects of handling, temperature and storage time on sediment and pore-water chemistry and toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Effects of sediment disturbance, storage temperature (230 C and 40 C) and storage time on chemistry and toxicity of sediment and pore water were evaluated using two sediments (sandy freshwater and organic estuarine) contaminated with metals. Solid-phase (10 d with water renewal) and pore-water (96-h static) toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca were conducted upon collection and at two week intervals for 8--10 weeks. Chemistries (redox, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, ammonia, trace metals, major cations and anions) were measured at each toxicity testing interval. Following extraction, pore-water chemistry changed significantly during the initial 96 h due to oxidation reactions and CO{sub 2} equilibration. Pore water collected in situ was slightly less toxic and had major differences in water chemistry compared to pore water extracted from homogenized sediment. Storage temperature and time significantly influenced pore-water toxicity and chemistry, but had minimal effect on solid-phase toxicity. After four weeks, the highly-toxic sandy sediment became slightly less toxic in solid-phase tests and Significantly less toxic in pore-water tests, coinciding with changes in trace-metal concentrations, activities, and speciation. The estuarine sediment became slightly more toxic in both solid-phase and pore-water tests after four weeks, but returned to original levels after six and eight weeks. Sediment disturbance, storage temperature, and storage time significantly influenced toxicity and pore-water chemistry.

Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Jackson, B.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). National Biological Survey

1994-12-31

143

Ground water in the vicinity of Capulin, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The alluvial deposits within a closed basin near Capulin, New Mexico, are estimated to have 189,000 acre-feet of water in storage. These deposits have an estimated average transmissivity of 400 feet squared per day and represent the major source of ground water. Well yields range from a few gallons per minute to as much as 900 gallons per minute, with average potential yields ranging from about 100 to 200 gallons per minute in areas of greatest saturated thickness. Additional large quantities of water are available for short-term supplies from the saturated basaltic cinders west and northwest of the town of Capulin. Wells completed in the cinders reportedly have produced as much as 2,000 gallons per minute. The chemical quality of water in the alluvium and cinder aquifers appears to be chemically satisfactory for municipal use. The ground water in storage is sufficient to supplement Raton, New Mexico 's water needs to the year 2030 at the water demand rate projected by the Bureau of Reclamation. (Woodard-USGS)

Hart, D.L., Jr.; Smith, Christian

1979-01-01

144

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

145

Criticality evaluations of scrambled fuel in water basin storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel stored underwater in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant basins has been subjected to the usual criticality safety evaluations to assure safe storage configurations. Certain accident or emergency conditions, caused by corrosion or a seismic event, could change the fuel configuration and environment to invalidate previous calculations. Consideration is given here to such contingencies for fuel stored in three storage

1989-01-01

146

Energy Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

Eaton, William W.

147

Contribution of water vapor pressure to pressurization of plutonium dioxide storage containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurization of long-term storage containers filled with materials meeting the US DOE storage standard is of concern.1,2 For example, temperatures within storage containers packaged according to the standard and contained in 9975 shipping packages that are stored in full view of the sun can reach internal temperatures of 250 °C.3 Twenty five grams of water (0.5 wt.%) at 250 °C

D. Kirk Veirs; John S. Morris; Dane R. Spearing

2000-01-01

148

Detecting terrestrial water storage variations in northwest China by GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide a new quantitative measurement to observe terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. In this paper, GRACE data were used to detect TWS changes (TWSC) in last decade in the arid region of northwest China. TWSC of the study area were obtained from RL05 Level 2 GRACE data between August 2002 and July 2013. These obtained GRACE based TWSC were thereafter validated against that calculated from global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) data. The validation showed TWSC from two sources were consistent. Together with precipitation, the analyses showed TWSC in this arid region changed over time, and responded sensitively to climate factors. Results indicated that TWSC showed distinct seasonal variation characteristics and the peaks of TWS appeared corresponding to precipitation. The summers of 2005 and 2012 were wet periods with a mean TWS higher than multiple-year average by about 30 mm, while the falls of 2008 and 2009 were dry seasons with a heavily deficit TWS, lower than multiple-year average by about -30 mm. The winter of 2008 was also in deficit but slightly better than the fall of same year. On average, in the last decade, the period of 2008 to 2009 was in the driest condition. Significant decreases in TWS in 2008 and 2009 were successfully detected by GRACE, and corresponded to drought events in the study area. This study showed in the last decade the changes of climate factors resulted in larger TWS variations in the arid region and proved the capability of GRACE in detecting larger-scale and long-term drought events in arid regions.

Cao, Yanping; Nan, Zhuotong

2014-11-01

149

Integrated Modeling Approach for Verifying Water Storage Services for a Payment for Environmental Service Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic models have been used for improved understanding of how an ecosystem's hydrologic response to human intervention and may provide substantial insight into the viability of payment for environmental services (PES) programs. Little is currently known about how hydrologic models can contribute to the design and evaluation of PES programs. Increased water storage is a desired environmental service (ES) for the Florida Everglades' watershed to reduce nutrient loads and excessive flows to lakes and estuaries in the region. We present monitoring and modeling results to verify the water storage PES for two ranch sites (wetland and watershed scales) located in the Northern Everglades region located north of the Lake Okeechobee (LO). Verification of the water storage PES using at least 3 years of hydrologic data was inconclusive due to variable rainfall during pre- and post-PES periods. An integrated surface and groundwater model, MIKE-SHE/MIKE11, was used to help verify the water storage service as well as predict ecological responses for different water storage scenarios (different levels of storage). The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using field measurements and was able to effectively simulate the surface and groundwater levels for the watershed (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency, NSE = 0.54 to 0.82) and for surface water levels within wetlands (NSE = 0.54 to 0.84). Scenario analyses for storage levels showed an inverse relationship between board heights for water control structures and flows at the watershed outlet. Changes in flow were marginal when board heights approached a maximum indicating movement of water into subsurface storage. Combining simulation results with field measurements showed reduced flows and increased subsurface storage (2 cm/yr.), a desired outcome for protecting LO and estuarine systems from excessive flows. Simulated wetland water levels were combined with LIDAR-based topography to predict inundation for wetlands at the two PES sites for exploring the addition of biodiversity related ES. Simulations showed that effects of increased storage on enhanced hydro-periods and biodiversity was limited to the wetlands close to the drainage ditches. Results for a variety of water management scenarios showed that modeling can be used as an effective tool for optimizing the ES for a desired PES scheme. Measured and predicted surface flows from watershed and wetland water levels for different scenarios are currently being combined with ecological measurements to develop hydro-ecological models that predict the effects of enhanced water storage on ecological diversity.

Hendricks, G.; Shukla, S.; Guzha, A. C.

2013-12-01

150

EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

151

Mechanisms of water storage and flow in the unsaturated zone of the Chalk aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the volumes of water draining from some Chalk catchments in recessions are significantly greater than can be explained by gravity drainage from fissure porosity. The most likely source of this water is slow drainage from the matric porosity above the water table. This paper suggests that the location of this storage is in the irregularities on

M. Price; R. G Low; C McCann

2000-01-01

152

Impact of subglacial hydrology on the release of water from temporary storage in an Alpine glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periods of storage and release of surface runoff that is routed englacially and subglacially are identified from a time series of cumulative water balance between 31 July and 11 September 1999 at Findelengletscher, Switzerland. The influence of subglacial hydrology on water routing within the glacier, and therefore on trends of water storage and release, is determined through comparisons of phase relationships between daily maxima, daily minima and diurnal ranges of borehole water levels, supraglacial runoff and proglacial discharge. Variations of water levels in 21 boreholes in the ablation zone suggest that although subglacial drainage is spatially dynamic, hydrologically efficient tunnel conduit-style drainage dominates diurnal cycles of water transfer through the glacier. Over longer periods, however, storage and release of subglacially routed water is greatly influenced by the coexistence of, and temporary interconnections between, hydrologically inefficient distributed drainage and the tunnel conduit network. Water levels in three boreholes indicate that after water storage increases in distributed drainage, hydraulic gradients between the different drainage systems may increase sufficiently to cause connections that initiate release of water when: (1) low maximum daily surface runoff causes low water pressures in the tunnel conduit system; or (2) reorganization within distributed drainage causes spatially localized increases in water pressure.

Rutter, Nick J.

153

Thermal performance of integrated collector storage solar water heater with corrugated absorber surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is reported of the thermal performance of an integrated solar water heater with a corrugated absorber surface. The thermal performance of the rectangular collector\\/storage solar water heater depends significantly on the heat transfer rate between the absorber surface and the water, and on the amount of solar radiation incident on the absorber surface. In this investigation, the surface

Rakesh Kumar; Marc A. Rosen

2010-01-01

154

DIARRHEA PREVENTION THROUGH HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL WATER DISINFECTION AND SAFE STORAGE IN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water quality intervention that consists of water treatment, safe storage, and community education was field tested in Kitwe, Zambia. A total of 166 intervention households were randomly selected from one community and 94 control households from another. Baseline surveys were conducted and the intervention was distributed. Weekly active diarrhea surveillance, biweekly water testing, and a follow-up survey were conducted.

ROBERT E. QUICK; AKIKO KIMURA; ANGELICA THEVOS; MATHIAS TEMBO; ISIDORE SHAMPUTA; LORI HUTWAGNER; ERIC MINTZ

2002-01-01

155

DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

156

SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

157

Estimation of groundwater recharge from water storage structures in a semi-arid climate of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater recharge from water storage structures under semi-arid conditions of western India has been estimated by employing water table fluctuation (WTF) and chloride mass balance (CMB) methods. Groundwater recharge was estimated as 7.3% and 9.7% of the annual rainfall by WTF method for the years 2003 and 2004, respectively while the two years average recharge was estimated as 7.5% using CMB method. A Recharge function depicting the relationship between potential recharge from storage structures and successive day averaged storage depths was better exhibited by a power function. A diagnostic relationship correlating the rainfall to the potential recharge from water storage structures has been developed to explain the characteristics of the storage structures for a given geographical location. The study has revealed that a minimum of 104.3 mm cumulative rainfall is required to generate 1 mm of recharge from the water storage structures. It was also inferred that the storage structures have limited capacity to induce maximum recharge irrespective of the amount of rainfall and maximum recharge to rainfall ratio is achieved at a lower rainfall than the average annual rainfall of the area. An empirical linear relationship was found to reasonably correlate the changes in chloride concentration with water table rise or fall in the study area.

Sharda, V. N.; Kurothe, R. S.; Sena, D. R.; Pande, V. C.; Tiwari, S. P.

2006-09-01

158

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01

159

Water storage capacitance and xylem tension in isolated branches of temperate and tropical trees.  

PubMed

Trees of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem-succulent species with low-density wood (< 0.5 g cm(-3)), which maintain high stem water potentials (psi(STEM) > -0.7 MPa) throughout the year, to "drought-tolerant" deciduous hardwood species (wood density > 0.75 g cm(-3)), which dehydrate strongly during seasonal drought (psi(STEM) < -6 MPa). In stem-succulent and other drought-avoiding species, xylem vessels are surrounded by extensive parenchyma providing intracellular water storage, whereas in deciduous species stem water storage is mainly extracellular. Thirteen tropical and two temperate tree species, representing different functional types, were studied. The contribution of stem water storage to these species' water use during water stress was determined by time-series analysis of dehydration and rehydration of excised leaf-bearing branches of these trees. During dehydration, stem water potential slowly declined 1-2 MPa in drought-avoiding species, but in deciduous species it rapidly fell 4-5 MPa, suggesting that water storage capacitance was related to xylem anatomy. After immersion of dehydrated, leafless branches in water, the decline in xylem tension and rate of water uptake during rehydration were linearly related, as predicted by application of Ohm's law to water flux. The decline of xylem tension during rehydration was biphasic, with a phase of rapid water uptake into extracellular spaces being followed by a prolonged phase of slow water uptake into living cells. The rate of water uptake during rehydration and the minima of leaf water potential observed in the field during the dry season were highly correlated with water storage capacitance, indicating that wood anatomy is a major determinant of drought adaptation. PMID:15687094

Borchert, Rolf; Pockman, William T

2005-04-01

160

The role of groundwater in the Amazon water cycle: 3. Influence on terrestrial water storage computations and comparison with GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

explore the mechanisms whereby groundwater influences terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Amazon using GRACE observations and two contrasting versions of the LEAF-Hydro-Flood hydrological model: one with and the other without an interactive groundwater. We find that, first, where the water table is shallow as in northwestern Amazonia and floodplains elsewhere, subsurface stores (vadose zone and groundwater) are nearly saturated year-round, hence river and flooding dominate TWS variation; where the water table is deep as in southeastern Amazonia, the large subsurface storage capacity holds the infiltrated water longer before releasing it to streams, hence the subsurface storage dominates TWS variation. Second, over the whole Amazon, the subsurface water contribution far exceeds surface water contribution to total TWS variations. Based on LEAF-Hydro-Flood simulations, 71% of TWS change is from subsurface water, 24% from flood water, and 5% from water in river channels. Third, the subsurface store includes two competing terms, soil water in the vadose zone and groundwater below the water table. As the water table rises, the length of vadose zone is shortened and hence the change in groundwater store is accompanied by an opposite change in soil water store resulting in their opposite phase and contributions to total TWS. We conclude that the inclusion of a prognostic groundwater store and its interactions with the vadose zone, rivers, and floodplains in hydrological simulations enhances seasonal amplitudes and delays seasonal peaks of TWS anomaly, leading to an improved agreement with GRACE observations.

Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Han, Shin-Chan

2013-04-01

161

Transient behaviour of collector\\/storage solar water heaters for generalised demand patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents a simple transient model for predicting the thermal performance of collector\\/storage solar water heaters for generalised demand patterns. These heaters consist of either (i) an insulated rectangular metallic tank whose top surface is blackened and suitably glazed (i.e. a built-in storage solar water heater) or (ii) an insulated open shallow tank with black bottom.inner sides and a

N. D. Kaushik; P. K. Bansal; S. C. Kaushik

1982-01-01

162

Monitoring gravity and water storage changes in northern Benin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The humid sudanian zone of West-Africa undergoes a monsoon climate, implying a strong seasonality in water storage changes (WSC). The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims at monitoring both these local and non-local hydrological contributions with the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is located in hard-rock basement context in Djougou, northern Benin, and is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rainfall, soil moisture, water table, evapotranspiration, ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared to hydrological data and to physically-based or conceptual hydrological models calibrated on these data. This presentation shows the results and limitations of each gravimeter in the context of WSC retrieval. This site was first measured with a FG5 absolute gravimeter four times a year from 2008 to 2013. This can be considered as a high sampling rate, given the remote location and the complexity of FG5 carriage and installation. It allowed to derive an average specific yield for the local aquifer, and preliminary estimates of seasonal WSC (up to 120 nm/s2 - 270mm). Yet the lack of continuity in the data avoids further investigations. The SG-060 superconducting gravimeter has been installed in 2010 in order to monitor gravity response to WSC in a continuous way. A strong drift is present (230nm/s2/yr), and FG5 data together with a-priori information on WSC are needed for estimating its effect. Also, frequent power-failures lead to some significant gaps and offsets during which fast WSC may occur (e.g. rain), yielding to a challenging correction for these events. The retrieval of inter-annual WSC suffers from these strong and limiting instrumental effects. At higher frequencies, up to a few days, continuous gravity monitoring may help to quantify evapotranspiration (ET), a poorly-known variable of the hydrological cycle. In Djougou, favorable -flat- topographic conditions and significant ET (up to 5 mm/day) are present. However, the shelter size together with the low altitude of the SG sensor with respect to the ground yield to diminish the expected effect of ET. Also, atmospheric contribution at such frequencies in the equatorial band is governed by S1 and S2 pressure waves of planetary extension, with rather complicated behavior. Therefore, the retrieval of ET is limited by the SG environment (shelter and instrument height) and our ability to fully correct for atmospheric effects. The spatial variations of gravity changes on the local catchment are also investigated by CG5 micro-gravity surveys since July 2011 with weekly measurements in the wet season and monthly in the dry season, resulting in more than two years and 3 wet seasons coverage. This survey helped to identify preferential recharge areas and some specific water-redistribution processes at the catchment scale, driven by subsurface heterogeneities.

Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

2013-12-01

163

Retrieval of surface water storage in large river basins from multi-satellite and topographic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal variations of water storage in surface water bodies (rivers channels, lakes, floodplains and inundation areas) are still widely unknown for large areas. In this study, we present a technique to estimate surface water volumes for large river basins by the combination of (1) a global data set of inundation areas with a resolution of about 25km generated with a multi-satellite method using passive microwave (SSM/I), scatterometer (ERS) and visible and near-IR (AVHRR), and (2) topographic data from global Digital Elevation Models such as SRTM or ACE. We derived time series of monthly surface water storage for the period 1993-2004 based on a hypsographic curve approach. The average water level and volume per month and grid cell was estimated by intersecting the cumulative distribution function of elevation values in each grid cell with the inundation area extent. The focus of the study was the Amazon basin. For the Rio Negro sub-basin, results where compared to complementary methods that used altimetry-based and in-situ water level data. Additionally, results where compared to total water storage variations as derived from time-variable gravity fields of the GRACE satellite mission, highlighting the large contribution of surface water to total storage variations. The results are also discussed with respect to simulated surface water storage of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). Parameter values in WGHM have been constrained by using water storage from GRACE and the additional benefit of incorporating the surface water information into the calibration process is evaluated.

Güntner, A.; Werth, S.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.

2009-04-01

164

Jess S. Jackson Sustainable Winery Building WATER STORAGE  

E-print Network

landscaping that requires minimal water and treats runoff from the roof WATER REUSE all process water performance U value of 0.21 and a Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of 0.24 with visible light transmittance of 43

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

165

WORD PROBLEMS 1. Suppose your car gets 25 miles per gallon of gasoline and the price of gas is $3.50 per gallon. Write  

E-print Network

WORD PROBLEMS 1. Suppose your car gets 25 miles per gallon of gasoline and the price of gas is $3.50 per gallon. Write your monthly gasoline cost C in terms of the distance D that you travel each month

Koban, Nic

166

Modeling the effect of antecedent soil water storage on water and heat status in seasonally freezing and thawing agricultural soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taking Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia's agricultural production as a background and based on field observation data and field measured meteorological data, the influence of antecedent soil water storage (ASWS) on water and heat conditions was simulated and analyzed using the SHAW model ...

167

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

168

Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (? = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

2014-01-01

169

Seasonal patterns of water storage as signatures of the climatological equilibrium between resource and demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is accumulated in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the resource to various demands like hydropower production, irrigation, water supply or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively optimizes the use of the resource during a given time period. One of its by-products is the estimation of the marginal storage water value (MSWV), defined by the marginal value of the future goods and benefits obtained from an additional unit of storage water volume. Knowledge of the MSWV makes it possible to determine a posteriori the storage requirement scheme that would have led to the best equilibrium between the resource and the demand. The MSWV depends on the water level in the reservoir and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This study uses the inter-annual average of both the storage requirement scheme and the MSWV cycle as signatures of the best temporal equilibrium that is achievable in a given resource/demand context (the climatological equilibrium). For a simplified water resource system in a French mountainous region, we characterize how and why these signatures change should the climate and/or the demand change, mainly if changes are projected in the mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) as well as in the water demand for energy production and/or maintenance of a minimum reservoir level. Results show that the temporal equilibrium between water resource and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of MSWV changes when, for example, earlier water storage is required to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand. Finally, understanding how MSWV signatures change helps to understand changes in the storage requirement scheme.

François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

2014-09-01

170

Hydrogen storage, water electrolysis and fuel cells for electric energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process and physical configuration, performance and costs of such a system are presented and discussed, as well as the prognosis for eventual application in a utility system. The key requirement necessary to make hydrogen production attractive for utility applications is the flexible and maximum utilization of the capital facilities required for production, storage, and where applicable, electric conversion.

F. J. Salzano; C. Braun; A. Beaufrere; S. Srinivasan; G. Strickland; J. J. Reilly

1976-01-01

171

Storage water value as a signature of the climatological balance between resource and uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is stored in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the water resource to the various water demands like hydropower production, irrigation or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively identifies optimal reservoir operations that could have been achieved to balance resource and demand during a given time period in the ideal configuration where future inflows and demand are perfectly known. A by-product of dynamic programming is the estimation of the storage water value (SWV) which is the marginal value of the future benefits potentially obtained from an additional unit of water volume stored in a reservoir and which determines the optimal storage strategy. The SWV depends on the reservoir level and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This paper uses the SWV as an index of the adequacy between water resources and water demands for a simplified water resource system in a mountainous region in France. It characterizes how and why the adequacy and optimal strategy could change for this system if the climate and/or demand change. Changes in mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) are analyzed. The influence of the nature of water demand on the SWV is also described (energy production or minimum lake level maintenance). In the studied case, the adequacy between water resources and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of SWV changes with for example earlier water storage is to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand.

François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

2013-07-01

172

CARBONATED WATER INJECTION FOR OIL RECOVERY AND CO2 STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 injection is increasingly considered as having potential applications as a possible enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process for oil reservoirs. Storage potential of these reservoirs to store CO2 for a long period of time also provides an opportunity to develop sustainable solutions in response to the challenge of continued use of fossil fuels, climate-change and compliance with national and international

M. Sohrabi; M. Riazi; M. Jamiolahmady; S. Ireland; C. Brown

173

RESRAD drinking water pathway: Probabilistic applications for underground storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive wastewater treatment system in place at the Mound plant uses four 129,000-[ell] (34 000-gal) concrete tanks to collect treated effluent prior to discharge. These effluent tanks are located partially below grade and are therefore components of the plant's active underground storage tank program (AUSTP). In support of AUSTP implementation and evaluation, a screening analysis of the potential radiological

1993-01-01

174

Drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir during a period of extreme drawdown.  

PubMed

This study examined the drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir (Lake Hume) during a period of extreme drawdown (to less than 3% of capacity). During the period of extreme drawdown, the reservoir can be thought of as consisting of three separate but inter-related parcels of water. The warm surface mixed layer was about 6m deep. Cold water inflows from the Mitta Mitta River undershot the surface mixed layer in the Mitta Mitta arm of the reservoir and flowed along the bottom of the reservoir to the Dam Wall without substantial interaction with the surface mixed layer. When inflows from the Murray River occurred, the temperature of these inflows was similar to that of the surface mixed layer within the dam and the flows appeared to move within the surface mixed layer towards the Dam Wall. These Murray River inflows were insufficient to promote total mixing of the surface and bottom waters. The Murray River arm of the reservoir became a 'hot spot' for nutrient production. Stratification and subsequent anoxic conditions promoted the release of nutrients - ammonium, organic N and total P - from the sediments into the overlying hypolimnion. Because the depth of the lake was relatively shallow due to the extreme drawdown, wind driven events lead to a substantial deepening (turnover) of the thermocline allowing periodic pulses of nutrients into the warm surface layer. These nutrient pulses appeared to stimulate cyanobacterial growth. Warm inflows from the Murray River then served to push the blooms formed in the Murray arm into the main body of the lake. PMID:18804256

Baldwin, Darren S; Gigney, Helen; Wilson, Jessica S; Watson, Garth; Boulding, Amy N

2008-12-01

175

Household water treatment and safe storage product development in Ghana  

E-print Network

Microbial and/or chemical contaminants can infiltrate into piped water systems, especially when the system is intermittent. Ghana has been suffering from aged and intermittent piped water networks, and an added barrier of ...

Yang, Shengkun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

176

HâOTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems.

L. W. Vail; E. A. Jenne; L. E. Eary

1992-01-01

177

Simulated soil water storage effects on streamflow generation in a mountainous snowmelt environment, Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although soil processes affect the timing and amount of streamflow generated from snowmelt, they are often overlooked in estimations of snowmelt-generated streamflow in the western USA. The use of a soil water balance modelling approach to incorporate the effects of soil processes, in particular soil water storage, on the timing and amount of snowmelt generated streamflow, was investigated. The study

M. S. Seyfried; L. E. Grant; D. Marks; A. Winstral; J. McNamara

2009-01-01

178

Thermal optimisation of a built-in storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple transient analysis of a built-in storage solar water heater is presented; the results obtained by the present theory are in close agreement with experimental observations as well as with predictions obtained by a more rigorous theory. The water heater consits of an insulated rectangular tank whose top surface is suitably blackened by blackboard paint and then glazed. The

J. K. Nayak; N. K. Dhiman; G. N. Tiwari

1982-01-01

179

Experimental comparison of alternative convection suppression arrangements for concentrating integral collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of an inverted absorber integrated collector storage solar water heater mounted in the tertiary cavity of a compound parabolic concentrator with a secondary cylindrical reflector has been performed under simulated solar conditions. The solar water heaters performance was determined with the aperture parallel to the simulator for a range of transparent baffles positioned at different locations within

M. Smyth; P. McGarrigle; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2005-01-01

180

Water Storage in Snow Cover and Runoff in Experimental Basins in the Jizerské hory Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this work was to compare the results of the water storages obtained in the experimental basins in the Jizerské hory Mountains before the time of snowmelt with the total outflows, which were measured in the hydrological stations during the snowmelt period in two winter seasons with extraordinary snow depths (2005 and 2006). The snow water equivalent

Jan JiRák

2008-01-01

181

Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

2012-12-01

182

International Conference on Water Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC-2009)  

E-print Network

by The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); The State Water Resources Agency (SWaRA), Govt. of U.P.; Project Activity Core Team (PACT), Uttar Pradesh Water Sector Restructuring Project (UPWSRP), Department Water and Supply (DDWS), Ministry of Rural Development, Govt. of India; Central Pollution Control Board

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

183

Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many

M. Narayanan

2009-01-01

184

Global land water storage change from GRACE over 2002-2009; Inference on sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 7-year time span (August 2002 to July 2009) using space gravimetry data from GRACE. The 33 World largest river basins are considered. We focus on the year-to-year variability and construct a total land water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The short-term trend in total water storage adjusted over this 7-year time span is positive and amounts to 80.6 ± 15.7 km 3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Zambezi, Orinoco and Ob basins. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Aral, Euphrates, Indus and Parana. Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2009 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.22 ± 0.05 mm/yr. The time series for each basin clearly show that year-to-year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. We also compare the interannual variability of total land water storage (removing the mean trend over the studied time span) with interannual variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion). A correlation of ˜0.6 is found. Phasing, in particular, is correct. Thus, at least part of the interannual variability of the global mean sea level can be attributed to land water storage fluctuations.

Llovel, William; Becker, Mélanie; Cazenave, Anny; Crétaux, Jean-François; Ramillien, Guillaume

2010-03-01

185

Solar domestic hot water system, a comparative study and storage tank investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program was developed to simulate five typical solar domestic hot water systems which included both thermosyphon and pumped designs that were assembled and tested. Numerical simulations of these systems were verified by comparison to experimental results. Predicted thermal performance, i.e., collector inlet and outlet temperatures, and auxiliary energy requirements were found to be in excellent agreement with experiments. The computer program was then used to predict the long term annual performance of the various systems at 14 different locations throughout California. Load size and load distribution were also varied. Economic analyses were performed on each system with the goal of identifying the most economical system at each location under a prescribed load (gallons/day) size and distribution pattern (time of day for hot water use). It was found that in almost all cases the two tank thermosyphon system was the most cost effective system for all locations, load sizes and distributions and shows promise of being the most widely used solar domestic hot water system.

Young, M. F.

1980-03-01

186

Comparative study of water, ice and clathrates for cool storage applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool storage systems are needed in order to reduce the large summer peak loads of many electric utilities in the United States. Cool storage systems will use off-peak electricity during the summer night and will provide air conditioning during the day requiring very little on-peak electricity. This paper describes different cool storage systems and compares the following storage media: water, ice, Refrigerant-11 clathrate, Refrigerant-12 clathrate, Refrigerant-21 clathrate, and mixed clathrates of Refrigerant-11 and Refrigerant-12. Direct- and indirect-charged as well as direct- and indirect-discharged systems are also compared. Hybrid systems (latent and sensible heat) including ice and water, clathrate and liquid, and clathrate and liquid and salts (to reduce the freezing temperature) are also studied. It is concluded that the most appealing system, from the technical and economical point of view, is a system using mixed clathrate, liquid and salt.

Carbajo, J. J.

187

Motel solar-hot-water system--Dallas, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes system which meets 64 percent of hot water requirements of 120 room motel. Key system components include 1,000 square foot, roof-mounted collector array, 1,000 gallon storage tank, tube-in-shell heat exchanger, and three domestic hot-water tanks. Report contains calibration instructions for differential temperature controllers, shutdown procedures, and operation guidelines, performance analysis, and manufacturers' maintenance literature.

1981-01-01

188

Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

189

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

1981-01-01

190

Land Water Storage within the Congo Basin Inferred from GRACE Satellite Gravity Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GRACE satellite gravity data is used to estimate terrestrial (surface plus ground) water storage within the Congo Basin in Africa for the period of April, 2002 - May, 2006. These estimates exhibit significant seasonal (30 +/- 6 mm of equivalent water thickness) and long-term trends, the latter yielding a total loss of approximately 280 km(exp 3) of water over the 50-month span of data. We also combine GRACE and precipitation data set (CMAP, TRMM) to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Congo Basin. We find that the seasonal water storage tends to saturate for anomalies greater than 30-44 mm of equivalent water thickness. Furthermore, precipitation contributed roughly three times the peak water storage after anomalously rainy seasons, in early 2003 and 2005, implying an approximately 60-70% loss from runoff and evapotranspiration. Finally, a comparison of residual land water storage (monthly estimates minus best-fitting trends) in the Congo and Amazon Basins shows an anticorrelation, in agreement with the 'see-saw' variability inferred by others from runoff data.

Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

2006-01-01

191

Comparative study of transparent insulation materials cover systems for integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of transparently insulated integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters is investigated theoretically as well as experimentally for a comparative study of cover systems having transparent insulation materials devices placed between the top glazing and the absorber. The data on solar transmittance, heat loss reduction characteristics and solar collector-storage efficiencies of various configurations is generated for the system performance comparisons.

K. S. Reddy; N. D. Kaushika

1999-01-01

192

Experimental studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with partitioned hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the performance of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system with a partitioned hot water storage tank. The system employs a flat-plate collector array with a surface area of 38 m2 to drive a LiBr–H2O absorption chiller of 4.7 kW cooling capacity. The system is provided with a storage tank (2.75 m3) which is partitioned into

Z. F Li; K Sumathy

2001-01-01

193

Underground storage of imported water in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The San Gorgonio Pass ground-water basin is divided into the Beaumont, Banning, Cabazon, San Timoteo, South Beaumont, Banning Bench, and Singleton storage units. The Beaumont storage unit, centrally located in the agency area, is the largest in volume of the storage units. Estimated long-term average annual precipitation in the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency drainage area is 332,000 acre-feet, and estimated average annual recoverable water is 24,000 acre-feet, less than 10 percent of the total precipitation. Estimated average annual surface outflow is 1,700 acre-feet, and estimated average annual ground-water recharge is 22,000 acre-feet. Projecting tack to probable steady-state conditions, of the 22.000 acre-feet of recharge, 16,003 acre-feet per year became subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley, 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, and 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon. After extensive development, estimated subsurface outflow from the area in 1967 was 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon, and 800 acre-feet into the fault systems south of the Banning storage unit, unwatered during construction of a tunnel. Subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley in 1967 is probably less than 50 percent of the steady-state flow. An anticipated 17,000 .acre-feet of water per year will be imported by 1980. Information developed in this study indicates it is technically feasible to store imported water in the eastern part of the Beaumont storage unit without causing waterlogging in the storage area and without losing any significant quantity of stored water.

Bloyd, Richard M.

1971-01-01

194

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

1979-01-01

195

Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

Narayanan, M.

2009-12-01

196

Glassy State and Seed Storage Stability: The WLF Kinetics of Seed Viability Loss at T>T gand the Plasticization Effect of Water on Storage Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the glassy state in seeds and storage stability was examined, using the glass transition curve and a seed viability database from previous experiments. Storage data for seeds at various water contents were studied by Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF) kinetics, whereas the glass transition curves of seeds with different storage stability were analysed by the Gordon–Taylor equation in terms of

WENDELL Q. SUN

1997-01-01

197

Investigation of a Flow Coefficient for Predicting a Natural Circulation of Water in a Built-in-storage Solar Water Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of an overall flow coefficient Kf for predicting thermosyphon flow rate of water circulating in a built-in-storage (BIS) solar water heater. Firstly, a set of mathematical equations for solving storage tank temperatures of the BIS solar water heater has been developed based on the energy balances on three main components: absorber plate, collector channel and

Pachern Jans; Supachart Chungpaibulpatana; Bundit Limmeechokchai

198

Effects of water sample preservation and storage conditions on nitrate concentrations  

SciTech Connect

USEPA method 300 requires water samples should be stored at 4 C immediately after collection and NO{sub 3}-N concentration analyzed within 48 hr of sample collection. Many research and commercial laboratories find it is difficult to meet this holding time. Water samples are often stored for several days at 4 C or {minus}20 C until analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of groundwater sample pretreatment, storage temperatures, and holding times on concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N. The storage of samples at 25 C decreased concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N by 1.7% and 12.5% for 48 hr and 50 days, respectively. No significant changes were observed during the 50 days storage at 4 C or {minus}20 C. Acidification of water samples at 4 C had no significant effect on NO{sub 3}-N concentration up to 50-day holding time.

Li, Y.C.; Alva, A.K.; Calvert, D.V.; Zhang, M. [Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL (United States). Indian River Research and Education Center; [Citrus Research Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL (United States)

1995-12-31

199

Storage of eggs in water affects internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality.  

PubMed

In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3 to 14 d in water or air and thereafter incubated for 9 d. In experiment 3, eggs were stored for 16 d in water or air and incubated for 1 to 9 d thereafter. In experiment 4, eggs were stored for 14 d in water or air, incubated thereafter, and hatching time and hatchling quality were determined. In all experiments, egg weight loss in the C treatment increased with duration of storage, whereas W eggs gained weight during storage. Albumen and yolk pH after storage and during incubation were greater in the C eggs compared with the W eggs. In experiment 3, embryonic development at d 4 and 9 was advanced in the W eggs compared with the C eggs. In experiment 4, the number of viable embryonic cells after storage and after trypsinization was lower in the C treatment than in the W treatment (30,188 vs. 69,618; P < 0.001). Hatching time was postponed in the W treatment compared with the C treatment (501 vs. 495 h; P < 0.05). Hatchling length was greater in the C treatment (19.7 vs. 20.3 cm; P = 0.01), and residual yolk was less in the C treatment than in the W treatment (4.9 vs. 8.3 g; P < 0.001). We concluded that storage of eggs in water for a prolonged period positively affects internal egg characteristics and early embryonic development, but negatively affects hatchling quality. The reason for the loss of the head start with progressing incubation needs further investigation. PMID:18931187

van den Brand, H; Reijrink, I A M; Hoekstra, L A; Kemp, B

2008-11-01

200

Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in the unsaturated zone is a major determinant of the hydrological behaviour of the soil, but methods to quantify soil water storage are limited. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil surface elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes. We measured moisture contents in soil aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in volumes comprising multiple aggregates and intra-aggregates spaces by CS616 sensors. In a prolonged drying period, aggregate-scale storage change measurements revealed normal shrinkage for layers ? 30 cm depth, indicating volume loss equalled water loss. Shrinkage in a soil volume including multiple aggregates and voids was slightly less than normal, due to soil moisture variations in the profile and delayed drying of deeper soil layers upon lowering of the groundwater level. This resulted in shrinkage curve slopes of 0.89, 0.90 and 0.79 for the layers 0-60, 0-100 and 0-150 cm. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, shrinkage curve slopes ranged from 0.29 to 0.69 (EC-5) and 0.27 to 0.51 (CS616). Alternation of shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in an underestimation of volume change relatively to water storage change, due to hysteresis between swelling and shrinkage. Since the slope of the shrinkage relation depends on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers, shrinkage curves from laboratory tests on clay aggregates require suitable modifications for application to soil profiles. Then, the linear portion of the curve can help soil water storage estimation from soil surface elevation changes. These elevation changes might be measurable over larger extents by remote sensing.

te Brake, B.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; de Rooij, G. H.

2012-11-01

201

Storage of natural water samples and preservation techniques for pharmaceutical quantification.  

PubMed

In order to perform a human and ecological risk assessment of pharmaceutical products (PPs) in natural waters, it is necessary to accurately quantify a broad variety of PPs at low concentrations. Although numerous currently implemented analytical methodologies, less is known about the preservation of PPs in natural water samples within the period before analysis (holding time, storage conditions). This paper is the first literature review about the stability of PPs in natural waters (surface and groundwaters) during sample storage. The current work focuses on a comparison of the performances of the available preservation techniques (filtration, container materials, storage temperature, preservative agents, etc.) for PPs in samples. All 58 reviewed PPs may be successfully stabilized during 7 days in surface waters by at least one appropriate methodology regarding temperature, acidic and non-acidic preservatives. When temperature is not a sufficient preservation parameter for some PPs (hormones and fluoxetine) its combination with the addition of chemical agents into the samples may prolong the integrity of the PPs during storage in surface water. There is a strong need to use standard protocols to assess and compare the stability of PPs in environmental water matrices during storage as well as during analytical preparation or analysis (European criteria 2002/657/EC). Since the stability of PPs during sample storage is a critical parameter that could call into question the quality of the data provided for the concentrations, the design of stability studies should rigorously take into account all critical parameters that could impact the concentrations of the PPs with time. PMID:23618138

Mompelat, S; Jaffrezic, A; Jardé, E; Le Bot, B

2013-05-15

202

Non-linearities and thresholds in water partitioning, storage and release in different ecohydrological units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water partitioning between transpiration, evaporation and runoff is controlled by climatic and water storage characteristics; yet our current knowledge of varying dominant retention and partitioning mechanisms remains limited. For some forested catchments with clear seasonal distinctions, recent work has revealed the existence of partitioned ecohydrological systems where plant - and stream-water are sourced from different subsurface water stores. It is still unclear what the roles of non-linearities are in different water-energy regimes and how soil and vegetation properties might influence such partitioning of water stores. This study aims to better understand the spatio-temporal controls on water residence times and hydrological responses at the catchment scale in a northern headwater catchment in Scotland. Here, the climate is usually consistently wet with low evapotranspiration rates. Within this context however, the study period involved an exceptionally dry summer. We explored non-linearities and thresholds in catchment input-output relationships and investigated the role of soil-water-vegetation interactions on water partitioning, storage, and release along different hillslopes during contrasting hydro-climatic conditions. Different ecohydrological units included poorly draining soils in riparian zones and freely draining soils on hillslopes, and both forested and non-forested sites were considered. Soil moisture dynamics and stable water isotope signatures of different waters (precipitation, stream-, soil -, and plant xylem-water) were examined throughout the year (winter and during the growing season that included the relatively dry summer) to identify plant water use, assess water movement, and explore vegetation-water linkages. The results indicate that threshold behaviour in runoff responses at the catchment scale can be linked to apparent differences between soil water dynamics and residence times of different hydropedological units. Linear input-output relationships exist when runoff is dominantly generated from the permanently wet riparian zones. In contrast, the freely draining hillslope soils show larger dynamic storage changes, and non-linear runoff generation processes can be related to temporary high soil wetness on the hillslopes. However, vegetation impacts are limited and the isotope data suggest that there is no strong evidence for the formation of two different ecohydrological subsurface water stores for either soil types at any time. Such contrasting results in relation to those of previous studies might be attributed to the overall relatively high subsurface storage, and the area's radiation energy-limited climate that lacks overall strong seasonality in high precipitation inputs. The results therefore suggest that the formation of different subsurface water stores might depend on thresholds in the water-energy balance, and as such depend on geographic and climatic conditions.

Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Soulsby, Chris

2014-05-01

203

Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.  

PubMed

Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. PMID:24629940

Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

2014-08-01

204

Change in land water storage in the East Africa region inferred from GRACE and altimetry data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought can be regarded as one of the most damaging of natural disasters in human, environmental, and economic terms. It occurs as a result of extremes in climate that are driven by natural variability but may be exacerbated or dampened by anthropogenic influences. In East Africa rainfall exhibits a great spatial and temporal variability. Such events have impact on the water budget of this region. But water use and more generally anthropogenic forcing also affect regional hydrology. In this study, we investigate water storage change (surface and ground) using in synergy satellite radar altimetry, GRACE satellite gravity and other data to quantify recent change in surface waters and total land storage in East Africa over the recent years. Water levels of most East African lakes display significant decrease since the strong ENSO event of 1997- 1998. GRACE data available since 2002 also show decrease in total water storage over this region. The volume of water stored within lakes and reservoirs is a sensitive proxy for precipitation and may be used to study the combined impact of climate change and water-resource management. We also combine GRACE, altimetry and precipitation data sets to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal and interannual hydrological balance of this area and its link with the western Indian Ocean thermal change

Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.

2008-12-01

205

Sea level rise and water storage on land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate data was used to model the relationship between sea level rise and the loss of water stored in soils and snowpack on land. It was found that water stored on land did not make any lasting contribution to sea level rise during the 50 year period, although strong variation in precipitation and subsequent runoff, particularly in the tropics, caused sea level to fluctuate every ten years or so.

Duc et al.

206

Total water storage in Washington, Oregon, and California inferred from GPS observation of surface mass loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal vertical oscillations in the Pacific mountain system are observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study we invert such GPS measurements of surface mass loading for equivalent water thickness at a resolution of one-quarter degree latitude and longitude. Standard Green's functions based on PREM are used to specify the relationship between equivalent water thickness and the elastic response of solid Earth to the load. A Laplacian is used to limit the change in the value of equivalent water thickness from one pixel to the next. The resulting GPS determination of the seasonal oscillation in the total water thickness has been compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics California's physiographic provinces. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April 1 to October 1 is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. We conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system. Water storage inferred from GPS exceeds that in hydrology model NLDAS-Noah by up to 50%. This difference is likely due to more snow and reservoir water than in the hydrology model. Comparison between GPS inversed seasonal water storage and hydrology model (NLDAS) result for Washington and Oregon.

Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.

2013-12-01

207

Save water, save money  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

1977-01-01

208

Leaf Area and Water Content Changes after Permanent and Temporary Storage  

PubMed Central

Accurate measurements of leaf morphology must be taken to develop models of ecosystem productivity and climate change projections. Once leaves are removed from a plant they begin to lose water and degrade. If specimens cannot be measured immediately after harvest, it is important to store the leaves in a manner that reduces morphological changes. If preserved specimens are used, estimates that closely match fresh measurements need to be calculated. This study examined the change in leaf area after storage treatments and developed models that can be used to more accurately estimate initial leaf area. Fresh leaf area was measured from ten plant species then stored in one of two common storage treatments. After storage, leaf area was re-measured and comparisons were made between species and growth forms. Leaf area decreased the most after permanent storage treatments and the least after temporary storage. Pressed leaves shrunk over 18% while cold storage leaves shrunk under 4%. The woody dicot growth form shrunk the least in all treatments. Shrinkage was positively correlated with initial water content and dissection index, a measure of leaf shape and complexity. PMID:22880051

Juneau, Kevyn J.; Tarasoff, Catherine S.

2012-01-01

209

Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

Snavely, Deborah S.

1980-01-01

210

AZ 400K Developer Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores one gallon bottles of AZ 400K developer solution. They are  

E-print Network

AZ 400K Developer Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores one gallon bottles of AZ 400K developer and developers. AZ 400K is an odorless, aqueous, inorganic, alkaline solution, free of phosphates and sodium it is recommended to use 1 part 400K and 4 parts DI water; mixed well. Process Note: Variables such as developing

Kim, Philip

211

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13

212

Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5(?)C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at -195(?)C, thawed at 30(?) to 70(?)C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30(?)C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1?cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage. PMID:20871831

Mollineau, W M; Adogwa, A O; Garcia, G W

2010-01-01

213

Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 106 spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5?C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at ?195?C, thawed at 30? to 70?C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 106 spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30?C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1?cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage. PMID:20871831

Mollineau, W. M.; Adogwa, A. O.; Garcia, G. W.

2011-01-01

214

GRACE Measurement of Total Water Storage Variations Over Texas  

E-print Network

resolution) GIA over Canada; Greenland & Alaska ice mass losses Lake Victoria basin mass loss Sumatra GRACE measures the change in all forms of the water stored on land after precipitation has been stored DETECTS GROUNDWATER LOSS IN INDIA Pattern of groundwater depletion in NW India Loss of 109 km3 (3 Lake

Yang, Zong-Liang

215

Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

1997-01-01

216

Effective Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

PubMed Central

When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

2013-01-01

217

Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

PubMed

When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

2013-09-01

218

Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination of lterable reactive phosphorus, total lterable  

E-print Network

Review Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination and digestion of water samples for ®lterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total ®lterable phosphorus (TFP samples contain digestion of samples

Canberra, University of

219

Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

220

Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating  

SciTech Connect

Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

2013-03-01

221

Estimation of groundwater recharge from water storage structures in a semi-arid climate of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge from water storage structures under semi-arid conditions of western India has been estimated by employing water table fluctuation (WTF) and chloride mass balance (CMB) methods. Groundwater recharge was estimated as 7.3% and 9.7% of the annual rainfall by WTF method for the years 2003 and 2004, respectively while the two years average recharge was estimated as 7.5% using

V. N. Sharda; R. S. Kurothe; D. R. Sena; V. C. Pande; S. P. Tiwari

2006-01-01

222

GPS as an independent measurement to estimate terrestrial water storage variations in Washington and Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) measures elastic ground loading deformation in response to hydrological mass variations on or near Earth's surface. We present a time series of change in terrestrial water storage as a function of position in Washington and Oregon estimated using GPS measurements of vertical displacement of Earth's surface. The distribution of water variation inferred from GPS is highly correlated with physiographic provinces: the seasonal water is mostly located in the mountain areas, such as the Cascade Range and Olympic Mountains, and is much smaller in the basin and valley areas of the Columbia Basin and Harney Basin. GPS is proven to be an independent measurement to distinguish between hydrological models. The drought period of 2008-2010 (maximum in 2010) and the recovery period of 2011-2012 in the Cascade Range are well recovered with GPS-determined time-variable monthly water mass series. The GPS-inferred water storage variation in the Cascade Range is consistent with that derived from JPL's GRACE monthly mass grid solutions. The percentage of RMS reduction is ~62% when we subtract GRACE water series from GPS-derived results. GPS-determined water storage variations can fill gaps in the current GRACE mission, also in the transition period from the current GRACE to the future GRACE Follow-on missions. We demonstrate that the GPS-inferred water storage variations can determine and verify local scaling factors for GRACE measurements; in the Cascade Range, the RMS reduction between GRACE series scaled by GPS and scaled by the hydrological model-based GRACE Tellus gain factors is up to 90.5%.

Fu, Yuning; Argus, Donald F.; Landerer, Felix W.

2015-01-01

223

Study of melting and freezing processes of water for application to ice thermal energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents the results of a study of the solid-liquid phase change process of water in a rectangular enclosure for application to thermal energy storage systems. The work performed combined experimental results with analytical and numerical methods to develop computer models of the system. Experiments were performed to obtain data to verify the models under various melting and freezing

Liang Yong

1993-01-01

224

Improvement of the variable storage coefficient method with water surface gradient as a variable  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The variable storage coefficient (VSC) method has been used for streamflow routing in continuous hydrological simulation models such as the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for more than 30 years. APEX operates on a daily time step and ...

225

USING COMPUTER MODELS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have indicated that water quality is degraded as a result of long residence times in storage tanks, highlighting the importance of tank design, location, and operation. Computer models, developed to explain some of the mixing and distrribution issues associated with tank...

226

Simple transient thermal model for solar collector\\/storage water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple transient model predicting the thermal performance of novel solar water heaters combining both collection and storage of solar energy is presented. These heaters consist of either an insulated rectangular tank whose top surface is suitably blackened and glazed or an insulated open shallow tank with black bottom\\/inner sides and a top glass cover (shallow solar pond). Heat losses

M. S. Sodha; P. K. Bansal; S. C. Kaushik

1981-01-01

227

Lower Mantle Storage of Water in "Anhydrous" High-Pressure Basalt Assemblages  

E-print Network

Lower Mantle Storage of Water in "Anhydrous" High-Pressure Basalt Assemblages W. R. Panero, L. RCone Hall , Berkeley, CA 94720, USA High-pressure experiments on natural mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB, as much as 350 H ppm Si can be sequestered in the high-pressure assemblage of "anhydrous" MORB at lower

228

Growth versus storage: responses of Mediterranean oak seedlings to changes in nutrient and water availabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare dry mass (DM) and storage of starch (St) and nitrogen (N) in seedlings of three Mediterranean oaks, two evergreens (Quercus coccifera L. and Q. ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp) and one deciduous (Q. faginea Lam.), across different scenarios of nutrient and water availabil- ities. Three fertilization (5, 50 and 200 mg of N per plant and growing

Virginia S; Pilar C; Fernando V

229

The 2009 exceptional Amazon flood and interannual terrestrial water storage change observed by GRACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission provides a new capability for measuring extreme climate events, such as floods and droughts associated with large-scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. GRACE gravity measurements show significant TWS increases in the lower Amazon basin in the first half of 2009, clearly associated with the exceptional flood season in that region.

J. L. Chen; C. R. Wilson; B. D. Tapley

2010-01-01

230

Intercomparsion of global hydrological models in terms of water storage simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global hydrology modeling is an indispensable tool to study hydrological processes on continental scales. Furthermore, the output of global hydrological models provides an important input for studies on water availability or climate change. Until now, differences between global hydrological models are larger than predicted signals within many regions. This challenges the reliability of single model predictions. In order to understand reasons and sources of these differences, we compare the output of total water storage variations as well as groundwater, soil, snow and canopy storages simulated with three global hydrological models: the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the Land Dynamics model (LaD) and the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). The main source of model inconsistency originates from the differences in global simulations of soil moisture. The differences between the models are mainly due to different model strategies (including the definition of storage compartments), different process formulations and errors in the input data. We suggest improving model simulations by an increased effort into research of process understandings on continental scales. Furthermore, a successful and world-wide integration of satellite observations of hydrological variables into these models is desirable to reduce uncertainties in global hydrological simulations. For instance, the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission depicts a useful measurement system to detect and assimilate total water storage changes on the continents.

Guentner, A.; Werth, S.

2008-12-01

231

Presence of Paratracheal Water Storage Tissue does not Alter Vessel Characters in Cactus Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested hypotheses that the presence of water storage tissues immediately adjacent to vessels would protect vessels from cavitation and would result in evolution of broader vessels that occur in fewer, smaller clusters relative to vessels surrounded by a matrix of fibers. We examined 21 species that have dimorphic wood, that is, at one stage in their life they

James D. Mauseth; Brandon J. Plemons-Rodriguez

1997-01-01

232

Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest  

PubMed Central

Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20?cm) than in the deep layers (20~40?cm and 40~60?cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

2014-01-01

233

Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

234

Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

235

Seasonal water storage on the Amazon floodplain measured from satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of water stored and moving through the Amazon floodplain is not known, yet is necessary for understanding the role of the wetland in the regional carbon balance and the sediment and nutrient exchanged with the main river channel. Here, we separate the Amazon floodplain into six 330km×330km areas and use gravimetric and imaging satellite methods (i.e., GRACE, SRTM,

Douglas Alsdorf; Shin-Chan Han; Paul Bates; John Melack

2010-01-01

236

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01

237

A Stable Isotope Approach to Assessing Water Loss in Fruits and Vegetables during Storage.  

PubMed

Plant tissue water is the source of oxygen and hydrogen in organic biomatter. Recently, we demonstrated that the stable hydrogen isotope value (?(2)H) of plant methoxyl groups is a very reliable and easily available archive for the ?(2)H value of this tissue water. Here we show in a model experiment that the ?(2)H values of methoxyl groups remain unchanged after water loss during storage of fruits and vegetables under controlled conditions, while ?(2)H and ?(18)O values of tissue water increase. This enhancement is plant-dependent, and the correlation differs from the meteoric water line. The ?(18)O value is better correlated to the weight decrease of the samples. Therefore, we postulate that the ?(2)H value of methoxyl groups and the ?(18)O value of tissue water are suitable parameters for checking postharvest alterations of tissue water, either addition or loss. PMID:25674668

Greule, Markus; Rossmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig; Mosandl, Armin; Keppler, Frank

2015-02-25

238

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V.L.

2009-01-01

239

GRACE monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the measurements of gravity changes by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission can be used to monitor the terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States. The equivalent water thickness inferred from the GRACE data shows consistency with two hydrological models, Mosaic land surface model (LSM) and Noah LSM, in Rocky Mountain States (including CO, ID, MT, NV, UT, WY) and in periods of 2003 to 2012 except 2005 and 2010, when the simulated annual hydrological cycle amplitudes of soil moisture from the two models exhibit small difference. The equivalent water thickness inferred from the GRACE data, however, show large differences from the hydrological models in MN, NY, PA and in the year of 2004, in CT, MA, MN, NH, NJ, NY, VT and in the year of 2010, etc., and two hydrological models also differ from each other in those regions and time. Our results indicate that the GRACE data can be used as a strong constraint on, hydrological models and to identify where the improvements are needed in those models. We show that GRACE data can also be used to infer changes of Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI). We test the relationship between the water storage change and PHDI change in the continental United States. We find that the converting factor from the water storage change to PHDI change varies from region to region, but is empirically a function of soil moisture of the region. We derive an empirical fitting function between the change of water thickness and soil moisture in the continental United States. We then infer the PHDI changes based on the GRACE data and the inferred relationship between the water storage and PHDI changes. The inferred PHDI changes show strong similarity with the observations, indicating the feasibility of using GRACE data to monitor drought in the continental United States.

Yi, H.; Wen, L.

2013-12-01

240

Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h methods to accurately estimate volume for the range of wetland shapes occurring across the Prairie Pothole Region. These results were contrasted with two commonly implemented V-A regression equations to determine which method estimates volume most accurately. We used detailed topographic data for 27 wetlands in Smith Creek and St. Denis watersheds, Saskatchewan that ranged in surface area and basin shape. The full V-A-h method was found to accurately estimate storage (errors <3%) across wetlands of various shapes, and is therefore suitable for calculating water storage in the variety of wetland surface shapes found in the prairies. Both V-A equations performed poorly, with volume underestimated by an average of 15% and 50% Analysis of the simplified V-A-h method showed that volume errors of <10% can be achieved if the basin and shape coefficients are derived properly. This would involve measuring depth and area twice, with sufficient time between measurements that the natural fluctuations in water storage are reflected. Practically, wetland area and depth should be measured in spring, following snowmelt when water levels are near the peak, and also in late summer prior to water depths dropping below 10 cm. These guidelines for applying the simplified V-A-h method will allow for accurate volume estimations when detailed topographic data are not available. Since the V-A equations were outperformed by the full and simplified V-A-h methods, we conclude that wetland depth and basin morphology should be considered when estimating volume. This will improve storage estimations of natural and human-impacted wetlands in the PPR. Considering more than half of prairie wetlands have been de-water though agricultural drainage, it is important to have accurate methods to estimate storage in order to assess the impact of wetland storage on watershed runoff.

Minke, A. G.; Westbrook, C. J.; van der Kamp, G.

2009-05-01

241

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

242

Integrating Stable Isotope Tracers with Rainfall-Runoff Models as Tools for Assessing Catchment-Scale Water Storage Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water supplies and the ecohydrological function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are dependent on the storage and release of water from the unsaturated and saturated zone of catchments. Attempts to measure and estimate storage dynamics at operational catchment scales are hampered by spatial heterogeneity which makes interpolation of point measurements (e.g. of soil moisture and groundwater dynamics) difficult. Storage-discharge relationships from rainfall-runoff models can explicitly acknowledge that water storage is neither time nor space invariant and can be useful to assess catchment storage dynamics. However, input-output relationships of natural isotopic tracers such as oxygen-18 and deuterium usually show damping and time-lags in stream flow response to precipitation fluxes. Such damping behaviour implies large mixing volumes that are usually much greater than those suggested by dynamic storage changes estimated from water balance calculations in rainfall-runoff models. This larger volume is often referred to as "passive" storage or so-called "immobile" water available for mixing that hydraulically does not contribute to streamflow at least in the short-term. Thus, combining tracer based storage (passive) estimates with those inferred from dynamic model storage (active) estimates from runoff models has the potential to provide multi-proxy tools to investigate the concept of catchment storage in an integrated way. In this paper we explore the storage-discharge relationships of two nested (3.6 and 30 km2) montane catchments in Scotland using rainfall-runoff models: (a) a non-linear discharge sensitivity function and (b) a process-based conceptual model constrained by high resolution (daily), long-term (3 year) isotope time series. Both modelling approaches consistently simulated small seasonal storage fluctuations (ca. 40-50mm) in both catchments: consistent with the wet, cool climate. In contrast, input-output relationships of oxygen-18 tracer time series in both catchments were used to estimate the passive storage available for mixing and tracer damping in streams. This showed that minimal catchment storage is at least two magnitude greater (ca. 1000mm) than the dynamic storage estimated by both models. The passive storage inferred by the isotopes indicates that dynamic storage revealed by water balance considerations masks a much larger catchment storage which may in turn determine sensitivity to environmental change. We suggest that isotopic tracers have significant unrealised potential in assessing these storage dynamics.

Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

2012-12-01

243

Effects of inter-annual climate variability on water storage in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River Basin (CRB), located in the Southwestern United States, is largely semi-arid. 70% of streamflow originates from the high-elevation snowpack, and precipitation is generally concentrated in the North-American Monsoon period (summer). Recently, the CRB experienced a severe multi-year drought, and the population in the area is growing fast, increasing the pressure on water resources. Understanding the long-term (inter-annual to decadal) variability of water availability, therefore, is paramount for water resources management. Here, we analyze monthly time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation and discharge spanning 74 years in the Colorado River Basin and statistically relate them to monthly climate indices that describe variability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure in the tropical and extra-tropical Pacific. ENSO indices in winter (JFM) are related to winter precipitation, as well as to soil moisture and discharge in the Lower Colorado. The low-frequency mode of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) appears to be strongly correlated with saturated water storage (groundwater). During the negative PDO phase, saturated storage anomalies tend to be negative, and the "amplitudes" (mean absolute anomalies) of soil moisture, snow and discharge are lower compared with periods having positive PDO phases. Predicting inter-annual variability, therefore, strongly depends on the capability of predicting PDO regime shifts. If indeed a shift to a cool PDO phase occurred in the mid-nineties, as data suggest, the current dry conditions in the Colorado basin may persist.

Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Troch, P., A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Durcik, M.

2009-04-01

244

TUBEWALL: a passive solar thermo-siphoning, field-fabricated, water storage wall system  

SciTech Connect

The basic component of TUBEWALL is a water-filled thin-wall cylindrical tube with an insulating foam vertical partition insert that divides the inside of the tube into a thin collector water compartment (solar side) and a larger storage water compartment (room side). The two compartments are connected at the top and bottom by means of circulation holes in the foam partition. When the sun strikes the solar side of the tube, the thin layer of collector water is heated, thermosiphons through the top opening in the partition into the larger storage compartment on the room side, and is replaced with cool water drawn from the bottom of the storage through the bottom hole in the partition. Night back-siphonage is prevented by a thin flap valve over the top circulation hole. The tubes may by used between wall studs having a low-cost fiberglass/tedlar double glazing. The tubes can be covered on the room side with drywall and heat transferred to the living space by indirect radiation, and either natural air convection through top and bottom vent slots or by fan. Alternatively, the tubes can be left exposed for direct radiation.

Moore, F. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH); Hemker, P.

1980-01-01

245

Soil water storage, rainfall and runoff relationships in a tropical dry forest catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In forested catchments, the exceedance of rainfall and antecedent water storage thresholds is often required for runoff generation, yet to our knowledge these threshold relationships remain undescribed in tropical dry forest catchments. We, therefore, identified the controls of streamflow activation and the timing and magnitude of runoff in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During a 52 day transition phase from the dry to wet season, soil water movement was dominated by vertical flow which continued until a threshold soil moisture content of 26% was reached at 100 cm below the surface. This satisfied a 162 mm storage deficit and activated streamflow, likely through lateral subsurface flow pathways. High antecedent soil water conditions were maintained during the wet phase but had a weak influence on stormflow. We identified a threshold value of 289 mm of summed rainfall and antecedent soil water needed to generate >4 mm of stormflow per event. Above this threshold, stormflow response and magnitude was almost entirely governed by rainfall event characteristics and not antecedent soil moisture conditions. Our results show that over the course of the wet season in tropical dry forests the dominant controls on runoff generation changed from antecedent soil water and storage to the depth of rainfall.

Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

2014-12-01

246

Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.  

PubMed

This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to an aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25399802

Miotli?ski, K; Dillon, P J

2014-11-14

247

Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

2012-06-01

248

Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

1983-01-01

249

MIUS systems analysis: the effects of thermal energy storage and solid waste incineration options on MIUS cost and fuel consumption. [Water for thermal energy storage (TES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the preferred fluid for the conveyance of thermal energy between a MIUS district heating and cooling plant and the consumer. Because of its abundance, low cost, and unique thermal properties, water was also chosen as the thermal energy storage (TES) medium for MIUS in preference to one of the available latent-heat phase-change materials. This report presents the results

C. L. Segaser; W. R. Mixon

1976-01-01

250

Diagnostic Estimates of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes and Evaporation Using the ECMWF Reanalysis ERA-Interim and Hydrometeorological Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a global perspective, little is known about terrestrial water storage and evaporation. However, these two variables of the hydrological cycle play a key role not only for agriculture and the estimation of current and future water availability, but also for improvements in seasonal forecasting and climate modeling. Using the atmospheric water balance, accurate estimates of terrestrial water storage variations and evaporation for large river basins can be obtained. Here, we present diagnostic estimates derived with this approach using the recent ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim, together with measured runoff for the estimated terrestrial water storage changes, and precipitation for the evapotranspiration estimates. Comparisons with ERA-40-based estimates from the Basin-Scale Water-Balance (BSWB) dataset (Seneviratne et al. 2004, Hirschi et al. 2006a,b; www.iacweb.ethz.ch/data/water_balance/) are performed for several basins. In this analysis, we focus on differences in the annual cycles as well as in the long-term drifts of the derived terrestrial water storage changes. Moreover, we compare the diagnosed ERA-Interim-based terrestrial water storage changes with in-situ soil moisture and snow measurements, as well as satellite retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). References: Hirschi, M., Seneviratne, S.I., Schär, C. (2006a). Seasonal variations in terrestrial water storage for major midlatitude river basins. J. Hydrometeorol., 7(1):39-60. Hirschi, M., Viterbo, P. and Seneviratne, S.I. (2006b). Basin-scale water-balance estimates of terrestrial water storage variations from ECMWF operational forecast analysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi:10.1029/2006GL027659 Seneviratne, S.I., Viterbo, P., Lüthi, D. and Schär, C. (2004). Inferring changes in terrestrial water storage using ERA-40 reanalysis data: The Mississippi river basin. J. Clim., 17, 2039-2057.

Mueller, B.; Hirschi, M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

2009-04-01

251

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

2009-11-25

252

Developmental changes and water status in tulip bulbs during storage: visualization by NMR imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. 'Apeldoorn') during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 degrees C (non-chilled) or 4 degrees C (chilled) and after planting. MR images reflecting the water content, the relaxation times T1 and T2 (or their reciprocal values, the relaxation rates R1 and R2), and the apparent self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules (ADC), were obtained for intact bulbs. After planting, scape elongation and flowering occurred only in chilled bulbs, while elongation in non-chilled bulbs was retarded. Microscopic observations showed different structural components and high heterogeneity of the bulb tissues. MRI revealed the elongation of the flower bud during storage, which was significantly faster in the chilled bulbs. In addition, MRI demonstrated a redistribution of water between different bulb organs, as well as significant differences in the pattern of this redistribution between the chilled and non-chilled bulbs. Generally, R2 relaxation rates became faster in all bulb organs during storage. At the same time, ADC values remained constant in the chilled bulbs, while exhibiting a significant increase in the non-chilled bulbs. PMID:10937704

Van der Toorn, A; Zemah, H; Van As, H; Bendel, P; Kamenetsky, R

2000-07-01

253

Annual and seasonal water storage changes detected from GRACE data in the La Plata Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravity does not remain constant, but changes over time depending on the redistribution of the masses. Aquatic environments, like a river basin, perform important functions in nature such as control of climate, floods and nutrients; and they also provide goods and services for humanity. To monitor these environments at large spatial scales, the satellite gravity mission GRACE provides time-variable gravity field models that reflect the Earth's gravity field variations due to mass transport processes, like continental water storage variations. The La Plata Basin is the second largest in South America and is a sample of the abundance, variety and quality of natural resources and possibilities offered in connection with the production of goods and services. The objective of this work is to analyze GRACE capability to monitor the water storage variations in the La Plata Basin. Firstly, GRACE solutions from four different processing centers are used to estimate the gravity trend and gravity amplitude over this basin. Afterwards, the calculated hydrological signal is used to obtain mass change models over this hydrographic system's area, using two different methods and for the period from 2002 to 2009. Next, the annual and seasonal water storage changes from GRACE solutions are validated in Argentina by rainfall data over the time periods where extreme weather conditions took place. The results indicate that GRACE detected the variations of the continental water storage in the La Plata Basin, and particularly, it detected the important decrease in the South of the basin. Moreover, a coherency between the estimates of water mass changes and rainfall data was found, which shows that GRACE also detected extreme weather events (such as drought and intense rain episodes) that occurred in the 2004-2009 period in Argentina.

Pereira, Ayelen; Pacino, María Cristina

2012-12-01

254

Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

2012-01-01

255

Survival of Arcobacter butzleri during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) is a fresh stretched cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri during WBMC production and storage under different temperature conditions (5, 10, and 20 °C). Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with one reference strain and two isolates of A. butzleri, and the count was monitored during WBMC production and storage. The bacterial count of A. butzleri decreased during curd ripening (from 7.83 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 4.14 log CFU/g in about 4 h) and a further decrease (>4 log CFU/g) was observed at the end of curd stretching. During storage testing, A. butzleri was never detected by direct plating, whereas it was recovered from 12 of the total 162 WBMC until the end of storage testing by enrichment. The results revealed that A. butzleri is able to survive during WBMC production and storage at different temperature conditions. Consequently, traditional WBMC produced from raw milk could represent a potential source of Arcobacter infection for humans. PMID:23806147

Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Finazzi, Guido; Marchetti, Giacomo; Zambrini, Angelo V; Rosmini, Roberto

2013-09-01

256

Basin-scale water-balance estimates of terrestrial water storage variations from ECMWF operational forecast analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent publications, a new basin-scale dataset of monthly variations in terrestrial water storage (BSWB) was derived for the ERA40 time period (1958-2002) using an atmospheric-terrestrial water-balance approach (Seneviratne et al., 2004; Hirschi et al., 2006). Here, we test the feasibility of using ECMWF operational forecast analyses - available for the recent time period in near real time - instead of reanalysis data for the derivation of these estimates. Our results suggest that the moisture flux convergence from the ECMWF operational forecast analysis is generally consistent with ERA40 in the investigated regions, including 35 mid-latitude river basins and domains. For ten domains with recent streamflow measurements, water-balance estimates of monthly terrestrial water storage variations derived using the ECMWF operational forecast data are compared with estimates from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). In general the atmospheric-terrestrial water-balance estimates show more geographical detail than the analyzed standard resolution GRACE products.

Hirschi, Martin; Viterbo, Pedro; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

2006-11-01

257

Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents.  

PubMed

The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage. PMID:24815520

Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R

2014-06-01

258

Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

2014-06-01

259

Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development, analysis, and results, are discussed for the two phase (air-water), two dimensional (cylindrical) modeling of compressed air energy storage (CAES) porous media reservoirs. Numerical methods used to deal with the combined effects of the nonlinear terms, the convergent nature of the flow, and the anisotropy at the wellbore are described. The analysis of water coning was based on a set of reference conditions about which single parameters or groups of parameters were varied to determine their effect on water coning. Results for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem. Water coning will depend on site specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development.

Wiles, L. E.; McCann, R. A.

1981-06-01

260

The ancient Kamirian water storage tank: A proof of concrete technology and durability for three millenniums  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the research work conducted on a concrete specimen cut from a manmade underground hydraulic structure\\u000a with respect to a well-preserved water storage tank which was discovered from the archaeological excavations in the area of\\u000a the ancient city of Kamiros. During Antiquity, this city was the largest of the three most important cities of the Greek island\\u000a of

M. Koui; Ch. Ftikos

1998-01-01

261

Impact of earthen waste storage on nitrate concentration of surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992 and 2002, investigations on the water quality and hydrology were carried out in a small agricultural catchment where\\u000a swine waste was stored in earthen waste storage. The in-stream nitrogen loads and the nitrogen inputs on a sub-catchment scale\\u000a were estimated and compared between 1992 and 2002. For the entire catchment, the estimated nitrogen inputs increased from\\u000a 22.5 to

Tasuku Kato; Motoko Shimura

2007-01-01

262

Examination of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Rods After 15 Years in Dry Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

For [approximately equal to]15 yr Dominion Generation's Surry Nuclear Station 15 x 15 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert-atmosphere Castor V\\/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory at peak cladding temperatures that decreased from â350 to 150 deg. C. Before storage, the loaded cask was subjected to thermal-benchmark tests, during which

Robert E. Einziger; Tsai Hanchung; Michael C. Billone; Bruce A. Hilton

2003-01-01

263

Growth versus storage: responses of Mediterranean oak seedlings to changes in nutrient and water availabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare dry mass (DM) and storage of starch (St) and nitrogen (N) in seedlings of three Mediterranean oaks, two evergreens\\u000a (Quercus coccifera L. and Q. ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp) and one deciduous (Q. faginea Lam.), across different scenarios of nutrient and water availabilities. Three fertilization (5, 50 and 200 mg of N per plant\\u000a and growing period)

Virginia Sanz Pérez; Pilar Castro Díez; Fernando Valladares

2007-01-01

264

Inter-annual Water Storage Changes in Asia from GRACE Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Time-varying gravity field solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have been\\u000a used to investigate the inter-annual changes of hydrologic water storage (? S) within Asia, focusing on the India–China–South Asia region. Instead of computing GRACE monthly ? S from geopotential coefficients, we choose to compute the annually averaged ? S before data smoothing, which improved

C. K. Shum; Jun-Yi Guo; Faisal Hossain; Jianbin Duan; Douglas E. Alsdorf; Xiao-Jun Duan; Chung-Yen Kuo; Hyongki Lee; Michael Schmidt; Lei Wang

265

Effects of water storage in the stele on measurements of the hydraulics of young roots of corn and barley.  

PubMed

In standard techniques (root pressure probe or high-pressure flowmeter), the hydraulic conductivity of roots is calculated from transients of root pressure using responses following step changes in volume or pressure, which may be affected by a storage of water in the stele. Storage effects were examined using both experimental data of root pressure relaxations and clamps and a physical capacity model. Young roots of corn and barley were treated as a three-compartment system, comprising a serial arrangement of xylem/probe, stele and outside medium/cortex. The hydraulic conductivities of the endodermis and of xylem vessels were derived from experimental data. The lower limit of the storage capacity of stelar tissue was caused by the compressibility of water. This was subsequently increased to account for realistic storage capacities of the stele. When root water storage was varied over up to five orders of magnitude, the results of simulations showed that storage effects could not explain the experimental data, suggesting a major contribution of effects other than water storage. It is concluded that initial water flows may be used to measure root hydraulic conductivity provided that the volumes of water used are much larger than the volumes stored. PMID:19709372

Joshi, Ankur; Knipfer, Thorsten; Steudle, Ernst

2009-11-01

266

Automatic Sprinkler Protection of Palletized, 55 Gallon Drum Storage of Unsaturated Polyester Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) is used extensively in the production of composite plastic materials, such as fiberglass\\u000a products. UPRs are classified by NFPA 30 as Class I flammable liquids, often Class IC, based on their styrene content. However,\\u000a because UPR is a viscous liquid with a low vapor pressure and a high-density, it was postulated that UPR stored in drums

Joseph L. Scheffey; Jeffrey M. Shapiro

2006-01-01

267

Effect of cement type and water storage time on the push-out bond strength of a glass fiber post.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of the cement type and the water storage time on the push-out bond strength of a glass fiber post. Glass fiber posts (Fibrekor, Jeneric Pentron) were luted to post spaces using a self-cured resin cement (C&B Cement [CB]), a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem [KC]) or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC FujiCEM [FC]) according to the manufacturers' instructions. For each luting agent, the specimens were exposed to one of the following water storage times (n=5): 1 day (T1), 7 days (T7), 90 days (T90) and 180 days (T180). Push-out tests were performed after the storage times. Control specimens were not exposed to water storage, but subjected to the push-out test 10 min after post cementation. Data (in MPa) were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn`s test (?=0.05). Cement type and water storage time had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the push-out bond strength. CB showed significantly higher values of retention (p<0.05) than KC and FC, irrespective of the water storage time. Water storage increased significantly the push-out bond strength in T7 and T90, regardless of the cement type (p<0.05). The results showed that fiber posts luted to post spaces with the self-cured resin cement exhibited the best bonding performance throughout the 180-day water storage period. All cements exhibited a tendency to increase the bond strength after 7 and 90 days of water storage, decreasing thereafter. PMID:22011889

Reis, Kátia Rodrigues; Spyrides, George Miguel; Oliveira, Jonas Alves de; Jnoub, Alexandre Abrão; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostilio Cervantes; Bonfantes, Gerson

2011-01-01

268

Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1gallon paint can ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1-gallon paint can labeling machine (Standard-Knapp of Portland). Note spiral attachment on floor. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

269

Examination of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Rods After 15 Years in Dry Storage  

SciTech Connect

For [approximately equal to]15 yr Dominion Generation's Surry Nuclear Station 15 x 15 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert-atmosphere Castor V/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory at peak cladding temperatures that decreased from {approx}350 to 150 deg. C. Before storage, the loaded cask was subjected to thermal-benchmark tests, during which time the peak temperatures were greater than 400 deg. C. The cask was opened to examine the fuel rods for degradation and to determine if they were suitable for extended storage. No fuel rod breaches and no visible degradation or crud/oxide spallation from the fuel rod surface were observed. The results from profilometry, gas release measurements, metallographic examinations, microhardness determination, and cladding hydrogen behavior are reported in this paper.It appears that little or no fission gas was released from the fuel pellets during either the thermal-benchmark tests or the long-term storage. In the central region of the fuel column, where the axial temperature gradient in storage is small, the measured hydrogen content in the cladding is consistent with the thickness of the oxide layer. At {approx}1 m above the fuel midplane, where a steep temperature gradient existed in the cask, less hydrogen is present than would be expected from the oxide thickness that developed in-reactor. Migration of hydrogen during dry storage probably occurred and may signal a higher-than-expected concentration at the cooler ends of the rod. The volume of hydrides varies azimuthally around the cladding, and at some elevations, the hydrides appear to have segregated somewhat to the inner and outer cladding surfaces. It is, however, impossible to determine if this segregation occurred in-reactor or during transportation, thermal-benchmark tests, or the dry storage period. The hydrides retained the circumferential orientation typical of prestorage PWR fuel rods. Little or no cladding creep occurred during thermal-benchmark testing and dry storage. It is anticipated that the creep would not increase significantly during additional storage because of the lower temperature after 15 yr, continual decrease in temperature from the reduction in decay heat, and concurrent reductions in internal rod pressure and stress. This paper describes the results of the characterization of the fuel and intact cladding, as well as the implications of these results for long-term (i.e., beyond 20 yr) dry-cask storage.

Einziger, Robert E. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Tsai Hanchung [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Billone, Michael C. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Hilton, Bruce A. [Argonne National Laboratory-West (United States)

2003-11-15

270

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

271

Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

1986-01-01

272

Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

Namkoong, D.

1976-01-01

273

Effect of agitation and storage temperature on water sorption and solubility of adhesive systems.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and flask agitation on the water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) of simplified adhesive systems. Seventy-two disc-shaped specimens were prepared according to the adhesive system (water/ethanol-based: Adper Single Bond 2; and water-based: One Coat Bond SL) and experimental conditions tested (mechanical agitation and storage temperature). Statistical analysis (3-way ANOVA, alpha=5%) found significantly greater WS and SL means for the water/ethanol-based system when compared to the water-based. Irrespective of factors studied, significant differences in WS and SL were noted between cold and room temperatures, with greater values been obtained at 1°C, and lower ones at 20°C. Agitation provided increased WS for both materials at all temperatures, but did not affect their SL. The mechanical agitation of the flask may negatively affect the dynamics of diffusion of simplified adhesive systems, even at extremely cold or warm temperatures. PMID:24998169

Argolo, Saryta; Mathias, Paula; Aguiar, Thaiane; Lima, Adriano; Santos, Sara; Foxton, Richard; Cavalcanti, Andrea

2015-02-01

274

Using enhanced GRACE water storage data to improve drought detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has

Rasmus Houborg; Matthew Rodell; Jay Lawrimore; Bailing Li; Rolf Reichle; Richard Heim; Matthew Rosencrans; Rich Tinker; James S. Famiglietti; Mark Svoboda; Brian Wardlow; Benjamin F. Zaitchik

2010-01-01

275

Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles  

SciTech Connect

Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

2013-09-01

276

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4

Erik Kellner; Sven Halldin

2002-01-01

277

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

278

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10

279

Microbial reduction and storage quality of fresh-cut cilantro washed with acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy of decontamination treatments in reducing microbial populations on cilantro and in improving its storage quality was investigated. Fresh-cut cilantro samples were washed with one of the five treatments: tap water, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), aqueous ozone, chlorinated water, and aqueous ozone followed by AEW (sequential wash). Treated cilantro was packaged in polyethylene bags prepared with films of selected oxygen

Hua Wang; Hao Feng; Yaguang Luo

2004-01-01

280

A study of water relations in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed that is characterised by complex storage behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed is reputed to have limited tolerance to desiccation, to be sensitive to chilling and imbibitional stress, and to display intermediate storage behaviour. To understand this behaviour the properties of water in seed tissues were studied. Water sorption isotherms showed that at similar relative humidity (RH), the water content was consistently higher in axes than in cotyledons,

M. Sacandé; J. Buitink; F. A. Hoekstra

2000-01-01

281

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

282

Importance of shrinkage and compression in determining water storage changes in peat: the case of a mined peatland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines changes in peat volume in a mined peatland near Lac St Jean, Quebec, during the spring and summer of 1995 and 1996, and the implication for water storage changes. Lowering of the water table caused drainage above the water table, but the specific yield (Sy) of the peat was relatively small (0.48), and did not adequately describe

Jonathan S. Price; Susanne M. Schlotzhauer

1999-01-01

283

Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households

R. E. QUICK; L. V. VENCZEL; E. D. MINTZ; L. SOLETO; J. APARICIO; M. GIRONAZ; L. HUTWAGNER; K. GREENE; C. BOPP; K. MALONEY; D. CHAVEZ; M. SOBSEY; R. V. TAUXE

1999-01-01

284

Effect of storage method and associated holding time on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in surface water samples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Assessments were conducted to determine the effect of sample storage method and associated holding time on surface water nutrient concentrations from field sites. Six surface water sites and two nutrient spiked, laboratory water samples were evaluated for nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, filtered orthop...

285

Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry  

PubMed Central

Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K.

2013-01-01

286

Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry.  

PubMed

Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of 'vulnerability segmentation' between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

2013-05-01

287

Survival of alginate-entrapped cells of Azospirillum lipoferum during dehydration and storage in relation to water properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of alginate-entrapped cells of Azospirillum lipoferum was studied during dehydration using a dry air stream and during prolonged storage at various constant water activity values (aw). During the drying operation, the viability loss remained almost constant from the initial water content to 0.35 g water\\/g dry weight (DW) corresponding to a 98.5% water removal, strongly increased until a water

Etienne Paul; Jacques Fages; Philippe Blanc; Gerard Goma; Alain Pareilleux

1993-01-01

288

Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System. Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates  

E-print Network

In earth system models, the partitioning of precipitation among the variations of continental water storage climate system sim- ulated by earth system models (ESMs). The continental freshwater reservoirs represent

Ribes, Aurélien

289

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities  

E-print Network

Improperly managed manure can contaminate both ground and surface water. Storing manure allows producers to spread it when crops can best use the nutrients. This publication explains safe methods of manure storage, as well as specifics about safe...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29

290

A Highly Resilient Mesoporous SiOx Lithium Storage Material Engineered by Oil-Water Templating.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730?mAh?g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials. PMID:25581319

Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

2015-02-01

291

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01

292

Enhancement of solar thermal energy storage performance using sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate of a conventional solar water-heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time variations of the water temperatures at the midpoint of the heat storage tank and at the outlet of the collector in a conventional open-loop passive solar water-heating system combined with sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate-phase change material (PCM) were experimentally investigated during November and then enhancement of solar thermal energy storage performance of the system by comparing with those of

Suat Canbazo?lu; Abdulmuttalip ?ahinaslan; Ahmet Ekmekyapar; Ý. Gökhan Aksoy; Fatih Akarsu

2005-01-01

293

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-08-01

294

Balancing Storage - some very different management approaches in a water scarce Developing Country.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing storage may be found in many different forms in South Africa. The first feature is often a large reservoir fairly high up the catchment, where losses are less, or even in a neighbouring catchment. The objective is to catch surplus water for later use. Alternatives include both within basin and interbasin transfers, either pumped over a catchment divide, or fed under gravity through a tunnel. Again there may be a reservoir at the start of the transfer scheme. This may be a large reservoir or may be a balancing storage reservoir. Transfers are required to make up for a deficiency of water in the demand area of the receiving catchment. The deficiency may be intermittent or continuous. Nevertheless, whatever the nature of the deficiency, it is important not to incur losses. The water will be more expensive than if it were possible to obtain it locally from within the demand area. When undertaking river regulation, one major concern is seeing expensive water flowing out to sea. Several different schemes are contrasted. One has been developed to run almost completely by gravity, others use the topography where possible with the aid of canals, gravity tunnels and pipelines. However, in some circumstances expensive electricity is required to pump the water to be transferred. Nowadays with the ever increasing cost of electricity some way is required of reducing the cost. The usual approach is to use "off peak" electricity but river release flows do not always cooperate so there is a further risk of loss, due to the induced "peaks and troughs" in the river hydrograph as the pumps are switched on and off. Balancing storage becomes even more important in this case to act as a smoothing mechanism. Sometimes the storage may take the form of an on stream reservoir, at others a suitable site besides the river may be developed. This latter has another advantage in allowing the system to avoid abstracting the inevitably poor quality of water at the start of the first seasonal flood, or the heavily silt laden water during major floods, or polluted water from upstream pollution incidents. Other forms of balancing storage may take the form of exploiting the natural contours of the river valley so that river control barrages may be built. These may be single purpose such as irrigation transfers or multi purpose where domestic supplies are abstracted. In addition the river may be made navigable and be developed for recreation. Some form of control is required. This may have started off as a manual system operating on very simple ‘control rules' but as either the worth of the water is increased or its scarcity develops, due to increasing demand, more sophisticated computer systems are needed. In South Africa half the water resources were originally allocated to agriculture, mainly irrigation. Now some of this water is required for industrial, environmental and domestic use. Innovative ways of making the resource go further are suggested. In addition some control concepts are developed using the "control band" approach.

Tollow, Anthony John

2010-05-01

295

Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

1979-01-01

296

The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

2001-01-01

297

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Thermal energy storage tests  

SciTech Connect

The solar-powered water desalination pilot plant at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a unique project in terms of its size, purpose, objectives, and scope. The plant uses a combination of solar thermal energy and fossil-fuel energy to provide the shaft horsepower necessary to operate the indirect heat-transfer freeze desalination process developed and patented by Chicago Bridge and Iron Inc. (CBandI) to produce potable water. The thermal storage acts as a buffer between the energy collection subsystem and the energy delivery subsystem. This report describes the thermal storage subsystem. One of the objectives of the desalination research project is to publish a series of reports on the performance of its various subsystems. The authors of this report do not claim that it is exhaustive and complete in all respects, for more than one reason. Any research activity is like an open-ended problem and during the tenure of its investigation it raises more problems than can be solved. However, the authors believe that the storage system behavior has posed no serious problem and that the report adequately covers all the facets of the investigation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01

298

Simulating floodplain extent and inland water storage in the Amazon basin from a multi LSM perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modeling attempts have been conducted trying to improve the simulation of floods at several temporal and spatial scales worldwide. These attempts consider different modeling approaches and forcings, which can have a non-negligible impact on streamflows, inland water storage and floodplain extent. In the framework of the Global Land Water Cycle Benchmarking (GLWCB), the capability of simulating water and energy budgets by state-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs) and their impacts on predicting floods are evaluated. Fifteen LSMs were run for the 1980-2008 period using Princeton's meteorological forcings on a 3-hourly time step and at a 1° resolution. Three experiments are performed using Princeton's precipitation dataset rescaled to match monthly global GPCC and GPCP datasets and a daily dataset (HOP) specially developed for the basin. Surface and sub-surface runoffs derived from LSMs are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme (RRS) and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 146 gauges in the Amazon basin. Simulated floodplain extent and surface water storage are also compared against satellite-based products. Results show that simulated streamflows vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used. It is also noted that floodplain extent is highly dependent on RRS parameters and further calibration must be performed.

Getirana, A.; Dutra, E. N.; Decharme, B.; Guimberteau, M.; Li, H.; Beaudoing, H.; Kam, J.; Toure, A. M.; Zhang, Z.; Drapeau, G.; Papa, F.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Balsamo, G.; Rodell, M.; Ronchail, J.; Sheffield, J.; Xue, Y.; Arsenault, K. R.

2013-12-01

299

Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

2003-01-01

300

Hydrological storage variations in a lake water balance, observed from multi-sensor satellite data and hydrological models.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater lakes and reservoirs account for 74.5% of continental water storage in surface water bodies and only 1.8% resides in rivers. Lakes and reservoirs are a key component of the continental hydrological cycle but in-situ monitoring networks are very limited either because of sparse spatial distribution of gauges or national data policy. Monitoring and predicting extreme events is very challenging in that case. In this study we demonstrate the use of optical remote sensing, satellite altimetry and the GRACE gravity field mission to monitor the lake water storage variations in the Aral Sea. Aral Sea is one of the most unfortunate examples of a large anthropogenic catastrophe. The 4th largest lake of 1960s has been decertified for more than 75% of its area due to the diversion of its primary rivers for irrigation purposes. Our study is focused on the time frame of the GRACE mission; therefore we consider changes from 2002 onwards. Continuous monthly time series of water masks from Landsat satellite data and water level from altimetry missions were derived. Monthly volumetric variations of the lake water storage were computed by intersecting a digital elevation model of the lake with respective water mask and altimetry water level. With this approach we obtained volume from two independent remote sensing methods to reduce the error in the estimated volume through least square adjustment. The resultant variations were then compared with mass variability observed by GRACE. In addition, GARCE estimates of water storage variations were compared with simulation results of the Water Gap Hydrology Model (WGHM). The different observations from all missions agree that the lake reached an absolute minimum in autumn 2009. A marked reversal of the negative trend occured in 2010 but water storage in the lake decreased again afterwards. The results reveal that water storage variations in the Aral Sea are indeed the principal, but not the only contributor to the GRACE signal of mass variations in this region; this is also verified by WGHM simulations. An important implication of this finding is the possibility of GRACE to analyses storage changes in other hydrological compartments (soil moisture, snow and groundwater) once the signal has been reduced for surface water storage changes. Therefore the congruent use of multi-sensor satellite data for hydrological studies proves to be a great source of information for assessing terrestrial water storage variations.

Singh, Alka; Seitz, Florian; Schwatke, Christian; Guentner, Andreas

2013-04-01

301

1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage.  

E-print Network

TD 603 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage. 2. What is the storage in the dam (in cu.m.)? 3. What is the length and depth of the dam? What is its structure and cost? How much time did it take to build the dam? 4. Where

Sohoni, Milind

302

Comparison of four-hour and twenty-four-hour refrigerated storage of nonpotable water for fecal coliform analysis.  

PubMed Central

The problem of extending the storage time of water samples for fecal coliform analysis was addressed. Included in this report is a literature review of the storage problem. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed in replicate to determine the effect of 24-h storage of water samples at 4 degrees C. A new statistical approach to data analysis, coupled with the concept of practical acceptability, is presented. According to our results, many samples can successfully be stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h. PMID:335972

Standridge, J H; Lesar, D J

1977-01-01

303

Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1987-11-01

304

Simulation of streamflow and wetland storage, Starkweather Coulee subbasin, North Dakota, water years 1981-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to simulate streamflow and wetland storage within a part of the Starkweather Coulee subbasin. Information on streamflow and wetland storage in Starkweather Coulee subbasin may help with the management of water issues in the Devils Lake Basin. Information from a digital elevation model and geographic-information-system analyses of the study area was used to develop the Devils Lake Basin wetlands model. Digital elevation model data and other climatic and topographic data were used as inputs to the model. Within the study area, the average wetland depth was about 2.21 feet, the total maximum wetland area was about 30,890 acres at the overflow elevation, and the total maximum wetland volume was about 68,270 acre-feet.Model runs were made for water years 1981-98 to calibrate the model to observed streamflows that were obtained from the Starkweather Coulee gaging station. Observed annual peak streamflows were greater than simulated annual peak streamflows for all water years except 1983. The differences probably were caused mostly by the lack of a subroutine in the model to account for frozen soil. The largest amount of simulated daily wetlands area occurred in April 1997 when about 40,500 acres of the study area was covered with water. Also during April 1997, the simulated daily water volume in the open and closed wetlands combined attained a maximum of about 116,000 acre-feet. By increasing the spillage thresholds from 0.2 to 1.0, simulated streamflow was reduced by 8.77 inches (from about 17.88 to 9.11 inches; 49 percent) for the 18-year period. During water years 1994-98, simulated annual streamflows for open-wetland spillage thresholds of 1.0 remained less than for thresholds of 0.2 even though the open wetlands probably were near maximum volume. The greatly increased size of the closed wetlands during water years 1994-98 probably allowed for increased water storage and decreased simulated streamflow from the study area.

Vining, Kevin C.

2002-01-01

305

Modeling the effects of surface storage, macropore flow and water repellency on infiltration after wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can reduce infiltration capacity of hillslopes by causing (i) extreme soil drying, (ii) increased water repellency and (iii) reduced soil structure. High severity wildfire often results in a non-repellent layer of loose ash and burned soil overlying a water repellent soil matrix. In these conditions the hydraulic parameters vary across discrete layers in the soil profile, making the infiltration process difficult to measure and model. The difficulty is often exacerbated by the discrepancy between actual infiltration processes and the assumptions that underlie commonly used infiltration models, most of which stem from controlled laboratory experiments or agricultural environments, where soils are homogeneous and less variable in space and time than forest soils. This study uses a simple two-layered infiltration model consisting of surface storage (H), macropore flow (Kmac) and matrix flow (Kmat) in order to identify and analyze spatial-temporal infiltration patterns in forest soils recovering from the 2009 Black Saturday wildfires in Victoria, southeast Australia. Infiltration experiments on intact soil cores showed that the soil profile contained a region of strong water repellency that was slow to take on water and inactive in the infiltration process, thus restricting flow through the matrix. The flow resistance due to water repellent soil was represented by the minimum critical surface tension (CSTmin) within the top 10 cm of the soil profile. Under field conditions in small headwaters, the CSTmin remained in a water repellent domain throughout a 3-year recovery period, but the strength of water repellency diminished exponentially during wet conditions, resulting in some weather induced temporal variation in steady-state infiltration capacity (Kp). An increasing trend in macropore availability during recovery was the main source of temporal variability in Kp during the study period, indicating (in accordance with previous studies) that macropore flow dominates infiltration processes in these forest soils. Storage in ash and burned surface soil after wildfire was initially high (?4 mm), then declined exponentially with time since fire. Overall the study showed that the two layered soil can be represented and parameterized by partitioning the infiltration process into surface storage and flow through a partially saturated and restrictive soil layer. Ash, water repellency and macropore flow are key characteristics of burned forest soils in general, and the proposed model may therefore be a useful tool for characterizing fire impact and recovery in other systems.

Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Smith, Hugh G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

2014-05-01

306

Spatial and temporal patterns of water storage in hydropedological units in northern headwaters: integrating isotopic and hydrometric approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water storage and release are controlled by the complex interaction of soil properties and vegetation. Here, we present new insights into water storage dynamics in six hydropedological units - encompassing the main ecohydrological assemblages in headwater catchments in the Scottish Highlands - investigated under contrasting hydro-climatological conditions. Soil moisture changes and stable isotope dynamics from multiple depths within soil profiles were examined to determine the relative influence of soil hydraulic properties and vegetation characteristics on storage dynamics. The study was based in the 3.6 km2 Bruntland catchment which is characterised by high annual precipitation (~1000 mm) which is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year and greatly exceeds evapotranspiration (~400 mm). Soils investigated encompassed both freely draining (podsols) and water-logged responsive (histosols and gleysols) soils. For each soil forest and non-forest vegetation were compared. In contrast to the permanently saturated histosols and gleysols, the freely draining podsols exhibited pronounced wetting and drying cycles. These were particularly accentuated at the forested site. Variability of soil water stable isotope signatures reflected variability in precipitation inputs for the podzolic soils, consistent with their freely draining nature and relatively low storage capacity, especially for the upper horizons. In contrast, the signals of soil water in the wet histosols were strongly damped, indicating significant mixing of precipitation inputs with the much greater storage. Evaporative fractionation showed little variation between the different vegetation communities suggesting that greater forest water use largely reflected interception losses. Thus at this site, intrinsic soil hydraulic properties exert a much stronger influence on water storage and transmission than vegetation. This is consistent with the overall energy-limited climate in conjunction with the high storage capacity of the wetter catchment soils. The integration of hydrometric data and soil water stable isotopes across soil profiles has been invaluable for differentiating the functional soil water dynamics of the different hydropedological-vegetation assemblages.

Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.; McDonnell, J. J.; Soulsby, C.

2013-12-01

307

Water-storage change measured with high-precision gravimetry at a groundwater recharge facility in Tucson, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater depletion is a serious problem in many regions around the world. Artificial groundwater recharge is used for the short- and long-term storage of water in subsurface and can be an effective tool to prevent aquifer over-draft. Effective design and management of recharge facilities benefits from knowledge of the subsurface conditions and water-storage properties. In this study we combine different types of gravimeters and coupled hydrogeophysical inverse techniques to monitor subsurface water storage and to estimate subsurface hydraulic properties at the field scale. Water storage dynamics are continuously monitored with two iGrav™ superconducting gravimeters and three gPhones at three infiltration basins of the Tucson Water Southern Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project facility. These continuous gravity observations are supported by time-lapse monitoring with absolute and spring gravimeters to map spatial gravity variations. Water level is monitored at 16 wells in the vicinity. The results of the first 6-month drying-wetting-drying cycle of the infiltration basins, during which 4,240,500 cubic meters (3,440 acre-feet) infiltrated over 53 days, are presented in this study. Gravity variations up to 170 ?Gal were observed. Collocated measurements show an overall good agreement of the different gravimeters. Distinct spatial variations of gravity change indicate variable water storage dynamics caused by subsurface heterogeneity at the field scale. Multiple gravimeter types combined with coupled inversion allows accurate tracking of subsurface water storage, which can improve the predictions of subsurface conditions and the water resources management of artificial recharge facilities.

Creutzfeldt, B.; Kennedy, J.; Ferre, P. A.

2012-12-01

308

Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.  

PubMed

Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry. PMID:21329343

Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

2011-03-15

309

Calorimetric properties of water and triacylglycerols in fern spores relating to storage at cryogenic temperatures.  

PubMed

Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at -15 degrees C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to monitor enthalpy and temperature of water and TAG phase transitions within spores of five fern species: Pteris vittata, Thelypteris palustris, Dryopteris filix-mas, Polystichum aculeatum, Polystichum setiferum. The analyses suggested that these fern spores contained between 26% and 39% TAG, and were comprised of mostly oleic (P. vittata) or linoleic acid (other species) depending on species. The water contents at which water melting events were first observable ranged from 0.06 (P. vittata) to 0.12 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, and were highly correlated with water affinity parameters. In spores containing more than 0.09 (P. vittata) to 0.25 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, some water partitioned into a near pure water fraction that melted at about 0 degrees C. These sharp peaks near 0 degrees C were associated with lethal freezing treatments. The enthalpy of water melting transitions was similar in fern spores, pollen and seeds; however, the unfrozen water content was much lower in fern spores compared to other forms of germplasm. Though there is a narrow range of water contents appropriate for low temperature storage of fern spores, water content can be precisely manipulated to avoid both desiccation and freezing damage. PMID:17553480

Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

2007-08-01

310

Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

2012-12-01

311

Identification of prominent spatio-temporal signals in GRACE derived terrestrial water storage for India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fresh water is a necessity of the human civilization. But with the increasing global population, the quantity and quality of available fresh water is getting compromised. To mitigate this subliminal problem, it is essential to enhance our level of understanding about the dynamics of global and regional fresh water resources which include surface and ground water reserves. With development in remote sensing technology, traditional and much localized in-situ observations are augmented with satellite data to get a holistic picture of the terrestrial water resources. For this reason, Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission was jointly implemented by NASA and German Aerospace Research Agency - DLR to map the variation of gravitational potential, which after removing atmospheric and oceanic effects is majorly caused by changes in Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS). India also faces the challenge of rejuvenating the fast deteriorating and exhausting water resources due to the rapid urbanization. In the present study we try to identify physically meaningful major spatial and temporal patterns or signals of changes in TWS for India. TWS data set over India for a period of 90 months, from June 2003 to December 2010 is use to isolate spatial and temporal signals using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), an extensively used method in meteorological studies. To achieve better disintegration of the data into more physically meaningful components we use a blind signal separation technique, Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

Banerjee, C.; Nagesh Kumar, D.

2014-11-01

312

Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water  

PubMed Central

Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria culture. PMID:22032822

2011-01-01

313

Mutagenic potential of water concentrates from the effluent of a waste oil storage pond  

SciTech Connect

An investigation to compare the mutagenic effects of water samples collected before and after a contaminated waste oil storage pond was dredged and to evaluate the utility of bioassays for the determination of the mutagenic potential of a complex mixture is presented. Water samples collected from the pond were analyzed in two biological systems capable of detecting mutagens and potential carcinogens (Salmonella/microsome assay and Bacillus subtillis DNA repair assay). Although the water samples contained compounds which were toxic to bacteria, the sample collected after the dredging operation exhibited a substantial reduction in its capacity to produce repairable DNA damage. The results indicate the potential utility of bioassays for the detection of mutagens in environmental samples. (JMT)

Brown, K.W.; Donnelly, K.C.

1982-04-01

314

Optimal design and placement of serpentine heat exchangers for indirect heat withdrawal, inside flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heaters (ICSSWH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters that affect the temperature at which service hot water (SHW) is offered by an immersed tube heat exchanger (HX), inside a flat plate Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH), are examined numerically, by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The storage water is not refreshed and serves for heat accumulation. Service hot water is drawn off indirectly,

K. P. Gertzos; Y. G. Caouris; Th. Panidis

2010-01-01

315

Cool Storage Performance  

E-print Network

. This article covers three thermal storage topics. The first section catalogs various thermal storage systems and applications. Included are: load shifting and load leveling, chilled water storage systems, and ice storage systems using Refrigerant 22 or ethylene...

Eppelheimer, D. M.

1985-01-01

316

The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

2013-05-01

317

Estimating Water Storage in Prairie Wetlands from a LiDAR DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America contains millions of wetlands in shallow depressions that have potential to store a significant volume of surface water. Assessing and modeling the effect of wetland storage on streamflow requires accurate methods to quantify wetland water volume. Currently, many methods rely on utilizing the strong statistical relationships between area (A), volume (V), and depth (h) to estimate wetland storage. While V-A equations are commonly used throughout the PPR, equations that utilize the V-A-h relationship are not used extensively because detailed topographic data are required. This paper suggests a new approach for implementing V-A-h relationships to determine wetland volume from wetland characteristics extracted from a high resolution LiDAR digital elevation model. GIS analysis was used to generate elevation contours that represent potential surface areas measurements, as well as provide a measure of the change in area with depth. This data collection process was also automated to generate the necessary input for estimating volume through the V-A-h equations. These volumes were compared to estimates from two V-A equations commonly used in the PPR. Results demonstrate that the automated LiDAR V-A-h method provided a better estimate of wetland volume than the V-A equations. This new method could be useful in quantifying the capacity of prairie pothole wetlands to store water and modeling their role in attenuating streamflows at a variety of spatial scales.

Westbrook, C. J.; Minke, A. G.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Guo, X.

2010-12-01

318

Estimating Terrestrial Water Storage Changes in the Colorado River Basin: Atmospheric Data Analysis, Satellite Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River basin covers about 637 000 km2 and spreads over the southwestern United States and a small portion of Mexico. Much of the basin is arid, and runoff derives from the high elevation snow pack over the Rocky Mountains, which contributes about 70% of the annual runoff. A secondary source of water for the basin is the summer monsoon precipitation. The Colorado River system is one of the most heavily regulated for providing water supply, irrigation, flood control, and hydropower to a large area of the U.S. Southwest. Estimating intra- and inter-annual variability of water storage in the basin is important for sustainable water management. In this paper, an overview is given on how terrestrial water storage changes can be estimated. Fifty (50) years (1955-2005) of re-analysis data from ECMWF (European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) is used together with observed and natural stream flow to derive monthly atmospheric and terrestrial water balances (Seneviratne et al., 2004; Hirschi et al., 2006). The resulting water storage changes in the Colorado basin exhibit a strong annual and a weaker decadal cycle. Correlation with different climate variability indices (ENSO, PDO, AMO) is examined. We compare these water storage change estimates with those derived from the NARR (North-American Regional Re-analysis) time series (1979 to 2005). Three years (2002-2005) of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data are then used to estimate monthly terrestrial water storage changes from estimates of geoid anomalies over the area. We find a close relationship between both independent estimation procedures. Both the annual cycle and the amplitude agree very well, although a slight phase shift of about a month is observed. To further examine the water storage changes we apply a land surface hydrologic model (VIC: Variable Infiltration Capacity) forced with observations spanning the period between 1950 and 2000 and compiled by Maurer et al. (2002).

Troch, P. A.; Seneviratne, S.; Hirschi, M.; Hurkmans, R.; Hasan, S.; Durcik, M.

2006-12-01

319

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1981-01-01

320

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1981-05-01

321

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

322

Measuring local water storage variations with a superconducting gravimeter at the Geodetic Observatory TIGO, Concepción, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting gravimeters (SGs) measure temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field with very high precision. A superconducting spherical test mass is kept in a constant position in a very stable magnetic field of a superconducting coil. The electrical current that has to be applied to keep this constant position is continuously measured and is an expression of variations in the gravity field. SGs have traditionally been used in geodetic applications, such as the acquisition of Earth tides for deriving elastic parameters, the assessment of gravity variations due to polar motion, the detection of seismically induced oscillations of the earth. Oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological mass displacements in the surroundings of an SG have often been considered as disturbing components of the measurements that have to be reduced for geodetic applications. Some studies in recent years, however, have shown that the disturbing signal component in SG time series can inversely be used as the signal of interest, turning a SG into a hydrological monitoring device. Being sensitive to water mass changes in their surroundings, SGs provide unique measurements of total water storage variations (sum of storage variations in the snow cover, the unsaturated soil, and the groundwater) at local scales of several hundreds of meters, not accessible by other observation techniques. In this study, we investigate the relationship between local hydrology and gravity for the SG located in a highly seasonal climate at the Geodetic Observatory TIGO in Concepción, Chile. SG time series are compared to the gravimetric response calculated by a geodetic model using soil moisture measurements to a depth of 2.6 meters and a Digital Elevation Model for an area of 2 km around the SG. The results show that variations in moisture and gravimetric response are related to the topography and the depth of analysis. A large residual SG signal gives indication of important water storage variations in the deeper unsaturated zone and the groundwater.

Rossel, G.; Güntner, A.; Creutzfeldt, B.; Blume, T.; Hase, H.; Wziontek, H.; Klügel, T.; Villagran, M.; Tume, P.

2012-04-01

323

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

2010-01-01

324

Estimated water use in Florida, 1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

1980-01-01

325

Water-Soluble Electrospun Nanofibers as a Method for On-Chip Reagent Storage  

PubMed Central

This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform. PMID:25586029

Dai, Minhui; Jin, Shengquan; Nugen, Sam R.

2012-01-01

326

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

1979-01-01

327

H[sub 2]OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems.

L. W. Vail; E. A. Jenne; L. E. Eary

1992-01-01

328

Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

SciTech Connect

Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

2008-04-15

329

Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

330

Determination of root-zone water storage in a desert woodland using a two-layer moisture balance model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root-zone water storage (RWS) is a fundamental component of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. In the lower reaches of arid river basins in inland China, low water recharge and hence low RWS have been associated with a series of ecological and environmental problems. Developing an improved unders...

331

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001?2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

332

Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water  

E-print Network

c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25 December 2013 Received in revised form 12 April 2014). Bottled waters become contaminated during storage due to Sb release from PET plastic (Shotyk and Krachler exposure to contaminants is through drinking water, releasing of Sb and BPA from PET plastic

Ma, Lena

333

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

334

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01

335

Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.  

PubMed Central

Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue. PMID:12223860

Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

1997-01-01

336

The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

Landeen, D.S.

1994-09-01

337

Water storage changes and climate variability within the Nile Basin between 2002 and 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding water storage changes within the Nile's main sub-basins and the related impacts of climate variability is an essential step in managing its water resources. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides a unique opportunity to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) of large river basins such as the Nile. Use of GRACE-TWS changes for monitoring the Nile is, however, difficult since stronger TWS signals over the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) and the Red Sea obscure those from smaller sub-basins making their analysis difficult to undertake. To mitigate this problem, this study employed Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to extract statistically independent TWS patterns over the sub-basins from GRACE and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model. Monthly precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over the entire Nile Basin are also analysed by ICA. Such extraction enables an in-depth analysis of water storage changes within each sub-basin and provides a tool for assessing the influence of anthropogenic as well as climate variability caused by large scale ocean-atmosphere interactions such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our results indicate that LVB experienced effects of both anthropogenic and climate variability (i.e., a correlation of 0.56 between TWS changes and IOD at 95% confidence level) during the study period 2002-2011, with a sharp drop in rainfall between November and December 2010, the lowest during the entire study period, and coinciding with the drought that affected the Greater Horn of Africa. Ethiopian Highlands (EH) generally exhibited a declining trend in the annual rainfall over the study period, which worsened during 2007-2010, possibly contributing to the 2011 drought over GHA. A correlation of 0.56 was found between ENSO and TWS changes over EH indicating ENSO's dominant influence. TWS changes over Bar-el-Ghazal experienced mixed increase-decrease, with ENSO being the dominant climate variability in the region during the study period. A remarkable signal is noticed over the Lake Nasser region indicating the possibility of the region losing water not only through evaporation, but also possibly through over extraction from wells in the Western Plateau (Nubian aquifer).

Awange, J. L.; Forootan, E.; Kuhn, M.; Kusche, J.; Heck, B.

2014-11-01

338

Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages  

SciTech Connect

This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

1997-03-01

339

Treatment of Water in Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins to Control Radioactivity Release  

SciTech Connect

Visibility and radioactivity control in the fuel component storage and disassembly basins at the Savannah River Plant are maintained with a newly developed purification system. Experimental work was performed to develop the application of sand filters to operate at high flow rates with an effluent turbidity below 0.1 JTU squared. Filtration efficiency of SRP sand filters is dependent on the characteristics of the solids in the feed water and the degree to which filterability can be improved by addition of coagulant aids. It is independent of flow up to flow rates of 15 gpm/square feet (higher flow rates have not been tested). Effluent turbidity remains below 0.1 JTU with no indication of breakthrough. Total water throughput is dependent on the amount of solids removed and is independent of flow rate and concentration of solids.

Bertsche, E.C.

2001-03-09

340

An investigation of horizontal storage tanks for solar hot water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of a horizontal storage tank for possible use in a solar domestic hot water system was investigated analytically and experimentally. The experimental results demonstrate that axial temperature gradients is negligible compared to vertical temperature gradients. Severe mixing of the tank occurred when loads were removed unless a diffuser manifold was placed on the make-up water inlet. The analytical model used was one-dimensional (vertical) with some degree of mixing at the inlet and outlet boundaries. The temperatures at the top of the tank were predicted fairly well, but the temperatures at the bottom deviated somewhat from the predictions. It appears that some additional interior mixing not included in the present model occurs.

Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

341

An investigation of horizontal storage tanks for solar hot water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of a horizontal storage tank for possible use in a solar domestic hot water system has been investigated analytically and experimentally. The purpose of the present work is to compare a simple analytical model to the measured temperature stratification in this horizontal tank. The experimental results demonstrated that axial temperature gradients were negligible compared to vertical temperature gradients. Severe mixing of the tank occurred when loads were removed unless a diffuser manifold was placed on the make-up water inlet. The analytical model used was one-dimensional (vertical) with some degree of mixing at the inlet and outlet boundaries. The temperatures at the top of the tank were predicted fairly well, but the temperatures at the bottom deviated somewhat from the predictions. It appears that some additional interior mixing not included in the present model occurs.

Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

342

Space flight micro-fungi after 27 years storage in water and in continuous culture.  

PubMed

Four species of micro-fungi were selected for study in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) mycology experiments. Trichophyton terrestre, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetomium globosum were selected from a series of preflight test fungi for the MEED mycology studies during the 2 years prior to the actual flight (Volz, 1971a, 1972b). Conidia of T. terrestre, ascospores of C. globosum and yeast cells of R. rubra and S. cerevisiae were suspended in sterile distilled water and loaded into wet and dry cuvettes for exposure to specific space flight parameters according to the filters built into the space flight hardware (Volz, 1971b). Living cells were found in the original inocula and phenotype water storage after 27 years. Colony cells were also examined after 27 years of continuous culture. PMID:10093232

Volz, P A; Parent, S L

1998-01-01

343

This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

344

Decomposing The Terrestrial Water Storage Signal Over Varying Spatial Scales Using Remote Sensing And Modeling In The Mississippi River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the potential impacts of climate and land cover change at continental to global scales with a sufficient resolution for assessment of local water resources and related systems (e.g., ecological and biogeochemical cycles) requires improved representation of the hydrologic cycle in terms of hydraulics (e.g., lateral transport and inundation), management systems (lakes/reservoirs dynamics), and scale (finer in both space and time) relative to many current Earth System models. To better understand the role of these components, this study investigates the terrestrial water storage signal and its dominant sub-signals for landscapes ranging from <10^2 to >10^6 km2 and temporal scales ranging from hours to months. Specifically, this study characterizes the dominant water storage components in the Mississippi Basin (3M sq km) and their corresponding magnitudes and variations in both space and time. A combination of remotely sensed and in-situ measurements and modeling is used to estimate the components of total water storage (TWS) changes. The Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model, TRMM precipitation (3B42v7), MODIS evapotranspiration (MOD16A2), AMSR-E snow water equivalent and brightness temperature, and ENVISAT/JASON-2 altimetry, LandSat based extent measurements over major lakes/reservoirs/rivers, and SRTM digital elevation data (v4.1) are used to estimate basin-wide total water storage variations for the period 2002-2012. In investigate scaling behavior, wavelet analysis is used to characterize water storage signals averaged over different spatial scales (<10^2 to >10^6 km2). Analyses are performed throughout the basin to investigate scaling behavior from landscaping with varying climate and land cover characteristics, (e.g., with vs. without snowmelt; mountainous vs. plains; etc.). Results show the effects of scale, climate and land cover characteristics on water storage signal variations.

Zhao, Y.; Beighley, E.; Yoon, Y.; Allen, G. H.; Miller, Z.; Lee, H.; Kustu, M. D.; Pavelsky, T.

2013-12-01

345

Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4?·?2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O with no FeSO4?·?2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions. PMID:24682481

Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

2014-06-01

346

Global high-resolution crustal deformations from simulated terrestrial water storage estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformations of the continental crust due to non-tidal loading caused by variations in atmospheric pressure, ocean bottom pressure and terrestrially stored water frequently reach several mm at subdaily to seasonal periods. Space-geodetic receivers attached to the crust therefore experience positional changes that are large enough to affect epoch-wise parameters obtained from the analysis of global geodetic networks. In this contribution, we present predictions of loading deformations due to terrestrial water storage from the global hydrological model LSDM for the last two years. Load estimates are calculated daily in order to account together with the seasonal variations in terrestrial water storage also for rapid changes associated with major precipitation events. Additionally, we account for water mass anomalies stored within the river channels as they induce exceptionally high loading amplitudes at stations close to river banks, in many cases with distinct non-seasonal nature. We demonstrate the potential of using high spatial resolutions in particular at the GPS station in Manaus where loading calculations with lower resolutions fail so far to capture the observed amplitude of 0.5m in the vertical. In addition to the hydrological loading, global-scale deformations are also calculated for non-tidal atmospheric and oceanic loads to obtain a complete set of model-based global deformation fields that might be compared to GPS time series at specific stations of interest. Those atmospheric and oceanic fields are based on ECMWF and OMCT simulations which are also the background for the GRACE AOD1B products. This might principally allow to further homogenize the processing strategies among the geometric and the gravimetric techniques in Global Geodesy.

Dill, Robert

2013-04-01

347

Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.  

PubMed

We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

2015-04-01

348

Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

349

Assimilation of terrestrial water storage from GRACE in a snow-dominated basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root-mean-square difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of postglacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, B. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2012-01-01

350

Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Land Surface Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system of satellites provides observations of large-scale, monthly terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In. this presentation we describe a land data assimilation system that ingests GRACE observations and show that the assimilation improves estimates of water storage and fluxes, as evaluated against independent measurements. The ensemble-based land data assimilation system uses a Kalman smoother approach along with the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). We assimilated GRACE-derived TWS anomalies for each of the four major sub-basins of the Mississippi into the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Compared with the open-loop (no assimilation) CLSM simulation, assimilation estimates of groundwater variability exhibited enhanced skill with respect to measured groundwater. Assimilation also significantly increased the correlation between simulated TWS and gauged river flow for all four sub-basins and for the Mississippi River basin itself. In addition, model performance was evaluated for watersheds smaller than the scale of GRACE observations, in the majority of cases, GRACE assimilation led to increased correlation between TWS estimates and gauged river flow, indicating that data assimilation has considerable potential to downscale GRACE data for hydrological applications. We will also describe how the output from the GRACE land data assimilation system is now being prepared for use in the North American Drought Monitor.

Reichle, Rolf H.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matt

2008-01-01

351

Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

2014-03-01

352

78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR- ISG...systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion under insulation. ADDRESSES:...

2013-11-22

353

Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage in subsurface geologic formations, principally saline aquifers, is currently under development as a major approach to counter anthropogenic CO2 emissions. To ensure the stability and long-term viability of geologic carbon storage, injected CO2 must be kept in place by an overlying cap rock of very low permeability. Capillary forces in the cap rock act to prevent upward migration and escape of the stored supercritical fluid, with interfacial tension (IFT) between the aqueous brine phase and the CO2 phase being the primary control. However, published experimental CO2-water IFT data vary widely, mainly because of inadequate experimental protocols or inappropriate use of bulk-fluid properties in computing IFT from experimental observations. Only two published data sets were found to meet all criteria of merit for an accurate measurement of IFT over the entire range of pressure (5-45 MPa) and temperature (298-383 K) pertinent to geologic carbon storage. In such circumstances, molecular simulations can enhance the utility of limited data when used to validate assumptions made in their interpretation, resolve discrepancies among data, and fill gaps where data are lacking. Simulations may also be used to provide insight into the relationship between IFT and fundamental properties, such as the strength of the CO2-H2O interaction. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we compared the quality of three CO2 models and two H2O models (SPC/E and TIP4P2005) in predicting IFT under the pressure and temperature conditions relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration. Interfacial tension at fixed temperature simulated via molecular dynamics decreased strongly with increasing pressure below the critical CO2 pressure of 7 MPa, then leveled off, in agreement with experiment, whereas increasing temperature from 300 to 383 K at fixed pressure had little effect on IFT, which is also consistent with experimental data. Our results demonstrated that the strength of the short-range portion of the CO2-H2O interaction exerts a major influence on IFT. The CO2 model that best represented the attractive part of this interaction for randomly-oriented water molecules also best captures the experimental pressure dependence of IFT when combined with either water model. When combined with the SPC/E water model, this CO2 model underestimated IFT by ˜10 mN/m, which approximately equals the amount by which the SPC/E water model underestimates the surface tension of pure water. When combined with the TIP4P2005 water model, this model accurately captured the pressure dependence of the CO2-H2O IFT at 383 K over the entire pressure range examined. These pressure variations will have the dominant effect on IFT—especially at pressures lower than the CO2 critical pressure (˜7 MPa)—and, therefore, on the CO2 storage capacity and sealing integrity of a subsurface reservoir.

Nielsen, Laura C.; Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison

2012-03-01

354

A preliminary screening of thermal storage concepts for water\\/steam and organic fluid solar thermal receiver systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate thermal storage concepts were compared for both collector\\/receiver systems in electric power and cogeneration applications. A baseline thermal system design was selected for both applications. Detailed design information is presented for these systems. Both designs included a storage system; a dual media oil\\/rock thermocline system for the water\\/steam plant and a trickle charge oil\\/taconite system for the organic fluid

R. J. Copeland; M. E. Karpuk; J. L. Ullman

1980-01-01

355

Rainwater harvesting systems that collect and convey rain-water from roofs to storage tanks are often the best or only  

E-print Network

pollutants would collect on a roof, then tested water quality in the storage tanks under each first there are roughly 1 billion people who lack clean drinking water. In many communities, women and children make dailyPROBLEM Rainwater harvesting systems that collect and convey rain- water from roofs to storage

Polz, Martin

356

Tree water storage and its diurnal dynamics related to sap flow and changes in stem volume in old-growth Douglas-fir trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diurnal and seasonal tree water storage was stud- ied in three large Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research site. Changes in water storage were based on measurements of sap flow and changes in stem volume and tissue water content at different heights in the stem and branches. We measured sap flow by

JAN ÈERMÁK; JIØ ÍK UÈERA; WILLIAM L. BAUERLE; NATHAN PHILLIPS; THOMAS M. HINCKLEY

357

Analysis of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Terrestrial Water Storage and Snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001-2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements of monthly fluxes in terrestrial water storage (TWS). In the PNW between 50-60% of annual precipitation falls as snow during the winter and spring months. Melt water from this snowpack is a key component of the hydrologic cycle that recharges aquifers and sustains streams during the more arid summer months, when demand for water is high. The motivation for this research is to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal connections between variability in winter snowpack and TWS in the PNW. Initial results show distinct spatial patterns of intra-annual TWS variability running both North-to-South and West-to-East, and partially suggest the influence of seasonal snow water storage. The influence of fluxes in snow storage was removed from the GRACE data using a regionally validated temperature-precipitation-based snow model. Analytic and statistical assessment of snow water and GRACE data are presented. Future work including soil moisture, surface water and human consumptive use will further improve our understanding of groundwater variability in the region. These methods and initial results provide a novel approach to understanding the timing and location of regional storage patterns of TWS. This in turn will be applied to hydrologic classification frameworks for the region and used to identify snowpack characteristics indicative of potential water scarcity in the PNW.

Sproles, E. A.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Wigington, P. J.; Patil, S.; Comeleo, R. L.

2012-12-01

358

Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage  

PubMed Central

The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

2014-01-01

359

Drought analysis of the Haihe river basin based on GRACE terrestrial water storage.  

PubMed

The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

2014-01-01

360

Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L. [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Sohn, C.W. [Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States). Construction Engineering Research Lab.

1994-12-31

361

Predictions of global crustal deformation from forward simulations of terrestrial water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-tidal loading processes due to variations in atmospheric surface pressure, ocean bottom pressure and terrestrial water storage cause vertical crustal displacements of several millimeters on subdaily to seasonal time scales. These deformations are well reflected in positioning time series from GPS sites and, thus, affect epoch-wise parameters obtained from the analysis of global geodetic networks. In this contribution high-resolution load-induced crustal surface deformations derived from numerical model simulations are tested for their ability to predict hydrologically induced station height variations. Apart from the dominant seasonal variations, the hydrological loading signal contains also rapid changes exceeding several millimeters that can be associated with major precipitation events and river floods. Locally strong loading signals with exceptionally high amplitudes occur along the major river channels even on non-seasonal scales. As the horizontal resolution of water mass distributions from global hydrological models are typically limited to 0.5x0.5 degree, the water masses stored in the modeled river flow have to be reallocated on a high-resolution river network to resolve river loading deformations for stations at the river banks, like at Manaus where peak-to peak height variations of 70mm are observed. By comparing analyses of modeled hydrological surface deformations and GPS station time series it will be demonstrated that high-resolution hydrological loading estimates based on global-scale models accounting for water mass anomalies in river flows are able to explain significant parts of observed vertical station movements.

Thomas, M.; Dill, R.; Dobslaw, H.

2013-12-01

362

A water storage anomaly in mid-continent North America from combined gravity and GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute gravity and GRACE satellite data have been combined with GPS data to identify a large-scale water storage anomaly on the Canadian prairies. Monthly GRACE data for the period 2002-2011 were used to produce a gravity rate map of the northern mid-continent. This map was corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) using a GPS-based, vertical velocity map derived from 27 continuous and over 50 campaign sites, combined over the period 1996-2010. The vertical velocity map used to correct for GIA was first converted into a virtual gravity rate map using a linear relationship between surface gravity rate and vertical velocity (-0.16 microGal/mm), empirically derived from combined annual absolute gravity and continuous GPS observations at 7 sites outside the anomalous area. The corrected GRACE gravity rate map reveals a major mass rate anomaly with a water equivalent thickness rate of around 3 cm/yr and approximate dimensions of 600 km (N-S) and 800 km (E-W) centered on the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border. The amplitude and spatial extent of the anomaly are estimated by data inversion, taking into account the effect of elastic loading on the GPS-based GIA correction. The source of the anomaly is confirmed by records from deep observation wells in Saskatchewan to be an increase in total water content from 2002 to 2011, amounting to an overall water equivalent accumulation of around 27 cm over a wide area.

Lambert, A.; Huang, J.; Henton, J. A.; Mazzotti, S.; James, T. S.; Courtier, N.; Van Der Kamp, G.

2012-12-01

363

Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

1979-01-01

364

Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the  

E-print Network

Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the United leukemia (Snyder 2002). However, the mechanisms of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemo- genesis further light on these mechanisms and better understand the risk benzene poses, we examined the effects

California at Berkeley, University of

365

Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

Apperson, Jason W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clemmons, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sur, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

366

Water Storage in Thin Films Maintaining the Total Film Thickness as Probed with in situ Neutron Reflectivity.  

PubMed

We investigate a new type of thin film material which allows for water storage without an increase in film thickness, whereas typically water storage in polymers and polymer films is accompanied with a strong swelling of the film, i.e., a strong increase in the film thickness. So these films will avoid problems related to strains which are caused by swelling. The basic key for the preparation of such thin films is the installation of a glassy network by the use of an asymmetric diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [P(S-b-NIPAM)] with a long PS and short PNIPAM block in combination with a solvent which is more equal in interaction with both the blocks as compared to water. With in situ neutron reflectivity the water storage and removal are probed. The total film thickness increases only by 2.5% by allowing for a total water storage of 17.4%. Thus the material can be used for coatings to reduce humidity in nano-applications, which might suffer from changes in the water content of the surrounding environment. PMID:21706585

Wang, Weinan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Perlich, Jan; Troll, Kordelia; Papadakis, Christine M; Cubitt, Robert; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

2009-01-16

367

Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute VolgNIIGiM situated at a left bank of Volga River of Saratov Region of Russia (N51.384650°, E46.0558

Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

2014-05-01

368

Satellite observations of terrestrial water storage provide early warning information about drought and fire season severity in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

risk in the Amazon can be predicted several months before the onset of the dry season using sea surface temperatures in the tropical north Atlantic and tropical Pacific. The lead times between ocean state and the period of maximum burning (4-11 months) may enable the development of forecasts with benefits for forest conservation, yet the underlying physical and biological mechanisms responsible for these temporal offsets are not well known. Here, we examined the hypothesis that year-to-year variations in soil water recharge during the wet season modify atmospheric water vapor and fire behavior during the following dry season. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing terrestrial water storage observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), active fires from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and several other satellite and atmospheric reanalysis datasets during 2002-2011. We found that terrestrial water storage deficits preceded severe fire seasons across the southern Amazon. The most significant relationships between monthly terrestrial water storage and the sum of active fires during the dry season occurred during April-August (p < 0.02), corresponding to 1-5 month lead times before the peak month of burning (September). Analysis of other datasets provided evidence for a cascade of processes during drought events, with lower cumulative precipitation (and higher cumulative evapotranspiration) in the wet season substantially reducing terrestrial water storage, and subsequently, surface and column atmospheric water vapor. Our results suggest that terrestrial water storage observations from GRACE have the potential to improve fire season forecasts for the southern Amazon.

Chen, Yang; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, James S.; Randerson, James T.

2013-06-01

369

Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

1990-01-01

370

Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

Moore, P.H. (Department of Agriculture, Aiea, Hawaii (United States)); Cosgrove, D.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1991-07-01

371

Assimilating GRACE terrestrial water storage data into a conceptual hydrology model for the River Rhine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key component of the terrestrial and global hydrological cycles, and plays a major role in the Earth’s climate. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellite mission provided the first space-based dataset of TWS variations, albeit with coarse resolution and limited accuracy. Here, we examine the value of assimilating GRACE observations into a well-calibrated conceptual hydrology model of the Rhine river basin. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were applied to assimilate the GRACE TWS variation data into the HBV-96 rainfall run-off model, from February 2003 to December 2006. Two GRACE datasets were used, the DMT-1 models produced at TU Delft, and the CSR-RL04 models produced by UT-Austin . Each center uses its own data processing and filtering methods, yielding two different estimates of TWS variations and therefore two sets of assimilated TWS estimates. To validate the results, the model estimated discharge after the data assimilation was compared with measured discharge at several stations. As expected, the updated TWS was generally somewhere between the modeled and observed TWS in both experiments and the variance was also lower than both the prior error covariance and the assumed GRACE observation error. However, the impact on the discharge was found to depend heavily on the assimilation strategy used, in particular on how the TWS increments were applied to the individual storage terms of the hydrology model.

Widiastuti, E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B.; Weerts, A.; van de Giesen, N.

2009-12-01

372

Groundwater component of land water storage in Asia from GRACE and hydrological modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total water storage (TWS) variations from GRACE have been analyzed since mid-2002 over 6 large river basins in Asia (Indus, Ganges, Brahmapoutra, Irrawady, Mekong and Yangtze). Over the 6-year time span of analysis, a negative trend in TWS is reported for several basins. As proposed by two recent studies (Rodell et al., Nature, 2009 and Tiwari et al., GRL, 2009), over the river basins of North India, ground water depletion for domestic needs and irrigation may be mostly responsible for the large negative trend reported by GRACE. Here we develop a similar approach (although with different hydrological modeling to separate the ground water component from TWS) and extend the area of investigation to additional river basins of Asia. In addition to specific regions of the Ganges basin, negative trends in TWS are found along the northern portion of the Indus basin and Mekong. We next discuss groundwater change and the respective contributions in TWS of climate variability and anthropogenic forcing for each of the 6 basins considered in this study.

Vergnes, J.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Tiwari, V. M.; Güntner, A.

2009-12-01

373

Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across the landscape.

Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

2008-02-01

374

Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

1980-12-01

375

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

2009-07-22

376

Terrestrial water storage response to the 2012 drought estimated from GPS vertical position anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, drought monitoring systems have not incorporated observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS). Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments can be used to estimate TWS variations in near real time because the solid Earth responds elastically to changes in hydrologic loading. Here GPS vertical position data, u, are used to assess the timing and duration of TWS anomalies in the High Plains caused by the 2012 drought; u indicates an initial TWS minimum in 2012, consistent with GRACE TWS, several months after the most severe meteorological forcing. Standard drought indices show recovery from drought during spring 2013. In contrast, u indicates that the TWS anomaly intensified by approximately 15% during summer 2013, an interval when no GRACE data are available. Hydrologic observations indicate that depletion of groundwater, not soil moisture, is the source of the persistent TWS anomaly. These results show that GPS data could be used to monitor drought-induced variations in TWS in near real time.

Chew, Clara C.; Small, Eric E.

2014-09-01

377

Investigation of water-logged spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to determine the amount of moisture contained in breached, water-logged spent fuel rods and the rate of release. Two well-characterized BWR fuel rods with reactor-induced breaches were tested in a hot cell. These rods contained approximately 6 to 10 g of moisture, most of which was released during heating tests simulating normal cask drying operations. Additional testing with two intentionally defected fuel rods (BWR and PWR) was performed to evaluate the effect of the cladding breach on migration of moisture along the length of the fuel rod. The results showed that the moisture released from reactor-breached spent fuel rods was insufficient to cause degradation of fuel or dry storage system components.

Kohli, R.; Pasupathi, V.

1986-09-01

378

Evaluating surface and subsurface water storage variations at small time and space scales from relative gravity measurements in semiarid Niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acquisition of reliable data sets representative of hydrological regimes and their variations is a critical concern for water resource assessment. For the subsurface, traditional approaches based on probe measurements, core analysis, and well data can be laborious, expensive, and highly intrusive, while only yielding sparse data sets. For this study, an innovative field survey, merging relative microgravimetry, magnetic resonance soundings, and hydrological measurements, was conducted to evaluate both surface and subsurface water storage variations in a semiarid Sahelian area. The instrumental setup was implemented in the lower part of a typical hillslope feeding to a temporary pond. Weekly measurements were carried out using relative spring gravimeters during 3 months of the rainy season in 2009 over a 350 × 500 m2 network of 12 microgravity stations. Gravity variations of small to medium amplitude (?220 nm s-2) were measured with accuracies better than 50 nm s-2, revealing significant variations of the water storage at small time (from 1 week up to 3 months) and space (from a couple of meters up to a few hundred meters) scales. Consistent spatial organization of the water storage variations were detected, suggesting high infiltration at the outlet of a small gully. The comparison with hydrological measurements and magnetic resonance soundings involved that most of the microgravity variations came from the heterogeneity in the vadose zone. The results highlight the potential of time lapse microgravity surveys for detecting intraseasonal water storage variations and providing rich space-time data sets for process investigation or hydrological model calibration/evaluation.

Pfeffer, Julia; Champollion, CéDric; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Hinderer, Jacques; Boucher, Marie; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Oï, Monique; Mouyen, Maxime; Henri, Christopher; Moigne, Nicolas; Deroussi, SéBastien; Demarty, JéRôMe; Boulain, Nicolas; Benarrosh, Nathalie; Robert, Olivier

2013-06-01

379

Changes in Continental Water Storage Caused by Groundwater Depletion Since 1900  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of groundwater resources for agricultural, industrial, and municipal purposes greatly expanded in the last century, and economic gains from groundwater use have been dramatic. In many places, however, groundwater reserves have been depleted to the extent that water levels have declined tens to hundreds of meters, well yields have decreased, and pumping costs have increased. These impacts tend to reduce the efficiency and sustainability of groundwater development. Much groundwater pumped from confined aquifers is derived from storage losses in adjacent low-permeability confining layers. Depletion in confining layers is difficult to estimate and rarely monitored, but it can greatly exceed the depletion from the confined aquifer itself and groundwater drainage from confining layers is partly irreversible. For example, in the confined Dakota Aquifer, about 98 percent of the water removed from storage was derived from depletion in adjacent confining units. If cumulative long-term regional and global groundwater depletion is large, it will represent a substantial net transfer of water mass from land to the oceans, thereby contributing to sea-level rise. A U.S. national groundwater depletion census was made primarily using direct volumetric approaches; results indicate that about 800 km3 of water was depleted from groundwater systems in the U.S. during the 20th century-equivalent to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.2 mm-and 1,000 km3 through 2008. Cumulative global groundwater depletion since 1900 totals about 3,400 km3 through 2000 and 4,500 km3 through 2008 (equivalent to a sea-level rise of 12.6 mm). The rate of annual depletion has increased markedly since about 1950, with maximum rates occurring during the most recent period (2000-2008), when they averaged about 145 km3/yr (equivalent to 0.40 mm/yr of sea-level rise, or 13% of the reported rate of 3.1 mm/yr during this recent period). Overall, the volume and rate of estimated long-term global groundwater depletion balances 6 to 7 percent of the observed sea-level rise since 1900. The recent acceleration in groundwater depletion is greater outside the U.S. Although groundwater depletion rates will ultimately be self-limiting, data show that we have not yet reached that point either nationally or globally.

Konikow, L. F.

2011-12-01

380

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of vehicles proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÃ?) standard for cars and trucks. In 2004, American cars needed to achieve an average fuel economy of 27.5 miles per gallon (MPG) while light trucks needed

Carriquiry, Alicia

381

Forecasting Total Water Storage Changes in the Amazon basin using Atlantic and Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting the transportation, river navigation, agriculture, economy and the carbon balance and biodiversity of several South American countries. The present study aims to find the main variables controlling the natural interannual variability of terrestrial water storage in the Amazon region and to propose a modeling framework for flood and drought forecasting. We propose three simple empirical models using a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) sea surface temperatures (SST) to predict a decade-long record of 3°, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA) observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. In addition to a SST forcing term, the models included a relaxation term to simulate the memory of water storage anomalies in response to external variability in forcing. Model parameters were spatially-variable and individually optimized for each 3° grid cell. We also investigated the evolution of the predictive capability of our models with increasing minimum lead times for TWSA forecasts. TNAI was the primary external forcing for the central and western regions of the southern Amazon (35% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast), whereas Niño 4 was dominant in the northeastern part of the basin (61% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast). Forcing the model with a combination of the two indices improved the fit significantly (p<0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model was able to explain 43% of the variance in the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3-month lead time. While 66% of the observed variance was explained in the northeastern Amazon, only 39% of the variance was captured by the combined model in the central and western regions, suggesting that other, more local, forcing sources were important in these regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was monotonically degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using a 8-month lead time versus 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the western and central regions of southern Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months versus 43% at 1 month). Our model may provide early warning information about flooding in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin, where floodplain areas are extensive and the sensitivity of floods to external SST forcing was shown to be high. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as TWSA deficits may subsequently lead to atmospheric water vapor deficits and reduced cloudiness via water-limited evapotranspiration. Finally, this work helps to bridge the gap between the current GRACE mission and the follow-on gravity mission.

De Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-12-01

382

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

1978-01-01

383

Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

384

Collection and representation of GIS data to aid household water treatment and safe storage technology implementation in the northern region of Ghana  

E-print Network

In 2005, a start-up social business called Pure Home Water (PHW) was begun in Ghana to promote and sell household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) technologies. The original aim of the company was to offer a variety ...

VanCalcar, Jenny E. (Jenny Elizabeth)

2006-01-01

385

Linking chemostatic behaviour of streams to storage dynamics and long tails in water age distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water storage and release dynamics at the catchment scale are still incompletely understood. This is in particular true when considering actual particle transport rather than only the hydraulic response. Environmental tracers are frequently instrumental in inferring transport process dynamics. Several recent research papers for example highlight the importance of difference time scales in transport dynamics. While on the short term, particle transport patterns can exhibit considerable variability, many catchments are characterized by near-chemostatic behaviour on the long term. In other words although the tracer response can show considerable fluctuations on the intra-annual scale, it remains surprisingly stable at the inter-annual scale. This suggests (1) that at the long term the composition of water can be largely independent of flow volumes and (2) that water as well as tracers/contaminants, once stored in a catchment can remain in the system for a very long time. Here we use long term (< 20 years) precipitation, flow and tracer (chloride) data of three contrasting upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands to inform integrated conceptual models investigating different mixing assumptions. Using the models as diagnostic tools in a functional comparison, water and tracer fluxes were then tracked with the objective of exploring the origin and pattern of near-chemostatic behaviour which manifests itself in long, power-law tails of water age distributions. The results highlight the potential importance of partial mixing processes in the generation of long tails in water age distributions. However, the degree to which partial mixing influences the generation of long tails is dependent on the hydrological functioning of a catchment. As second influential factor controlling the tailing behaviour of water age distributions was identified to be the interplay of flow path connectivity with the relative importance and timing of different flow paths. This understanding will allow classification of catchments according to their vulnerability to and the persistence of contamination, allowing for the development of more adequate, tailor-made contamination protection and mitigation strategies. In general this study highlights the potential of customized integrated conceptual models, based on multiple mixing assumptions, to infer system internal transport dynamics and their sensitivity to catchment wetness states.

Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

2013-04-01

386

Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

387

THE FLOW AND STORAGE OF WATER IN THE WETLAND-DOMINATED CENTRAL MACKENZIE RIVER BASIN: RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were initiated in 1999 at Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada in order to improve the understanding and model-representation of the major water flux and storage processes within a wetland-dominated region of the discontinuous permafrost zone. This paper contributes to this end by presenting selected results on: 1) the physical and hydraulic properties of the active layer soils in

W. L. Quinton; M. Hayashi

388

Comparison of coal IGCC with and without CO 2 capture and storage: Shell gasification with standard vs. partial water quench  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides a techno-economic assessment of Shell coal gasification -based IGCC, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS), focusing on the comparison between the standard Shell configuration with dry gas quench and syngas coolers versus partial water quench cooling.

Emanuele Martelli; Thomas Kreutz; Stefano Consonni

2009-01-01

389

Monitoring and control of a hydrogen production and storage system consisting of water electrolysis and metal hydrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic are energy sources that cannot generate continuous electric power. The seasonal storage of solar or wind energy in the form of hydrogen can provide the basis for a completely renewable energy system. In this way, water electrolysis is a convenient method for converting electrical energy into a chemical form. The

V. Pérez-Herranz; M. Pérez-Page; R. Beneito

2010-01-01

390

Case Study of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Utilization for Comfort and Process Cooling in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-print Network

production due to process cooling outages can save millions of dollars per year. This paper presents a case study of chilled water storage use at the campus of a major US electronics manufacturer located in Dallas, TX. An overview of the system and its...

Bahnfleth, W. P.; Musser, A.

1998-01-01

391

Variations in the total water storage in the major river basins of India from GRACE satellite gravity data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an estimate of total water storage variations of the major river basins of India during the period of 2002 to mid 2008 from modelling of time-variable gravity field observed by GRACE satellite by utilising the scheme of Swenson and Wahr, (2002). The largest annual volume change is observed over the upper Ganga basin, followed by the lower Gnaga

V. M. Tiwari; J. M. Wahr; S. Swenson

2008-01-01

392

GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought in Texas  

E-print Network

GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought] Texas experienced the most extreme one-year drought on record in 2011 with precipitation at 40% of long-based drought indicator, independent of traditional drought indicators based on in situ monitoring. GRACE shows

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

The terrestrial water storage changes in the continental United States inferred from GRACE data and simulations from land surface models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gravity changes by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are used to infer the terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations in the continental United States (US) between 2003 and 2010. The inferred TWS variations from 2003 to 2006 show, significant, continued loss of terrestrial water spreading across the southeastern region of the US and increase of terrestrial water storage in most western region and some northwestern region. Such geographical pattern of the inferred change of terrestrial water storage correlates well with Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) changes in the same time periods. The TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data since 2004 to 2010 show water loss in south central region and western region of the US, respectively in 2005-2006 (mainly in the summer and autumn of 2005 and in the summer and winter of 2006) and through all seasons of 2007, and water gain in southwestern region, south central region, central and north central region, eastern region and southwestern region of the US, respectively in 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data exhibit similar geographic patterns to those simulated from Mosaic land surface model (LSM) and Noah LSM, but differences exist in some regions and the amplitudes of the TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data are smaller than those simulated from LSMs. We will discuss these differences and possible means the GRACE data can be used to improve the monitoring of TWS variations.

Yi, H.; Wen, L.

2012-12-01

394

Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-10-01

395

A Preliminary Geomorphological Analysis of Water storage capacity: The Providence Watershed, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Critical Zone of Earth, as defined by NSF in 2007, is series of systems that extend from the top of the canopy to the bottom of the aquifer. The soil system has been used as the primary connection between the various systems. Knowledge of water storage capacity is essential for predicting water availability in the critical zone. Soil depth is one of the most important parameters used to study water storage capacity. Unfortunately, it is challenging to obtain an accurate representation of the degree of spatial variability of soil depth in a watershed. To obtain this data requires extensive and expensive surveys, which can be compounded in forested regions. We make the assumption that soil depth is a function of surface and subsurface geomorphological processes. The Providence Watershed, which is a Critical Zone Center (CZO) is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Providence Watershed is ~ 2.8 km2. The general trend of the watershed is northeast and ranges in elevation from 1,700 m to 2,100 m. The dominant vegetation cover is coniferous. In this area, we compiled indices from LIDAR imagery and compared these to hand-auguring profiles collected along Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) transects. Auguring profiles exist at a spacing of 123 m. The depths of these profiles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 m. We correlated the auguring data with nine indices. None of the correlations, which ranged from -0.50 to 0.21 (Pearson product-moment), were strong. The most significant finding of this study strengthens the important role that GPR can provide to capture the spatial heterogeneity present. GPR lines complimentary to geomorphological mapping can be used as an approach to obtain more accurate results in soil depth and bedrock topography mapping. The appropriate scale of work, however, depends on the understanding of the scale of processes controlling soil formation and erosion. This work is part of the collaborative effort of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory.

Chamorro, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.

2013-12-01

396

Quantifying spatio-temporal variability of soil water storage and their controls at multiple scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water is the primary limiting factor in semiarid ecosystems and determinant of environmental health. The distribution of soil water in space and time has important hydrologic applications. However, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water is a major challenge in hydrology as their distribution in the landscape is controlled many factors and processes acting in different intensities over a variety of scales. Quantification of these variability and their dominant controls at multiple scales can only lead to a better understanding on the soil water dynamics in space and time and on the underlying processes causing the variability. In order to quantify spatio-temporal variability, soil water content (later converted to soil water storage, SWS) was measured down to 1.4 m (0.2 m depth interval) at 128 regularly spaced locations along a transect of 576 m over a five-year period from the Hummocky landscape of central Canada. The spatial pattern of SWS was very similar (large values of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) over the entire study period and was almost a mirror image of the spatial pattern of the relative elevation. The similarity was stronger within a season (intra-season) than the same season from different years (inter-annual) and between seasons (inter-season). The variability at multiple scales was quantified using the wavelet transform. The strongest large scale (>72 m) variability contributed from the macro-topography and a moderate medium scale (18-72 m) variability contributed from the landform elements were persistent over the entire measurement period (time stability). The locations and the scales of the most persistent spatial patterns over time and depth were quantified using the wavelet coherency. The changes in the persistent patterns indicated the changes in the scales and locations of underlying hydrological processes, which can be used to identify change in sampling domain. The similarities/dissimilarities in the spatial pattern between the surface and sub-surface measurements at different scales and locations were used to infer the whole profile hydrological dynamics (depth persistence). The variability in SWS spatial patterns was controlled by different factors at different scales. Scale specific dominant controls were identified after separating the variance contribution of each scale towards the overall variance using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The large scale macro-topographical control and medium scale landform control were much stronger than very large scale soil textural control on SWS. The scale-specific relationship with controlling factors improved the prediction of SWS.

Biswas, Asim

2014-05-01

397

Heat transfer enhancement in water when used as PCM in thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and reliable storage systems for thermal energy are an important requirement in many applications where heat demand and supply or availability do not coincide. Heat and cold stores can basically be divided in two groups. In sensible heat stores the temperature of the storage material is increased significantly. Latent heat stores, on the contrary, use a storage material that

L. F. Cabeza; H. Mehling; S. Hiebler; F. Ziegler

2002-01-01

398

Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

399

Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

1980-01-01

400

Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the San Gorgonio Pass area. The water-bearing deposits were divided into three aquifers: (1) the perched aquifer, (2) the upper aquifer, and (3) the lower aquifer based on lithologic and downhole geophysical logs. Natural recharge in the San Gorgonio Pass area was estimated using INFILv3, a deterministic distributed- parameter precipitation-runoff model. The INFILv3 model simulated that the potential recharge of precipitation and runoff in the Beaumont and Banning storage units was about 3,710 acre-feet per year and that the potential recharge in 28 sub-drainage basins upstream of the storage units was about 6,180 acre-feet per year. The water supply for the Beaumont and Banning storage units is supplied by pumping ground water from wells in the Canyon (Edgar and Banning Canyons), Banning Bench, Beaumont, and Banning storage units. Total annual pumpage from the Beaumont and Banning storage units ranged from about 1,630 acre-feet in 1936 to about 20,000 acre-feet in 2003. Ground-water levels declined by as much as 100 feet in the Beaumont storage unit from 1926-2003 in response to ground-water pumping of about 450,160 acre-feet during this period. Since ground-water development began in the San Gorgonio Pass area, there have been several sources of artificial recharge to the basin including return flow from applied water on crops, golf courses, and landscape; septic-tank seepage; and infiltration of storm runoff diversions and imported water into recharge ponds. Return flow from applied water and septic-tank seepage was estimated to reach a maximum of about 8,100 acre-feet per year in 2003. Owing to the great depth of water in much of study area (in excess of 150 feet), the return flow and septic-tank seepage takes years to decades to reach the water table. Stable-isotope data indicate that the source of ground-water recharge was precipitation from storms passing through the San Gorgonio Pass as opposed to runoff from the higher altitudes of the San Bernar

Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

2006-01-01

401

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Helium and LN2 Storage Requirements for D-Zero Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were done to determine a recommended size for the liquid helium storage dewar, gas helium storage tanks, and liquid nitrogen dewar requirements. I recommend a Liquid helium storage dewar with a nominal size of at least 2500 liters (660 gallons), preferably 3000 liters (792 gallons). I recommend obtaining gas helium storage tanks with a maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) of 250 psig or greater. Combined volume to be at least 5880 cubic feet (44,000 gallons). I recommend obtaining a second liquid nitrogen dewar at D-Zero, dedicated to the refrigerator, solenoid and VLPC systems. The ideal dewar would have a volume of around 16,000 gallons. It's MAWP needs to be greater than 55 psig.

Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

1995-04-04

402

Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

403

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01

404

Multivariate forecasting of water storage change for West-Africa using sea surface temperature and GRACE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several West-African countries are located besides the Atlantic Ocean, exposed to coastal and Sahel-type regimes. To these countries, global warming may pose multiple threats including sea level rise and reduced freshwater availability. Changes in the terrestrial water cycle may be accompanied by an increasing frequency, duration and magnitude of droughts and floods. Understanding patterns of water storage change from remote sensing and linking them to climate variability is thus essential. However, being able to forecast water storage changes will improve the ability of West African countries to planning and adapting to climate change. In this study, we develop a data-driven method for seasonal forecast of water storage changes that capitalizes on the teleconnections between water storage and sea surface temperature (SST) and on the ability of GRACE to measure total water storage (TWS) change directly. In the first step, we identify statistically independent patterns of TWS from monthly GRACE data over West-Africa, and of SST over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. We apply Independent Component Analysis rather than Principle Component Analysis to reveal teleconnections more pronounced. Our results show that annual variability of TWS over West-Africa is controlled by the Atlantic Ocean, while inter-annual and long-term variability is correlated with ENSO. Different auto-regressive models were then derived from these multivariate time-series and applied to predict TWS variations over West-Africa from Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean-SST. The performance of the forecast models is compared to other statistical methods as Canonical Correlation Analysis, as well as to the output of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), which is forced by climate data. Forecast errors were also evaluated using a Monte Carlo error propagation. We find that forecasting TWS using SST as indicator shows a reliable performance for periods of up to two years. Future studies include additional exploitation of other space geodetic and hydrography data including satellite altimetry and Argo. Keywords: West Africa, GRACE, ICA, AR model, multivariate water storage forecast

Forootan, E.; Kusche, J.; Eicker, A.; Krasbutter, I.; Schuh, W.; Diekkrüger, B.; Schmidt, M. G.; Guo, J.; Shum, C.

2012-12-01

405

Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

Not Available

1980-04-01

406

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

1980-01-01

407

Effect of Endodontic Irrigants on Microtensile Bond Strength to Dentin After Thermocycling and Long-Term Water Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective: The bond strength of adhesives in irrigated dentin behaves differently over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of long-term water storage and thermocycling on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin irrigated with endodontic solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human molars were used after removal of the occlusal portion and exposure of the dentin by grinding. The specimens were irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl for 30 minutes and then 17% EDTA for 5 minutes and assigned to six groups according to the adhesive system (n=10): G1 and G2–Clearfil SE Bond; G3 and G4–Single Bond 2; and G5 and G6–XP Bond. The teeth were restored with composite and were subjected to water storage for different time periods. G1, G3 and G5 were stored for 24 h; G2, G4 and G6 were stored for 6 months and were subjected to thermocycling (12,000 cycles, 5°C to 55°C, 500 cycles per week for 6 months). After storage, the tooth/restoration assembly was sectioned to obtain four sticks of approximately 1 mm2, for microtensile bond strength testing. The results were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Significant differences were observed among the adhesives (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the microtensile bond strength between samples after 24 hours of storage without thermocycling and after 6-month storage with 12,000 cycles (p<0.05). Conclusion: The bond strengths of G5 and G6 after irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were significantly different from those of other groups. Long-term water storage/thermocycling had no effect on bond strength to dentin. PMID:24910650

Galafassi, Daniel; Colucci, Vivian; Cecchin, Doglas; Scatena, Camila; Nascimento, Telma N.; Corona, Silmara A. M.

2013-01-01

408

The Changing Nature of Water Storage in the Great Lakes Basin and its Implications for Future Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Home to approximately 40 million people in the United States and Canada, the Great Lakes drainage basin is a tremendous freshwater resource. It is, however, undergoing significant changes both in land use and climate. It has suffered from substantial deforestation in the last century and the continued drainage of wetlands. Reforestation, urbanization and increased demand for agricultural production on less land are all changing the face of the region. Climate is also changing with warmer, wetter winters changing the accumulation of snow and the formation of lake and soil ice. When land use and climate are relatively consistent between years, the storage of water in and on the land surface can be neglected for inter-annual analysis of the regional water balance, however, given the observed and projected future changes to the region it is clear that representing changes in storage will be critical for understanding how hydrology in the region will respond. As nearly half of the freshwater supply to the Great Lakes is in the form of land surface runoff, changes in the volume and timing of water storage within the drainage basin is a critical factor in the future health and sustainability of their ecosystem. Unlike air temperature and precipitation which are fairly well known in the region, many of these storage variables are known at only a handful of locations if they are monitored at all. Therefore, hydrology model become indispensable tools when trying to quantify changes in storage. For this presentation, observed and simulated datasets are used to identify and quantify changes in the timing and quantity of storage within the Great Lakes region due to changes in land use and climate. Storage terms that will be evaluated include soil moisture and ice, snow cover, groundwater, and inland lake and wetland storage. Warmer winters are reducing snow cover, which can lead to the formation of more soil ice and wetter spring soils for a time, though increasing temperatures will get warm enough to reduce the formation of soil ice as well. Wetter and warmer conditions in the winter and spring can lead to earlier spring runoff, though the presence of lake and wetland storage can mitigate this effect. Wetlands and lakes increase infiltration and the potential for groundwater recharge, while the expansion of urban impervious area reduces infiltration and recharge.

Cherkauer, K. A.

2012-12-01

409

Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from a Global Land Surface Model Simulation with the Anthropogenic Impacts on Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among global water cycle components, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) is one of the most difficult to estimate. In this study, basin-scale regional TWS variations simulated by a global-scale land surface model, after validating with GRACE data and observed streamflow, are used to investigate the dominant TWS components as well as the interactions among TWS components over some largest river basins. The analysis is based on an integrated water resources assessment modelling framework developed by incorporating human impact schemes (i.e., reservoir operation, irrigation, withdrawal, groundwater pumping, and environmental flow requirements) into a land surface model - the Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO). MATSIRO simulates the majority of land hydrologic processes on a physical basis at the global 1° × 1° resolution. The terrestrial water storage (TWS) simulated consists of soil moisture, groundwater, river water, snow and ice, and the human impact components such as reservoir storage. The effects of irrigation and groundwater pumping on TWS variations are also considered in certain regions where their impacts are known to be significant (e.g. The High Plains Aquifer, US). Moreover, a comparison on the TWS components is made with the MATSIRO simulation without considering human impact. The difference between them is a direct measure on the extent to which human anthropogenic impacts affect regional hydrology.

Yeh, P. J.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.

2013-12-01

410

Seasonal Water Storage Variations as Impacted by Water Abstractions: Comparing the Output of a Global Hydrological Model with GRACE and GPS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better quantification of continental water storage variations is expected to improve our understanding of water flows, including evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge as well as human water abstractions. For the first time, total water storage (TWS) on the land area of the globe as computed by the global water model WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) was compared to both gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. The GRACE satellites sense the effect of TWS on the dynamic gravity field of the Earth. GPS reference points are displaced due to crustal deformation caused by time-varying TWS. Unfortunately, the worldwide coverage of the GPS tracking network is irregular, while GRACE provides global coverage albeit with low spatial resolution. Detrended TWS time series were analyzed by determining scaling factors for mean annual amplitude ( f GRACE) and time series of monthly TWS ( f GPS). Both GRACE and GPS indicate that WaterGAP underestimates seasonal variations of TWS on most of the land area of the globe. In addition, seasonal maximum TWS occurs 1 month earlier according to WaterGAP than according to GRACE on most land areas. While WaterGAP TWS is sensitive to the applied climate input data, none of the two data sets result in a clearly better fit to the observations. Due to the low number of GPS sites, GPS observations are less useful for validating global hydrological models than GRACE observations, but they serve to support the validity of GRACE TWS as observational target for hydrological modeling. For unknown reasons, WaterGAP appears to fit better to GPS than to GRACE. Both GPS and GRACE data, however, are rather uncertain due to a number of reasons, in particular in dry regions. It is not possible to benefit from either GPS or GRACE observations to monitor and quantify human water abstractions if only detrended (seasonal) TWS variations are considered. Regarding GRACE, this is mainly caused by the attenuation of the TWS differences between water abstraction variants due to the filtering required for GRACE TWS. Regarding GPS, station density is too low. Only if water abstractions lead to long-term changes in TWS by depletion or restoration of water storage in groundwater or large surface water bodies, GRACE may be used to support the quantification of human water abstractions.

Döll, Petra; Fritsche, Mathias; Eicker, Annette; Müller Schmied, Hannes

2014-11-01

411

The effect of fiber reinforcement type and water storage on strength properties of a provisional fixed partial denture resin.  

PubMed

Fracture resistance of provisional restorations is an important clinical concern. This property is directly related to transverse strength. Strengthening of provisional fixed partial dentures may result from reinforcement with various fiber types. This study evaluated the effect of fiber type and water storage on the transverse strength of a commercially available provisional resin under two different conditions. The denture resin was reinforced with either glass or aramid fiber or no reinforcement was used. Uniform samples were made from a commercially available autopolymerizing provisional fixed partial denture resin. Sixteen bar-shaped specimens (60 x 10 x 4 mm) were reinforced with pre-treated epoxy resin-coated glass fibers, with aramid fibers, or with no fibers. Eight specimens of each group, with and without fibers, were tested after 24 h of fabrication (immediate group), and after 30-day water storage. A three-point loading test was used to measure the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, and the modulus of elasticity. The Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance was used to examine differences among the three groups, and then the Mann-Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were applied to determine pair-wise differences. The transverse strength and the maximal deflection values in the immediate group and in the 30-day water storage group were not statistically significant. In the group tested immediately, the elasticity modulus was found to be significant (P = 0.042). In the 30-day water storage group, all the values were statistically insignificant. The highest transverse strength was displayed by the glass-reinforced resin (66.25MPa) in the immediate group. The transverse strength value was 62.04MPa for the unreinforced samples in the immediate group. All the specimens exhibited lower transverse strength with an increase in water immersion time. The transverse strength value was 61.13 MPa for the glass-reinforced resin and was 61.24 MPa for the unreinforced resin. The aramid-reinforced resin decreased from 62.29 to 58.77 MPa. The addition of fiber reinforcement enhanced the physical properties (the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, the modulus of elasticity) of the processed material over that seen with no addition of fiber. Water storage did not statistically affect the transverse strength of the provisional denture resin compared to that of the unreinforced resin. The transverse strength was lowered at water storage but it was not statistically significant. The transverse strength was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. The glass fiber was superior to the other fiber. Also the modulus of elasticity was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. PMID:12797420

Uzun, Gülay; Keyf, Filiz

2003-04-01

412

Effect of water content and temperature on seed longevity of seven Brassicaceae species after 5 years of storage.  

PubMed

Maximising seed longevity is crucial for genetic resource preservation and longevity of orthodox seeds is determined by environmental conditions (water content and temperature). The effect of water content (down to 0.01 g·H?O·g(-1) ) on seed viability was studied at different temperatures for a 5-year storage period in taxonomically related species. Seeds of seven Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Eruca vesicaria, Malcolmia littorea, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium runcinatum) were stored at 48 environments comprising a combination of eight water contents, from 0.21 to 0.01 g·H?O·g(-1) DW and six temperatures (45, 35, 20, 5, -25, -170 °C). Survival curves were modelled and P50 calculated for those conditions where germination was reduced over the 5-year assay period. Critical water content for storage of seeds of six species at 45 °C ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 g·H?O·g(-1) . The effect of extreme desiccation at 45 °C showed variability among species: three species showed damaging effects of drying below the critical water content, while for three species it was neither detrimental nor beneficial to seed longevity. Lipid content could be related to longevity, depending on the storage conditions. A variable seed longevity response to water content among taxonomically related species was found. The relative position of some of the species as long- or short-lived at 45 °C varied depending on the humidity at which storage behaviour was evaluated. Therefore, predictions of survival under desiccated conditions based on results obtained at high humidity might be problematic for some species. PMID:24804799

Mira, S; Estrelles, E; González-Benito, M E

2015-01-01

413

Comparing groundwater recharge and storage variability from GRACE satellite observations with observed water levels and recharge model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of groundwater resources, particularly in water stressed regions, requires estimates of groundwater recharge. This study in southern Mali, Africa compares approaches for estimating groundwater recharge and understanding recharge processes using a variety of methods encompassing groundwater level-climate data analysis, GRACE satellite data analysis, and recharge modelling for current and future climate conditions. Time series data for GRACE (2002-2006) and observed groundwater level data (1982-2001) do not overlap. To overcome this problem, GRACE time series data were appended to the observed historical time series data, and the records compared. Terrestrial water storage anomalies from GRACE were corrected for soil moisture (SM) using the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to obtain monthly groundwater storage anomalies (GRACE-SM), and monthly recharge estimates. Historical groundwater storage anomalies and recharge were determined using the water table fluctuation method using observation data from 15 wells. Historical annual recharge averaged 145.0 mm (or 15.9% of annual rainfall) and compared favourably with the GRACE-SM estimate of 149.7 mm (or 14.8% of annual rainfall). Both records show lows and peaks in May and September, respectively; however, the peak for the GRACE-SM data is shifted later in the year to November, suggesting that the GLDAS may poorly predict the timing of soil water storage in this region. Recharge simulation results show good agreement between the timing and magnitude of the mean monthly simulated recharge and the regional mean monthly storage anomaly hydrograph generated from all monitoring wells. Under future climate conditions, annual recharge is projected to decrease by 8% for areas with luvisols and by 11% for areas with nitosols. Given this potential reduction in groundwater recharge, there may be added stress placed on an already stressed resource.

Allen, D. M.; Henry, C.; Demon, H.; Kirste, D. M.; Huang, J.

2011-12-01

414

Water supply at Los Alamos during 1995. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1995 totaled about 1,356.1 million gallons from wells in the Guaje and Pajarito well fields. Wells in the Otowi field were not operational during 1995. The nonpotable water supply for industrial use was about 1.6 million gallons from the spring gallery in Water Canyon, and another 1.6 million gallons from Los Alamos Reservoir was used for lawn irrigation. There was no water used from Guaje Reservoir in 1995. The total water usage in 1995 was about 1,359.3 million gallons. Groundwater pumpage during 1995 was the lowest on record since 1966.

McLin, S.G.; Purtymun, W.D.; Maes, M.N.

1997-04-01

415

Availability of ground water in the lower Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Pawcatuck River basin in southwestern Rhode Island is an area of about 169 square miles underlain by crystalline bedrock over which lies a relatively thin mantle of glacial till and stratified drift. Stratified drift, consisting dominantly of sand and gravel, occurs in irregularly shaped linear deposits that are generally less than a mile wide and less than 125 feet thick; these deposits are found along the Pawcatuck River, its tributaries, and abandone