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1

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

Griffin, M.J. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Harris, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-10-01

2

CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

Watson, W.T.

1997-01-20

3

Cold water aquifer storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

1980-03-01

4

Test and evaluation of a 50-gallon-per-minute oil\\/water separator (Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the test and evaluation of a Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc. (SRS), 50-gallon-per-minute (gpm) oil\\/water separation system to determine its suitability as a shipboard oil-pollution control device. This report concludes that: the SRS, 50-GPM oil\\/water separator should be considered a candidate for further detailed testing to confirm its suitability as a further detailed testing to confirm its

1972-01-01

5

40 Gallon Challenge issues a call to reduce residential water use  

E-print Network

drought since #28;#30;#27;#27;. AgriLife Extension Regional Program Directors Susan Ballabina, Ron Woolley and Monty Dozier have made great e#17;orts to promote the program, especially to county Extension agents delivering water educational programs... drought since #28;#30;#27;#27;. AgriLife Extension Regional Program Directors Susan Ballabina, Ron Woolley and Monty Dozier have made great e#17;orts to promote the program, especially to county Extension agents delivering water educational programs...

Heinrich, Katie

2013-01-01

6

Chiller Start/Stop Optimization for a Campus-wide Chilled Water System with a Thermal Storage Tank Under a Four-Period Electricity Rate Schedule  

E-print Network

The existence of a 1.4-million-gallon chilled water thermal storage tank greatly increases the operational flexibility of a campuswide chilled water system under a four-part electricity rate structure. While significant operational savings can...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.; Contreras, O.

2002-01-01

7

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2012-01-01

8

The Water Cycle: Water Storage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, animated graphic helps explain the water cycle to younger students. The animation, with sound, explains the various parts of the water cycle and show how water moves from one part to another.

9

Fuel performance in water storage  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

1993-11-01

10

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P. J.

1996-01-01

11

27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight. 30...Prescribed Tables § 30.62 Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight. The wine and proof gallon content by weight...

2010-04-01

12

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

13

124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

14

Surface Water Storage on Annual Ryegrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water storage is the water held on plant surfaces after the application of artificial rain. It approximates the storage component in interception loss equations. Surface ratio was shown by Horton (1919) to be a factor in interception loss by evaporation during a storm. Surface ratio is shown here also to be a factor in the storage component of interception

Robert A. Merriam

1961-01-01

15

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of each month of the year) excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The two figures show that 2010 was the driest year since 2003. The drought in the Amazon was largely responsible, but an excess of water in 2009 seems to have buffered that drought to some extent. The drying trend in the 25-55 deg S zone is a combination of Patagonian glacier melt and drought in parts of Australia.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2011-01-01

16

Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for monitoring higher level parameters such as fauna diversity. The regenerating rainforest environment presents a number of interesting challenges for wireless sensor networks related to energy harvesting and to reliable low-power wireless communications through dense and wet vegetation. Located downstream from the Springbrook plateau, the Little Nerang and Hinze dams are the two major water supply storages for the Gold Coast region. In September 2009 we fitted methane, light, wind, and sonar sensors to our autonomous electric boat platform and successfully demonstrated autonomous collection of methane flux release data on Little Nerang Dam. Sensor and boat status data were relayed back to a human operator on the shore of the dam via a small network of our Fleck™ nodes. The network also included 4 floating nodes each fitted with a string of 6 temperature sensors for profiling temperature at different water depths. We plan to expand the network further during 2010 to incorporate floating methane nodes, additional temperature sensing nodes, as well as land-based microclimate nodes. The overall monitoring system will provide significant data to understand the connected catchment-to-storage system and will provide continuous data to monitor and understand change trends within this world heritage area.

Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

2010-05-01

17

ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

18

Integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH) developed from early systems comprised simply of a simple black tank placed in the sun. The ICSSWH, by its combined collection and storage function suffers substantial heat losses to ambient, especially at night-time and non-collection periods. To be viable economically, the system has evolved to incorporate new and novel methods of maximising

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; Brian Norton

2006-01-01

19

Conserving reservoir water storage: An economic appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depletion of water storage worldwide as a consequence of reservoir sedimentation is a growing problem. Effective sediment management is needed to enhance dam productivity and to extend storage life, thereby avoiding various economic and environmental losses. This paper analyzes reservoir level sediment management from a benefit-cost perspective and suggests desirable management strategies. Dynamic programming simulation has been used to

Shigekazu Kawashima

2007-01-01

20

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

21

FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

PUIGH RJ

2009-05-14

22

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as meteorological stations, using water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from different atmospheric models. As a result, our runoff estimates are compared to river fluxes measurements. We compare mass estimates of major African lakes to volume estimated from space Laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. As our forward modeling includes the continental water storage variations (using GLDAS/Noah model), leaking effects are significantly reduced. We also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.

2009-12-01

23

More Jobs per Gallon: How Vehicle Efficiency  

E-print Network

More Jobs per Gallon: How Vehicle Efficiency Fuels Growth in California David RolandHolst April://are.berkeley.edu/~dwrh/CERES_Web/index.html #12;Roland-Holst | More Jobs per Gallon ii Research Papers on Energy, Resources, and Economic. For this project on Jobs and Vehicle Fuel Efficiency, we express gratitude to the Energy Foundation for financial

California at Davis, University of

24

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

25

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

26

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

27

International Conference on Water Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC-2009)  

E-print Network

International Conference on Water ­ Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC-2009) 23rd ­ 25th International Conference on Water ­ Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC- 2009) was the first guidelines and implementing mechanisms for water harvesting, storage and conservation. The main objectives

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

28

Beyond peak water storage? A global estimate of declining water storage in reservoirs and snow packs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage is one of the primary mechanisms for coping with increasing variability of water supply and demand that can be expected with growing population and a changing climate. Man-made reservoirs can currently store about 15% of the global annual runoff. A similar amount of water is stored in one of the most important natural storage components - seasonal snow packs. The amount of water stored in each of those man-made and natural systems is roughly equivalent to the total annual anthropogenic water withdrawals. Storage in seasonal snow packs is declining as a result of climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt. At the same time, reservoir storage is declining as a result of sedimentation and limited construction of new reservoirs. We use a global hydrological model, combined with a global data set of ~6000 large reservoirs to simulate changes in reservoir and snow pack water storage and analyze impacts of those changes on seasonal water availability using a set of scenarios for changing climate conditions. Reservoir sedimentation is simulated using global erosion and sedimentation data sets and validated with observed reservoir storage loss. Results indicate annual loss rates between 0.5 and 1.0% of the installed capacity for most reservoirs, outpacing the storage increases through the construction of new reservoirs for the last decades so that reservoir storage is declining globally. With most reservoirs being about 50 years old, these losses threaten the sustainability of reservoir operation and can pose significant challenges to water resources management. Similarly, seasonal snow storage is declining at about 0.5% per year for the last 20 years. Even without changes in the magnitude of total precipitation, there can be significant changes in basin hydrology if there are climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt, potentially away from the period (summer) when demand for irrigation, water supply, or hydropower production is high. These shifts in the timing can therefore result in significant socio-economic impacts through effects on food production or hydropower. Regions must vulnerable to dwindling total storage capacity include the southern slopes of the Himalaya, the east slopes of the Tibetan Plateau, and the basins in the Western US.

Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

2012-12-01

29

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2010-10-01

30

WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

31

High temperature water pit storage projects for the seasonal storage of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage (CSHPSS) are capable of covering more than 75% of the annual heat demand of housing areas if appropriate storage technologies are available. The maximum design temperature should be 90–95° and the long term cost goal is 100 DM m?3 for a storage volume larger than 10 000 m3 water equivalent. Three pilot projects

R. Kübler; N. Fisch; E. Hahne

1997-01-01

32

Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

SciTech Connect

The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

2009-10-08

33

Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

2011-01-01

34

Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

35

General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

36

General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

37

Multisensor analysis of water storage variations of the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a multi-sensor analysis of water storage and surface height variations of the Caspian Sea, from mid-2002 through 2006. Data from three satellite missions (GRACE, Jason-1, and Aqua) are used to examine the relationship between changes in spatially averaged sea surface height (SSH) and water storage in and around the Caspian Sea. Two composite time series are constructed to

Sean Swenson; John Wahr

2007-01-01

38

Alternatives for Water Basin Spent Fuel Storage Using Racked and Unracked Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spent fuel storage alternatives to conventional racking were: core plate storage, horizontal racks, stacked racks, and unracked storage. (1) The parameter that controls storage density in water basin spent fuel storage is the spacing between fuel assembli...

J. M. Viebrock, P. E. Eggers

1979-01-01

39

Estimation of water withdrawal and distribution, water use, and wastewater collection and return flow in Cumberland, Rhode Island, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data collected in Rhode Island by different State agencies or maintained by different public suppliers and wastewater- treatment facilities need to be integrated if these data are to be used in making water- resource management decisions. Water-use data for the town of Cumberland, a small area in northeastern Rhode Island, were compiled and integrated to provide an example of how the procedure could be applied. Integration and reliability assessment of water-use data could be facilitated if public suppliers, wastewater- treatment facilities, and State agencies used a number of standardized procedures for data collection and computer storage. The total surface water and ground water withdrawn in the town of Cumberland during 1988 is estimated to be 15.39 million gallons per day, of which 11.20 million gallons per day was exported to other towns. Water use in Cumberland included 2.51 million gallons per day for domestic use, 0.68 million gallons per day for industrial use, 0.27 million gallons per day for commercial use, and 0.73 million gallons per day for other use, most of which were unmetered use. Disposal of waste- water in Cumberland included 2.03 million gallons per day returned to the hydrologic system and 1.73 million gallons per day exported from Cumberland for wastewater treatment. Consumptive use during 1988 is estimated to be 0.43 million gallons per day.

Horn, M. A.; Craft, P. A.; Bratton, Lisa

1994-01-01

40

Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

2013-03-01

41

Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-01-01

42

Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to

James Brimhall; Sundar Naga

2007-01-01

43

Reliability perceptions and water storage expenditures: Evidence from Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storing water at home has become a common practice in many areas with water delivery systems in developing countries. However, little is known about which factors motivate households to expend on water storage devices. Instrumental variable Tobit models are estimated to investigate the relationship between perceptions of water supply reliability and household expenditures on water storage devices in León, Nicaragua. Findings indicate that almost 80% of households use at least one storage device on which they expend an average of 0.87% of their income. Results show that reliability perceptions are the main factor driving household expenditures on storage devices, followed by home ownership and household income. Findings also indicate that reliability perceptions are associated with service performance and assessment of service hours relative to peers.

VáSquez, William F.

2012-10-01

44

Ammonia-water low-temperature thermal storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of a low-temperature thermal storage system using an ammonia-water solution both as a refrigerant and as a low-temperature thermal storage material is considered. The thermal storage is usable at a temperature of -27 C and higher. The proposed system is designed to shift electric demand from high to low-demand periods. The system utilizes a heat-operated absorption refrigeration system;

J. J. Rizza

1998-01-01

45

Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

2008-01-01

46

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24

47

29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 104, mess hall in lower left, building 101, administration, recreation, and storage building in center, and building 103, non-commissioned officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far right, looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

48

GRACE Measurement of Total Water Storage Variations Over Texas  

E-print Network

Bettadpur Himanshu Save, Tatyana Pekker University of Texas Center for Space Research First Texas Water;Units: cm/yr of water thickness GRACE TWS Rate Map #12;Groundwater Monitoring Estimates match1-08-2008 GRACE Measurement of Total Water Storage Variations Over Texas Byron Tapley , Srinivas

Yang, Zong-Liang

49

VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27?, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

50

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27?, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

51

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

52

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

53

27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples larger than five gallons. 20.252 ...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.252 Samples larger than five gallons. (a)...

2013-04-01

54

27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Samples larger than five gallons. 20.252 ...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.252 Samples larger than five gallons. (a)...

2014-04-01

55

27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samples larger than five gallons. 20.252 ...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.252 Samples larger than five gallons. (a)...

2010-04-01

56

27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Samples larger than five gallons. 20.252 ...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.252 Samples larger than five gallons. (a)...

2012-04-01

57

27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Samples larger than five gallons. 20.252 ...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.252 Samples larger than five gallons. (a)...

2011-04-01

58

Heat storage with an incongruently melting salt hydrate as storage medium based on the extra water principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extra water principle, a heat of fusion storage method, is described. The extra water principle uses an inorganic, incongruently melting salt hydrate as a reliable and stable storage medium in an inexpensive way. Different heat storages using the extra water principle are described. The advantages of using a heat fusion storage unit based on Na2S2O(3).5H2O and the extra water principle instead of a traditional hot water tank in small solar heating systems for domestic hot water supply are shown. In small solar heating systems the heat fusion storage supplies all the wanted hot water in the summer during longer periods than an ordinary hot water storage. It is concluded that the heat of fusion storage is favourable in domestic hot water supply systems with an auxiliary energy source which during the summer have a large energy consumption compared with the energy demands for the hot water supply.

Furbo, S.

1980-12-01

59

Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

2009-01-01

60

Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature  

E-print Network

in drinking water storage with very little organic matter; they are referred to as opportunistic pathogens (Leclerc, et al., 2004). One such pathogen belongs to the genus Legionella. There are 19 species that cause human disease (Muder and Yu, 2002... in drinking water storage with very little organic matter; they are referred to as opportunistic pathogens (Leclerc, et al., 2004). One such pathogen belongs to the genus Legionella. There are 19 species that cause human disease (Muder and Yu, 2002...

Clayton, James Brent

2012-07-16

61

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE  

PubMed Central

[1]?A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world’s largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54???Ef???0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation. PMID:24563556

Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

2013-01-01

62

Rethinking Water Scarcity: The Role of Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity, in its simplest sense, can be defined as a shortage in the availability of freshwater relative to demand. Freshwater shortages directly affect food security, access to safe drinking water, hygiene and public health, and environmental well-being. Water scarcity can also retard economic development and promote civil strife. Robust measures of water scarcity are therefore required to inform water policy and help allocate resources to mitigate these effects.

Taylor, Richard

2009-07-01

63

Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid and dry subhumid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This paper addresses the following question: What criteria should policymakers apply in choosing between centralized storage capacity in the form of conventional large reservoirs and large interbasin water transfer schemes and decentralized and distributed storage systems in the farmers' fields and in microwatersheds and villages (tanks, microdams, and aquifers)? This exploratory paper uses an interdisciplinary framework encompassing the natural and social sciences to develop four indicators that are considered critical for understanding the biochemical, physical, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of the scale issues underlying the research question. These are the residence time of water in a reservoir, the water provision capacity, the cost effectiveness of providing reliable access to water per beneficiary, and the equity dimension: maximizing the number of beneficiaries and compensating the losers. The procedural governance challenges associated with each indicator are dealt with separately. It is concluded that water storage and the institutional capacity to effectively administer it are recursively linked. This implies that if the scale of new storage projects gradually increases, a society can progressively learn and adapt to the increasing institutional complexity.

van der Zaag, Pieter; Gupta, Joyeeta

2008-10-01

64

Predicting fire activity using terrestrial water storage data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High fire activity periods in the Amazon region can be predicted months in advance on the basis of water storage data, a new study shows. Chen et al. analyzed satellite observations of terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, along with satellite observations of fire activity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) mission. GRACE measures the Earth's gravity field by calculating the changes in the distance between two satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other. The gravity measurements provide information about the amount of groundwater or surface water in a given region.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-05-01

65

Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect

The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

Not Available

2011-04-01

66

Water, gravity and trees: Relationship of tree-ring widths and total water storage dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water stored in the subsurface as groundwater or soil moisture is the main fresh water source not only for drinking water and food production but also for the natural vegetation. In a changing environment water availability becomes a critical issue in many different regions. Long-term observations of the past are needed to improve the understanding of the hydrological system and the prediction of future developments. Tree ring data have repeatedly proved to be valuable sources for reconstructing long-term climate dynamics, e.g. temperature, precipitation and different hydrological variables. In water-limited environments, tree growth is primarily influenced by total water stored in the subsurface and hence, tree-ring records usually contain information about subsurface water storage. The challenge is to retrieve the information on total water storage from tree rings, because a training dataset of water stored in the sub-surface is required for calibration against the tree-ring series. However, measuring water stored in the subsurface is notoriously difficult. We here present high-precision temporal gravimeter measurements which allow for the depth-integrated quantification of total water storage dynamics at the field scale. In this study, we evaluate the relationship of total water storage change and tree ring growth also in the context of the complex interactions of other meteorological forcing factors. A tree-ring chronology was derived from a Norway spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. Total water storage dynamics were measured directly by the superconducting gravimeter of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell for a 9-years period. Time series were extended to 63-years period by a hydrological model using gravity data as the only calibration constrain. Finally, water storage changes were reconstructed based on the relationship between the hydrological model and the tree-ring chronology. Measurement results indicate that tree-ring growth is primarily controlled by total water storage in the subsurface. But high uncertainties intervals of the correlation coefficient urges for the extension of the measurement period. This multi-disciplinary study, combining hydrology, dendrochronology and geodesy shows that temporal gravimeter measurements may give us the unique opportunity to retrieve the information of total water storage contained in tree-ring records to reconstruct total water storage dynamics. Knowing the relationship of water storage and tree-ring growth can also support the reconstruction of other climate records based on tree-ring series, help with hydrological model testing and can improve our knowledge of long-term variations of water storage in the past.

Creutzfeldt, B.; Heinrich, I.; Merz, B.; Blume, T.; Güntner, A.

2012-04-01

67

Durability of bactericidal activity in electrolyzed neutral water by storage.  

PubMed

Electrolyzed strong and weak acid waters have been widely used for sterilization in clinical dentistry because of their excellent bactericidal activities. Electrolyzed neutral water was recently developed with a new concept of long-term good durability in addition to the excellent bactericidal activity similar to acid waters. The present study, evaluated the storage life of this water compared with the acid waters in terms of the changes in pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), residual chlorine and bactericidal activity under several conditions using Staphylococcus aureus 209P. The strong acid water showed a rapid deterioration of its bactericidal activity. The weak acid and neutral waters exhibited excellent durability. Although all the bacteria were annihilated by the contact with the waters even stored for 40 days in the uncapped bottle, the neutral water was superior in further long-term duration. PMID:12238791

Nagamatsu, Yuki; Chen, Kerr-Kong; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio

2002-06-01

68

77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation...the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended...Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage...

2012-07-19

69

Water storage in an Alpine glacier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of recession flow resulting from greatly reduced ablation following summer snowfall events were examined in discharge hydrographs of the Gornera, continuously recorded close to the portal of Gorner- gletscher, Switzerland, during the ablation seasons of 1970-1979. Where possible, recession curves were separated into two or three sections. Recession constants were calculated, permitting estimation of the volumes of water stored

DAVID N. COLLINS

1982-01-01

70

Combined chilled water thermal energy storage and fire protection storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-emergence of thermal storage as a significant energy cost saving technology can be expected to continue as utility companies struggle to meet consumer energy needs without constructing new power plants. At the same time, the need for reliable water supplies for fire protection service can be expected to grow, with the requirement for sprinkler systems now imposed on most

Holness; G. V. R

1992-01-01

71

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

...false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for...

2014-07-01

72

Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

1997-07-14

73

DuPage County chilled water storage project  

SciTech Connect

Between 1992 and 1995, the DuPage County Governmental Center in Wheaton, Illinois, commissioned a detailed analysis of its chilled water plant and distribution system, as well as its future needs and options for meeting those needs. The result was a 10,000 ton-hour (35,170 kWh) chilled water storage tank with associated components and controls. This paper describes that process and the system that resulted.

Grumman, D.L. [Grumman/Butkus Associates, Evanston, IL (United States)

1998-10-01

74

28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building on right, Minnesota Department of Transportation communication tower in center, and Minnesota Bureau of Mines wind tunnel on left, looking southwest toward launch pad area - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

75

32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building in center, and building 161, fallout shelter in lower right corner, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

76

Thermal storage efficiencies of two solar saltless water ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study between two types of solar ponds is presented. The first type has its free surface covered by a thin layer of transparent paraffin oil. The second type is covered by transparent glass floating devices. Each device disposes an air-vacuum chamber. The free water surface between these devices is covered by transparent paraffin oil also. The thermal storage

A. V Spyridonos; A. A Argiriou; J. K Nickoletatos

2003-01-01

77

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

78

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

79

25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT AND PUMP HOUSE No. 1 ON THE LEFT. THE HOT METAL BRIDGE IS IN THE FAR BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

80

Survival of Vibrio cholerae in African domestic water storage containers.  

PubMed

Although much has been published about growth of Vibrio cholerae in natural sources of water, little or nothing has been written on its survival in common household water storage containers. This study compared the behaviour of the El Tor and Classical biotypes of V. cholerae in different containers commonly used in Africa for domestic water storage. These included traditional clay pots, wooden barrels, galvanised iron drums (corroded and non-corroded) and plastic (polyethylene) drums. The findings are considered to be of public health interest with reference to selection of the most suitable containers for the storage of water drawn from a treated source. Although survival of V. cholerae was much shorter in clay pots than in any of the other containers, the numbers of viable V. cholerae were higher than in non-corroding iron drums and plastic drums. The clay pots, being porous, also showed a tendency to constant outward seepage of water which, when collected, was also shown to harbour cholera bacilli. These containers are therefore considered hazardous as pathogens in the stored water are easily disseminated to contaminate either hands or food prepared in the vicinity. The longest survival occurred in damaged metal drums. Presence of other bacteria greatly inhibited survival of V. cholerae. The response of the two biotypes was much the same in all the experiments. PMID:2799584

Patel, M; Isaäcson, M

1989-10-01

81

Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

Compiled by Showen, C. R.

1978-01-01

82

Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

Thomas, H. E.

1957-01-01

83

Method to estimate water storage capacity of capillary barriers - Discussion  

SciTech Connect

This is a brief comment on a previously published paper. The paper by Stormont and Morris[JGGE 124 (4):297-302] provides an interesting approach to computing water storage capacity of capillary barriers used as landfill covers. They correctly show that available water storage capacity can be increased up to a factor of two for a silt loam soil, when it is used in a capillary barrier as compared to existing as a deep soil profile. For this very reason such a capillary barrier, utilizing silt loam soil, was constructed and successfully tested at the U. S. Department of Energy?s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Silt loam soil provides optimal water storage for capillary barriers and ensures minimal drainage. Less benefits are obtained when capillary barriers utilize more sandy soils. We would endorse a limited application of the method of Stormont and Morris. We suggest that there will be large uncertainties in field capacity, wilting point and water retention characteristics and only when these uncertainties are accounted for can such a method be used to provide sound engineering judgement for cover design. A recommended procedure for using this method would include actual field measurements of the soil hydraulic properties of the cover materials.

Gee, Glendon W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ward, Anderson L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Meyer, Philip D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

1998-11-01

84

Tanker mooring, storage for sub-Arctic waters  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of exploration into sub-arctic offshore waters has created a need for tanker mooring facilities for floating storage vessels and tanker loading. In many sub-arctic areas mooring facilities are subject to wind, wave and current conditions which approach conditions in the North Sea during storm seasons. In other seasons, the same facilities will be subject to impact and overturning forces from drifting ice floes and massive ice ridges. A study to develop suitable concepts and preliminary designs for such tanker mooring facilities is discussed. The study was limited to areas where risk of iceberg collision may be ignored, but where ice conditions generally occur 4-6 months during each year with ice coverage ranging up to 100% during this period. The scope of the study required development of suitable concepts and preliminary design studies for three basic SPM tanker loading and storage systems: for direct loading of ice-strengthened shuttle tankers; with a permanently moored icebreaking storage vessel with storage capacity for 1,400,000 bbl of crude oil; and with submerged storage capacity for 1,400,00 bbl of crude oil.

Pedersen, K.I.; King, R.D.; Post, G.J.

1985-11-01

85

Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

French, James J.

1978-01-01

86

Improved methodologies for modeling storage and water level behavior in wetlands.  

E-print Network

??Wetlands are important elements of watersheds that influence water storage, surface water runoff, groundwater recharge/discharge processes, and evapotranspiration. To understand the cumulative effect wetlands have… (more)

Nilsson, Kenneth Allan

2010-01-01

87

Quantifying the Dimensions of Water Crisis in India: Spatial Water Deficits and Storage Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is facing threats of mounting water resources crisis with growing concerns on the reliable supply of water for various agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability, limited storage infrastructure to buffer the variations, and increasing consumptive uses across the country exacerbates the situation further. In this study, a detailed quantitative assessment of the water availability and storage requirements for India is presented. Considering the climate variability over a century time scale and the current water demands, Potential Storage Index (PSI) is developed for all districts in India using the sequent peak algorithm. The Potential Storage Index highlights the districts with high water stress, thus identifying the regions where water demand management or new storage infrastructure is needed. Preliminary analysis shows that the regions under high stress are the regions with high inter-annual variability in rainfall and depleted groundwater aquifers. The sensitivity of the model and applications to irrigated and rainfed crop management are presented. The results of the analysis are further used to assess differential vulnerability of particular sectors within the nation which can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions.

Perveen, S.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

2010-12-01

88

Impact of Tank Material on Water Quality in Household Water Storage Systems in Cochabamba, Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of water as a mechanism for the spread of disease is well recognized. This study conducted household surveys and measured several physical, chemical, and microbial water quality indicators in 37 elevated storage tanks constructed of different materials (polyethylene, fiberglass, cement) located in a peri-urban community near Cochabamba, Bolivia. Results show that although there is no significant difference in

Cynthia Anne Schafer

2010-01-01

89

Solar water-heating performance evaluation-San Diego, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes energy saved by replacing domestic, conventional natural gas heater with solar-energy subsystem in single-family residence near San Diego, California. Energy savings for 6 month test period averaged 1.089 million Btu. Collector array covered 65 square feet and supplied hot water to both 66-gallon solar storage tank and 40-gallon tank for domestic use. Natural gas supplied house's auxiliary energy.

1981-01-01

90

Land water storage from space and the geodetic infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, remote sensing techniques have been increasingly used to monitor components of the water balance of large river basins. By complementing scarce in situ observations and hydrological modelling, space observations have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of hydrological processes at work in river basins and their relationship with climate variability and socio-economic life. Among the remote sensing tools used in land hydrology, several originate from space geodesy and are integral parts of the Global Geodetic Observing System. For example, satellite altimetry is used for systematic monitoring of water levels of large rivers, lakes and floodplains. InSAR allows the detection of surface water change. GRACE-based space gravity offers for the first time the possibility of directly measuring the spatio-temporal variations of the vertically integrated water storage in large river basins. GRACE is also extremely useful for measuring changes in mass of the snow pack in boreal regions. Vertical motions of the ground induced by changes in water storage in aquifers can be measured by both GPS and InSAR. These techniques can also be used to investigate water loading effects. Recently GPS has been used to measure changes in surface soil moisture, which would be important for agriculture, weather prediction, and for calibrationg satellite missions such as SMOS and SMAP. These few examples show that space and ground geodetic infrastructures are increasingly important for hydrological sciences and applications. Future missions like SWOT (Surface Waters Ocean Topography; a wide swath interferometric altimetry mission) and GRACE 2 (space gravimetry mission based on new technology) will provide a new generation of hydrological products with improved precision and resolution.

Cazenave, A.; Larson, K.; Wahr, J.

2009-04-01

91

A global analysis of temporal and spatial variations in continental water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While continental water storage plays a key role in the Earth's water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles, its temporal and spatial variations are poorly known, in particular, for large areas. This study analyzes water storage simulated with the Watergap Global Hydrology Model. The model represents four major storage compartments: surface water, snow, soil, and groundwater. Water storage variations are analyzed for the period 1961-1995 with 0.5° resolution, for the major global climate zones, and for the 30 largest river basins worldwide. Seasonal variations are the dominant storage change signal with maximum values in the marginal tropics and in snow-dominated high-latitude areas. Interannual variations are associated with large-scale oscillations such as El Niño Southern Oscillation. The contribution of individual water storage compartments to total storage change varies with the climate region and the timescale under consideration. In most regions, a prominent role of storage variations in surface water bodies is found. Surface water reduces markedly the spatial correlation lengths of water storage fields. The simulation results are evaluated against storage variations of combined atmospheric-terrestrial water balance studies and other global models. This study contributes to an improved understanding of continental water storage for which the consistent integration of model results and new observations such as from time-variable gravity data of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is required.

Güntner, Andreas; Stuck, Jochen; Werth, Susanna; DöLl, Petra; Verzano, Kerstin; Merz, Bruno

2007-05-01

92

Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

Milly, P. C. D.

1994-01-01

93

Changes in terrestrial water storage vs. rainfall and discharges in the Amazon basin  

E-print Network

1 Changes in terrestrial water storage vs. rainfall and discharges in the Amazon basin Frédéric in the different hydrological reservoirs, is the sum of the surface water, root zone soil water, snowpack at high how the interannual variability of rainfall impacts the land water storage in the Amazon basin during

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOEpatents

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07

95

Following the Water: A Controlled Study of Drinking Water Storage in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. Objectives We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. Methods We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. Results We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Conclusions Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important. PMID:19057707

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

2008-01-01

96

Evaluation of power generation operations in response to changes in surface water reservoir storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a customized, river basin-based model of surface water rights to evaluate the response of power plants to drought via simulated changes in reservoir storage. Our methodology models surface water rights in 11 river basins in Texas using five cases: (1) storage decrease of existing capacity of 10%, (2) storage decrease of 50%, (3) complete elimination of storage, (4) storage increase of 10% (all at existing locations), and (5) construction of new reservoirs (at new locations) with a total increase in baseline reservoir capacity for power plant cooling of 9%. Using the Brazos River basin as a sample, we evaluated power generation operations in terms of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability. As simulated water storage decreases, reliability generally decreases and resiliency and vulnerability remain relatively constant. All three metrics remain relatively constant with increasing reservoir storage, with the exception of one power plant. As reservoir storage changes at power plants, other water users in the basin are also affected. In general, decreasing water storage is beneficial to other water users in the basin, and increasing storage is detrimental for many other users. Our analysis reveals basin-wide and individual power plant-level impacts of changing reservoir storage, demonstrating a methodology for evaluation of the sustainability and feasibility of constructing new reservoir storage as a water and energy management approach.

Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Webber, Michael E.

2013-06-01

97

Pumps, germs and storage: the impact of improved water containers on water quality and health.  

PubMed

Applying a randomized controlled trial, we study the impact of improved water transport and storage containers on the water quality and health of poor rural households. The results indicate that improved household water infrastructure improves water quality and health outcomes in an environment where point-of-source water quality is good but where recontamination is widespread, leading to unsafe point-of-use drinking water. Moreover, usage rates of 88% after 7 months are encouraging with regard to sustainable adoption. Our estimates suggest that the provision of improved household water infrastructure could 'keep clean water clean' at a cost of only 5% of the costs of providing households with improved public water supply. Given the general consensus in the literature that recontamination of water from improved public sources is a severe public health problem, improved transport and storage technologies appear to be an effective low-cost supplement to the current standard of financing public water supply for poor rural communities. PMID:22700378

Günther, Isabel; Schipper, Youdi

2013-07-01

98

GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly underestimated (27 km3) if reservoir storage changes were assumed uniform in the basin. Consequently, estimated groundwater contribution from GRACE would have been largely overestimated in this region if the actual distribution of water was not explicitly taken into account. Effects of point masses on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating estimating groundwater storage changes from GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved by combining independent water mass spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not the dominant mechanism. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO (Follow-On) observations.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

2013-12-01

99

Perspectives on reservoir storage and the global water cycle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage of water in man-made reservoirs is an important term in the global hydrological cycle. The total capacity of reservoirs globally has been estimated at 6000-8000 km3, or slightly less than 20% of annual river runoff to the oceans. The dynamics of reservoir storage at global, or even continental, scales is not well known, but rough estimates suggest that its interseasonal and interannual variability could be very roughly ¼ - 1/2 that of soil moisture. Yet aside from the very largest global reservoirs (which account for about 15% of total global capacity), and a few countries (e.g., USA) from which at least some reservoir storage data are publically available, information about global reservoir dynamics is surprisingly scarce. This is the case even though over the second half of the 20th Century, filling of reservoirs globally is estimated to have had a negative effect on sea level rise of as much as 0.5 mm/yr, reducing the amount of sea level rise that otherwise would have occurred by about 20%. Yet, as reservoir construction rates have slowed globally, and reservoir infilling by sedimentation has occurred, there no longer is consensus even as to the sign of the reservoir effect on sea level rise. In this overview talk, I review the potential for remote sensing, current and future, to provide better information about the role of reservoirs in the global water cycle, as well as the potential for modeling to provide and/or augment in situ and remote sensing data.

Lettenmaier, D. P.

2013-12-01

100

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4 October) rainfall, evaporation and runoff were 200, 256, and 43 mm in 1996, respectively, and 310, 286 and 74 mm in 1997, giving negative budgets of -99 mm in 1996 and -50 mm in 1997. Approximately 60% of the total budget was caused by storage changes in the upper 40 cm of the bog and 40% by swelling/shrinking in the layers below. This mire breathing must be incorporated in future models of mire-water dynamics. The water content varied diversely among the different microrelief elements, much depending on the properties of moss and peat together with distance to water table. There also was a strong hysteresis in the relationships between groundwater level and measured volumetric water content, depending partly on pore-throat effects and partly on swelling/shrinking of the peat matrix. A seasonal variation of volumetric water content in a layer beneath water table was found to be larger than what could be justified by compression alone. We think that probable causes could be methane gas expansion together with temperature effects. The main conclusions of this study were: (i) water-transport and storage characteristics are distinctly different among hummocks, ridges and hollows, (ii) mire wetness cannot be deduced from groundwater levels only, and (iii) an important part of the total water storage was caused by swelling/shrinking of the peat, not by changes in unsaturated water content.

Kellner, Erik; Halldin, Sven

2002-01-01

101

A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

present a quantitative approach for measuring hydrological drought occurrence and severity based on terrestrial water storage observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied by calculating the magnitude of the deviation of regional, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies from the time series' monthly climatology, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Monthly deficits explicitly quantify the volume of water required to return to normal water storage conditions. We combine storage deficits with event duration to calculate drought severity. Drought databases are referenced to identify meteorological drought events in the Amazon and Zambezi River basins and the southeastern United States and Texas regions. This storage deficit method clearly identifies hydrological drought onset, end, and duration; quantifies instantaneous severity and peak drought magnitude; and compares well with the meteorological drought databases. It also reveals information about the hydrological effects of meteorological drought on regional water storage.

Thomas, Alys C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew

2014-03-01

102

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

103

Impact of Reservoirs on GRACE Water Storage Estimates, Implications for Tigris-Euphrates and other regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes in basins globally, the impact of spatial distribution of mass storage within a basin is generally ignored. In this study, we evaluate the effects of concentrated masses from surface water reservoirs on basin scale estimates of water storage changes using numerical experiments and applications to different basins. While the spatial extent of reservoirs is much less than GRACE resolution, reservoir storage may represent a large fraction of storage changes in some basins. Results show that assuming uniform mass distribution for reservoirs may lead to underestimation or overestimation of basin water storage by up to a factor of two depending on reservoir location and extent within a basin. Several basins were examined including the Tigris-Euphrates and the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) basins, where availability of reservoir volume variations from satellite altimetry allows computation of their impact on GRACE water storage changes. Reservoirs are concentrated towards the basin center in the Tigris Euphrates basin, resulting in underestimation of seasonal variations and trends in water storage by a factor of 1.9 when reservoir storage is assumed to be uniformly distributed. Accurate representation of location and spatial extent of reservoirs indicates that changes in reservoir storage account for ~50% of total water storage decline during the drought from 2007 to 2010. Lake Nasser located near the edge of the Lower Nile Basin results in overestimation of water storage changes by a factor of two when a uniform mass distribution is assumed. In this desert region, volume variations in Lake Nasser account for ~ 95% of the seasonal water storage variations observed by GRACE. Accurate estimation of the impact of surface water on water storage changes is important, especially when extracting groundwater contribution from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of irregular water storage distributions is significant, GRACE based estimates of water storage changes will be improved when independent a priori information on reservoir water storages from other satellites (for e.g. upcoming SWOT satellite) can be used during GRACE processing.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Cretaux, J.

2012-12-01

104

Inferring Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Using ERA40 Reanalysis Data: The Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial water storage is an essential part of the hydrological cycle, encompassing crucial elements of the climate system, such as soil moisture, groundwater, snow, and land ice. On a regional scale, it is however not a readily measured variable and observations of its individual components are scarce. This study investigates the feasability of estimating monthly terrestrial water-storage variations from water-balance

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Pedro Viterbo; Daniel Lüthi; Christoph Schär

2004-01-01

105

Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

1982-01-01

106

Influence of fallowing practices on soil water and precipitation storage efficiency in semiarid Aragon (NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of long fallowing (16–18 months) for soil water conservation has been questioned in semiarid drylands of Central Aragon. We quantify the soil water loss, soil water storage (SWS) and precipitation storage efficiency (PSE) of long fallow under three management systems (conventional tillage; reduced tillage; no-tillage). The precipitation storage efficiency of long fallow relative to short fallow (5–6 months)

D. Moret; J. L. Arrúe; M. V. López; R. Gracia

2006-01-01

107

GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not a major factor. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO observations.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

2012-10-01

108

Experimentally determined water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace amounts of hydrogen dissolved as defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) in the mantle are believed to play a key role in physical and chemical processes in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hence, the estimation of water storage in mantle phases and solubility mechanisms are important in order to better understand the effect of water. Experimental data on water solubility in NAMs are available for upper mantle minerals such as olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. However, the majority of studies are based on the study of single phases, and at temperatures or pressures that are too low for the Earth’s upper mantle. The aim of this study is to constrain the combined effects of pressure, temperature and composition on water solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene under upper mantle conditions. The solubility of water in coexisting orthopyroxene and olivine was investigated by simultaneously synthesizing the two phases at high pressure and high temperature in a multi-anvil press. Experiments were performed under water-saturated conditions in the MSH systems with Fe and Al at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 9 GPa and temperatures between 1175 and 1400°C. Integrated OH absorbances were determined using polarized infrared spectroscopy on doubly polished thin sections of randomly oriented crystals. Water solubility in olivine increases with pressure and decreases with temperature as has been described previously (Bali et al., 2008). The aluminum content strongly decreases in olivine with pressure from 0.09 wt% at 2.5 GPa and 1250°C to 0.04 wt% at 9 GPa and 1175°C. The incorporation of this trivalent cation in the system enhances water solubility in olivine even if present in trace amounts, however this behavior appears to reverse at high pressure. The effect of temperature on water solubility follows a bell-shaped curve with a maximum solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene at 1250°C. Aluminum is incorporated in orthopyroxene following the Tschermak substitution and strongly decreases as pressure increases. Water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine is always lower than 1 except at low pressure. However, it increases with the incorporation of aluminum wich results in water contents in olivine 5 times greater that in orthopyroxene at 7.5 GPa, despite aluminum preferentially entering into orthopyroxene. Finally, water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine decreases with pressure in the Al-free and -bearing system. The effect of temperature is more variable with pressure. The present data allows constructing a model of water solubility in olivine at all pressures and temperatures in the MFASH system. Combining this model with the presently measured partitioning of water between olivine and orthopyroxene, as well as previous data on solubility in clinopyroxene and garnet we are able to build a model of water saturation curve in the upper mantle. References Bali, E., Bolfan-Casanova, N., Koga, K.T., 2008. Pressure and temperature dependence of H solubility in forsterite : an implication to water activity in the Earth interior. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 268, 354-363.

Ferot, A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.

2010-12-01

109

Water contamination in urban south India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections.  

PubMed

Water contamination, at source and during household storage, is a major cause of enterically transmitted infections in developing countries. This study assessed contamination of the municipal water in a south Indian town, which obtains its water intermittently from a surface lake and by pumping subsurface water from a dry river bed, and monitored microbial contamination during household storage. All samples of the 'treated' municipal water were contaminated when freshly pumped, and on household storage, 25/37 (67%) showed increased contamination during storage periods from 1 to 9 days. Household storage in brass, but not in containers of other materials significantly decreased contamination of water (p = 0.04). This was confirmed in the laboratory by testing water seeded with 10(3) to 10(5) Escherichia coli per 100 ml stored in containers of different materials (p < 0.01). Despite the requirements for provision of safe drinking water in municipal areas, in practice the water supplied in Vellore is contaminated and current household storage practices increase the level of contamination in at least two-thirds of households. The implementation of locally appropriate point-of-use disinfection and safe household storage practices in developing countries is an urgent need to ensure a safe, reliable year-round supply in areas where clean water is not available. PMID:15575563

Brick, Thomas; Primrose, Beryl; Chandrasekhar, R; Roy, Sheela; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

2004-10-01

110

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and...65 Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and...ascertain the weight of any given number of wine gallons (at 60 degrees...

2010-04-01

111

The effect of limited options and policy interactions on water storage policy in south Florida.  

PubMed

Due to environmental constraints and reactive water management practices, water shortages exist across the Everglades ecosystem. A growing human population and continued wetlands damage and loss decrease the system's ability to provide water for sustained natural areas and for human uses. 'The Restudy' is an $8 billion plan to restore the Everglades while also continuing to provide water storage for urban and agricultural areas. The Restudy proposes a mix of water storage systems to provide for the predicted future growth in water demand. This mix is purported to be the most cost-efficient at providing water supplies, within the constraints of unchanged agricultural and urban land use. However, a sensitivity analysis of the Restudy's cost equation reveals that the total cost of water storage systems is influenced by real estate, land acquisition and water treatment costs. The interaction of land use and agricultural policies can affect these cost factors, and can change the relative cost-efficiency between storage systems. Real estate and land acquisition costs are affected by several 1996 Farm Bill provisions, which influence the cost of aboveground water storage systems versus Aquifer Storage and Recovery systems. The Governor's Commission for a Sustainable South Florida recommendations also influence the water storage options available to the Restudy. Due to the Restudy's initial assumptions and constraints, it may not advocate the most economically and ecologically sound remediation. PMID:11591032

Mayer, A L

2001-09-01

112

Monitoring effective use of household water treatment and safe storage technologies in Ethiopia and Ghana  

E-print Network

Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) technologies dissemination is beginning to scale-up to reach the almost 900 million people without access to an improved water supply (WHO/UNICEF/JMP, 2008). Without well-informed ...

Stevenson, Matthew M

2009-01-01

113

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-print Network

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01

114

Techno-economic appraisal of an integrated collector\\/storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated collector\\/storage solar water heaters, due to their simple compact structure and inherent freeze protection, offer a promising approach for solar water heating in colder climates. Such a system, designed specifically for application at a Northern latitude, has been developed incorporating a heat retaining storage vessel mounted within a concentrating cusp reflector supported by a novel exo-skeleton framework. The performance

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2004-01-01

115

Solar water heaters with phase change material thermal energy storage medium: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent heat thermal energy storage is one of the most efficient ways to store thermal energy for heating water by energy received from sun. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of thermal energy storage incorporating with and without PCM for use in solar water heaters. The relative studies are classified on the basis of type of collector and the

Anant Shukla; D. Buddhi; R. L. Sawhney

2009-01-01

116

Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs  

E-print Network

Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs Gallon the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Cups, cups, cups of water, Running down the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Gallons, gallons, gallons of water Rushing

117

7X Cleaning Solution Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores 1 gallon bottles of 7X Cleaning solution. This detergent  

E-print Network

7X Cleaning Solution Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores 1 gallon bottles of 7X Cleaning solution. This detergent solution is intended for use as an effective cleaner for laboratory glassware as well soluble in hot or cold water at any concentration. 7X Cleaning Solution is a concentrated liquid composed

Kim, Philip

118

Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

1980-01-01

119

Variability in land water storage from GRACE and ENVISAT, and rainfall in South American river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has demonstrated the capability of GRACE to capture important aspects of the hydrological cycle, in particular seasonal and interannual fluctuations in land water storage of large river basins. Part of this behaviour can be immediately assigned to seasonal/interannual fluctuations of precipitation. In this study, we investigate existing correlations between GRACE water storage (two GRACE products are used and compared, the GRGS and GSFC/Mascons solutions), ENVISAT-based surface water levels and precipitation data over four large river basins of South America (Orinoco, Amazon, Tocantins and Parana). At the seasonal time scale, precipitation and total water storage correlate well in the Parana basin, with a few weeks lag of storage with respect to forcing. Over the Amazon, Tocantins and Orinoco, the two variables also correlate well. But in some years, storage response to forcing is enhanced, suggesting that other terms of the water balance (e.g., runoff) play a significant role. To investigate this, discharge data at the most downstream stations in these river basins are analysed, while the water balance is studied using outputs of global hydrological models available over the same time span as GRACE data. We also analyse water level data from ENVISAT altimetry over the main rivers. Finally, we study the interannual connection between rainfall and water storage, using among others, Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). Compared to the seasonal cycle, the interannual signal displays larger regional variability both in precipitation and water storage.

Xavier, L.; Cazenave, A.; Bonnet, M.; Rotunno, O.

2008-12-01

120

Thermal Storage for Energy Efficient Structures (Poteet High School Case Study)  

E-print Network

, with radiant heating, are located at all entrances. 11. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS & EQUIPMENT Chiller, cooling tower fans, chilled water distribution pump, hot water distribution pump and ventilation air unit are equipped with Variable Frequency Drives. All... such as convenience outlets, kitchen equipment, shop equipment, lab equipment, etc. 111. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS & EQUIPMENT A. CHILLED WATER STORAGE TANK Two hundred and fifty thousand gallon concrete vertical stratification type without separation. Upper and lower...

Utesch, A. L.

1988-01-01

121

Effect of the storage tank thermal insulation on the thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using CFD simulations. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data from literature, we propose a geometrical change allowing limiting the main disadvantage of this solar system which is its high night losses due to the non-insulated storage tank surface. A second 3D CFD model of an ICSSWH in which the storage tank is partially insulated is developed and three values of this tank thermal insulated fraction are studied. Numerical results show that the partially insulated tank based ICSSWH presents lower thermal losses during the night and this night thermal losses coefficient is reduced from 14.6 to 11.64 W K-1 for the tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/4. Similarly, the modified system presents the advantage of its lower thermal losses even during the day. Regarding the thermal production, it is seen that the modified system presents higher water temperature at night and that for all the tank thermal insulation fractions. Concerning the operation of this modified system during the day, the water temperature is lower during the day and that up to 16 h but the water temperature which achieves 324 K for the storage tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/8 still sufficiently high to satisfy a family hot water needs.

Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

2014-10-01

122

The recovery of crude oil spilled on a ground water aquifer  

E-print Network

- cleaned 3. 3 million gallon storage tank at Defense Fuel Support Point (DFSP), Charleston, South Carolina, was dis- covered. Fuel was found in the porous soil around the tank at the water table depth of 7 to 14 feet. Analysis of the boring logs...- cleaned 3. 3 million gallon storage tank at Defense Fuel Support Point (DFSP), Charleston, South Carolina, was dis- covered. Fuel was found in the porous soil around the tank at the water table depth of 7 to 14 feet. Analysis of the boring logs...

Malter, Paul Lawrence

2012-06-07

123

Evaluation of time stability indices for soil water storage upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryTime stability index (TSI) is usually used to evaluate time stability of soil water storage (SWS) at point scales for SWS upscaling. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven TSIs for estimating mean SWS. Included were six indices used for indirect estimation (i.e., standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD), mean absolute bias error (MABE), width of the 90% empirical tolerance interval of relative water content (T), chi-squared statistic (?2), root-mean-squared differences (D), and temporal coefficient of variability (CVt)); and one index used for direct estimation (i.e., root mean square error (RMSE)). Five goodness-of-fit indices (GFIs), including root mean squared deviations (RMSD), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE), coefficient of determination (R2), absolute mean difference (BIAS), and relative bias error (RBIAS) were selected for evaluating mean SWS estimation quality in both calibration and validation periods. The minimum number of sampling occasions needed to identify the most time-stable location was identified considering different starting dates of sampling. Evaluation of the TSIs was performed using SWS data of 0-1.0 m layer obtaining from the Canadian Prairie landscape and the Chinese Loess Plateau. The results showed that MABE, ?2, D, and CVt outperformed SDRD and T irrespective of the GFI used. If RMSD and NSCE were used, D was the best TSI. If BIAS and RBIAS were adopted, MABE was the best TSI. Mean SWS estimation by the indirect method was more accurate than that by the direct method. For both study areas, the minimum number of sampling occasions needed to identify the most time-stable location varied with starting dates of SWS measurement, and generally five to seven sampling occasions was needed to identify the most time-stable location with D and MABE.

Hu, Wei; Tallon, Lindsay K.; Si, Bing Cheng

2012-12-01

124

Solar Hot Water System Installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat...

1980-01-01

125

Solar Hot Water System Installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not run...

1980-01-01

126

Collector cum storage solar water heaters with and without transparent insulation material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated collector–storage solar water heaters are less expensive and can offer the best alternative for domestic applications particularly to small families to meet hot water requirements. The top heat losses of such solar water heaters are quite high during the night and the temperature of stored hot water is considerably reduced unless covered with extra insulating cover in the

P. B. L. Chaurasia; John Twidell

2001-01-01

127

Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation potential in the presence of excess chlorine was measured. The role of mixing between injection water and ground water and the conservative or non-conservative behavior of trihalomethanes was studied by adding a conservative tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, to the injection water and monitoring its concentration in the extraction water. The potential for biodegradation of trihalomethanes by aquifer bacteria was assessed in laboratory experiments: Microcosms containing ground water or extraction water and sediment or concentrated bacteria were spiked with trihalomethanes, and the amount of trihalomethanes was monitored during an incubation period. The potential for sorption of trihalomethanes to aquifer sediments was assessed in laboratory experiments: Mixtures of sediment and water were spiked with trihalomethanes, and then the trihalomethane concentrations were measured after an equilibration period.

Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

2002-01-01

128

Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

1980-01-01

129

The effectiveness of a magnetic physical water treatment device on scaling in domestic hot-water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effectiveness of a permanent magnet for the prevention of scale was investigated. Experiments were conducted on two electrically heated domestic hot-water storage tanks. Ten experiments were conducted, each over a period of 28 d in which 8 000 l of water was heated to 75°C, while the quality of the feed water and mass precipitation of

C Smith; PP Coetzee

130

76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary...On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application...the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be...

2011-05-13

131

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

1980-01-01

132

Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-03-01

133

Energy Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

Eaton, William W.

134

Performance of a collector-cum-storage type of solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper evaluates the performance of an inexpensive collector-cum-storage type of solar water heater which eliminates the extra cost of providing an insulated overhead tank for storage, does not use pipes, and is completely free from welded joints. The heater was tested in four different modes of operation over a wide range of climatic conditions. The energy loss from the

R. S. Chauhan; V. Kadambi

1976-01-01

135

Design of make-up water system for Tehran research reactor spent nuclear fuels storage pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent nuclear fuels storage (SNFS) is an essential auxiliary system in nuclear facility.Following discharge from a nuclear reactor, spent nuclear fuels have to be stored in water pool of SNFS away from reactor to allow for radioactive to decay and removal of generated heat. To prevent corrosion damage of fuels and other equipments, the storage pool is filled with de-ionized

Reza Gholizadeh Aghoyeh; Hosein Khalafi

2010-01-01

136

Monitoring gravity and water storage changes in northern Benin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The humid sudanian zone of West-Africa undergoes a monsoon climate, implying a strong seasonality in water storage changes (WSC). The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims at monitoring both these local and non-local hydrological contributions with the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is located in hard-rock basement context in Djougou, northern Benin, and is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rainfall, soil moisture, water table, evapotranspiration, ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared to hydrological data and to physically-based or conceptual hydrological models calibrated on these data. This presentation shows the results and limitations of each gravimeter in the context of WSC retrieval. This site was first measured with a FG5 absolute gravimeter four times a year from 2008 to 2013. This can be considered as a high sampling rate, given the remote location and the complexity of FG5 carriage and installation. It allowed to derive an average specific yield for the local aquifer, and preliminary estimates of seasonal WSC (up to 120 nm/s2 - 270mm). Yet the lack of continuity in the data avoids further investigations. The SG-060 superconducting gravimeter has been installed in 2010 in order to monitor gravity response to WSC in a continuous way. A strong drift is present (230nm/s2/yr), and FG5 data together with a-priori information on WSC are needed for estimating its effect. Also, frequent power-failures lead to some significant gaps and offsets during which fast WSC may occur (e.g. rain), yielding to a challenging correction for these events. The retrieval of inter-annual WSC suffers from these strong and limiting instrumental effects. At higher frequencies, up to a few days, continuous gravity monitoring may help to quantify evapotranspiration (ET), a poorly-known variable of the hydrological cycle. In Djougou, favorable -flat- topographic conditions and significant ET (up to 5 mm/day) are present. However, the shelter size together with the low altitude of the SG sensor with respect to the ground yield to diminish the expected effect of ET. Also, atmospheric contribution at such frequencies in the equatorial band is governed by S1 and S2 pressure waves of planetary extension, with rather complicated behavior. Therefore, the retrieval of ET is limited by the SG environment (shelter and instrument height) and our ability to fully correct for atmospheric effects. The spatial variations of gravity changes on the local catchment are also investigated by CG5 micro-gravity surveys since July 2011 with weekly measurements in the wet season and monthly in the dry season, resulting in more than two years and 3 wet seasons coverage. This survey helped to identify preferential recharge areas and some specific water-redistribution processes at the catchment scale, driven by subsurface heterogeneities.

Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

2013-12-01

137

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06

138

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06

139

EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

140

Liquid Water Storage, Distribution, and Removal from Diffusion Media in PEFCS  

E-print Network

. Available electronically August 28, 2006. The management of water within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell channels to the elec- trodes, ii removal of vapor- and liquid-phase water produced in the cell, iiiLiquid Water Storage, Distribution, and Removal from Diffusion Media in PEFCS J. J. Kowal, A

Mench, Matthew M.

141

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2011-04-01

142

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2010-04-01

143

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2014-04-01

144

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2013-04-01

145

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2012-04-01

146

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01

147

Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in examining scaling properties of the spatial patterns of soil water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the scaling properties of soil water storage is crucial in transferring locally measured fluctuations to larger scales and vice-versa. Studies based on remotely sensed data have shown that the variability in surface soil water has clear scaling properties (i.e., statistically self similar) over a wider range of spatial scales. However, the scaling property of soil water storage to a certain depth at a field scale is not well understood. The major challenges in scaling analysis for soil water are the presence of localized trends and nonstationarities in the spatial series. The objective of this study was to characterize scaling properties of soil water storage variability through multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). A field experiment was conducted in a sub-humid climate at Alvena, Saskatchewan, Canada. A north-south transect of 624-m long was established on a rolling landscape. Soil water storage was monitored weekly between 2002 and 2005 at 104 locations along the transect. The spatial scaling property of the surface 0 to 40 cm depth was characterized using the MFDFA technique for six of the soil water content series (all gravimetrically determined) representing soil water storage after snowmelt, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. For the studied transect, scaling properties of soil water storage are different between drier periods and wet periods. It also appears that local controls such as site topography and texture (that dominantly control the pattern during wet states) results in multiscaling property. The nonlocal controls such as evapotranspiration results in the reduction of the degree of multiscaling and improvement in the simple scaling. Therefore, the scaling property of soil water storage is a function of both soil moisture status and the spatial extent considered.

Biswas, A.; Zeleke, T. B.; Si, B. C.

2012-03-01

148

Retrieval of surface water storage in large river basins from multi-satellite and topographic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal variations of water storage in surface water bodies (rivers channels, lakes, floodplains and inundation areas) are still widely unknown for large areas. In this study, we present a technique to estimate surface water volumes for large river basins by the combination of (1) a global data set of inundation areas with a resolution of about 25km generated with a multi-satellite method using passive microwave (SSM/I), scatterometer (ERS) and visible and near-IR (AVHRR), and (2) topographic data from global Digital Elevation Models such as SRTM or ACE. We derived time series of monthly surface water storage for the period 1993-2004 based on a hypsographic curve approach. The average water level and volume per month and grid cell was estimated by intersecting the cumulative distribution function of elevation values in each grid cell with the inundation area extent. The focus of the study was the Amazon basin. For the Rio Negro sub-basin, results where compared to complementary methods that used altimetry-based and in-situ water level data. Additionally, results where compared to total water storage variations as derived from time-variable gravity fields of the GRACE satellite mission, highlighting the large contribution of surface water to total storage variations. The results are also discussed with respect to simulated surface water storage of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). Parameter values in WGHM have been constrained by using water storage from GRACE and the additional benefit of incorporating the surface water information into the calibration process is evaluated.

Güntner, A.; Werth, S.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.

2009-04-01

149

Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

Yager, R. M.; Fountain, J. C.

2001-01-01

150

Studies of the water adsorption on Zeolites and modified mesoporous materials for seasonal storage of solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolites and mesoporous materials were systematically modified by ion exchange and impregnation with hygroscopic salts to improve their storage capacity in thermochemical storage of heat. The sorption properties of those potential storage materials against water were investigated with physico-chemical methods such as thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, microcalorimetry and isotherm measurements confirming the improvement of the storage properties. Selected materials were

J. Jänchen; D. Ackermann; H. Stach; W. Brösicke

2004-01-01

151

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

152

Solid-water interaction in liquid storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with ground-supported cylindrical storage tanks vibrating in an axisymmetric manner. A study has been made of the significance of horizontal excitations on the dynamic pressure distributions associated with the sloshing and bulging modes. These pressures have been calculated by using a previously obtained functional. Steel, aluminium and concrete tanks are included to study the effect of

R. K. Gupta; G. L. Hutchinson

1989-01-01

153

CARBONATED WATER INJECTION FOR OIL RECOVERY AND CO2 STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 injection is increasingly considered as having potential applications as a possible enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process for oil reservoirs. Storage potential of these reservoirs to store CO2 for a long period of time also provides an opportunity to develop sustainable solutions in response to the challenge of continued use of fossil fuels, climate-change and compliance with national and international

M. Sohrabi; M. Riazi; M. Jamiolahmady; S. Ireland; C. Brown

154

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

155

Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system’s performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland

Laura E. Kanagy; Brenda M. Johnson; James W. Castle; John H. Rodgers

2008-01-01

156

Seasonal patterns of water storage as signatures of the climatological equilibrium between resource and demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is accumulated in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the resource to various demands like hydropower production, irrigation, water supply or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively optimizes the use of the resource during a given time period. One of its by-products is the estimation of the marginal storage water value (MSWV), defined by the marginal value of the future goods and benefits obtained from an additional unit of storage water volume. Knowledge of the MSWV makes it possible to determine a posteriori the storage requirement scheme that would have led to the best equilibrium between the resource and the demand. The MSWV depends on the water level in the reservoir and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This study uses the inter-annual average of both the storage requirement scheme and the MSWV cycle as signatures of the best temporal equilibrium that is achievable in a given resource/demand context (the climatological equilibrium). For a simplified water resource system in a French mountainous region, we characterize how and why these signatures change should the climate and/or the demand change, mainly if changes are projected in the mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) as well as in the water demand for energy production and/or maintenance of a minimum reservoir level. Results show that the temporal equilibrium between water resource and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of MSWV changes when, for example, earlier water storage is required to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand. Finally, understanding how MSWV signatures change helps to understand changes in the storage requirement scheme.

François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

2014-09-01

157

Variations in surface water-ground water interactions along a headwater mountain stream : comparisons between transient storage and water balance analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of discharge along a stream valley is frequently assumed to be the primary control on solute transport processes. Relationships of both increasing and decreasing transient storage, and decreased gross losses of stream water have been reported with increasing discharge; however, we have yet to validate these relationships with extensive ?eld study. We conducted transient storage and mass recovery analyses of arti?cial tracer studies completed for 28 contiguous 100 m reaches along a stream valley, repeated under four base-?ow conditions. We calculated net and gross gains and losses, temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves, and best ?t transient storage model parameters (with uncertainty estimates) for 106 individual tracer injections. Results supported predictions that gross loss of channel water would decrease with increased discharge. However, results showed no clear relationship between discharge and transient storage, and further analysis of solute tracer methods demonstrated that the lack of this relation may be explained by uncertainty and equi?nality in the transient storage model framework. Furthermore, comparison of water balance and transient storage approaches reveals complications in clear interpretation of either method due to changes in advective transport time, which sets a the temporal boundary separating transient storage and channel water balance. We have little ability to parse this limitation of solute tracer methods from the physical processes we seek to study. We suggest the combined analysis of both transient storage and channel water balance more completely characterizes transport of solutes in stream networks than can be inferred from either method alone.

Ward, Adam S.; Payn, Robert A.; Gooseff, Michael N.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Kelleher, Christa A.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Wagener, Thorsten

2013-01-01

158

Variations in surface water-ground water interactions along a headwater mountain stream: Comparisons between transient storage and water balance analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of discharge along a stream valley is frequently assumed to be the primary control on solute transport processes. Relationships of both increasing and decreasing transient storage, and decreased gross losses of stream water have been reported with increasing discharge; however, we have yet to validate these relationships with extensive field study. We conducted transient storage and mass recovery analyses of artificial tracer studies completed for 28 contiguous 100 m reaches along a stream valley, repeated under four base-flow conditions. We calculated net and gross gains and losses, temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves, and best fit transient storage model parameters (with uncertainty estimates) for 106 individual tracer injections. Results supported predictions that gross loss of channel water would decrease with increased discharge. However, results showed no clear relationship between discharge and transient storage, and further analysis of solute tracer methods demonstrated that the lack of this relation may be explained by uncertainty and equifinality in the transient storage model framework. Furthermore, comparison of water balance and transient storage approaches reveals complications in clear interpretation of either method due to changes in advective transport time, which sets a the temporal boundary separating transient storage and channel water balance. We have little ability to parse this limitation of solute tracer methods from the physical processes we seek to study. We suggest the combined analysis of both transient storage and channel water balance more completely characterizes transport of solutes in stream networks than can be inferred from either method alone.

Ward, Adam S.; Payn, Robert A.; Gooseff, Michael N.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Kelleher, Christa A.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Wagener, Thorsten

2013-06-01

159

Household water treatment and safe storage product development in Ghana  

E-print Network

Microbial and/or chemical contaminants can infiltrate into piped water systems, especially when the system is intermittent. Ghana has been suffering from aged and intermittent piped water networks, and an added barrier of ...

Yang, Shengkun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

160

Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations of the Latin America cholera epidemic have repeatedly implicated untreated drinking water and water touched by hands during storage as important vehicles for disease transmission. To prevent such transmission, we provided a new narrow-mouthed, plastic, water storage vessel and 5% calcium hypochlorite solution for home disinfection of stored water to a Bolivian Aymara Indian community at risk for

Quick R; Venczel L; Espada A; Damiani E; Bean N

161

ORIGINAL PAPER Water storage loss in central and south Asia  

E-print Network

Abstract Recent decrease of water supply in central Asia and south Asia affects billions of people here Gravity Á GLDAS 1 Introduction The Asia continent contains several large water-supplying sources that feed of fresh water to the downstream areas of mountain ranges such as Tian Shan and the Himalayas. However

Hwang, Cheinway

162

GRACE Water Storage Estimates in Finland and the Effect of Baltic Sea Level Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the GRACE water storage estimates in Finland with the total water storage from a high-accuracy local hydrological model. Being a significant source of mass variations, we also discuss the leakage of the Baltic mass into estimates of continental water storage in GRACE solutions. For the total water storage, we use the model of the Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System (WSFS) of the Finnish Environment Institute. WSFS covers the whole hydrological cycle, including surface and subsurface water and snow. For GRACE water storage, we use three estimates obtained through different processing methods. First, we use the standard monthly GRACE gravity field solutions and apply appropriate filtering. To improve the spatial and temporal resolution, two regional solutions are studied. NASA has recently made available GRACE estimates of 10-days mass change in 4x4 degree blocks (mascons) over the worlds' continents covering the period April 2003 to April 2006. In addition to the mascon solutions, we will also use the regional solutions employing GRACE KBR data derived from in situ disturbance potential measurements via the energy conservation method. The monthly variation in the water mass of the semi-enclosed Baltic sea is about 60 Gt RMS. It is governed by the water exchange with the North sea through the Danish straits, and is difficult to catch in the global ocean circulation models. We study the contribution of Baltic mass variation to the GRACE estimates of water storage. On the other hand, the Baltic has both a dense network of tide gauges and several specific high-resolution hydrodynamical models, making it possibly the best-controlled mass variation of this size in the world. We discuss the possibilities of using Baltic mass to validate and compare GRACE solution methods.

Virtanen, J.; Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Thomas, M.; Kangas, A.; Vehviläinen, B.; Nordman, M.

2007-12-01

163

Land water storage change from satellite altimetry and GRACE; Inference on sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 6-year time span (mid-2002 to mid-2008) using satellite altimetry and space gravimetry data from GRACE. Satellite altimetry allows determination of surface water volume change while GRACE data provide vertically-integrated water storage change. The 32 largest river basins are considered as well as lakes not included in the 32 basins (Caspian and Aral seas). We focus on the year to year variability and construct a combined water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The mean trend in total water storage adjusted over this 6-year time span is positive and amounts to 114 +/- 24 km3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Orinoco, Ob, Nile, Niger, Zambezi, Tocantins and Volga. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Yukon, Eyre, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Eyre, Murray and Mekong basins. Lakes volume change is slightly negative over the 2002-2008 time span (~ -16 km3/yr). Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2008 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.27 +/- 0.07 mm/yr. The time series for each basins clearly show that year to year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. Another interesting results of the study is the significant correlation (0.7) between (detrended) year-to- year variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion) and GRACE-based land water storage contribution.

Cazenave, A. A.; Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cretaux, J.

2009-12-01

164

Comparison of aluminium and stainless steel built-in-storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides the results and findings of an experimental work undertaken in Pakistan that aimed to compare the performance of stainless steel and aluminium make built-in-storage solar waters. The experimental work undertaken as part of this project included design and development of the 2 solar water heaters as well as their operation and data collation over a period of

M. Asif; J. Currie; T. Muneer

2007-01-01

165

VOL. 12, NO. 6 WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH DECEMBER 1976 Heat Storage and Advection in Lake Erie  

E-print Network

and stratification of the water temperature with depth. The lake was divided into depth lay- ers of 7.6-15.2 mVOL. 12, NO. 6 WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH DECEMBER 1976 Heat Storage and Advection in Lake Erie National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ann Arbor

166

A semi-analytical model for predicting water quality from an aquifer storage and recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) involves the injection of freshwater in an aquifer through wells for the purpose of creating a subsurface water supply that is recovered at a later time, often using the same wells, to meet seasonal, long-term, emergency, or other demands. In this paper a numerically efficient semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the quality of water

Ali Sedighi; Harald Klammler; Chris Brown; Kirk Hatfield

2006-01-01

167

Short Communication Influence of permafrost on water storage in West Siberian peatlands revealed from a  

E-print Network

Short Communication Influence of permafrost on water storage in West Siberian peatlands revealed by permafrost. We present a new database of 12 705 measurements of vertical water content and bulk soil properties from 98 permafrost and non-permafrost cores collected in raised bogs and peat plateaus across

Smith, Laurence C.

168

Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

2012-12-01

169

Global land water storage change from GRACE over 2002-2009; Inference on sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 7-year time span (August 2002 to July 2009) using space gravimetry data from GRACE. The 33 World largest river basins are considered. We focus on the year-to-year variability and construct a total land water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The short-term trend in total water storage adjusted over this 7-year time span is positive and amounts to 80.6 ± 15.7 km 3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Zambezi, Orinoco and Ob basins. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Aral, Euphrates, Indus and Parana. Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2009 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.22 ± 0.05 mm/yr. The time series for each basin clearly show that year-to-year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. We also compare the interannual variability of total land water storage (removing the mean trend over the studied time span) with interannual variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion). A correlation of ˜0.6 is found. Phasing, in particular, is correct. Thus, at least part of the interannual variability of the global mean sea level can be attributed to land water storage fluctuations.

Llovel, William; Becker, Mélanie; Cazenave, Anny; Crétaux, Jean-François; Ramillien, Guillaume

2010-03-01

170

Comparison of energy storage systems in the United States chilled water versus two types of ice storage systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current U.S. production non-storage heat pumps are compared to heat pumps using stored hot water and stored chilled water and to heat pumps using ice-on-coils as a means of using latent heat of fusion of water as a heat source. This equipment is also used as a means of stored cooling for air conditioning during hot weather. An ice-making heat pump which harvests ice as sheets of ice 3 to 4 times per hour and stores the ice in a large inexpensive bin is discussed. The advantages of such an ice-making heat pump to heat in cold weather and cool in hot weather is discussed as it relates to electric utility load management in different parts of the United States.

Fischer, H. C.

1984-10-01

171

Comparative study of water, ice and clathrates for cool storage applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool storage systems are needed in order to reduce the large summer peak loads of many electric utilities in the United States. Cool storage systems will use off-peak electricity during the summer night and will provide air conditioning during the day requiring very little on-peak electricity. This paper describes different cool storage systems and compares the following storage media: water, ice, Refrigerant-11 clathrate, Refrigerant-12 clathrate, Refrigerant-21 clathrate, and mixed clathrates of Refrigerant-11 and Refrigerant-12. Direct- and indirect-charged as well as direct- and indirect-discharged systems are also compared. Hybrid systems (latent and sensible heat) including ice and water, clathrate and liquid, and clathrate and liquid and salts (to reduce the freezing temperature) are also studied. It is concluded that the most appealing system, from the technical and economical point of view, is a system using mixed clathrate, liquid and salt.

Carbajo, J. J.

172

Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Swenson, S. C.; Milly, P. C. D.

2006-01-01

173

Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

Narayanan, M.

2009-12-01

174

Land Water Storage within the Congo Basin Inferred from GRACE Satellite Gravity Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GRACE satellite gravity data is used to estimate terrestrial (surface plus ground) water storage within the Congo Basin in Africa for the period of April, 2002 - May, 2006. These estimates exhibit significant seasonal (30 +/- 6 mm of equivalent water thickness) and long-term trends, the latter yielding a total loss of approximately 280 km(exp 3) of water over the 50-month span of data. We also combine GRACE and precipitation data set (CMAP, TRMM) to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Congo Basin. We find that the seasonal water storage tends to saturate for anomalies greater than 30-44 mm of equivalent water thickness. Furthermore, precipitation contributed roughly three times the peak water storage after anomalously rainy seasons, in early 2003 and 2005, implying an approximately 60-70% loss from runoff and evapotranspiration. Finally, a comparison of residual land water storage (monthly estimates minus best-fitting trends) in the Congo and Amazon Basins shows an anticorrelation, in agreement with the 'see-saw' variability inferred by others from runoff data.

Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

2006-01-01

175

Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

Brennan, Donna

2010-08-01

176

Physicochemical properties and bactericidal efficiency of neutral and acidic electrolyzed water under different storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral (NEW) and acidic (AEW) electrolyzed water were stored in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at 20°C for 30 days. The pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), available chlorine concentration (ACC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and bactericidal efficiency of NEW and AEW were determined during storage or before and after storage, respectively. The pH and

Xiaodong Cui; Yuchao Shang; Zhengxiang Shi; Hongwei Xin; Wei Cao

2009-01-01

177

Study on Reduction of Water Activity and Storage Stability for Dehydrated Brassica parachinensis with Intermediate Moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of the agents for reducing water activity (aw) of Brassica parachinensis with intermediate moisture contents (23.01% w.b.) and the storage stability at 4, 20, and 37°C using different packaging methods were studied. The aw-lowering agent for the dehydrated Brassica parachinensis with intermediate moisture was optimized: 8% glucose, 4% lactose, 2% sodium chloride, and 7.5% maltodextrin. Storage experiments showed that

Hui Cao; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar; Gong-nain Xiao; Jin-cai Sun

2007-01-01

178

Experimental studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with partitioned hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the performance of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system with a partitioned hot water storage tank. The system employs a flat-plate collector array with a surface area of 38 m2 to drive a LiBr–H2O absorption chiller of 4.7 kW cooling capacity. The system is provided with a storage tank (2.75 m3) which is partitioned into

Z. F Li; K Sumathy

2001-01-01

179

Automatic flush valve performance (gallons per flush) measured from fixtures in a mixed-use classroom/office building at Texas A&M University  

E-print Network

of improved optic automatic urinals Toilet Hypotheses Hypothesis One The US Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires that all toilets sold in the United States use 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf) or less. Three types of toilets will be compared in this study... to compare water volume per flush and to ensure all three comply with the requirement of 1.6 gallons per flush or less. The study will test the following null and research hypothesis. The Null Hypothesis The water volume per flush in toilets of improved...

Lertbannaphong, Salilla

2005-08-29

180

GRACE-observed water storage deficits for hydrologic drought characterization, including recent U.S. droughts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a new quantitative framework for measuring the severity of hydrologic drought based on observations of terrestrial water storage deficits from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied for drought characterization by calculating the deviation of monthly-average terrestrial water storage anomalies from the regional climatological reference, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Each deficit conveys the volume of water that would be required to recover from a drought. Moreover, this finite deficit observation allows for the calculation of a likely time for recovery based on statistical percentiles of storage change distributions, for every month through the end of the event. To quantify event severity, we combine storage deficits with event duration. Substantial drought events are investigated for four study regions during the GRACE record: the Amazon and Zambezi basins, the Southern Plains, and the Southeastern United States A. Amazon, B. Zambezi, C. Southern Great Plains, and D. Southeastern United States: Regional, spatial average storage anomalies and deficits (km^3). Blue-shaded confidence bounds represent one standard deviation of the residual time series. Maps of study locations and area (km^2) are shown along the left panel.

Thomas, A. C.; Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rodell, M.

2013-12-01

181

Measured performance and modeling of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage water heater was conducted in an indoor solar simulator. Useful collected energy, radiation-induced stratification and draw-induced mixing are characterized in eight trials in which test duration, initial tank water temperature, flow rate during withdrawal of heated water from the collector, withdrawal pattern and reflectance of the backplane were varied. All tests were performed

A. A. Mason; J. H. Davidson

1995-01-01

182

A theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel built-in-storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel built-in-storage type solar water heater of about 87 l capacity has been investigated theoretically and experimentally for the case of no draw-off. The solar water heater which performs the dual function of absorbing and storing hot water is made of 5 pipes, each of length 1.8 m and diameter 12 cm. A baffle plate is

I. N. Kaptan; A. Kilic

1996-01-01

183

Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple, effective and affordable methods are needed to treat and safely store non-piped, gathered household water. This study evaluated point-of-use chlorination and storage in special plastic containers of gathered household water for improving microbial quality and reducing diarrhoeal illness of consumers living under conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene. Community families were recruited and randomly divided into intervention (household water

M. D. Sobsey; T. Handzel; L. Venczel

184

A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

Dale, Robert H.

1978-01-01

185

Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.  

PubMed

Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic ?-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) ?-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of ?-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

2011-12-01

186

Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in the unsaturated zone is a major determinant of the hydrological behaviour of the soil, but methods to quantify soil water storage are limited. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil surface elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes. We measured moisture contents in soil aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in volumes comprising multiple aggregates and intra-aggregates spaces by CS616 sensors. In a prolonged drying period, aggregate-scale storage change measurements revealed normal shrinkage for layers ? 30 cm depth, indicating volume loss equalled water loss. Shrinkage in a soil volume including multiple aggregates and voids was slightly less than normal, due to soil moisture variations in the profile and delayed drying of deeper soil layers upon lowering of the groundwater level. This resulted in shrinkage curve slopes of 0.89, 0.90 and 0.79 for the layers 0-60, 0-100 and 0-150 cm. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, shrinkage curve slopes ranged from 0.29 to 0.69 (EC-5) and 0.27 to 0.51 (CS616). Alternation of shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in an underestimation of volume change relatively to water storage change, due to hysteresis between swelling and shrinkage. Since the slope of the shrinkage relation depends on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers, shrinkage curves from laboratory tests on clay aggregates require suitable modifications for application to soil profiles. Then, the linear portion of the curve can help soil water storage estimation from soil surface elevation changes. These elevation changes might be measurable over larger extents by remote sensing.

te Brake, B.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; de Rooij, G. H.

2012-11-01

187

Historical and Hypothetical Future Sedimentation and Water Storage in Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUMMARY Sedimentation has reduced water storage in Kajakai Reservoir. If current sedimentation rates continue, hypothetical future reservoir water volumes at the spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters could be reduced about 22 percent from 2006 to 2057. Even if the spillway elevation is raised to 1,045 meters, a severe drought could result in large multiyear irrigation-supply deficits in which reservoir water levels remain below 1,022 meters for more than 4 years. Hypothetical climate change and sedimentation could result in greater water-supply deficits. The chance of having sufficient water supplies in Kajakai Reservoir during the worst month is about 47 percent.

Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2008-01-01

188

Spatial variability of the subsurface water storage revealed by relative gravity measurements in Southwest Niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in water resources research is to document the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrological processes over short time and space scales. Indeed, the quality of model predictions for resource assessment is dependent on reliable datasets, representative of the hydrological regime and its variations. This issue is particularly sensitive in Sahelian Africa, where available hydrological datasets are scarce. In this study, the variability of the water storage was investigated at the subcatchment scale (< 1km) by an intensive microgravity field campaign. Weekly microgravity surveys were carried out in a small endoreic catchment in Southwest Niger, during three months of the rainy season in 2009. Gravity measurements were performed at 16 stations located near a temporary pond, where rapid infiltration towards the aquifer occurs. The highest (63 ?Gal) gravity signal was measured on a station located above the pond and is well explained by the direct effect of the pond water volume changes throughout the wet season. Gravity signals of smaller amplitude (? 22 ?Gal) were measured in the pond surroundings and coupled to hydrodynamic data (pond level, soil moisture and water table level) to evaluate the intraseasonal variability of the water storage in the vicinity of the pond. The gravity signals related to the water storage in the subsurface exhibits a significant spatial variability. The heterogeneity of the water storage in the vadose zone appears as the main reason for the dispersion of the gravity values at local scale. This experiment evidences the ability of time lapse microgravity survey to detect the spatial variations of the water storage at intraseasonal scale in Sahelian Africa. Combined with hydrodynamic data, such a spatially distributed dataset may be a useful tool to calibrate or validate hydrological models and should be taken into account for scaling issue such as satellite gravimetry validation.

Pfeffer, J.; Champollion, C.; Favreau, G.; Hinderer, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Mouyen, M.; Boucher, M.; Nazoumou, Y.; Oi, M.; Robert, O.; Le Moigne, N.; Deroussi, S.; Demarty, J.; Benarrosh, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.

2011-12-01

189

Non-linearities and thresholds in water partitioning, storage and release in different ecohydrological units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water partitioning between transpiration, evaporation and runoff is controlled by climatic and water storage characteristics; yet our current knowledge of varying dominant retention and partitioning mechanisms remains limited. For some forested catchments with clear seasonal distinctions, recent work has revealed the existence of partitioned ecohydrological systems where plant - and stream-water are sourced from different subsurface water stores. It is still unclear what the roles of non-linearities are in different water-energy regimes and how soil and vegetation properties might influence such partitioning of water stores. This study aims to better understand the spatio-temporal controls on water residence times and hydrological responses at the catchment scale in a northern headwater catchment in Scotland. Here, the climate is usually consistently wet with low evapotranspiration rates. Within this context however, the study period involved an exceptionally dry summer. We explored non-linearities and thresholds in catchment input-output relationships and investigated the role of soil-water-vegetation interactions on water partitioning, storage, and release along different hillslopes during contrasting hydro-climatic conditions. Different ecohydrological units included poorly draining soils in riparian zones and freely draining soils on hillslopes, and both forested and non-forested sites were considered. Soil moisture dynamics and stable water isotope signatures of different waters (precipitation, stream-, soil -, and plant xylem-water) were examined throughout the year (winter and during the growing season that included the relatively dry summer) to identify plant water use, assess water movement, and explore vegetation-water linkages. The results indicate that threshold behaviour in runoff responses at the catchment scale can be linked to apparent differences between soil water dynamics and residence times of different hydropedological units. Linear input-output relationships exist when runoff is dominantly generated from the permanently wet riparian zones. In contrast, the freely draining hillslope soils show larger dynamic storage changes, and non-linear runoff generation processes can be related to temporary high soil wetness on the hillslopes. However, vegetation impacts are limited and the isotope data suggest that there is no strong evidence for the formation of two different ecohydrological subsurface water stores for either soil types at any time. Such contrasting results in relation to those of previous studies might be attributed to the overall relatively high subsurface storage, and the area's radiation energy-limited climate that lacks overall strong seasonality in high precipitation inputs. The results therefore suggest that the formation of different subsurface water stores might depend on thresholds in the water-energy balance, and as such depend on geographic and climatic conditions.

Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Soulsby, Chris

2014-05-01

190

Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.  

PubMed

Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. PMID:24629940

Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

2014-08-01

191

Environmental Conditions in Water Storage Drums and Influences on Aedes aegypti inTrinidad, West Indies  

PubMed Central

Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Continuous surface water temperatures were also recorded. Nutrient concentrations were considerably lower than those reported for other container breeding mosquitoes. No nutrient measured differed in concentration between drums positive compared to those that were negative for the presence of Aedes aegypti larvae. Levels of SRP and ammonium in steel drums were significantly lower than in plastic water drums. Both maximum and minimum surface temperatures were significantly lower in drums positive for the presence of larvae than in drums without larvae. Water temperatures in March and May were warmer than during October sampling periods. Larval presence is likely dependent upon the interaction among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Despite appearance, not all water storage drums are equally suitable for Aedes aegypti development. Exposing water storage drums to direct sunlight or increased heat may be used in conjunction with sealing containers to reduce production of Aedes aegypti when draining and chemical treatment are impractical. PMID:19539592

Hemme, Ryan R.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Chadee, Dave D.; Severson, David W.

2014-01-01

192

Total water storage in Washington, Oregon, and California inferred from GPS observation of surface mass loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal vertical oscillations in the Pacific mountain system are observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study we invert such GPS measurements of surface mass loading for equivalent water thickness at a resolution of one-quarter degree latitude and longitude. Standard Green's functions based on PREM are used to specify the relationship between equivalent water thickness and the elastic response of solid Earth to the load. A Laplacian is used to limit the change in the value of equivalent water thickness from one pixel to the next. The resulting GPS determination of the seasonal oscillation in the total water thickness has been compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics California's physiographic provinces. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April 1 to October 1 is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. We conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system. Water storage inferred from GPS exceeds that in hydrology model NLDAS-Noah by up to 50%. This difference is likely due to more snow and reservoir water than in the hydrology model. Comparison between GPS inversed seasonal water storage and hydrology model (NLDAS) result for Washington and Oregon.

Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.

2013-12-01

193

Waste storage in the vadose zone affected by water vapor condensation and leaching  

SciTech Connect

One of the major concerns associated with waste storage in the vadose zone is that toxic materials may somehow be leached and transported by advecting water down to the water table and reach the accessible environment through either a well or discharge to a river. Consequently, care is taken to provide barriers over and around the storage sites to reduce contact between infiltrating water and the buried waste form. In some cases, it is important to consider the intrusion of water vapor as well as water in the liquid phase. Water vapor diffuses through porous material along vapor pressure gradients. A slightly low temperature, or the presence of water-soluble components in the waste, favors water condensation resulting in leaching of the waste form and advection of water-soluble components to the water table. A simple analysis is presented that allows one to estimate the rate of vapor condensation as a function of waste composition and backfill materials. An example using a waste form surrounded by concrete and gravel layers is presented. The use of thermal gradients to offset condensation effects of water-soluble components in the waste form is discussed. Thermal gradients may be controlled by design factors that alter the atmospheric energy exchange across the soil surface or that interrupt the geothermal heat field. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Cary, J.W.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

1990-08-01

194

Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage  

E-print Network

conventional water chilling plant to serve DP1/DMOS5 was avoided, saving $5.0 million (net) in capital and reducing the new semiconductor factory's size, complexity, and construction schedule. Furthermore, the existing 29,000 ton cooling district and operations...

Fiorino, D. P.

195

Jess S. Jackson Sustainable Winery Building WATER STORAGE  

E-print Network

and an 8-foot-high CMU wall, constructed within the thermal envelope, provides thermal mass throughout reduce the need for electrical lighting PASSIVE HEATING AND COOLING natural ventilation and thermal mass Certification, the facility is designed for net-zero energy, carbon, and water thresholds, and houses innovative

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

196

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13

197

Energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review is provided concerning publications which are related to approaches for the storage of energy. Attention is given to the storage of oil and coal, gas storage in tanks and underground locations, energy storage with the aid of flywheels, the storage of energy as potential energy in the form of water pumped to a higher level, short-term and

G. Eisenmann; E. Hahne

1977-01-01

198

Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.  

PubMed

Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health. PMID:21942202

Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

2011-06-01

199

Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

1997-01-01

200

Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating  

SciTech Connect

Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

2013-03-01

201

Crop production and soil water storage in long-term winter wheat–fallow tillage experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water is the major limiting factor in dryland crop production in the Central Great Plains. No-till fallow management increases soil water storage and reduces soil erosion potential. Two experiments were initiated in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE to compare effects of moldboard plow (Plow), sub-tillage (Sub-till) and no-tillage (No-till) fallow systems on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

Drew J. Lyon; Walter W. Stroup; Randall E. Brown

1998-01-01

202

Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease.  

PubMed

Simple, effective and affordable methods are needed to treat and safely store non-piped, gathered household water. This study evaluated point-of-use chlorination and storage in special plastic containers of gathered household water for improving microbial quality and reducing diarrhoeal illness of consumers living under conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene. Community families were recruited and randomly divided into intervention (household water chlorination and storage in a special container) and control (no intervention) households. Microbes in stored household water were extensively inactivated by 1-5-mg/L doses of hypochlorite. Escherichia coli levels in stored household waters were < 1/100 mL in most intervention households but readily detectable at high levels in control households. Stored water of intervention households was also lower in Clostridium perfringens and heterotrophic plate count bacteria than in control households. The intervention reduced household diarrhoeal illness. In Bolivia, monthly episodes of household diarrhoeal illness were 1.25 and 2.2 in intervention and control families, respectively (P = < 0.002) indicating that 43% of community diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. In Bangladesh, mean episodes of child diarrhoea/1,000 d were 19.6 and 24.8 in intervention and control groups respectively (P = < 0.03) indicating that about 24% of observed diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. Chlorine disinfection and storage in an appropriate container significantly improved the microbiological quality of non-piped household drinking water and reduced community diarrhoeal disease. Widespread use of this simple treatment and storage system for non-piped domestic water has the potential to dramatically reduce the global burden of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. PMID:12639033

Sobsey, M D; Handzel, T; Venczel, L

2003-01-01

203

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

1981-01-01

204

Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

205

Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System  

E-print Network

The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

2006-01-01

206

Inhibiting properties of complexons in waste water from petroleum-product storage and distribution centers  

SciTech Connect

This article studies the inhibiting properties of oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (OEDP) and nitrilotrimethyltriphosphonic acid (NTP). Their protective properties are studied in respect of low-carbon steel in waste water from petroleum-product storage and distribution centers at 20-80 degrees C. It is shown that the addition of inhibitors leads to a marked increase in the effective activation energy.

Groisman, A.S.; Kul'sheneva, L.N.; Popova, Z.A.

1985-11-01

207

Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological  

E-print Network

Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological information B. Devaraju, N. Sneeuw Institute of Geodesy, Universit¨at Stuttgart, Germany estimates of mass changes with observed hydrological data, which is available for 20% of the land area

Stuttgart, Universität

208

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination

T Wolery; R Aines; Y Hao; W Bourcier; T Wolfe; C Haussman

2009-01-01

209

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination

R D Aines; T J Wolery; Y Hao; W L Bourcier

2009-01-01

210

Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

211

27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. 31...Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. ...sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20...

2010-04-01

212

System simulation and verification of a storage-type heat exchanger used in a solar domestic hot water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A storage-type heat exchanger (bare copper tubing or finned copper tubing placed inside the water storage tank) has been used widely in solar domestic hot water systems. This type of heat exchanger has been frequently adopted into solar system design, especially in residential and small-scale commercial applications. However, to analyze the heat transfer phenomenon of a storage-type heat exchanger in

J. G. Cherng; E. Lumsdaine; E. Thacher

1980-01-01

213

Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

214

Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

215

Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a Chinese pine-oak mixed forest.  

PubMed

Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

2014-01-01

216

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V. L.

2009-01-01

217

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

1979-01-01

218

Assimilating GRACE, hydrology and hydrometeorology datasets for estimating monthly water storage changes over continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary aims of GRACE gravity field satellite mission is to measure monthly water storage changes in catchments at regional/continental scales, which are then used for closing the monthly water balance at these scales. The presence of high frequency noise in GRACE data necessitates filtering, which inevitably introduces a bias in the filtered water storage change estimates. The bias, due to filtering, in the estimates is a major hurdle in utilising them for closing the water balance. In order to quantify this bias and to evaluate the GRACE water storage change estimates, reliable measurements of precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration are needed. While precipitation data is available globally, runoff data is available only partially and evapotranspiration data at regional/continental scales is available only from model data. In this contribution, the problems of bias due to filtering of GRACE data and data-deficiency for evaluation are negotiated. This is done by devising certain conditions from the available hydrological and hydrometeorological datasets, and using these conditions as constraints on the parameters of a data assimilation scheme involving GRACE, hydrology and hydrometeorology datasets. Data assimilation is carried out using constrained least squares estimation, which then allows to quantify the contribution of the individual datasets towards the assimilated dataset. The constrained estimation is expected to bring consistency to the assimilated dataset.

Devaraju, Balaji; Sneeuw, Nico; Javad Tourian, Mohammad; Riegger, Johannes; Fersch, Benjamin; Kunstmann, Harald

2010-05-01

219

Effects of inter-annual climate variability on water storage in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River Basin (CRB), located in the Southwestern United States, is largely semi-arid. 70% of streamflow originates from the high-elevation snowpack, and precipitation is generally concentrated in the North-American Monsoon period (summer). Recently, the CRB experienced a severe multi-year drought, and the population in the area is growing fast, increasing the pressure on water resources. Understanding the long-term (inter-annual to decadal) variability of water availability, therefore, is paramount for water resources management. Here, we analyze monthly time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation and discharge spanning 74 years in the Colorado River Basin and statistically relate them to monthly climate indices that describe variability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure in the tropical and extra-tropical Pacific. ENSO indices in winter (JFM) are related to winter precipitation, as well as to soil moisture and discharge in the Lower Colorado. The low-frequency mode of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) appears to be strongly correlated with saturated water storage (groundwater). During the negative PDO phase, saturated storage anomalies tend to be negative, and the "amplitudes" (mean absolute anomalies) of soil moisture, snow and discharge are lower compared with periods having positive PDO phases. Predicting inter-annual variability, therefore, strongly depends on the capability of predicting PDO regime shifts. If indeed a shift to a cool PDO phase occurred in the mid-nineties, as data suggest, the current dry conditions in the Colorado basin may persist.

Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Troch, P., A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Durcik, M.

2009-04-01

220

Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

Ludden, A. P.; Frink, D. L.; Johnson, D. H.

1983-01-01

221

Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil) by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic) shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm) for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ? 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0-60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ?V-?W relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5) and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616). Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5) and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616). Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ?V-?W relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

te Brake, B.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; de Rooij, G. H.

2013-05-01

222

Biophysical properties and functional significance of stem water storage tissues in Neotropical savanna trees.  

PubMed

Biophysical characteristics of sapwood and outer parenchyma water storage compartments were studied in stems of eight dominant Brazilian Cerrado tree species to assess the impact of differences in tissue capacitance on whole-plant water relations. The rate of decline in tissue water potential with relative water content (RWC) was greater in the outer parenchyma than in the sapwood for most of the species, resulting in tissue-and species-specific differences in capacitance. Sapwood capacitance on a tissue volume basis ranged from 40 to 160 kg m-3 MPa-1, whereas outer parenchyma capacitance ranged from 25 to only 60 kg m-3 MPa-1. In addition, osmotic potentials at full turgor and at the turgor loss point were more negative for the outer parenchyma compared with the sapwood, and the maximum bulk elastic modulus was higher for the outer parenchyma than for the sapwood. Sapwood capacitance decreased linearly with increasing sapwood density across species, but there was no significant correlation between outer parenchyma capacitance and tissue density. Midday leaf water potential, the total hydraulic conductance of the soil/leaf pathway and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) all increased with stem volumetric capacitance, or with the relative contribution of stored water to total daily transpiration. However, the difference between the pre-dawn water potential of non-transpiring leaves and the weighted average soil water potential, a measure of the water potential disequilibrium between the plant and soil, increased asymptotically with total stem capacitance across species, implying that overnight recharge of water storage compartments was incomplete in species with greater capacitance. Overall, stem capacitance contributes to homeostasis in the diurnal and seasonal water balance of Cerrado trees. PMID:17238914

Scholz, Fabian G; Bucci, Sandra J; Goldstein, Guillermo; Meinzer, Frederick C; Franco, Augusto C; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

2007-02-01

223

Multivariate forecasting of total water storage anomalies over West Africa from multi-satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For West Africa, large-scale weather-related extreme hydrological conditions such as droughts or floods may persist over several months and usually have devastating environmental, social and economic impacts. Assessing and forecasting these conditions is therefore an important activity, in which data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has been shown to be very useful. In this study, we describe a new statistical, data-driven approach to predict total water storage anomalies over West Africa from gravity data obtained from of GRACE, rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and sea surface temperature data products over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified by independent component analysis, and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework for forecasting total water storage, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for agricultural and water resource management. After a learning phase of 80 months, our approach predicts water storage from rainfall and sea surface temperature data alone that fits to observed GRACE data at 79% after one year and 62% after two years. This means, our approach should be able to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of one month about each 162 days as well as a - hopefully - limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE-FO mission for West Africa. Keywords: Forecasting GRACE-TWS, West-Africa, ICA; AR model

Kusche, Jürgen; Forootan, Ehsan; Krasbutter, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, Ck

2013-04-01

224

Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

2012-01-01

225

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10

226

Land water storage variability over West Africa estimated by Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and land surface models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land water storage plays a fundamental role in the West African water cycle and has an important impact on climate and on the natural resources of this region. However, measurements of land water storage are scarce at regional and global scales and especially in poorly instrumented endorheic regions, such as most of the Sahel, where little useful information can be derived from river flow measurements and basin water budgets. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides an accurate measurement of the terrestrial gravity field variations from which land water storage variations can be derived. However, their retrieval is not straightforward, and different methods are employed, which results in different water storage GRACE products. On the other hand, water storage can be estimated by land surface modeling forced with observed or satellite-based boundary conditions, but such estimates can be highly model dependent. In this study, land water storage by six GRACE products and soil moisture estimations by nine land surface models (run within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Land Surface Intercomparison Project (ALMIP)) are evaluated over West Africa, with a particular focus on the Sahelian area. The water storage spatial distribution, including zonal transects, its seasonal cycle, and its and interannual variability, are analyzed for the years 2003-2007. Despite the nonnegligible differences among the various GRACE products and among the different models, a generally good agreement between satellite and model estimates is found over the West Africa study region. In particular, GRACE data are shown to reproduce well the water storage interannual variability over the Sahel for the 5 year study period. The comparison between satellite estimates and ALMIP results leads to the identification of processes needing improvement in the land surface models. In particular, our results point out the importance of correctly simulating slow water reservoirs as well as evapotranspiration during the dry season for accurate soil moisture modeling over West Africa.

Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Frappart, F.; Araud, Q.; Boone, A.; de Rosnay, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Gascoin, S.; Balsamo, G.; Ottlé, C.; Decharme, B.; Saux-Picart, S.; Ramillien, G.

2011-05-01

227

Foliar Nitrogen Uptake from Wet Deposition and the Relation with Leaf Wettability and Water Storage Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the foliar uptake of 15N-labelled nitrogen (N) originating from wet deposition along with leaf surface conditions, measured by wettability and water\\u000a storage capacity. Foliar 15N uptake was measured on saplings of silver birch, European beech, pedunculate oak and Scots pine and the effect of nitrogen\\u000a form (NH4+ or NO3?), NH4+ to NO3? ratio and leaf phenology on

Sandy Adriaenssens; Jeroen Staelens; Karen Wuyts; An de Schrijver; Shari Van Wittenberghe; Tatiana Wuytack; Fatemeh Kardel; Kris Verheyen; Roeland Samson; Pascal Boeckx

2011-01-01

228

Dynamic model of a solar thermochemical water-splitting reactor with integrated energy collection and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-splitting solar thermochemical cycles are important in meeting the challenges of global climate change and limited fossil fuels. However, solar radiation varies in availability, leading to unsteady state operation. We propose a solar receiver-reactor with integrated energy collection and storage. The reactor consists of a double-pipe heat exchanger placed at the focal line of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. Molten

Rong Xu; Theodore F. Wiesner

229

Rainwater harvesting systems that collect and convey rain-water from roofs to storage tanks are often the best or only  

E-print Network

PROBLEM Rainwater harvesting systems that collect and convey rain- water from roofs to storage Research Center) -- collect water in 20 storage tanks with a combined capacity of 106 thousand liters pollutants would collect on a roof, then tested water quality in the storage tanks under each first

Polz, Martin

230

Metal loss characterization in 55-gallon drum steel by the magnetic flux leakage method  

SciTech Connect

A technique, using Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), has been developed for imaging corrosion damage in real-time on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums. An experimental study and theoretical background are presented showing the sensitivity of an MFL technique for detecting and imaging both general and localized corrosion on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums, inspected from the outer surface. Measurements resulting from studies on natural corrosion and machined defects in 55-gallon drum steel will be discussed. Image processing techniques applied to scan data show metal loss in 2-D gray scale images. This work suggests an approach to designing a real-time, full-coverage, 55-gallon drum inspection system to characterize drum wall thickness for comparison over time to determine corrosion rate.

Hockey, R.; Riechers, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

231

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

232

The Effectiveness of Miles-per-Gallon Meters as a Means to Conserve Gasoline in Automobiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an assessment of fuel flow instruments reading directly in miles per gallon (mpg). It describes currently available mpg meters, their installation, utility, and safety and presents an analysis of potential cost savings. It discusses means o...

M. S. Huntley, W. Z. Leavitt

1976-01-01

233

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01

234

Temperature stratification from thermal diodes in solar hot water storage tank  

SciTech Connect

In this brief note, we have experimentally measured the temperature stratification in a solar hot water storage tank resulting from a simulated solar heating load. Various modifications using a double chimney device that acts as a thermal diode were examined with the intent of maximizing temperature stratification. The greatest stratification was seen with a unique thermal diode arrangement named the express-elevator design, so-called for the direct hot water path from the bottom third of the tank to the top third. (author)

Rhee, Jinny; Campbell, Andrew; Mariadass, Adele; Morhous, Branden [San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192-0087 (United States); 581 North 2nd Street, San Jose, CA 95112 (United States); 460 North Winchester Blvd., Apt. 15, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States); 2442 East Nathan Way, Chandler, AZ 85225 (United States)

2010-03-15

235

Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

Namkoong, D.

1976-01-01

236

Watershed storage-baseflow relations and monthly water balances at Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed storage is a significant part of a catchment water budget, especially at smaller time scales, but is difficult to measure or estimate. A watershed storage-baseflow relation was developed by combining a stream baseflow-recession analysis with a watershed water budget during the dormant season where calculated potential evapotranspiration (PET) was similar to actual evapotranspiration (ET). The relation was developed during baseflow periods such that transient storage, as occurs during hydrologic events, was minimized. The analysis was applied to the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, a small 0.41-hectare forested watershed near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A., and resulted in a highly significant relation (R2=0.92, p<0.0001). The watershed storage-baseflow relation was then used to estimate changes in storage during baseflow conditions on a monthly basis. Baseflow storage ranged by 430 mm over the 22-year study period, water years 1986-2007, with an average interannual range of 247 mm. Baseflow and storage peaked at the beginning of April and was at its lowest at the beginning of September. Monthly storage increased an average of 27 mm/month during the dormant season (November - February) and declined by an average of 14 mm/month during the growing season (April - September). The greatest declines in storage were calculated for April and May, averaging 39 and 44 mm/month, respectively. Theses declines were the result of high baseflow runoff in addition to increased ET at the onset of the growing season. The incorporation of storage into annual water budgets modified calculated water yields, changing the range of annual yields from 16-50% to 9.7-46%. Since changes in baseflow storage are now estimated, ET can be calculated by difference using the water budget equation (ignoring transient storage changes). ET averaged about 40 mm/month during the dormant season and 88 mm/month during the growing season and peaked with an average of 123 mm/month in July. ET averaged about 89% of PET during the dormant season and 70% of PET during the growing season. PET represents the potential maximum ET, assuming no water limitations, and was calculated from various meteorological parameters using the Priestley-Taylor equation. Growing season monthly ET, with-respect-to PET, is affected by both low monthly precipitation (defined as less than 50 mm) and low storage conditions (defined as when storage at the beginning of a month is within the lowest 120 mm of storage observed during the study period). Monthly ET was low for months with low monthly precipitation irrespective of storage conditions, with ET 44% of PET (n=6) for low storage conditions and 46% of PET (n=23) otherwise. For growing season months without low monthly precipitation, low storage differentiated ET more, with low storage months having ET 67% of PET (n=18) compared to months without low storage with ET 79% of PET (n=85). These results indicate that transpiration during the growing season is limited probably by water availability during low storage-low precipitation conditions during the growing season. Low monthly precipitation is a stronger indication of low ET/PET ratios than low storage conditions, and it is likely that soil water derived from recent precipitation is the more important control on ET, with transpiration as the driver.

Aulenbach, B. T.; Peters, N. E.; Freer, J. E.

2012-12-01

237

Continental water storage variations in Africa from space gravity and altimetry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision data from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission, launched in March 2002, permit the recovery of continental water storage variations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Mass variations are directly inverted from the inter-satellite K-band range-rate (KBRR) data using a localized mascon approach. Using appropriate constraints, our regional solutions allow better temporal (10-day) and spatial (2-degrees) resolution, than the classical spherical harmonic solutions. In addition altimetry measurements allow the retrieval of the water level variations at a few centimeter level, for major lakes and reservoirs. Because of its smaller footprint (50 to 100 meters, depending on the laser period) compared to radar altimeters (several kilometers), ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation satellite) laser altimetry is more suitable for the retrieval of water level variations of small inland bodies, and when water returns can be highly contaminated by land or vegetation. We combine these gravity and altimetry measurements with hydrology models and in-situ measurements in order to describe the continental water storage variations at seasonal timescales and also long-term variations in Africa.

Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

2013-12-01

238

Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and vegetation condition). Two marsh species, named junco and cortadera, were monitored. This overall data set gave us the possibility of studying and understanding the basic interactions between the radar, the soil under different flood conditions, and the vegetation structure. The comprehension of the observed features was addressed through electromagnetic models developed for these ecosystems. The procedure used in this work to estimate water level within marshes combines a direct electromagnetic model, field work data specifically obtained to feed the model, the actual ASAR measurements and a well known retrieval scheme based on a cost function. Results are validated with water level evaluations at specific points. A map showing an estimation of the water storage capacity and its error in junco and cortadera areas for the date where the investigation was done is also presented. PMID:18367312

Grings, F; Salvia, M; Karszenbaum, H; Ferrazzoli, P; Kandus, P; Perna, P

2009-05-01

239

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

240

Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions. PMID:17566728

Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

2008-04-01

241

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4

Erik Kellner; Sven Halldin

2002-01-01

242

Method of forming a solar collector or hot water storage tank and solar water heating apparatus using same  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a method of forming a solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy. It also relates to articles of manufacture so formed and to solar water heating apparatus using said articles. Three methods of forming the panel or tank from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing such material around the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one form of the method, one of the sheets is coated with a layer of release agent, over all areas except the discrete areas and the peripheral areas so that only such uncoated areas will bond during cure. In another form, a sheet of non-adherent plastic slightly smaller than the two sheets and having holes or holidays to form the discrete areas is bonded between the two sheets. In a third form, the peripheral edges are first sealed to form a chamber, then the chamber is inflated and a forming die presses together the discrete areas only. Preferably, but not necessarily, reinforcing fibers may be employed or molded, into at least one of the uncured sheets. As articles of manufacture the absorber, or tank, each includes at least one inlet and one outlet at opposed edges of the so formed chamber. Further, the storage tank has a portion of the enclosed volume adapted to receive a heat exchanger. This is made possible by omission of the discrete bonded areas over about one-fourth of the area to the two sheets. In apparatus form, a solar absorption panel and a storage tank so formed (and interconnected inlet to outlet) are mounted back-to-back by an enclosing structure suitable for roof-top or ground-pad mounting and connection into a water system for solar heating of domestic water.

Anderson, H.M.; Negley, M.E.

1984-09-18

243

Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles  

SciTech Connect

Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

2013-09-01

244

Proline content of sugar beet storage roots: Response to water deficit and nitrogen fertilization at field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought stress is one of the major factors causing profit loss of the sugar beet crop. The accumulation of proline, an indicator of water stress, has been reported in response to osmotic and salt stress in sugar beet leaves, but there is little information about its levels in storage roots. Proline in storage roots is potentially useful as indicator of

J. A. Monreal; E. T. Jiménez; E. Remesal; R. Morillo-Velarde; S. García-Mauriño; C. Echevarría

2007-01-01

245

Using enhanced GRACE water storage data to improve drought detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has

Rasmus Houborg; Matthew Rodell; Jay Lawrimore; Bailing Li; Rolf Reichle; Richard Heim; Matthew Rosencrans; Rich Tinker; James S. Famiglietti; Mark Svoboda; Brian Wardlow; Benjamin F. Zaitchik

2010-01-01

246

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

None

1981-01-01

247

Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

2005-03-01

248

Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

2005-05-01

249

Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households

R. E. QUICK; L. V. VENCZEL; E. D. MINTZ; L. SOLETO; J. APARICIO; M. GIRONAZ; L. HUTWAGNER; K. GREENE; C. BOPP; K. MALONEY; D. CHAVEZ; M. SOBSEY; R. V. TAUXE

1999-01-01

250

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

251

Faecal contamination of drinking water in a Brazilian shanty town: importance of household storage and new human faecal marker testing.  

PubMed

Worldwide, contaminated drinking water poses a major health threat, particularly to child development. Diarrhoea represents a large part of the water-related disease burden and enteric infections have been linked to nutritional and growth shortfalls as well as long-term physical and cognitive impairment in children. Previous studies detailed the frequency of infection and the consequences for child health in a shanty town in north-east Brazil. To determine the frequency of contaminated water, we measured faecal contamination in primary drinking water samples from 231 randomly selected households. Risk for contamination was compared across source and storage types. Nearly a third of the study households (70/231: 30.3%) had contaminated drinking water; the source with the highest frequency of contamination was well water (23/24: 95.8%). For tap water, the type of storage had a significant effect on the susceptibility to contamination (chi(2) = 12.090; p = 0.007). The observed pattern of contamination demonstrated the relative potential contributions of both source and storage. With evidence that supports the inclusion of source and storage in water quality surveys, this study, like others, suggests that contaminated drinking water in storage vessels may be an important factor for the documented diarrhoea disease burden in the Brazilian shanty town. PMID:19240358

Copeland, Curtis C; Beers, Benjamin B; Thompson, Meghan R; Fitzgerald, Relana P; Barrett, Leah J; Sevilleja, Jesus E; Alencar, Sayonara; Lima, Aldo A M; Guerrant, Richard L

2009-06-01

252

Faecal contamination of drinking water in a Brazilian shanty town: Importance of household storage and new human faecal marker testing  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, contaminated drinking water poses a major health threat, particularly to child development. Diarrhoea represents a large part of the water-related disease burden and enteric infections have been linked to nutritional and growth shortfalls as well as long-term physical and cognitive impairment in children. Previous studies detailed the frequency of infection and the consequences for child health in a shanty town in north-east Brazil. To determine the frequency of contaminated water, we measured faecal contamination in primary drinking water samples from 231 randomly selected households. Risk for contamination was compared across source and storage types. Nearly a third of the study households (70/231: 30.3%) had contaminated drinking water; the source with the highest frequency of contamination was well water (23/24: 95.8%). For tap water, the type of storage had a significant effect on the susceptibility to contamination (?2 = 12.090; p = 0.007). The observed pattern of contamination demonstrated the relative potential contributions of both source and storage. With evidence that supports the inclusion of source and storage in water quality surveys, this study, like others, suggests that contaminated drinking water in storage vessels may be an important factor for the documented diarrhoea disease burden in the Brazilian shanty town. PMID:19240358

Copeland, Curtis; Beers, Benjamin; Thompson, Meghan; Pinkerton, Relana; Barrett, Leah; Sevilleja, Jesus Emmanuel; Alencar, Sayonara; Lima, Aldo

2010-01-01

253

1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage.  

E-print Network

national and state schemes run? NREGA, PDS? 15. What comes in and goes out from Gawandwadi? Material, money water ows into the storage. 2. What is the storage in the dam (in cu.m.)? 3. What is the length and depth of the dam? What is its structure and cost? How much time did it take to build the dam? 4. Where

Sohoni, Milind

254

Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System. Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates  

E-print Network

In earth system models, the partitioning of precipitation among the variations of continental water storage climate system sim- ulated by earth system models (ESMs). The continental freshwater reservoirs represent

Ribes, Aurélien

255

The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

2001-01-01

256

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Thermal energy storage tests  

SciTech Connect

The solar-powered water desalination pilot plant at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a unique project in terms of its size, purpose, objectives, and scope. The plant uses a combination of solar thermal energy and fossil-fuel energy to provide the shaft horsepower necessary to operate the indirect heat-transfer freeze desalination process developed and patented by Chicago Bridge and Iron Inc. (CBandI) to produce potable water. The thermal storage acts as a buffer between the energy collection subsystem and the energy delivery subsystem. This report describes the thermal storage subsystem. One of the objectives of the desalination research project is to publish a series of reports on the performance of its various subsystems. The authors of this report do not claim that it is exhaustive and complete in all respects, for more than one reason. Any research activity is like an open-ended problem and during the tenure of its investigation it raises more problems than can be solved. However, the authors believe that the storage system behavior has posed no serious problem and that the report adequately covers all the facets of the investigation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01

257

Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

Milly, P. C. D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M. C.

2003-01-01

258

Mechanical and water barrier properties of glutenin films influenced by storage time.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to study the effect of storage time on the functional properties of glutenin films plasticized with selected hydrophilic low molecular weight compounds: glycerol (GL), triethanolamine (TEA), and sorbitol (S). Glutenins were extracted from wheat gluten, and films were cast from film-forming solutions. The glutenin-based films were homogeneous, flexible, translucent, and easy to handle. Films were stored in an environmental chamber at 50 +/- 5% realtive humidity and 23 +/- 2 degrees C. Optical, mechanical, and water vapor permeability properties were monitored at regular intervals for 16 weeks. Films plasticized with GL and TEA had similar mechanical and water vapor barrier properties during the first few days of fabrication. Films plasticized with S were stronger, with better water vapor barrier properties. Mechanical and water vapor permeability properties of films plasticized with GL changed dramatically over time, whereas the properties of films plasticized with TEA and S remained stable during storage. Color properties of films plasticized with GL, TEA, and S did not change within the time period studied. PMID:14709016

Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; López-Rubio, Amparo; Del-Valle, Valeria; Almenar, Eva; Gavara, Rafael

2004-01-14

259

Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

Colwell, R. N.

1973-01-01

260

Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1987-11-01

261

Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

None

2010-09-01

262

Modeling the effects of surface storage, macropore flow and water repellency on infiltration after wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can reduce infiltration capacity of hillslopes by causing (i) extreme soil drying, (ii) increased water repellency and (iii) reduced soil structure. High severity wildfire often results in a non-repellent layer of loose ash and burned soil overlying a water repellent soil matrix. In these conditions the hydraulic parameters vary across discrete layers in the soil profile, making the infiltration process difficult to measure and model. The difficulty is often exacerbated by the discrepancy between actual infiltration processes and the assumptions that underlie commonly used infiltration models, most of which stem from controlled laboratory experiments or agricultural environments, where soils are homogeneous and less variable in space and time than forest soils. This study uses a simple two-layered infiltration model consisting of surface storage (H), macropore flow (Kmac) and matrix flow (Kmat) in order to identify and analyze spatial-temporal infiltration patterns in forest soils recovering from the 2009 Black Saturday wildfires in Victoria, southeast Australia. Infiltration experiments on intact soil cores showed that the soil profile contained a region of strong water repellency that was slow to take on water and inactive in the infiltration process, thus restricting flow through the matrix. The flow resistance due to water repellent soil was represented by the minimum critical surface tension (CSTmin) within the top 10 cm of the soil profile. Under field conditions in small headwaters, the CSTmin remained in a water repellent domain throughout a 3-year recovery period, but the strength of water repellency diminished exponentially during wet conditions, resulting in some weather induced temporal variation in steady-state infiltration capacity (Kp). An increasing trend in macropore availability during recovery was the main source of temporal variability in Kp during the study period, indicating (in accordance with previous studies) that macropore flow dominates infiltration processes in these forest soils. Storage in ash and burned surface soil after wildfire was initially high (?4 mm), then declined exponentially with time since fire. Overall the study showed that the two layered soil can be represented and parameterized by partitioning the infiltration process into surface storage and flow through a partially saturated and restrictive soil layer. Ash, water repellency and macropore flow are key characteristics of burned forest soils in general, and the proposed model may therefore be a useful tool for characterizing fire impact and recovery in other systems.

Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Smith, Hugh G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

2014-05-01

263

Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

2012-12-01

264

Hydrological storage variations in a lake water balance, observed from multi-sensor satellite data and hydrological models.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater lakes and reservoirs account for 74.5% of continental water storage in surface water bodies and only 1.8% resides in rivers. Lakes and reservoirs are a key component of the continental hydrological cycle but in-situ monitoring networks are very limited either because of sparse spatial distribution of gauges or national data policy. Monitoring and predicting extreme events is very challenging in that case. In this study we demonstrate the use of optical remote sensing, satellite altimetry and the GRACE gravity field mission to monitor the lake water storage variations in the Aral Sea. Aral Sea is one of the most unfortunate examples of a large anthropogenic catastrophe. The 4th largest lake of 1960s has been decertified for more than 75% of its area due to the diversion of its primary rivers for irrigation purposes. Our study is focused on the time frame of the GRACE mission; therefore we consider changes from 2002 onwards. Continuous monthly time series of water masks from Landsat satellite data and water level from altimetry missions were derived. Monthly volumetric variations of the lake water storage were computed by intersecting a digital elevation model of the lake with respective water mask and altimetry water level. With this approach we obtained volume from two independent remote sensing methods to reduce the error in the estimated volume through least square adjustment. The resultant variations were then compared with mass variability observed by GRACE. In addition, GARCE estimates of water storage variations were compared with simulation results of the Water Gap Hydrology Model (WGHM). The different observations from all missions agree that the lake reached an absolute minimum in autumn 2009. A marked reversal of the negative trend occured in 2010 but water storage in the lake decreased again afterwards. The results reveal that water storage variations in the Aral Sea are indeed the principal, but not the only contributor to the GRACE signal of mass variations in this region; this is also verified by WGHM simulations. An important implication of this finding is the possibility of GRACE to analyses storage changes in other hydrological compartments (soil moisture, snow and groundwater) once the signal has been reduced for surface water storage changes. Therefore the congruent use of multi-sensor satellite data for hydrological studies proves to be a great source of information for assessing terrestrial water storage variations.

Singh, Alka; Seitz, Florian; Schwatke, Christian; Guentner, Andreas

2013-04-01

265

Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.  

PubMed

Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry. PMID:21329343

Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

2011-03-15

266

Land water storage contribution to sea level from GRACE geoid data over 2003 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and inter-annual change in land water storage (expressed in terms of water volume change) over 27 large river basins worldwide are estimated from monthly GRACE geoids solutions computed at GFZ from February 2003 to February 2006. The largest annual water volume change is found in the Amazon basin, followed by the Parana, Ob, Orinoco, Tocantins, Niger, Congo, Ganges, Mekong, and Brahmaputra. In terms of trend over the 3-year period, positive and negative values are observed but in a number of cases computed trends are at the noise level. However significant negative trends are found in the Amazon, Ganges, Mississippi, Nile, Parana, and Zambezi basins, indicating water mass loss over that period. Positive trends (water mass gain) are marginally significant. We have computed the land water contribution to sea level change. On average over the 3-year time span, we find that the net effect is positive (net loss of water in terrestrial reservoirs), on the order of 0.19 +/- 0.06 mm/yr. If sustained over a longer time span than considered here, such a value may become comparable to the ice sheets contribution to sea level rise.

Ramillien, G.; Bouhours, S.; Lombard, A.; Cazenave, A.; Flechtner, F.; Schmidt, R.

2008-02-01

267

Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water  

PubMed Central

Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria culture. PMID:22032822

2011-01-01

268

Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.  

PubMed

The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

2010-06-01

269

Influence of hot water dip on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during storage.  

PubMed

The influence of hot water dips (50, 52 and 54? for 3?min) on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during 60 days' storage at 10? was investigated. Hot water dips did not affect fruit quality attributes as well as ascorbic acid content, and 50? treatment significantly reduced fruit weight loss. Significant increases of flavonoids were found in all hot water treated fruit from after treatments till 15 days of storage, whereas phenolic acids were not greatly affected. Hot water dipping at 50? significantly increased total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin immediately after treatment and maintained similar levels with control during storage, while 52 and 54? treatments showed relatively lower levels. The results suggested that hot water dipping at 50? for 3?min can be a promising way to retain functional quality of storing Satsuma mandarin. PMID:23733808

Shen, Yan; Zhong, Liezhou; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

2013-12-01

270

The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

2013-05-01

271

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

2010-01-01

272

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

273

Water storage changes and climate variability within the Nile Basin between 2002 and 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding water storage changes within the Nile's main sub-basins and the related impacts of climate variability is an essential step in managing its water resources. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides a unique opportunity to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) of large river basins such as the Nile. Use of GRACE-TWS changes for monitoring the Nile is, however, difficult since stronger TWS signals over the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) and the Red Sea obscure those from smaller sub-basins making their analysis difficult to undertake. To mitigate this problem, this study employed Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to extract statistically independent TWS patterns over the sub-basins from GRACE and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model. Monthly precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over the entire Nile Basin are also analysed by ICA. Such extraction enables an in-depth analysis of water storage changes within each sub-basin and provides a tool for assessing the influence of anthropogenic as well as climate variability caused by large scale ocean-atmosphere interactions such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our results indicate that LVB experienced effects of both anthropogenic and climate variability (i.e., a correlation of 0.56 between TWS changes and IOD at 95% confidence level) during the study period 2002-2011, with a sharp drop in rainfall between November and December 2010, the lowest during the entire study period, and coinciding with the drought that affected the Greater Horn of Africa. Ethiopian Highlands (EH) generally exhibited a declining trend in the annual rainfall over the study period, which worsened during 2007-2010, possibly contributing to the 2011 drought over GHA. A correlation of 0.56 was found between ENSO and TWS changes over EH indicating ENSO's dominant influence. TWS changes over Bar-el-Ghazal experienced mixed increase-decrease, with ENSO being the dominant climate variability in the region during the study period. A remarkable signal is noticed over the Lake Nasser region indicating the possibility of the region losing water not only through evaporation, but also possibly through over extraction from wells in the Western Plateau (Nubian aquifer).

Awange, J. L.; Forootan, E.; Kuhn, M.; Kusche, J.; Heck, B.

2014-11-01

274

Treatment of Water in Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins to Control Radioactivity Release  

SciTech Connect

Visibility and radioactivity control in the fuel component storage and disassembly basins at the Savannah River Plant are maintained with a newly developed purification system. Experimental work was performed to develop the application of sand filters to operate at high flow rates with an effluent turbidity below 0.1 JTU squared. Filtration efficiency of SRP sand filters is dependent on the characteristics of the solids in the feed water and the degree to which filterability can be improved by addition of coagulant aids. It is independent of flow up to flow rates of 15 gpm/square feet (higher flow rates have not been tested). Effluent turbidity remains below 0.1 JTU with no indication of breakthrough. Total water throughput is dependent on the amount of solids removed and is independent of flow rate and concentration of solids.

Bertsche, E.C.

2001-03-09

275

Comparing bioretention designs with and without an internal water storage layer for treating highway runoff.  

PubMed

This study compares the performance of a field bioretention cell with and without an internal water storage (IWS) layer for treating highway runoff. Both synthetic and natural runoff tests were conducted. Hydraulic performances on peak discharge reduction and detention time extension were measured. Pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated for total suspended solids (TSS), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate phosphorus. Pollutants in soil media were measured. Results reveal that both IWS and non-IWS designs reduced peak discharge and extended detention time, while the IWS design performed better. For water quality performance, the non-IWS design removed TSS, Cu, Pb, Zn, and total phosphorus to varying degrees of efficiency, but total nitrogen removal was minimal. The IWS layer significantly improved removal efficiencies for TSS, Cu, Zn, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Soil media accumulated some metals over time. PMID:24961065

Li, Ming-Han; Swapp, Mark; Kim, Myung Hee; Chu, Kung-Hui; Sung, Chan Yong

2014-05-01

276

Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.  

PubMed Central

Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue. PMID:12223860

Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

1997-01-01

277

The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

Landeen, D.S.

1994-09-01

278

Multisensor snow data assimilation at the continental scale: The value of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment terrestrial water storage information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation establishes a multisensor snow data assimilation system over North America (from January 2002 to June 2007), toward the goal of better estimation of snowpack (in particular, snow water equivalent and snow depth) via incorporating both Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage (TWS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction (SCF) information into the

Hua Su; Zong-Liang Yang; Robert E. Dickinson; Clark R. Wilson; Guo-Yue Niu

2010-01-01

279

Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

SciTech Connect

Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

2008-04-15

280

Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water  

E-print Network

a , Jun Luo a , Xin-Yi Cui a, * , Lena Q. Ma a, b, * a State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control). Bottled waters become contaminated during storage due to Sb release from PET plastic (Shotyk and Krachler exposure to contaminants is through drinking water, releasing of Sb and BPA from PET plastic

Ma, Lena

281

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001?2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

282

Vegetation and soil water interactions on a tailings sand storage facility in the athabasca oil sands region of Alberta Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between vegetation and soil water was studied on the Syncrude South West Sand Storage facility in the Athabasca Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. Soil water and relevant soil chemical and physical properties were measured at the soil surface, as well as above and below the reclamation soil and tailings sand interface, in areas of low and high

M. A. Naeth; D. S. Chanasyk; T. D. Burgers

2011-01-01

283

Analysing the space–time distribution of soil water storage of a forest ecosystem using spatio-temporal kriging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forest the soil water balance is strongly influenced by tree species composition. For example, differences in transpiration rate lead to differences in soil water storage (SWS) and differences in canopy interception cause differences in infiltration. To analyse the influence of tree species composition on SWS at the scale of a forest stand, we compare spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation and

G. Jost; G. B. M. Heuvelink; A. Papritz

2005-01-01

284

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01

285

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

286

Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4?·?2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O with no FeSO4?·?2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions. PMID:24682481

Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

2014-06-01

287

Assimilation of terrestrial water storage from GRACE in a snow-dominated basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root-mean-square difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of postglacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, B. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2012-01-01

288

Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

2014-03-01

289

Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.  

SciTech Connect

Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

2002-10-10

290

Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

291

Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Land Surface Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system of satellites provides observations of large-scale, monthly terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In. this presentation we describe a land data assimilation system that ingests GRACE observations and show that the assimilation improves estimates of water storage and fluxes, as evaluated against independent measurements. The ensemble-based land data assimilation system uses a Kalman smoother approach along with the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). We assimilated GRACE-derived TWS anomalies for each of the four major sub-basins of the Mississippi into the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Compared with the open-loop (no assimilation) CLSM simulation, assimilation estimates of groundwater variability exhibited enhanced skill with respect to measured groundwater. Assimilation also significantly increased the correlation between simulated TWS and gauged river flow for all four sub-basins and for the Mississippi River basin itself. In addition, model performance was evaluated for watersheds smaller than the scale of GRACE observations, in the majority of cases, GRACE assimilation led to increased correlation between TWS estimates and gauged river flow, indicating that data assimilation has considerable potential to downscale GRACE data for hydrological applications. We will also describe how the output from the GRACE land data assimilation system is now being prepared for use in the North American Drought Monitor.

Reichle, Rolf H.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matt

2008-01-01

292

How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research project was to determine the water transport behaviour of earlywood versus latewood in the trunk of 21-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Specific conductivity (ks) and the vulnerability of xylem to embolism were measured on a single growth ring and in a subset of earlywood and late- wood samples within the same ring. Earlywood\\/late-

Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara L. Gartner

2002-01-01

293

Decomposing The Terrestrial Water Storage Signal Over Varying Spatial Scales Using Remote Sensing And Modeling In The Mississippi River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the potential impacts of climate and land cover change at continental to global scales with a sufficient resolution for assessment of local water resources and related systems (e.g., ecological and biogeochemical cycles) requires improved representation of the hydrologic cycle in terms of hydraulics (e.g., lateral transport and inundation), management systems (lakes/reservoirs dynamics), and scale (finer in both space and time) relative to many current Earth System models. To better understand the role of these components, this study investigates the terrestrial water storage signal and its dominant sub-signals for landscapes ranging from <10^2 to >10^6 km2 and temporal scales ranging from hours to months. Specifically, this study characterizes the dominant water storage components in the Mississippi Basin (3M sq km) and their corresponding magnitudes and variations in both space and time. A combination of remotely sensed and in-situ measurements and modeling is used to estimate the components of total water storage (TWS) changes. The Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model, TRMM precipitation (3B42v7), MODIS evapotranspiration (MOD16A2), AMSR-E snow water equivalent and brightness temperature, and ENVISAT/JASON-2 altimetry, LandSat based extent measurements over major lakes/reservoirs/rivers, and SRTM digital elevation data (v4.1) are used to estimate basin-wide total water storage variations for the period 2002-2012. In investigate scaling behavior, wavelet analysis is used to characterize water storage signals averaged over different spatial scales (<10^2 to >10^6 km2). Analyses are performed throughout the basin to investigate scaling behavior from landscaping with varying climate and land cover characteristics, (e.g., with vs. without snowmelt; mountainous vs. plains; etc.). Results show the effects of scale, climate and land cover characteristics on water storage signal variations.

Zhao, Y.; Beighley, E.; Yoon, Y.; Allen, G. H.; Miller, Z.; Lee, H.; Kustu, M. D.; Pavelsky, T.

2013-12-01

294

Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

1979-01-01

295

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-08-01

296

Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic investigations of the Latin America cholera epidemic have repeatedly implicated untreated drinking water and water touched by hands during storage as important vehicles for disease transmission. To prevent such transmission, we provided a new narrow-mouthed, plastic, water storage vessel and 5% calcium hypochlorite solution for home disinfection of stored water to a Bolivian Aymara Indian community at risk for cholera. We evaluated acceptance of this intervention and its effect on water quality. Each of 42 families in the study obtained water from a household well; fecal coliform bacteria were found in water from 39 (93%) of 42 wells and 33 (79%) of 42 usual water storage vessels. One group of families received the special vessels and chlorine (group A), a second received only the special vessels (group B), and a third served as a control group (group C). Water samples collected every three weeks from group A special vessels had lower geometric mean fecal coliform colony counts (P < 0.0001) and lower geometric mean Escherichia coli colony counts (P < 0.0001) than water from group B or C vessels. Adequate levels of free chlorine persisted in these vessels for at least 5 hr. The special vessels and chlorine solution were well accepted and continued to be used for at least six months. Use of the vessel and chlorine solution produced drinking water from nonpotable sources that met World Health Organization standards for microbiologic quality. PMID:8644907

Quick, R E; Venczel, L V; González, O; Mintz, E D; Highsmith, A K; Espada, A; Damiani, E; Bean, N H; De Hannover, E H; Tauxe, R V

1996-05-01

297

Soil water storage and active-layer development in a sub-alpine tundra hillslope, southern Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of water flux and storage in organic-covered, permafrost terrains require an understanding of the factors controlling soil thaw. Field studies conducted in southern Yukon Territory, Canada, showed that ground freezing and thawing commenced at temperatures between ? 0.14 and ? 0.24? C. A temperature drop below ? 0.6? C had little effect on unfrozen moisture content. Unfrozen moisture storage

W. L. Quinton; T. Shirazi; S. K. Carey; J. W. Pomeroy

2005-01-01

298

A water storage anomaly in mid-continent North America from combined gravity and GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute gravity and GRACE satellite data have been combined with GPS data to identify a large-scale water storage anomaly on the Canadian prairies. Monthly GRACE data for the period 2002-2011 were used to produce a gravity rate map of the northern mid-continent. This map was corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) using a GPS-based, vertical velocity map derived from 27 continuous and over 50 campaign sites, combined over the period 1996-2010. The vertical velocity map used to correct for GIA was first converted into a virtual gravity rate map using a linear relationship between surface gravity rate and vertical velocity (-0.16 microGal/mm), empirically derived from combined annual absolute gravity and continuous GPS observations at 7 sites outside the anomalous area. The corrected GRACE gravity rate map reveals a major mass rate anomaly with a water equivalent thickness rate of around 3 cm/yr and approximate dimensions of 600 km (N-S) and 800 km (E-W) centered on the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border. The amplitude and spatial extent of the anomaly are estimated by data inversion, taking into account the effect of elastic loading on the GPS-based GIA correction. The source of the anomaly is confirmed by records from deep observation wells in Saskatchewan to be an increase in total water content from 2002 to 2011, amounting to an overall water equivalent accumulation of around 27 cm over a wide area.

Lambert, A.; Huang, J.; Henton, J. A.; Mazzotti, S.; James, T. S.; Courtier, N.; Van Der Kamp, G.

2012-12-01

299

Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L. [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Sohn, C.W. [Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States). Construction Engineering Research Lab.

1994-12-31

300

Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to

L. E. II Adcock; M. H. Eley; B. J. Schroer

1981-01-01

301

Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

Apperson, Jason W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clemmons, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sur, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

302

The pros and cons of retained gallons payout in the sale of fueloil business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically many fueloil businesses have been sold with at least a portion of the payout tied to the future delivery of gallons to the customers of the seller. This concept is usually not present in the sales of most retail businesses because future purchases by transferred customers is dependent on pricing, promotion, location, reputation, branding and other factors. In the

Hall

1990-01-01

303

Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(1), 113132 (2002) EGS  

E-print Network

Phosphorus (P) plays a key role in eutrophication of surface waters (OECD, 1982; Hecky and Kilham, 1988Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity Helen P. Jarvie1 , Paul J

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

So what if the water's nuked  

SciTech Connect

For 27 years the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Lab. has dumped millions of gallons of diluted liquid radioactive waste directly into the Snake River Plain aquifer, which supplies drinking water and irrigating water for most of southern Idaho. About 5 million cu ft of solid wastesincluding highly radioactive plutoniumhave been buried in the trenches above the aquifer system. This threat to the aquifer, no small matter in a desert community, spurred a short-lived nuclear movement that was quickly quelled by the nuclear industry, with the help of the Idaho state legislature. Plans are currently under way to reroute nuclear wastes from the temporarily closed commerical waste storage site in Nevada to Idaho.

Rosenwald, L.; Gramer, R.

1980-10-01

305

Plant to buy solar-heated water  

SciTech Connect

An investor-owned solar-energy company, Solar King, will sell hot water to a Wisconsin plant at a price guaranteed at 20% below the plant's cost to heat its own water with gas or No. 6 fuel oil. After 10 years, the plant may purchase the equipment which Solar King installed adjacent to the plant, or it may either extend or terminate the contract. The system includes the 900 32-square-foot collectors, three storage tanks with a combined 80,000-gallon capacity, a heat exchanger, pumps which are automatically activated, and a pumphouse. The arrangement with Solar King eliminates the need for front-end investment. (DCK)

Galvin, C.

1983-01-24

306

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1981-01-01

307

Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute VolgNIIGiM situated at a left bank of Volga River of Saratov Region of Russia (N51.384650°, E46.0558

Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

2014-05-01

308

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01

309

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

310

Satellite observations of terrestrial water storage provide early warning information about drought and fire season severity in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

risk in the Amazon can be predicted several months before the onset of the dry season using sea surface temperatures in the tropical north Atlantic and tropical Pacific. The lead times between ocean state and the period of maximum burning (4-11 months) may enable the development of forecasts with benefits for forest conservation, yet the underlying physical and biological mechanisms responsible for these temporal offsets are not well known. Here, we examined the hypothesis that year-to-year variations in soil water recharge during the wet season modify atmospheric water vapor and fire behavior during the following dry season. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing terrestrial water storage observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), active fires from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and several other satellite and atmospheric reanalysis datasets during 2002-2011. We found that terrestrial water storage deficits preceded severe fire seasons across the southern Amazon. The most significant relationships between monthly terrestrial water storage and the sum of active fires during the dry season occurred during April-August (p < 0.02), corresponding to 1-5 month lead times before the peak month of burning (September). Analysis of other datasets provided evidence for a cascade of processes during drought events, with lower cumulative precipitation (and higher cumulative evapotranspiration) in the wet season substantially reducing terrestrial water storage, and subsequently, surface and column atmospheric water vapor. Our results suggest that terrestrial water storage observations from GRACE have the potential to improve fire season forecasts for the southern Amazon.

Chen, Yang; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, James S.; Randerson, James T.

2013-06-01

311

Terrestrial Water Storage Variations in the Heihe River Basin Recovered by GRACE Time-Variable Earth Gravity Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heihe River is a larger inland river in the Northwestern China across the three provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Inner Mongolia, located in the Hexi Corridor and the middle of the Qilian Mountains, from eastern longitude of 97Ë? 37' to 102Ë? 06' and from northern latitude 37Ë? 44' to 42Ë? 40'. The terrain there is complex and the water storage variation display strongly seasonal and regional features due to the precipitation difference of time and spatial distribution. It is of important significance for the ecological environment and economic construction by investigating the terrestrial water storage variations in the Heihe River basin. 48 monthly GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) Earth's gravity field models for the period from January 2004 until December 2007 are used in the paper, from which the tidal effects, including oceanic tide, solid Earth tide and solid Earth pole tides are removed, as well as the non-tidal effects of atmospheric and oceanic contributions. During data processing, the GRACE Earth's gravity field models are truncated to complete degree and order 60, and the time series C20 are replaced by those obtained from analyzing SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) data. Using the Gaussian filtering method with smoothing radius 700km, the terrestrial water storage variations in the Heihe River basin are recovered from the spherical harmonic coefficients of the monthly GRACE Earth's gravity field models, and then the characteristics of the terrestrial water storage changes are analyzed. The results show that the seasonal and annual feature of the terrestrial water storage variations is revealed in the Heihe River basin. The annual variations amplitude is approximately 1.6cm in terms of equivalent water height, and achieves the maximum in April and August each year. The similarities are shown well by comparing the terrestrial water storage variations recovered from GRACE temporal gravity field to those from CPC (Climate Prediction Center) hydrological model. Both of them reveal the obviously seasonal characteristics of the terrestrial water storage variations, and the amplitude difference is less than 0.5cm. The groundwater storage variation are obtained by combining the terrestrial water storage variation recovered from GRACE with the changes in solid moister and snow water equivalent calculated from GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) hydrological model. It is concluded that GRACE time variable gravity field can reveal the variations of the terrestrial water storage more or less in Heihe River basin in the spatial scale, and the seasonal and annual changes obviously in the time scale. The terrestrial water storage variations recovered from GRACE temporal gravity field still have valuable applications in smaller river basin. Key words: Heihe River basin; GRACE; time-variable Earth's gravity field; terrestrial water Acknowledgements: This research was jointly supported by the National 973 Program of China (Project No.2007CB714405), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.40874002), and the New Century Excellent Talents Plan of Ministry of Education, China (NCET-07-0635).

Luo, Z. C.; Li, Q.; Wang, H. H.; Liao, M. S.

2009-04-01

312

Developmental Changes in Cell and Tissue Water Relations Parameters in Storage Parenchyma of Sugarcane 1  

PubMed Central

The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation or have an ability to regulate turgor. We tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 × 10?7 centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 × 10?7 centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell wall and membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose. PMID:11538006

Moore, Paul H.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

1991-01-01

313

Assimilating GRACE terrestrial water storage data into a conceptual hydrology model for the River Rhine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key component of the terrestrial and global hydrological cycles, and plays a major role in the Earth’s climate. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellite mission provided the first space-based dataset of TWS variations, albeit with coarse resolution and limited accuracy. Here, we examine the value of assimilating GRACE observations into a well-calibrated conceptual hydrology model of the Rhine river basin. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were applied to assimilate the GRACE TWS variation data into the HBV-96 rainfall run-off model, from February 2003 to December 2006. Two GRACE datasets were used, the DMT-1 models produced at TU Delft, and the CSR-RL04 models produced by UT-Austin . Each center uses its own data processing and filtering methods, yielding two different estimates of TWS variations and therefore two sets of assimilated TWS estimates. To validate the results, the model estimated discharge after the data assimilation was compared with measured discharge at several stations. As expected, the updated TWS was generally somewhere between the modeled and observed TWS in both experiments and the variance was also lower than both the prior error covariance and the assumed GRACE observation error. However, the impact on the discharge was found to depend heavily on the assimilation strategy used, in particular on how the TWS increments were applied to the individual storage terms of the hydrology model.

Widiastuti, E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B.; Weerts, A.; van de Giesen, N.

2009-12-01

314

Perturbations to Subglacial Water Storage through Integrated Borehole Impulse Testing: Western Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier boreholes provide one of the few avenues to actively measure properties relating to the subglacial hydrologic drainage network. Here we present results from a suite of impulse tests in boreholes drilled near the margin of Isunnguata Sermia, a terrestrially terminating outlet glacier in western Greenland. In June, 2010, we drilled 11 boreholes using hot water methods which intersected the glacier bed at shallow depths near the ice sheet margin. Throughout the drilling process we monitored borehole water levels to identify changes associated with englacial feature and glacier bed intersection. In addition to the 11 drilling tests, we performed 21 hydrologic slug tests over 13 days to investigate hydraulic connectivity between boreholes and transience between connections. In order to explore the response of the subglacial drainage network to a longer term hydraulic perturbation, we also performed two constant discharge injection tests. Perturbations associated with these three impulse methods are all accommodated by the subglacial drainage network, although the character of the response and recovery time show significant variability in time and space. Results highlight the ability of deep englacial features to not only establish connections to the basal system, but also to induce basal connections to previously isolated regions. This suggests that the deep englacial system is tightly coupled to the basal drainage network, providing an additional means of water transport and increasing basal storage capacity.

Meierbachtol, T. W.; Harper, J. T.; Humphrey, N. F.

2010-12-01

315

Terrestrial water storage response to the 2012 drought estimated from GPS vertical position anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

drought monitoring systems have not incorporated observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS). Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments can be used to estimate TWS variations in near real time because the solid Earth responds elastically to changes in hydrologic loading. Here GPS vertical position data, u, are used to assess the timing and duration of TWS anomalies in the High Plains caused by the 2012 drought; u indicates an initial TWS minimum in 2012, consistent with GRACE TWS, several months after the most severe meteorological forcing. Standard drought indices show recovery from drought during spring 2013. In contrast, u indicates that the TWS anomaly intensified by approximately 15% during summer 2013, an interval when no GRACE data are available. Hydrologic observations indicate that depletion of groundwater, not soil moisture, is the source of the persistent TWS anomaly. These results show that GPS data could be used to monitor drought-induced variations in TWS in near real time.

Chew, Clara C.; Small, Eric E.

2014-09-01

316

Validation of scale-4 for LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuel in transportation and storage cask conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of criticality calculations performed to validate the recently released SCALE-4 modular code system for light water reactor (LWR) fuel under various conditions typical of transportation and storage casks. The modifications in SCALE-4 include NITAWL-II, an updated version of the NITAWL code that performs resonance self-shielding calculations using the Nordeim Integral Treatment. In order to validate SCALE-4 with the new resonance self-shielding treatment, the CSAS4 control module was used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) via the BONAMI{sup 3}, NITAWL-II, and KENO V.a{sup 4} codes. The cross section library used was the 27 group ENDF/B-IV library, which has been updated for use with NITAWL-II. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bierman, S.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

317

Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

1980-12-01

318

Identification of seven water-soluble non-storage proteins from pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

As pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) processing is fast growing, the usage of pomegranate processing wastes containing seeds has been receiving great attention. The protein component accounts for 100-130?g/kg of the seeds in weight. However, so far, there is no information on the composition and function of the pomegranate seed proteins. In this study, a global view of water-soluble non-storage proteins isolated from mature pomegranate seeds were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. With the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach, over 120 protein spots were resolved, of which 7 abundant protein spots showing low molecular mass were identified. These identified proteins may be linked to seed development and metabolism, but more importantly, the occurrence of these proteins provides the possibility of conversion the pomegranate processing wastes into useful products or raw material for food industry. PMID:22859647

Yang, Haixia; Li, Meiliang; Qi, Xin; Lv, Chenyan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Guanghua

2012-08-01

319

Estimated water use in Florida, 1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

1980-01-01

320

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

1979-01-01

321

Evaluating surface and subsurface water storage variations at small time and space scales from relative gravity measurements in semiarid Niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acquisition of reliable data sets representative of hydrological regimes and their variations is a critical concern for water resource assessment. For the subsurface, traditional approaches based on probe measurements, core analysis, and well data can be laborious, expensive, and highly intrusive, while only yielding sparse data sets. For this study, an innovative field survey, merging relative microgravimetry, magnetic resonance soundings, and hydrological measurements, was conducted to evaluate both surface and subsurface water storage variations in a semiarid Sahelian area. The instrumental setup was implemented in the lower part of a typical hillslope feeding to a temporary pond. Weekly measurements were carried out using relative spring gravimeters during 3 months of the rainy season in 2009 over a 350 × 500 m2 network of 12 microgravity stations. Gravity variations of small to medium amplitude (?220 nm s-2) were measured with accuracies better than 50 nm s-2, revealing significant variations of the water storage at small time (from 1 week up to 3 months) and space (from a couple of meters up to a few hundred meters) scales. Consistent spatial organization of the water storage variations were detected, suggesting high infiltration at the outlet of a small gully. The comparison with hydrological measurements and magnetic resonance soundings involved that most of the microgravity variations came from the heterogeneity in the vadose zone. The results highlight the potential of time lapse microgravity surveys for detecting intraseasonal water storage variations and providing rich space-time data sets for process investigation or hydrological model calibration/evaluation.

Pfeffer, Julia; Champollion, CéDric; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Hinderer, Jacques; Boucher, Marie; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Oï, Monique; Mouyen, Maxime; Henri, Christopher; Moigne, Nicolas; Deroussi, SéBastien; Demarty, JéRôMe; Boulain, Nicolas; Benarrosh, Nathalie; Robert, Olivier

2013-06-01

322

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by integrating vertical water balance, lateral surface and subsurface kinematic wave routing, and channel plus floodplain diffusion wave routing models. The period of study is 2003 through 2008. The model forcing data are TRMM precipitation and MODIS air temperature, albedo, cloud cover and leaf area index. The HRR model parameters accounting for the thickness of the rooting zone layer, timing of the subsurface response to the channel network and speed of the flood wave are calibrated using the GRACE estimates of water storage change. The resulting model predictions are compared to corresponding streamflow data in the Amazon Basin and historical flow data in the Congo Basin. The results of this study quantify the predictive capabilities of a large scale hydrologic model driven primarily with Satellite data and without calibrating to in-situ streamflow data.

Beighley, R. E.; He, Y.; Ray, R. L.; Guo, J.; Shum, C.

2009-12-01

323

Forecasting Total Water Storage Changes in the Amazon basin using Atlantic and Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting the transportation, river navigation, agriculture, economy and the carbon balance and biodiversity of several South American countries. The present study aims to find the main variables controlling the natural interannual variability of terrestrial water storage in the Amazon region and to propose a modeling framework for flood and drought forecasting. We propose three simple empirical models using a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) sea surface temperatures (SST) to predict a decade-long record of 3°, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA) observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. In addition to a SST forcing term, the models included a relaxation term to simulate the memory of water storage anomalies in response to external variability in forcing. Model parameters were spatially-variable and individually optimized for each 3° grid cell. We also investigated the evolution of the predictive capability of our models with increasing minimum lead times for TWSA forecasts. TNAI was the primary external forcing for the central and western regions of the southern Amazon (35% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast), whereas Niño 4 was dominant in the northeastern part of the basin (61% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast). Forcing the model with a combination of the two indices improved the fit significantly (p<0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model was able to explain 43% of the variance in the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3-month lead time. While 66% of the observed variance was explained in the northeastern Amazon, only 39% of the variance was captured by the combined model in the central and western regions, suggesting that other, more local, forcing sources were important in these regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was monotonically degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using a 8-month lead time versus 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the western and central regions of southern Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months versus 43% at 1 month). Our model may provide early warning information about flooding in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin, where floodplain areas are extensive and the sensitivity of floods to external SST forcing was shown to be high. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as TWSA deficits may subsequently lead to atmospheric water vapor deficits and reduced cloudiness via water-limited evapotranspiration. Finally, this work helps to bridge the gap between the current GRACE mission and the follow-on gravity mission.

De Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-12-01

324

A Study on a Performance of Water-Spray-Type Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel with Vertical Heat Exchanger Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system with a water-embedded-trpe ice storage vessel is widely used because of its simple structure and compactness. However, the water-embedded-type ice storage vessel has a disadvantage, that is, the solidification rate is very small. The use of falling water film seems to be one of promising ways for solving this disadvantage. We have found in a previous study that the use of the falling water film is very effective, especially for high initial water temperatures. In the present study, we eexamined the performance of a faling-water-film-type ice thermal energy storage vessel with pratical size, having vertical heat exchanger plates. The ice making performance coefficient, ?, increases with time, and it becomes am aximum value of 2.5, after that, it decreases gradually. In order to make ice efficiently, it is necessary to set a flow rate of refrigerant properly and to adjust a difference between the evaporating temperature of refrigerant and the freezing point of water so that the refrigerant evaporates in the heat exchanger plates overall.

Yoshimura, Kenji; Sasaguchi, Kengo; Fukuda, Toshihito; Koyama, Shigeru

325

Linking chemostatic behaviour of streams to storage dynamics and long tails in water age distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water storage and release dynamics at the catchment scale are still incompletely understood. This is in particular true when considering actual particle transport rather than only the hydraulic response. Environmental tracers are frequently instrumental in inferring transport process dynamics. Several recent research papers for example highlight the importance of difference time scales in transport dynamics. While on the short term, particle transport patterns can exhibit considerable variability, many catchments are characterized by near-chemostatic behaviour on the long term. In other words although the tracer response can show considerable fluctuations on the intra-annual scale, it remains surprisingly stable at the inter-annual scale. This suggests (1) that at the long term the composition of water can be largely independent of flow volumes and (2) that water as well as tracers/contaminants, once stored in a catchment can remain in the system for a very long time. Here we use long term (< 20 years) precipitation, flow and tracer (chloride) data of three contrasting upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands to inform integrated conceptual models investigating different mixing assumptions. Using the models as diagnostic tools in a functional comparison, water and tracer fluxes were then tracked with the objective of exploring the origin and pattern of near-chemostatic behaviour which manifests itself in long, power-law tails of water age distributions. The results highlight the potential importance of partial mixing processes in the generation of long tails in water age distributions. However, the degree to which partial mixing influences the generation of long tails is dependent on the hydrological functioning of a catchment. As second influential factor controlling the tailing behaviour of water age distributions was identified to be the interplay of flow path connectivity with the relative importance and timing of different flow paths. This understanding will allow classification of catchments according to their vulnerability to and the persistence of contamination, allowing for the development of more adequate, tailor-made contamination protection and mitigation strategies. In general this study highlights the potential of customized integrated conceptual models, based on multiple mixing assumptions, to infer system internal transport dynamics and their sensitivity to catchment wetness states.

Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

2013-04-01

326

Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Knoll, R.W. (Johnson Controls, Inc., Madison, WI (USA))

1989-12-01

327

Effect of thermocycling and water storage on bond longevity of two self-etch adhesives.  

PubMed

Despite recent improvements in adhesive systems and their bond strength to enamel and dentin, the resin-tooth interface appears to be the weakest part of tooth-colored restorations; in addition, there are concerns regarding bond durability of self-etch adhesives (SEAs). This in vitro study investigated the bond durability of 2 such adhesives following thermocycling and water storage. Forty-eight intact human third molars were sectioned mesiodistally and mounted in acrylic resin so that buccal and lingual surfaces were positioned horizontally. All enamel and dentin surfaces were ground flat and polished on silicon carbide papers. Samples were separated into 2 groups (n = 24). A 1-step SEA was applied to one group, while a 2-step SEA was applied to the other, according to manufacturers' instructions. Half of the specimens in each group underwent shear bond strength (SBS) testing after 24 hours of incubation, while the other half were tested after 3000 thermal cycles and 6 months of water incubation. SBS data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, 1-way ANOVA, and a post hoc Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. Under the limitations of the present study, the 2-step SEA demonstrated higher baselines and aged bond strength to dental tissues compared to the 1-step SEA; in addition, the enamel bond strength of the 2-step SEA improved after aging. PMID:23649573

Khoroushi, Maryana; Rafiei, Elahe

2013-01-01

328

Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-10-01

329

THE FLOW AND STORAGE OF WATER IN THE WETLAND-DOMINATED CENTRAL MACKENZIE RIVER BASIN: RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were initiated in 1999 at Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada in order to improve the understanding and model-representation of the major water flux and storage processes within a wetland-dominated region of the discontinuous permafrost zone. This paper contributes to this end by presenting selected results on: 1) the physical and hydraulic properties of the active layer soils in

W. L. Quinton; M. Hayashi

330

Comparison of coal IGCC with and without CO 2 capture and storage: Shell gasification with standard vs. partial water quench  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides a techno-economic assessment of Shell coal gasification -based IGCC, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS), focusing on the comparison between the standard Shell configuration with dry gas quench and syngas coolers versus partial water quench cooling.

Emanuele Martelli; Thomas Kreutz; Stefano Consonni

2009-01-01

331

Water content, temperature and biocide effects on the growth kinetics of bacteria isolated from JP-8 aviation fuel storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three bacterial strains isolated from JP-8 aviation fuel storage tanks were used to examine their ability to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy. The isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Ralstonia picketii. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and water content on the growth kinetics of the bacterial

Vassilios Raikos; Sotiris S. Vamvakas; Dimitrios Sevastos; John Kapolos; George Karaiskakis; Athanasia Koliadima

332

NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

Wells, Douglas P.

2011-01-01

333

Collection and representation of GIS data to aid household water treatment and safe storage technology implementation in the northern region of Ghana  

E-print Network

In 2005, a start-up social business called Pure Home Water (PHW) was begun in Ghana to promote and sell household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) technologies. The original aim of the company was to offer a variety ...

VanCalcar, Jenny E. (Jenny Elizabeth)

2006-01-01

334

Quantifying spatio-temporal variability of soil water storage and their controls at multiple scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water is the primary limiting factor in semiarid ecosystems and determinant of environmental health. The distribution of soil water in space and time has important hydrologic applications. However, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water is a major challenge in hydrology as their distribution in the landscape is controlled many factors and processes acting in different intensities over a variety of scales. Quantification of these variability and their dominant controls at multiple scales can only lead to a better understanding on the soil water dynamics in space and time and on the underlying processes causing the variability. In order to quantify spatio-temporal variability, soil water content (later converted to soil water storage, SWS) was measured down to 1.4 m (0.2 m depth interval) at 128 regularly spaced locations along a transect of 576 m over a five-year period from the Hummocky landscape of central Canada. The spatial pattern of SWS was very similar (large values of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) over the entire study period and was almost a mirror image of the spatial pattern of the relative elevation. The similarity was stronger within a season (intra-season) than the same season from different years (inter-annual) and between seasons (inter-season). The variability at multiple scales was quantified using the wavelet transform. The strongest large scale (>72 m) variability contributed from the macro-topography and a moderate medium scale (18-72 m) variability contributed from the landform elements were persistent over the entire measurement period (time stability). The locations and the scales of the most persistent spatial patterns over time and depth were quantified using the wavelet coherency. The changes in the persistent patterns indicated the changes in the scales and locations of underlying hydrological processes, which can be used to identify change in sampling domain. The similarities/dissimilarities in the spatial pattern between the surface and sub-surface measurements at different scales and locations were used to infer the whole profile hydrological dynamics (depth persistence). The variability in SWS spatial patterns was controlled by different factors at different scales. Scale specific dominant controls were identified after separating the variance contribution of each scale towards the overall variance using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The large scale macro-topographical control and medium scale landform control were much stronger than very large scale soil textural control on SWS. The scale-specific relationship with controlling factors improved the prediction of SWS.

Biswas, Asim

2014-05-01

335

South Point Ethanol 60-million gallon per year fuel-ethanol plant: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, construction, and operation of a 63-million gallon per year fuel-ethanol plant built by South Point Ethanol on a 600-acre site of a decommissioned ammonia fertilizer facility in South Point, Ohio. The existing coal-fired boiler complex, rail system, utilities, large and small tanks, distillation columns, and other equipment, and several process and office buildings were refurbished

L. Hill; H. Hicks; W. Hopkins; B. Jordan; R. Andersen

1986-01-01

336

Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.  

PubMed

The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. PMID:22608116

Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

2012-10-26

337

Storage stability of hen egg white powders in three protein/water dough model systems.  

PubMed

In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in the intermediate-moisture food (IMF) market, such as high protein nutrition bars (HPNB), has significantly increased. Currently, no reported study is related to the storage stability of dried hen egg white (DEW) and its hydrolysates (HEW) in an IMF matrix. Therefore, three DEW/HEW dough model systems (100%HEW+0%DEW, 75%HEW+25%DEW and 50%HEW+50%DEW) were established using two commercial spray-dried egg white powders to study the effect of temperature and fraction of HEW on these IMF models (water activity (a(w)): ?0.8). During storage at three different temperatures (23, 35 and 45°C) for 70 days, the selected physicochemical properties of the dough systems were compared. Overall, kinetic analysis showed an apparent zero-order model fit for the change in the colour (L(?)), fluorescence intensity (FI) and hardness, as a function of time, for different dough model systems. As expected, the L(?), FI and hardness increased as a function of time mainly due to the Maillard reaction. The amount of free amino groups decreased, with an increase in rate of loss, as temperature increased in the 100%HEW+0%DEW model. When DEW was substituted for some HEW, the regeneration of the free amino groups after loss was observed as a function of time. Furthermore, when the percentage of HEW was decreased, the incidence of mouldy samples occurred sooner, which indicates that HEW has some antimicrobial ability, especially in the 100%HEW+0%DEW system where mould growth did not occur. PMID:23411218

Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Labuza, Theodore P

2013-06-01

338

The pros and cons of retained gallons payout in the sale of fueloil business  

SciTech Connect

Historically many fueloil businesses have been sold with at least a portion of the payout tied to the future delivery of gallons to the customers of the seller. This concept is usually not present in the sales of most retail businesses because future purchases by transferred customers is dependent on pricing, promotion, location, reputation, branding and other factors. In the case of fueloil, the customer is known to have a loyalty to the fueloil dealer, which in part is due to the need for service rendered to the heating equipment in the home. Periodic studies indicate customer loyalty is in the range of 8 to 10 years with the same dealer. In many markets, growth in the percentage of consumer price buyers who pay cash may be changing these loyalties. For example, in New Hampshire a recent study by the state energy office indicates that the percentage of fuel buyers who buy for cash has increased from 27.5% during the 1982-1983 heating season to 41.5% this past year. No one knows how this trend will impact on the sales of fueloil businesses via retained gallons. This article discusses the following: why customer lists should not be considered good will; underlying assumptions in sale; options of the seller; why misunderstandings occur; defining the account; definition of gallons to be counted; compatibility of policies; how much will be retained; and how to protect yourself and retention.

Hall, W.H. (Acorn Consultants, Edgecomb, ME (USA))

1990-01-01

339

Annual collection and storage of solar energy for the heating of buildings, report No. 1. Progress report, May--November 1976. [Underground pool of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system for the annual collection and storage of solar heated water for heating of buildings is under development at the University of Virginia. The system is composed of an energy storage sub-system which stores hot water in an underground pool and of a solar collector sub-system which acts not only to collect solar energy throughout the year but

J. T. Beard; J. W. Dickey; F. A. Iachetta; L. U. Lilleleht

1977-01-01

340

Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2007 in the Amazon Basin2 from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level3  

E-print Network

2003-2007 of different hydrological parameters in28 the Amazon river basin: vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry29 mission, surface water level over the Amazon River and its storage from GRACE and31 in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries. We also

Boyer, Edmond

341

Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

1982-01-01

342

Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

343

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01

344

Statistical separation and forecast of water storage patterns over West Asia using GRACE data and climate indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that large parts of West Asia, specifically the arid Middle East region, exhibited a rapid loss of freshwater reserves during the past decade. A reliable estimation of large scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) changes and the ability of forecasting them, with respect to climate variability and change, are therefore essential for West Asia. This study first implemented a least squares inversion approach to separate the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived total water storage products over West Asia. Time series of separated terrestrial water and groundwater storage changes were then generated over the region, covering the period of 2003 to 2013. Forecasting scenarios were generated to predict TWS and GWS changes by applying low-degree autoregressive models which relate basin averaged TWS and GWS changes to input values of precipitation and evaporation as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation index as the remote controller of the region's climate. Dry, normal, and wet scenarios were designed to forecast West Asia's TWS and GWS variations over the period of 2013 to 2015. Our separated results over 2003 to 2013 indicated a decline in TWS and GW over the Middle East. A strong correlation was found between the NAO index and variability of water storage over West Asia, specifically during the period of 2005 to 2008. Dry forecasting scenarios indicated continuous GWS decline over the northwest part of Iran, entire Iraq and Syria, which have been already facing challenges of limited water resources. Key words: Forecsting GRACE-TWS; Groundwater; Signal Separation; Middle East

Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Schumacher, Maike; Anyah, Richard; Awange, Joseph; Mostafaie, Abdorrahman

2014-05-01

345

Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

1979-01-01

346

Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from a Global Land Surface Model Simulation with the Anthropogenic Impacts on Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among global water cycle components, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) is one of the most difficult to estimate. In this study, basin-scale regional TWS variations simulated by a global-scale land surface model, after validating with GRACE data and observed streamflow, are used to investigate the dominant TWS components as well as the interactions among TWS components over some largest river basins. The analysis is based on an integrated water resources assessment modelling framework developed by incorporating human impact schemes (i.e., reservoir operation, irrigation, withdrawal, groundwater pumping, and environmental flow requirements) into a land surface model - the Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO). MATSIRO simulates the majority of land hydrologic processes on a physical basis at the global 1° × 1° resolution. The terrestrial water storage (TWS) simulated consists of soil moisture, groundwater, river water, snow and ice, and the human impact components such as reservoir storage. The effects of irrigation and groundwater pumping on TWS variations are also considered in certain regions where their impacts are known to be significant (e.g. The High Plains Aquifer, US). Moreover, a comparison on the TWS components is made with the MATSIRO simulation without considering human impact. The difference between them is a direct measure on the extent to which human anthropogenic impacts affect regional hydrology.

Yeh, P. J.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.

2013-12-01

347

Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions.

Lopez, O.; Stenchikov, G.; Missimer, T. M.

2014-07-01

348

SAR interferometry, water balance measurements, and clay shrinkage to estimate soil water storage change from the field to the catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar interferometry (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique capable of measuring subtle surface elevation changes of large areas, with high spatial resolution. The technique is well established for applications like tectonic and volcanic induced deformation monitoring. Apart from a few studies using InSAR to quantify aquifer storage coefficients and hydraulic heads from land subsidence and some attempts to monitor open water level changes, applications in hydrology are virtually absent. Satellite radar (SAR) data of a study area, as used for InSAR, are generally acquired weekly to monthly, with a high spatial resolution (several tens of meters). The relatively high resolution (compared to many other remote sensing data) and the spatial extent, allow for detailed monitoring of hydrological variables. Using combinations of acquisitions of these data interferometrically may potentially be capable of measuring temporary surface elevation changes brought about by the swelling or shrinkage of clay. In unsaturated zone hydrology it has long been recognized that the soil shrinkage curve links elevation changes from clay dynamics to soil water storage changes. Therefore, satellite based radar interferometry can potentially offer an alternative methodology to estimate soil water storage change at field or regional scales. This study aims at investigating the possibilities and limitations of InSAR for soil water storage change estimations in clay areas. To do so, a novel combination of traditional and modern field measurements of water balance terms and TerraSAR-X data has been exploited. Measurements of soil water storage change and surface elevation change revealed in situ shrinkage curves with slopes close to 1, indicating normal shrinkage where soil water storage change approximates soil volume change. InSAR measurements revealed differences between different soil and land use types. Therefore care has to be taken in selecting areas subjected to InSAR analysis. We show that if this is done adequately, the InSAR observations correlate well with in situ measured soil surface elevation changes from clay shrinkage in a period of soil water depletion. Based on these results, the potential of the combination of high resolution SAR data and clay soil characterization in terms of the shrinkage curve for up-scaling from point scale in situ measurements to field and catchments scale remote sensing observations is evident. The values of SAR data for this application is expected to increase further with the upcoming Sentinel-1 SAR data which will provide SAR data every 6 days.

te Brake, Bram; van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit; Hanssen, Ramon

2013-04-01

349

12 SWAT USER'S MANUAL, VERSION 98.1 CANOPY STORAGE. Canopy storage is the water intercepted by vegetative  

E-print Network

, the soil becomes increasingly wet, causing the rate of infiltration to decrease with time until it reaches. Infiltration refers to the entry of water into a soil profile from the soil surface. As infiltration continues a steady value. The initial rate of infiltration depends on the moisture content of the soil prior

350

Comparing groundwater recharge and storage variability from GRACE satellite observations with observed water levels and recharge model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of groundwater resources, particularly in water stressed regions, requires estimates of groundwater recharge. This study in southern Mali, Africa compares approaches for estimating groundwater recharge and understanding recharge processes using a variety of methods encompassing groundwater level-climate data analysis, GRACE satellite data analysis, and recharge modelling for current and future climate conditions. Time series data for GRACE (2002-2006) and observed groundwater level data (1982-2001) do not overlap. To overcome this problem, GRACE time series data were appended to the observed historical time series data, and the records compared. Terrestrial water storage anomalies from GRACE were corrected for soil moisture (SM) using the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to obtain monthly groundwater storage anomalies (GRACE-SM), and monthly recharge estimates. Historical groundwater storage anomalies and recharge were determined using the water table fluctuation method using observation data from 15 wells. Historical annual recharge averaged 145.0 mm (or 15.9% of annual rainfall) and compared favourably with the GRACE-SM estimate of 149.7 mm (or 14.8% of annual rainfall). Both records show lows and peaks in May and September, respectively; however, the peak for the GRACE-SM data is shifted later in the year to November, suggesting that the GLDAS may poorly predict the timing of soil water storage in this region. Recharge simulation results show good agreement between the timing and magnitude of the mean monthly simulated recharge and the regional mean monthly storage anomaly hydrograph generated from all monitoring wells. Under future climate conditions, annual recharge is projected to decrease by 8% for areas with luvisols and by 11% for areas with nitosols. Given this potential reduction in groundwater recharge, there may be added stress placed on an already stressed resource.

Allen, D. M.; Henry, C.; Demon, H.; Kirste, D. M.; Huang, J.

2011-12-01

351

Seasonal Water Storage Variations as Impacted by Water Abstractions: Comparing the Output of a Global Hydrological Model with GRACE and GPS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better quantification of continental water storage variations is expected to improve our understanding of water flows, including evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge as well as human water abstractions. For the first time, total water storage (TWS) on the land area of the globe as computed by the global water model WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) was compared to both gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. The GRACE satellites sense the effect of TWS on the dynamic gravity field of the Earth. GPS reference points are displaced due to crustal deformation caused by time-varying TWS. Unfortunately, the worldwide coverage of the GPS tracking network is irregular, while GRACE provides global coverage albeit with low spatial resolution. Detrended TWS time series were analyzed by determining scaling factors for mean annual amplitude ( f GRACE) and time series of monthly TWS ( f GPS). Both GRACE and GPS indicate that WaterGAP underestimates seasonal variations of TWS on most of the land area of the globe. In addition, seasonal maximum TWS occurs 1 month earlier according to WaterGAP than according to GRACE on most land areas. While WaterGAP TWS is sensitive to the applied climate input data, none of the two data sets result in a clearly better fit to the observations. Due to the low number of GPS sites, GPS observations are less useful for validating global hydrological models than GRACE observations, but they serve to support the validity of GRACE TWS as observational target for hydrological modeling. For unknown reasons, WaterGAP appears to fit better to GPS than to GRACE. Both GPS and GRACE data, however, are rather uncertain due to a number of reasons, in particular in dry regions. It is not possible to benefit from either GPS or GRACE observations to monitor and quantify human water abstractions if only detrended (seasonal) TWS variations are considered. Regarding GRACE, this is mainly caused by the attenuation of the TWS differences between water abstraction variants due to the filtering required for GRACE TWS. Regarding GPS, station density is too low. Only if water abstractions lead to long-term changes in TWS by depletion or restoration of water storage in groundwater or large surface water bodies, GRACE may be used to support the quantification of human water abstractions.

Döll, Petra; Fritsche, Mathias; Eicker, Annette; Müller Schmied, Hannes

2014-11-01

352

Seasonal Water Storage Variations as Impacted by Water Abstractions: Comparing the Output of a Global Hydrological Model with GRACE and GPS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better quantification of continental water storage variations is expected to improve our understanding of water flows, including evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge as well as human water abstractions. For the first time, total water storage (TWS) on the land area of the globe as computed by the global water model WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) was compared to both gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. The GRACE satellites sense the effect of TWS on the dynamic gravity field of the Earth. GPS reference points are displaced due to crustal deformation caused by time-varying TWS. Unfortunately, the worldwide coverage of the GPS tracking network is irregular, while GRACE provides global coverage albeit with low spatial resolution. Detrended TWS time series were analyzed by determining scaling factors for mean annual amplitude (f GRACE) and time series of monthly TWS (f GPS). Both GRACE and GPS indicate that WaterGAP underestimates seasonal variations of TWS on most of the land area of the globe. In addition, seasonal maximum TWS occurs 1 month earlier according to WaterGAP than according to GRACE on most land areas. While WaterGAP TWS is sensitive to the applied climate input data, none of the two data sets result in a clearly better fit to the observations. Due to the low number of GPS sites, GPS observations are less useful for validating global hydrological models than GRACE observations, but they serve to support the validity of GRACE TWS as observational target for hydrological modeling. For unknown reasons, WaterGAP appears to fit better to GPS than to GRACE. Both GPS and GRACE data, however, are rather uncertain due to a number of reasons, in particular in dry regions. It is not possible to benefit from either GPS or GRACE observations to monitor and quantify human water abstractions if only detrended (seasonal) TWS variations are considered. Regarding GRACE, this is mainly caused by the attenuation of the TWS differences between water abstraction variants due to the filtering required for GRACE TWS. Regarding GPS, station density is too low. Only if water abstractions lead to long-term changes in TWS by depletion or restoration of water storage in groundwater or large surface water bodies, GRACE may be used to support the quantification of human water abstractions.

Döll, Petra; Fritsche, Mathias; Eicker, Annette; Müller Schmied, Hannes

2014-03-01

353

Evaluating soil water storage distribution in a tempo-spatial domain with a new statistical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time stability of soil water storage (SWS) was usually used to infer overall SWS distribution, assuming the spatial pattern of SWS was the same at different time. However, temporal change of SWS usually varies spatially, resulting in the changes of spatial pattern of SWS. In addition, controlling factors of SWS has been extensively explored. However, most of controlling factors are identified by their correlations to the spatial distribution of SWS, and few focused on the spatial distribution of temporal changes in SWS. The objective of this study was to develop a statistical model which considers both time-invariant spatial pattern of SWS and spatial variability of temporal change in SWS. Specific attentions were given to (1) the controlling factors of the spatial structure of temporal change in SWS and (2) estimation and prediction of SWS distribution with the new model. The model divides spatial SWS series into time-invariant spatial pattern, space-invariant temporal change, and space- and time-dependent redistribution term. The redistribution term is responsible for the temporal change in spatial pattern of SWS. Empirical orthogonal function was used to separate the total variations of redistribution term into the sum of product of spatial structures (EOFs) and temporally-varying coefficients (ECs). Model performance was evaluated using SWS data of 0-1.0 m layer from St. Denis National Wildlife Area at the Canadian Prairie (SDNWA) and LaoYeManQu watershed on the Chinese Loess Plateau (LYMQ). Two significant EOFs (EOF1 and EOF2) were found in both areas, which explained 70.8% and 78.4%, respectively, of the total variations of redistribution terms. EOF1 resulted in more changes (recharge or discharge) of SWS at wetter locations, while the role of EOF2 varied with time irrespective of soil water conditions in both areas. The EOF1 of redistribution term was mainly controlled by depth to CaCO3 layer, organic carbon content, and curvature in SDNWA and by silt content, total biomass yield, and organic carbon content in LYMQ. The weight of EOF1 was greater at more extreme soil water conditions, and EC1 was significantly linearly correlated with the spatial mean SWS. The roles of EOF1 resulted in more change (recharge or discharge) of SWS at wetter locations in both areas. The measured soil water storage distribution can be simulated very well by the model. If only EOF1 was considered, reasonable SWS distribution estimation with high NSCE values (from 0.77 to 0.98 in SDNWA, and from 0.95 to 0.99 in LYMQ) was obtained. With SWS measurement at the most time-stable location, mean SWS at unobserved date can be well predicted, with NSCE values from 0.69 to 0.79 in SDNWA and from 0.60 to 0.82 in LYMQ. This model combined with time stability analysis showed a great potential in downscaling of soil moisture distribution in the landscape. The two study areas have drastically different soil, vegetation, climate, topography, and cultivation history. The good performance of this model in both areas may indicate its general applicability to most climatic regions, which need to be verified.

hu, wei; si, bing

2013-04-01

354

Predicting Agricultural Drought using NOAH Land Surface Model, MODIS Evapotranspiration and GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a major natural hazard in the world which costs 6-8 billion per year in the United States. Drought monitoring and prediction are difficult because it usually develops slowly and it is hard to be recognized until it becomes severe. The severity of agricultural drought was estimated by using Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI) based on soil moisture simulated by Noah land surface model. Based on general water balance and delayed response of soil moisture to the forcing of climate variables, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model for agricultural drought prediction was developed, the inputs of which included data at the previous one and two months of precipitation from Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), evapotranspiration from MODIS MOD 16 product and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). The stability of the MLR model is tested using different training datasets from 2003 to 2009 with time spans of one year to six years and the results indicated that the model is stable, with very limited changes in estimated parameters between different datasets. A sensitivity analysis shows that evapotranspiration is the most significant variable affecting soil moisture change compared to precipitation and TWS. The predicted SMDI was compared with U.S. drought monitor products to evaluate its performance for the period of 2010-2012 when a severe drought occurred in the U.S. (Fig.1). The predicted SMDI successfully forecasted the severe drought in the southern U.S. in early 2012 and its expansion in the following summer. The MLR model has a high predictive skill with short-term forecast (1-2 months), while less accuracy is observed for the long-term forecast (3-6 months) (Fig.2).

wu, J.; Zhang, X.

2013-12-01

355

The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

2012-12-01

356

Surface water storage variations in Anatolia and Surrounding Territories observed by GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA/GFZ's joint satellite-to-satellite tracking mission GRACE has the primary science objective of measuring climate-sensitive signals generated by mass redistributions on Earth including the oceans and land at spatial scales greater than several hundred km and temporal scales longer than 30 days. Its main science data include the monthly time series of global geopotential models in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients (SHC) which is one of the so-called L2 data products. As the well-known effects on the orbital perturbations such as the planetary bodies, ocean tides, solid Earth tides and other high-frequency variations in ocean and atmosphere are forward modeled prior to the estimation of monthly SHC, the difference between the SHC mainly represents the changes of climate sensitive signals such as hydrology, ice sheet mass balance and ocean mass change. Although the SHC still include the residual effects of tides and atmosphere due to imperfect models and temporal aliasing, recent studies have shown that the hydrology signal can be estimated with an accuracy of several cm in equivalent water tickness and a resolution of several hundred km. One other way to estimate the hydrology signal is the regional inversion method where we use the in situ intersatellite potential difference observations computed based on the energy conservation principle (Jekeli, 1999). To this end, we use the GRACE L1B data products such as range rate, accelerometer and star camera data for the energy integral of the satellites. The well known effects, N-body tides, ocean and solid Earth tides, the high frequency atmospheric mass variations and barotropic ocean response due to atmospheric forcing are forward modeled based on best current models and ancillary data and removed from the in-situ potential differences. The remaining in-situ potential differences are then used as observations based on Newton's law of gravitation to estimate the surface water mass changes with respect to a reference geopotential field, e.g., GGM01C. In this study, the surface water mass changes over Anatolia and the surrounding region located between 20-47 degree East longitudes and 30-48 degree North latitudes are computed based on the monthly SHC model and the regional inversion of the in situ potential difference observations. Two distinct solutions have different temporal and spatial resolutions even though the estimated accuracies are similar. The former is computed with a temporal resolution of one month and a spatial resolution of 300 km. The regional solution has computed with monthly and sub-monthly intervals with a spatial resolution as fine as 165 km. Both solutions have accuracies of 2-3 cm in terms of water column height. In addition, the results have been compared with the water level heights observed by Envisat tracks at the Ataturk dam reservoir between the years 2003-2009. Even though the GRACE monthly water storage estimates and the observed water level heights have different amplitudes, both follow a similar seasonal pattern.

Akyilmaz, O.; Mercan, H.

2012-04-01

357

Assessment of deterioration in water quality from source to household storage in semi-urban settings of developing countries.  

PubMed

This study has investigated the common risks associated with the water quality changes from the source to the consumer households and the associated disease burden in the piped water supplies. Samples from the source to the household storage from Nagpur City were collected and analysed for heavy metals, nutrient and microbial parameters. Sanitary risks were identified at the households during the socio-economic and sanitary survey. The water quality deterioration was the most at household storage around 30.3% indicating that measures need to be taken to safeguard the water quality at the consumer level. Then, 31.2% of the samples collected from public standposts and handpumps were positive for faecal contamination which implies that it is the weaker sections of the society who suffer the consequences of drinking unsafe water the most. On the basis of the laboratory results, risk analysis by surveying the WTPs, point-of-use behaviour at households and sanitary status at different socio-economic strata, the Water Safety Plan for Nagpur City was structured. The aim was to ensure that safe and improved water is reached to the individual household. PMID:24048880

John, Viji; Jain, Priyanka; Rahate, Manish; Labhasetwar, Pawan

2014-02-01

358

Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-12-01

359

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

1978-01-01

360

Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

361

Measurements of Water and B4C Content of Rackable Can Storage Boxes for HEU Storage at the HEUMF at the Y-12 National Security Complex  

SciTech Connect

Extensive measurements at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with BoroBond{trademark} blocks of varying thickness, natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) content, and water content, and with a simplified mockup of the Rackable Can Storage Box (RCSB) of fixed natural B{sub 4}C and water content, have led to a method of quantifying the water content of RCSBs by fast neutron time-of-flight transmission measurements (NMIS)* and quantifying the B{sub 4}C content with gamma ray spectrometry assuming the water content is known. The time-of-flight transmission measurements results can also be used to assess the uniformity of the BoroBond{trademark} in the RCSB. The data from both measurements will be stored for future comparisons to initial measurements. These methods can also be implemented at the RCSB production site, or subsequently at the Y-12 National Security Complex during the operating lifetime of the RCSBs at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility.

Neal, JS

2003-03-24

362

Mechanical properties and microstructure of frozen carrots during storage as affected by blanching in water and sugar solutions.  

PubMed

Raw carrots and carrots blanched in water and in 4% trehalose and maltose solutions at 75°C for 3 (A) and 10 min (C) and at 90°C for 3 (B) and 10 min (D) were frozen and stored at -18°C for eight months. The effects of heating conditions and exogenous added sugars on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the vegetable after blanching and during frozen storage were studied. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis no significant differences were observed among samples A and B water-blanched and raw carrot while a thermo-protective effect due to the sugars addition was evidenced in sample D, undergone to the most severe thermal treatment. Freezing and frozen storage determined several fractures on both raw and blanched carrots due to ice crystals formation and re-crystallisation. The cryo-protective effect of the sugars on the vegetable microstructure was observed only in the 'over-blanched' sample D. The mechanical properties of carrots were affected by blanching which caused a hardness decrease but after freezing and one month of frozen storage, all samples showed a further dramatic reduction of hardness. Only samples characterised by a pectinesterase residual activity showed a softening also after one month of frozen storage likely for a competitive effect of the thermo-protective ability of trehalose on this enzyme. The exogenous trehalose was able to limit the hardness loss of carrots undergone to B, C and D blanching pre-treatments. PMID:24099543

Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

2014-02-01

363

Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

364

Longterm solar heat storage in an underground water cistern retrofitted with thermal insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the cistern was tested by measuring storage and surrounding soil temperatures over extended periods of time as heat was added from a solar collector (summer, fall, and winter) or environmental coolness was added (via cold air blown into the cistern) in winter. From these measurements, storage time-constants of the order of 6 months were inferred and verified.

Borst, W. L.

1980-10-01

365

A tantalum nitride photoanode modified with a hole-storage layer for highly stable solar water splitting.  

PubMed

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is an ideal approach for renewable solar fuel production. One of the major problems is that narrow bandgap semiconductors, such as tantalum nitride, though possessing desirable band alignment for water splitting, suffer from poor photostability for water oxidation. For the first time it is shown that the presence of a ferrihydrite layer permits sustainable water oxidation at the tantalum nitride photoanode for at least 6?h with a benchmark photocurrent over 5?mA?cm(-2) , whereas the bare photoanode rapidly degrades within minutes. The remarkably enhanced photostability stems from the ferrihydrite, which acts as a hole-storage layer. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that it can be a general strategy for protecting narrow bandgap semiconductors against photocorrosion in solar water splitting. PMID:24890044

Liu, Guiji; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Fuxiang; Chen, Zheng; Han, Jingfeng; Ding, Chunmei; Chen, Shanshan; Wang, Zhiliang; Han, Hongxian; Li, Can

2014-07-01

366

40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standard under § 80.240(a) is as follows: CRb = Vb × (Sb ?Sc ) Where: CRb = number of sulfur allotments or...ppm-gallons) Vb = Volume of the gasoline batch (gallons) Sb = Sulfur level of the gasoline batch (ppm) Sc =...

2010-07-01

367

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Helium and LN2 Storage Requirements for D-Zero Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were done to determine a recommended size for the liquid helium storage dewar, gas helium storage tanks, and liquid nitrogen dewar requirements. I recommend a Liquid helium storage dewar with a nominal size of at least 2500 liters (660 gallons), preferably 3000 liters (792 gallons). I recommend obtaining gas helium storage tanks with a maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) of 250 psig or greater. Combined volume to be at least 5880 cubic feet (44,000 gallons). I recommend obtaining a second liquid nitrogen dewar at D-Zero, dedicated to the refrigerator, solenoid and VLPC systems. The ideal dewar would have a volume of around 16,000 gallons. It's MAWP needs to be greater than 55 psig.

Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

1995-04-04

368

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

369

Stem dimensional fluctuation in Jeffrey pine from variation in water storage as influenced by thinning and prescribed fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest thinning utilizing cut-to-length and whole-tree harvesting systems with subsequent underburning were assessed for their\\u000a impacts on water storage in the extensible tissues of dominant and codominant trees in an uneven-aged Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) stand on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada. Prior to the onset of the third growing season following thinning\\u000a and the

Robert M. Fecko; Roger F. Walker; Wesley B. Frederick; Watkins W. Miller; Dale W. Johnson

2008-01-01

370

Storage and release of solutes from a subalpine seasonal snowpack: soil and stream water response, Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research on the chemistry of snow and surface waters of the western US, Europe, and Asia has been conducted in\\u000a high-elevation catchments above treeline. Here we provide information on the solute content of the seasonal snowpack at the\\u000a Soddie site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado, a subalpine site near treeline. We focus on the storage and release of

Mark W. Williams; Christine Seibold; Kurt Chowanski

2009-01-01

371

Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg\\/L and 9,000 microg\\/L, respectively, in water

J. D. Powell; W. G. Wright

1990-01-01

372

Fallowing practices, soil water storage, plant- available soil nitrogen accumulation and wheat performance in South West Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radford, B.J., Gibson, G., Nielsen, R.G.H., Butler, D.G., Smith, G.D. and Orange, D.N., 1992. Fal- lowing practices, soil water storage, plant-available soil nitrogen accumulation and wheat perform- ance in South West Queensland. Soil Tillage Res., 22: 73-93. The effects of tillage frequency (conventional, reduced and zero), primary tillage implement (disc, blade and chisel plough), stubble management (retention and removal), gypsum

B. J. Radford; G. Gibson; R. G. H. Nielsen; D. G. Butler; G. D. Smith; D. N. Orange

373

Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

1980-01-01

374

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

1980-01-01

375

Analysis of Long-term Terrestrial Water Storage Variations in the Yangtze River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we analyze 32 years of TWS data obtained from Interim Reanalysis Data (ERA-Interim) and Noah model from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-Noah) for the period between 1979 and 2010. The accuracy of these datasets is validated against 26 years (1979-2004) of runoff dataset from Yichang gauging station and compared to 32 years of independent precipitation data obtained from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Full Data Reanalysis Version 6 (GPCC) and NOAA's PRECipitation REConstruction over Land (PREC/L). Spatial and temporal analysis of the TWS data shows that TWS in the Yangtze River basin is decreasing significantly since the year 1998. The driest period of the basin is noted from 2005 to 2010, especially in the middle and lower Yangtze reaches. The TWS changed abruptly into persistently high negative anomalies in the middle and lower Yangtze Reaches in 2004. From both basin and annual perspectives, 2006 is detected as the major inflection point at which the system exhibits a persistent decrease in TWS. Comparing these TWS trends to independent precipitation datasets shows that the recent decrease in TWS can mainly be attributed to a decrease in precipitation amount. Our finding is based on observation and modeling data sets and confirms previous results based on gauging station datasets. Reference: Huang, Y., Salama, M.S., Krol, M.S., van der Velde, R., Hoekstra, A.Y., Zhou, Y. and Su, Z. (2013) Analysis of long - term terrestrial water storage variations in the Yangtze River basin. In: Hydrology and earth system sciences (HESS): 17 (2013)5 pp. 1985-2000.

Su, Bob; Huang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Salama, Suhyb; Krol, Maaten; Hoekstra, Arjen; Zhou, Yunxuan; van der Velde, Rogier

2014-05-01

376

Environmental Health in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Use of Water Storage Containers, Water Quality, and Community Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality and availability are important issues in many developing countries where portions of populations still lack access to potable water. Throughout the English-speaking Caribbean and parts of Latin America, households and businesses invest in water supply systems even when they are connected to and pay for water services from a private or state owned provider. Inconsistent supplies of water

Erlande Omisca

2011-01-01

377

Water Storage Changes in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 ± 0.6 mm/year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. We use additional remote-sensing information and output from land-surface models to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach followed here provides an example of 'best current capabilities' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin region lost 15.6 ± 2.9 mm/year of groundwater during the study period, or 82.3 ± 15.4 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; De Linage, C.

2011-12-01

378

Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.  

PubMed

The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750?mW?cm(-2) at 750?°C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2?h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons. PMID:24798121

Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

2014-06-01

379

Effects of increasing forest plantation area and management practices on carbon storage and water use in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planted forest area in the United States gradually increased during the last half century, and by 2007 accounted for about 20% of the total forest area in the southern United States and about 13% in the entire country. Intensive plantation management activities - such as slash burning, thinning, weed control, fertilization and the use of genetically improved seedlings - are routinely applied during the forest rotation. However, no comprehensive assessments have been made to examine the impacts of this increased forest plantation area and associated management practices on ecosystem function. In this study, we integrated field measurement data and process-based modeling to quantitatively estimate the changes in carbon storage, nitrogen cycling and water use as influenced by forest plantations in the United States from 1925 to 2007. The results indicated that forest plantations and management practices greatly increased forest productivity, vegetation carbon, and wood product carbon storage in the United States, but slightly reduce soil carbon storage at some areas; however, the carbon sink induced by forest plantations was at the expense of more water use as represented by higher evapotranspiration. Stronger nitrogen and water limitations were found for forest plantations as compared to natural or naturally-regenerated forests.

Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.; Tian, H.

2013-12-01

380

Biogenic structures and their controls on water flow & storage from plot to meso-catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high spatio-termporal variability in water flow and storage, i.e. preferential flow, can influence local infiltration patterns, but also the distribution of water to runoff, soil moisture, groundwater and subsurface stormflow. Preferential flow can occur from plot scale to catchment scale and is often mainly determined by soil structure. In the past decades the research on preferential flow and inclusion of preferential flow into hydrological models has strongly improved our understanding of hydrology. The quantification of soil structure and the parameterization of preferential flow for hydrological models however remains a major challenge. A large part of soil structure is of biogenic origin: biopores and bioaggregates. The spatial distribution of the different organisms which create biogenic soil structures depends on soil habitat factors. At the same time these organisms actively change the soil physical or chemical processes thereby influencing the soil habitat. This results in a clear feedback loop between the soil processes and the abundance of soil organisms. Therefore in the CAOS Subproject J we propose to use the spatial distribution patterns of soil organisms to describe the spatial differences in soil structure and to support the parameterization of hydrological models at different scales: plot scale to catchment scale. Therefore at the plot scale the local bioactivity can be coupled to infiltration patterns. The spatial pattern of species abundance can be used to describe the connectivity of macropore networks at hillslope scale. And for the catchment scale, species distribution models can help to extrapolate the knowledge about the hydrological processes to areas with limited measurements, based on the relationships between bioactivity and hydrological processes from the studied sites. Due to the aforementioned feedback loop between bioactivity and soil processes a future change in climate or land-use can have both a direct as well as an important indirect influence on hydrological processes: through a change in bioactivity resulting in a change in soil structure. The inclusion of these feedbacks in hydrological modeling is thus important to be able to make reliable predictions of future changes in catchment scale hydrology.

van Schaik, Loes; Schneider, Anne-Kathrin; Zangerlé, Anne; Eccard, Jana; Schröder, Boris

2014-05-01

381

40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? 80.271 Section 80.271...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? (a) EPA may in its discretion adjust the small refiner per-gallon cap sulfur standard established for...

2013-07-01

382

40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? 80.271 Section 80.271...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? (a) EPA may in its discretion adjust the small refiner per-gallon cap sulfur standard established for...

2011-07-01

383

40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? 80.271 Section 80.271...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? (a) EPA may in its discretion adjust the small refiner per-gallon cap sulfur standard established for...

2012-07-01

384

The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the recent results on the maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle from the high pressure experimental point of view.

Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

2012-12-01

385

Tests of subsurface storage of freshwater at Hialeah, Dade County, Florida, and numerical simulation of the salinity of recovered water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents and interprets data from three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater in a brackish aquifer through wells drilled at the Hialeah Water Treatment Plant in northeastern Dade County, Florida. Also described is an application of solute-transport modeling techniques to depict the hypothetical movement of the freshwater mass and to simulate the increasing salinity of the recovered water during the withdrawal phases. This paper also reports results of use of the calibrated model to predict recovery efficiencies in hypothetical future operational schedules of injection and recovery.

Merritt, Michael L.

1997-01-01

386

Bias investigation of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses a series of studies undertaken while fulfilling the measurement requirements for certification of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner to be used at the plutonium facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos. These studies were initiated to investigate anomalies seen in the data as well as gain a quantifiable understanding of effects caused by using standards of considerably different geometric proportions than the assay items, oftentimes necessitated due to lack of adequate standards. The first investigation concerned effects caused by items not being exactly centered on the measurement table. The remaining studies involved establishing the magnitude of the bias induced by so-called ``end effects`` as well as by size differences between calibration standards and assay items. In order to unravel the above effects, can and drum parameter files were interchangeably employed in conjunction with comparisons of the instrument calibrations obtained with can-sized standards and 55-gallon drum standards. The paper will discuss the results and the magnitude of the observed effects.

Hurd, J.R.; Long, S.M.; Sampson, T.E.

1993-08-01

387

Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing and average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. 39 figures, 12 tables.

Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H.; Schroer, B.J.

1981-09-01

388

The effects of an intermittent piped water network and storage practices on household water quality in Tamale, Ghana  

E-print Network

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include a target to halve the number of people without access to "improved" water sources, which include piped water supply. However, an "improved" source of water does not ...

Vacs Renwick, Deborah Alexandra

2013-01-01

389

Development of a Procedure for the Predictive Control Strategy of a Chilled Water Storage System  

E-print Network

Thermal energy storage systems store the thermal energy produced by the chiller plant in periods of off-peak electrical demand or when cheaper electricity is available. The stored thermal energy is then withdrawn from the reservoir to satisfy...

Wei, G.; Sakuri, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01

390

Aspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1  

E-print Network

to microclimate-induced differences in insolation, wetness and temperature. All of these variables can be strongly on ecological function and landscape evolution. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEY WORDS storage; soil

Marshall, Hans-Peter

391

Geophysics in the Critical Zone: Constraints on Deep Weathering and Water Storage Potential in the Southern Sierra CZO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the depth and degree of subsurface weathering in landscapes is crucial for quantitative understanding of the biogeochemistry of weathering, the mechanics of hillslope sediment transport, and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon over both short and long timescales. Although the degree of weathering can be readily measured from geochemical and physical properties of regolith and rock, many distributed samples are needed to measure it over broad spatial scales. Moreover, quantifying the thickness of subsurface weathering has remained challenging, in part because the interface between altered and unaltered rock is often buried at difficult to access depths. To overcome these challenges, we combined seismic refraction and resistivity surveys to estimate regolith thickness and generate representative hillslope-scale images of subsurface weathering and water storage at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Inferred seismic velocities and electrical resistivities of the subsurface provide evidence for a weathering zone with thickness ranging from 10 to 35 m (average = 23 m) along one intensively studied transect. This weathering zone consists of roughly equal thicknesses of saprolite (P-velocity < 2 km/s) and moderately weathered bedrock (P-velocity < 4 km/s). We use a rock physics model of seismic velocities, based on Hertz-Mindlin contact theory, to estimate lateral and vertical variations in porosity as a metric of water storage potential along the transect. Inferred porosities are as high as 55% near the surface and decrease to zero at the base of weathered rock. Model-predicted porosities are broadly consistent with values measured from physical properties of saprolite, suggesting that our analysis of the geophysical data provides realistic estimates of subsurface water storage potential. A major advantage of our geophysical approach is that it quickly and non-invasively quantifies porosity over broad vertical and lateral scales. Our results indicate that saprolite is a crucial reservoir of water, potentially storing an average of 3 m of water along a forested slope in the headwaters of the SSCZO.

Holbrook, W.; Riebe, C. S.; Hayes, J. L.; Reeder, K.; Harry, D. L.; Malazian, A. I.; Dosseto, A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

2012-12-01

392

Experimental study on latent heat storage characteristics of W/O emulsion -Supercooling rate of dispersed water drops by direct contact heat exchange-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, much attention has been paid to investigate the latent heat storage system. Using of ice heat storage system brings an equalization of electric power demand, because it will solved the electric -power-demand-concentration on day-time of summer by the air conditioning. The flowable latent heat storage material, Oil/Water type emulsion, microencapsulated latent heat material-water mixture or ice slurry, etc., is enable to transport the latent heat in a pipe. The flowable latent heat storage material can realize the pipe size reduction and system efficiency improvement. Supercooling phenomenon of the dispersed latent heat storage material in continuous phase brings the obstruction of latent heat storage. The latent heat storage rates of dispersed water drops in W/O (Water/Oil) emulsion are investigated experimentally in this study. The water drops in emulsion has the diameter within 3 ˜ 25?m, the averaged water drop diameter is 7.3?m and the standard deviation is 2.9?m. The direct contact heat exchange method is chosen as the phase change rate evaluation of water drops in W/O emulsion. The supercooled temperature and the cooling rate are set as parameters of this study. The evaluation is performed by comparison between the results of this study and the past research. The obtained experimental result is shown that the 35K or more degree from melting point brings 100% latent heat storage rate of W/O emulsion. It was clarified that the supercooling rate of dispersed water particles in emulsion shows the larger value than that of the bulk water.

Morita, Shin-ichi; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Inaba, Hideo

2013-04-01

393

Effects of Storage Temperature on Tyramine Production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in Water-Boiled Salted Ducks.  

PubMed

Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 ?g/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 ?g/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures. PMID:25285502

Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

2014-10-01

394

Characterization of surface-water quality in the S-Line Canal and potential geochemical reactions from storage of surface water in the Basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fallon basalt aquifer serves as the sole source of municipal water supply for the Lahontan Valley in west-central Nevada. Principal users include the City of Fallon, Naval Air Station Fallon, and the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. Pumpage from the aquifer increased from about 1,700 acre-feet per year in the early 1970's to more than 3,000 acre-feet per year in the late 1990's, and has been accompanied by declines in water levels and changes in water quality. Storage of surface water in the basalt may mitigate the effects of pumpage, but may cause undesirable changes in water chemistry. In May 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study, in cooperation with the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, to characterize the surface-water quality of the S-Line Canal, a likely source of water for augmenting recharge. Because arsenic concentrations in ground water of the basalt aquifer exceed drinking water standards, the potential for arsenic release to artificial recharge was explored by using geochemical modeling. Model results suggest that arsenic release may increase concentrations to levels that could limit the use of artificial recharge. Field-based experiments are needed to evaluate the underlying model assumptions.

Welch, Alan H.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lico, Michael S.; McCormack, John K.

2005-01-01

395

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF OPEN STORAGE OF TREATED DRINKING WATER ON QUALITY PARAMETERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two open reservoirs storing treated drinking water were investigated with primary focus upon definition of water quality and development of alternative water quality control measures. Water quality of each reservoir was defined by a comprehensive water sampling/analysis program a...

396

Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for selected segments of five perennial streams (Cottonwood, North Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, and South Arkansas River) in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin for calendar year 2011. Differences between reported diversions and estimated crop irrigation requirements were used to estimate groundwater recharge in the areas irrigated by water supplied from the diversions. The amount of groundwater recharge in all the basins varied monthly; however, the greatest amount of recharge was during June and July for Cottonwood, North Cottonwood, and Chalk Creeks and South Arkansas River. The greatest amount of recharge in 2011 in Browns Creek occurred in July and August. The large seasonal fluctuations of groundwater near irrigated areas in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin indicate that the increased groundwater storage resulting from infiltration of surface-water diversions has dissipated by the following spring. Areas within the Buena Vista-Salida Basin with the potential for underground storage were identified using geographic information system data, including topographic, geologic, and hydrologic data, excluding the mountainous areas that border the Buena Vista-Salida Basin and igneous and metamorphic rock outcrop areas. The areas that met the selection criteria for underground water storage are located on terrace deposits near the Arkansas River and adjacent to its major tributaries. The selected areas also contain much of the irrigated land within the basin; consequently, irrigation ditches and canals could provide a means of conveying water to potential recharge sites.

Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

2014-01-01

397

Evaluation of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) alternatives in Ghana  

E-print Network

Ghana's water quality and sanitation condition are very poor. Pure Home Water (PHW), a local non-profit organization has been successfully improving the supply of safe drinking water in the northern region by producing and ...

Wong, TengKe

2014-01-01

398

Safe water storage in Kenya's modified clay pot : standardization, tap design, and cost recovery  

E-print Network

One of the main components necessary for providing safe drinking water for users who lack piped water in the home is the ability to safely store it in the home. Users in the Nyanza Province of Kenya frequently carry water ...

Young, Suzanne E

2005-01-01

399

Biosand filtration of high turbidity water : modified filter design and safe filtrate storage  

E-print Network

Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of water-related diseases that predominantly affect people living in developing countries. The most prevalent water-related disease is diarrhea, estimated to kill 1.8 million children ...

Collin, Clair

2009-01-01

400

Combining power plant water needs and carbon dioxide storage using saline formations: Implications for carbon dioxide and water management policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research involving management of carbon dioxide has increased markedly over the last decade as it relates to concerns over climate change. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations is one of many proposed methods to manage, and likely reduce, CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Saline formations represent a vast storage resource, and the

Peter H. Kobos; Malynda A. Cappelle; Jim L. Krumhansl; Thomas A. Dewers; Andrea McNemar; David J. Borns

2011-01-01

401

Effect of Chitin Isolated from Crustaceans and Cephalopods on Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein and the State of Water during Frozen Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the point of view of utilization of shells as a waste product of fishery industry, the cryoprotective effect of chitin made from shell of crustaceans (Japanese fan lobster and Japanese swimming crab) and cartilage of cephalopods (spear squid) are studied. Chitin from the shells and cartilage were added to lizard fish myofibrils, and the changes of unfrozen water in myofibrils and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein were observed during frozen storage at -250°C for 120days. The amount of unfrozen water were increased by addition of three kinds of chitin, and decreased moderately during forzen storage. Whereas, in the chitin free sample, the amount of unfrozen water were decreased rapidly during frozen storage. Changes of ATPase activity of samples showed similar tendency to that of the amount of unfrozen water. The present moderate cryoprotective effect of chitin and data of unfrozen water and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein suggest the importance of the amount of unfrozen water in frozen matrix.

Arredondo Romero, Eduardo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashita, Yasumitsu; Ichikawa, Hisashi; Goto, Shingi; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Nozaki, Yukinori

402

Isotopic composition of transpiration and rates of change in leaf water isotopologue storage in response to environmental variables.  

PubMed

During daylight hours, the isotope composition of leaf water generally approximates steady-state leaf water isotope enrichment model predictions. However, until very recently there was little direct confirmation that isotopic steady-state (ISS) transpiration in fact exists. Using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) and leaf gas exchange systems we evaluated the isotope composition of transpiration and the rate of change in leaf water isotopologue storage (isostorage) when leaves were exposed to variable environments. In doing so, we developed a method for controlling the absolute humidity entering the gas exchange cuvette for a wide range of concentrations without changing the isotope composition of water vapour. The measurement system allowed estimation of (18)O enrichment both at the evaporation site and for bulk leaf water, in the steady state and the non-steady state. We show that non-steady-state effects dominate the transpiration isoflux even when leaves are at physiological steady state. Our results suggest that a variable environment likely prevents ISS transpiration from being achieved and that this effect may be exacerbated by lengthy leaf water turnover times due to high leaf water contents. PMID:23647101

Simonin, Kevin A; Roddy, Adam B; Link, Percy; Apodaca, Randy; Tu, Kevin P; Hu, Jia; Dawson, Todd E; Barbour, Margaret M

2013-12-01

403

A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure  

E-print Network

the shortest payback time and the projected total capital cost is within the budget. The annual billing cost savings are $907,231 and the simple payback time is 12.5 years. INTRODUCTION Thermal Energy Storage (TES) technology is often used to reduce... of the economic and qualitative benefits of adding a chilled water thermal energy storage system to a group of large buildings in the pharmaceutical industry in Southern Germany. It is found that the adoption of a chilled water thermal energy storage system...

Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

2010-01-01

404

Root Water Uptake, Leaf Water Storage and Gas Exchange of a Desert Succulent: Implications for Root System Redundancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique used for hydroponics was adapted to measure instantaneous root water uptake from the soil for a leaf succulent CAM species, Agave deserti. Comparisons were made to previously modelled water fluxes for A. deserti and to Encelia farinosa, a non-succulent C3species. Net CO2uptake and transpiration forA. deserti under well-watered conditions occurred primarily at night whereas root water uptake was

ERIC A. GRAHAM; PARK S. NOBEL

1999-01-01

405

Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC\\/MENA region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to

Noreddine Ghaffour; Thomas M. Missimer; Gary L. Amy

2012-01-01

406

Campus Water Uses and Potential Water Efficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent increases in the price of water, saving water has become one of the main focuses for sustainability. The California Institute of Technology used 200,000,000 gallons of water in the year 2008; however the institute has never tracked this water to its destination within the campus. Using data collected from water meters on campus and from the utility company

Calvin Kuo; Melany Hunt; John Onderdonk; Matthew Berbee

2008-01-01

407