Sample records for gallon water storage

  1. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Griffin; B. G. Harris

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient

  2. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.J. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Harris, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  3. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 40 Gallon Challenge issues a call to reduce residential water use

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Katie

    2013-01-01

    due to population growth, has elevated the importance of such conservation programs. #29;e program challenges participants to save #22;#30; gallons of water a day by implementing water-conserving practices, said Dr. Diane Boellstor#17;, Texas...

  5. 40 Gallon Challenge issues a call to reduce residential water use 

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Katie

    2013-01-01

    due to population growth, has elevated the importance of such conservation programs. #29;e program challenges participants to save #22;#30; gallons of water a day by implementing water-conserving practices, said Dr. Diane Boellstor#17;, Texas...? representative for the program and Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service water resources specialist. ?#29;ese are simple, inexpensive behavioral changes that people can adopt, and it?s amazing how much water can actually be conserved,? she said...

  6. Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage 

    E-print Network

    Fiorino, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the 5.2 million gallon chilled water storage system installed at TI's Expressway manufacturing complex in Dallas, Texas. During the peak cooling season ending September 30, 1994, it provided 3,750 tons of additional peak cooling...

  7. Chiller Start/Stop Optimization for a Campus-wide Chilled Water System with a Thermal Storage Tank Under a Four-Period Electricity Rate Schedule

    E-print Network

    Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.; Contreras, O.

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a 1.4-million-gallon chilled water thermal storage tank greatly increases the operational flexibility of a campuswide chilled water system under a four-part electricity rate structure. While significant operational savings can...

  8. Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

  9. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  10. Control Optimization for a Chilled Water Thermal Storage System Under a Complicated Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Schedule

    E-print Network

    Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W.D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.E.; Contreras, O.

    . The thermal storage tank is 64 ft (19.5 m) tall and 61 ft (18.6 m) in diameter with a total volume capacity of 1,400,000 gallon (5,299,560 L). Under design conditions, the fully charged thermal storage tank can hold a cooling capacity of 12,000 ton-hr (42... Member ASHRAE David E. Claridge, PhD, PE Member ASHRAE Oscar Contreras ABSTRACT The existence of a 1.4-million-gallon chilled water thermal storage tank greatly increases the operational flexibility of a campus-wide chilled water system under...

  11. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. Problems #3, Math 204, Dr. M. Bohner. Sep 10, 2003. Due Sep 15, 11 am. 12. A tank has ten gallons of water in which two pounds of salt has been dissolved. Brine with

    E-print Network

    Bohner, Martin

    Problems #3, Math 204, Dr. M. Bohner. Sep 10, 2003. Due Sep 15, 11 am. 12. A tank has ten gallons of water in which two pounds of salt has been dissolved. Brine with 1.5 pound of salt per gallon enters. Find the amount of salt in the tank at any time, given that (a) x = 3 (b) x = 4 (c) x = 2. 13

  13. The Water Cycle: Water Storage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive, animated graphic helps explain the water cycle to younger students. The animation, with sound, explains the various parts of the water cycle and show how water moves from one part to another.

  14. Selecting Thermal Storage Systems for Schools 

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    measurement at six equally spaced elevations. Charged by chiller or hydronic vent cycle. B. Hot Water Storage Tank - Concrete lined steel 17,000 gallon with four headers arranged for dual temperature storage. C. Chiller - Variable frequency drive, 196...

  15. Impact of bottled water storage duration and location on bacteriological quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Duranceau; Hilary P. Emerson; Rebecca J. Wilder

    2012-01-01

    An investigation studying the effects of storage duration and location on the persistence of heterotrophic microorganisms in oligotrophic bottled water environments has been completed. One-gallon high-density polyethylene water containers stored for up to 16 weeks at temperatures ranging from 2°C to >49°C in a refrigerator, indoor cabinet, covered porch, and car trunk were evaluated for microbiological quality. Heterotrophic plate counts

  16. Thermal Storage Systems at IBM Facilities 

    E-print Network

    Koch, G.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, IBM commissioned its first large scale thermal storage system with a capacity of 2.7 million gallons of chilled water and 1.2 million gallons of reclaimed, low temperature hot water. The stored cooling energy represents approximately 27...

  17. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  18. Assessment of energy storage technologies and systems. Phase 1: Electric storage heating, storage air conditioning, and storage hot water heaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Asbury; R. Giese; S. Nelson; L. Akridge; P. Graf; K. Heitner

    1976-01-01

    The commercial feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings is analyzed. TES applications examined include storage electric (resistance) heating, storage air conditioning, and storage hot water heating. A system model, SIMSTOR, is employed to simulate TES-related effects upon daily and annual utility load profiles and to compare utility fuel and capital cost savings with TES-system costs. Case-study analyses of

  19. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  20. An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Mitsuru; Tanino, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Sakae; Hayashi, Toshio; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    An ice storage system using supercooled water has been developed. In this system, only water is circulated and slurry-ice is stored in tanks. Since one of the critical components of the system is the supercooing heat exchanger, the first step in component development consisted in verification of stable conditions for supercooling water control by basic and integrated experiments. The results of these experiments yielded designcriteria concerning the degree of wall supercooling and the inlet water temperatures (i.e.,conditions for absence of ice nuclei). In addition, realistic operating techniques for supercooling heat exchangers with redundancy have been demonstrated by the field experiment.

  1. Continental water storage variations in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, Jean-Paul; Carabajal, Claudia; Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Sabaka, Terence

    2010-05-01

    We investigate temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from only KBRR (K-band range rate) data using a mascon approach. We compare our solutions to classical spherical harmonic solutions and also to different global hydrology models, and regional models in the African monsoon area (thanks to the ALMIP project). We compare mass estimates of major Africa lakes and reservoirs to volume estimates from laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. We investigate the improvement of our mass retrievals when hydrology (GLDAS/Noah model) is forward modeled, compared to the more classical approach when continental water storages variations are not taken into when processing GRACE data. We solve the water mass balance equations using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as ground rain gauge stations, using fresh water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from various atmospheric models (reanalysis and operational). As a result, our runoff are compared to river flux measurements. In addition to the comparison with the ALMIP models, we also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

  2. Continental water storage variations in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as meteorological stations, using water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from different atmospheric models. As a result, our runoff estimates are compared to river fluxes measurements. We compare mass estimates of major African lakes to volume estimated from space Laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. As our forward modeling includes the continental water storage variations (using GLDAS/Noah model), leaking effects are significantly reduced. We also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

  3. More Jobs per Gallon: How Vehicle Efficiency

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    More Jobs per Gallon: How Vehicle Efficiency Fuels Growth in California David RolandHolst April://are.berkeley.edu/~dwrh/CERES_Web/index.html #12;Roland-Holst | More Jobs per Gallon ii Research Papers on Energy, Resources, and Economic. For this project on Jobs and Vehicle Fuel Efficiency, we express gratitude to the Energy Foundation for financial

  4. Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature 

    E-print Network

    Clayton, James Brent

    2012-07-16

    RWH systems has become a concern. Water temperature is a parameter of water quality and storage container color and shading affect this temperature. Four different colors and three different shadings were applied to twelve rainwater storage barrels...

  5. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, M.

    1981-01-01

    A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

  9. SUBSTRATE DEGRADATION AND METAL REMOVAL PERFORMANCE OF A 1,500- GALLON SULFATE-REDUCING BIOREACTOR FOR MINING-INFLUENCED WATER TREATMENT1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Ruiz; Linda Figueroa; Marek Zaluski; Diana Bless

    The successful long-term operation and sustainability of passive systems for the treatment of mining influenced water (MIW) affected by metals and acidity has been challenged by a lack of understanding on organic substrate design. Metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in bioreactors produces H2S that precipitates dissolved metals, and it is the main mechanism that removes metals from solution. Fermentation

  10. An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Mitsuru; Tanino, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Sakae; Hayashi, Toshio; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    The storage and melting characteristics of slurry-ice mixtures in several tanks were investigated exprimentally. For ice storage processes, three different kinds ofice-feeding methods were tested in connection with the fluidizable water-ice two-phase mixture produced in the system. It was confirmed that the achievable bulk IPF in any tank and using any of these methods was 30-40% under stable operational conditions. For ice melting processes, two different kinds of methods were considered and tested. Both were advantageous in that almost all ice stored in a tank could be consumed, thereby maintaining high system performance. By a modeling analysis of ice melting processes in the tank, it was possible to predict accurately the time history of tank outlet water temperatures.

  11. Estimation of water withdrawal and distribution, water use, and wastewater collection and return flow in Cumberland, Rhode Island, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.; Craft, P.A.; Bratton, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Water-use data collected in Rhode Island by different State agencies or maintained by different public suppliers and wastewater- treatment facilities need to be integrated if these data are to be used in making water- resource management decisions. Water-use data for the town of Cumberland, a small area in northeastern Rhode Island, were compiled and integrated to provide an example of how the procedure could be applied. Integration and reliability assessment of water-use data could be facilitated if public suppliers, wastewater- treatment facilities, and State agencies used a number of standardized procedures for data collection and computer storage. The total surface water and ground water withdrawn in the town of Cumberland during 1988 is estimated to be 15.39 million gallons per day, of which 11.20 million gallons per day was exported to other towns. Water use in Cumberland included 2.51 million gallons per day for domestic use, 0.68 million gallons per day for industrial use, 0.27 million gallons per day for commercial use, and 0.73 million gallons per day for other use, most of which were unmetered use. Disposal of waste- water in Cumberland included 2.03 million gallons per day returned to the hydrologic system and 1.73 million gallons per day exported from Cumberland for wastewater treatment. Consumptive use during 1988 is estimated to be 0.43 million gallons per day.

  12. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  14. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

  15. Multisensor analysis of water storage variations of the Caspian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Swenson; John Wahr

    2007-01-01

    We perform a multi-sensor analysis of water storage and surface height variations of the Caspian Sea, from mid-2002 through 2006. Data from three satellite missions (GRACE, Jason-1, and Aqua) are used to examine the relationship between changes in spatially averaged sea surface height (SSH) and water storage in and around the Caspian Sea. Two composite time series are constructed to

  16. Ground-based measurements of soil water storage in Texas

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    :956-963 SAND Soil Water Storage (NLDAS) #12;Sensor Technologies and Scale Spatial Support LSM operate at >km2Ground-based measurements of soil water storage in Texas Todd Caldwell Bridget Scanlon Di Long it? How do we modeling it? How can we measure it? · Current technologies · What's in Texas What

  17. Continental Water Storage Changes From GRACE And GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, T. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rodell, M.; Chen, J.; Seo, K.; Wilson, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment(GRACE) mission is now providing monthly measures of global scale temporal gravity variations, from which terrestrial water storage changes can be inferred. In this presentation we explore continental-scale changes in land water storage, with implications for mass movements in the global water cycle. First we compare GRACE derived spatial patterns of water storage changes to output from the Global Land Data Assimilation System(GLDAS), and assess GRACE capabilities for characterizing spatio-temporal variations over the period of available data. Next we present global scale time series for terrestrial water storage variations, and compare them to those for ocean and atmospheric water mass changes, with a view towards mass redistribution from land to other Earth system components. The results have implications for using GRACE to monitor terrestrial hydroclimatology and for using GRACE as an integrated observing system for characterizing mass movements in the global water cycle.

  18. Impact of bottled water storage duration and location on bacteriological quality.

    PubMed

    Duranceau, Steven J; Emerson, Hilary P; Wilder, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    An investigation studying the effects of storage duration and location on the persistence of heterotrophic microorganisms in oligotrophic bottled water environments has been completed. One-gallon high-density polyethylene water containers stored for up to 16 weeks at temperatures ranging from 2°C to >49°C in a refrigerator, indoor cabinet, covered porch, and car trunk were evaluated for microbiological quality. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) of up to 4 × 10(3) cfu/mL were detected in containers stored on a porch and car trunk; whereas, HPCs were found not to exceed 400 cfu/mL and 100 cfu/mL for bottles stored in indoor cabinets and refrigerators, respectively. Containers stored on an enclosed porch for up to seven years contained HPC of up to 4 × 10(4) cfu/mL. Logistic and Gompertz growth models predicted microbial growth rates for bottled water stored on a protected porch environment for long (R(2) 0.99) and short-term (R(2) 0.86) durations. PMID:22612550

  19. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaw

    1991-01-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous

  20. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaw

    1991-01-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous

  1. Analysis of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-02-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  2. Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  3. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The...823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane (Hy5) 0.741 * Per gallon...

  4. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The...823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane (Hy5) 0.741 * Per gallon...

  5. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The...823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane (Hy5) 0.741 * Per gallon...

  6. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The...823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane (Hy5) 0.741 * Per gallon...

  7. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The...823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane (Hy5) 0.741 * Per gallon...

  8. GRACE Measurement of Total Water Storage Variations Over Texas

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    1-08-2008 GRACE Measurement of Total Water Storage Variations Over Texas Byron Tapley , Srinivas Bettadpur Himanshu Save, Tatyana Pekker University of Texas Center for Space Research First Texas Water 2005-2006 Texas Drought 2011 GRACE Observed Total Water Variation #12;GRACE Hill Country TWS Estimate

  9. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27?, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  10. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27?, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  11. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  12. Water storage key factor in coalbed methane production

    SciTech Connect

    Luckianow, B.J. (Taurus Exploration Inc., Birmingham, AL (US)); Hall, W.L. (Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (US))

    1991-03-11

    Storage ponds provide a cost-effective means to temporarily retain water produced with coalbed methane and permit gas production during times when stream flow rates drop. Normally, water produced with the gas is run into nearby streams, with the dilution rate closely monitored and controlled by environmental agencies. During low stream flow in the Black Warrior basin, Ala., large volumes of produced water must be stored to prevent shut-in of coalbed methane fields. The authors discuss how they constructed such production water facilities for the Cedar Cove field to eliminate periodic field shut-ins as a result of excess water production. The effectiveness of such a storage approach is governed by receiving stream flow variability, production water flow characteristics, and the economics of storage pond construction.

  13. Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

  14. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  15. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  16. Rethinking Water Scarcity: The Role of Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Water scarcity, in its simplest sense, can be defined as a shortage in the availability of freshwater relative to demand. Freshwater shortages directly affect food security, access to safe drinking water, hygiene and public health, and environmental well-being. Water scarcity can also retard economic development and promote civil strife. Robust measures of water scarcity are therefore required to inform water policy and help allocate resources to mitigate these effects.

  17. Tracking variations of catchment storage with stable water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbuechel, I.; Troch, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    The hydrologic response function (HRF) describes how fast a catchment responds to a precipitation event. The transit time distribution (TTD) determines how long water from an event spends in a catchment. We know that the HRF and the TTD are different from each other if catchment storage varies in time. We can use this knowledge, reverse the logic and track storage in a catchment by determining how the HRF and the TTD vary over a period of time. The HRF can be determined by comparing water fluxes into and out of the catchment. The TTD is most easily measured by using stable water isotopes as tracers and keeping track of them in both inflow and outflow. The difference in the shape of the two functions informs us whether water is being released from storage or whether water is added to storage. If a catchment reacts very fast to a precipitation event (short HRF) but the TTD of the event is skewed towards longer transit times, it means that a large fraction of the outflowing water will be released from storage (pre-event water). If a catchment reacts more slowly, then the shapes of the HRF and the TTD are more similar and a higher fraction of outflow will be event water. We used isotope and water flux data from a small mountainous semi-arid catchment with high variability in total catchment storage to demonstrate that the method yields reasonable results. We also ran an infiltration model (HYDRUS) to test our hypothesis for different scenarios (antecedent moisture conditions and precipitation event properties).

  18. Predicting fire activity using terrestrial water storage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    High fire activity periods in the Amazon region can be predicted months in advance on the basis of water storage data, a new study shows. Chen et al. analyzed satellite observations of terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, along with satellite observations of fire activity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) mission. GRACE measures the Earth's gravity field by calculating the changes in the distance between two satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other. The gravity measurements provide information about the amount of groundwater or surface water in a given region.

  19. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  20. 12 SWAT USER'S MANUAL, VERSION 98.1 CANOPY STORAGE. Canopy storage is the water intercepted by vegetative

    E-print Network

    12 SWAT USER'S MANUAL, VERSION 98.1 CANOPY STORAGE. Canopy storage is the water intercepted storage must be modeled separately. SWAT allows the user to input the maximum amount of water that can content throughout the entire profile is uniform, g #12;CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 13 #12;14 SWAT USER

  1. Coupling of waste water treatment with storage polymer production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chua; P. H. F. Yu; L. Y. Ho

    1997-01-01

    Storage polymers in bacterial cells can be extracted and used as biodegradable thermoplastics. However, widespread applications\\u000a have been limited by high production costs. In this study, activated sludge bacteria in a conventional waste water treatment\\u000a system were induced, by controlling the carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the reactor liquor, to accumulate storage polymers.\\u000a Specific polymer yield increased to a maximum of

  2. Optimal Water Pricing and Storage: The Effect of Discounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, R.; Gallagher, D.

    1982-02-01

    Optimizing the use of an exhaustible resource is a special case of the problem of storing a resource available as a periodic function of time. An extension of Hotelling's rule describes optimal storage policies: When water is in storage, its price should rise at the rate of interest, except that with contents at capacity the price must go up faster than the rate of interest. When contents are exhausted the price rises no more quickly than the rate of interest, and it must fall at some time. A rule is given for optimal storage capacity, and a version of Hotelling's rule is found for approximately optimal policies.

  3. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wood, B.D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ji, L.J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

  4. Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material Using Ethanol Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Yasunari, Yuki

    Ethanol water mixture has a liquidus line ( or crystallizing line) and a solidus line (or melting line) that are separated, and therefore it can have both liquid and solid phases existing together. With advances in low temperature technology in recent days, ethanol water mixture is attaching more and more attention as an environment-friendly coolant or as a thermal storage material. In the present study, we observed the crystallization process in the mixture and carried out experiments to evaluate fluidity of the mixture, with the objective of utilizing an ethanol water mixture as a coolant or a thermal energy storage material. Crystal formation and growing process within a minute droplet of a binary mixture was modeled. As a result, we found a novel method to produce a fluid latent heat storage material continuously and an apparent coefficient of viscosity show that rotational speed and solid phase fraction have a strong effect on the fluidity of the mixture.

  5. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  6. Wettability of denture relining materials under water storage over time

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Na-Young; Lee, Ho-Rim; Lee, Heesu

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Poor wettability of denture relining materials may lead to retention problems and patient discomfort. PURPOSE Purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate wettability of nine denture relining materials using contact angle measurements under air and water storage over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nine denture relining materials were investigated in this study. Two heat-curing polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) denture base materials: Vertex RS, Lang, one self-curing polyethyl-methacrylate (PEMA) chairside reline resin: Rebase II, six silicone relining materials: Mucopren soft, Mucosoft, Mollosil® plus, Sofreliner Touch, GC Reline™ Ultrasoft, Silagum automix comfort were used in this experiment. Contact angles were measured using high-resolution drop shape analysis system (DSA 10-MK2, KRUESS, Germany) under three conditions (in air after setting, 1 hour water storage, and 24 hours water storage). Nine materials were classified into three groups according to material composition (Group 1: PMMA, Group 2: PEMA, Group 3: Silicone). Mean values of contact angles were compared using independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, followed by a Scheffe's post hoc analysis (?= 0.01). RESULTS Contact angles of materials tested after air and water storage increased in the following order: Group 1 (PMMA), Group 2 (PEMA), Group 3 (Silicone). Heat-cured acrylic denture base resins had more wettability than silicone relining materials. Lang had the highest wettability after 24 hours of water storage. Silicone relining materials had lower wettability due to their hydrophobicity. Wettability of all denture relining materials, except Rebase II and Mollosil® plus, increased after 24 hours of water storage. CONCLUSIONS Conventional heat-cured resin showed the highest wettability, therefore, it can be suggested that heat-cured acrylic resin is material of choice for denture relining materials. PMID:21165247

  7. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harshi Weerasinghe; Uwe A. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include

  8. IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY, WATER STORAGE, AND LONG RUN WATER CONSERVATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R. Hamilton; David B. Willis

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based simulation model is used to illustrate the complex relationships between irrigation efficiency, water banking and water conservation under the prior appropriation doctrine. Increases in irrigation efficiency and\\/or establishment of water banks do not guarantee water conservation. Conservation requires reduction in the quantity of water consumptively used by agriculture.

  9. Solar water-heating performance evaluation-San Diego, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes energy saved by replacing domestic, conventional natural gas heater with solar-energy subsystem in single-family residence near San Diego, California. Energy savings for 6 month test period averaged 1.089 million Btu. Collector array covered 65 square feet and supplied hot water to both 66-gallon solar storage tank and 40-gallon tank for domestic use. Natural gas supplied house's auxiliary energy.

  10. SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

  11. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  12. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  13. Arctic hillslope hydrologic response to changing water storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport from terrestrial to aquatic environments depends on dynamics of water storage and flux. In the arctic, these dynamics are related to changes in permafrost and hydrological conditions that vary with climate across multiple scales. In order to predict the continued trajectory of arctic landscape and ecosystem evolution, observed changes to the hydrologic regime and riverine nutrient fluxes require properly scaled, mechanistic explanations. We address this issue at the hillslope scale by quantifying hydrologic response to changing storage as part of a collaborative effort to understand the coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic hillslopes. Hillslopes underlain by continuous permafrost experience gradual, summer-season increases in potential water storage through active layer thaw, as well as stochastic changes in available water storage as soil moisture conditions change due to storm events, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow. Preferential flowpaths called water tracks are ubiquitous features draining arctic hillslopes and are the focus of our study. We predict that water track hydrologic response to precipitation is a function of snowmelt or storm characteristics and available storage. We hypothesize that ¬the ratio of runoff to precipitation will decrease as available storage increases, whether due to the seasonal increase in active layer thaw, or an extended dry period. Intensive snow and thaw depth surveys on a water track on the hillslopes of the Upper Kuparuk River watershed in northern Alaska during May to June 2013 reveal that snow persisted one week longer in a water track than the adjacent hillslope, and thus active layer thaw initiated earlier on the adjacent hillslope. Despite this earlier thaw timing, thaw depth in the water track exceeded that on the non-track hillslope within five days of being uncovered. Thaw, and thus subsurface storage, in water tracks remained greater than the rest of the hillslope for at least the subsequent two months. Deeper thaw coupled with a slight topographic depression in the water tracks relative to the adjacent hillslopes generates a hydraulic gradient that directed water not only downslope, but also across slope into the water tracks. We expected that steeper hydraulic gradients across slope and into water tracks would increase hillslope soil water contributions and increase the specific conductivity of water flowing through the water track. We also expect hillslope contributions to scale with water track catchment characteristics such as drainage area and slope. We test these hypotheses by monitoring water table fluctuations in gridded wells on the hillslope and in our six intensive study sites throughout the summer. Our results provide direct evidence that active layer thaw and the timing and amount of precipitation are important controls on water and solute flux from arctic hillslopes. Depending on the magnitude of climate-induced changes to these controls, there will likely be important consequences for downslope ecosystems.

  14. Storage response of cactus pear fruit following hot water brushing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydakis Dimitris; N. Pompodakis; E. Markellou; S. M. Lionakis

    2005-01-01

    The storage response of cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] following hot water brushing was investigated. Fruit were simultaneously brushed for spine removal and sprayed with water. Ranges of temperature (60–70°C) and treatment time intervals (10–30s) were evaluated. All tested treatments were found not to significantly affect respiration rate, total soluble solids or acid concentrations. Treatments at 60 and 65°C

  15. Case studies of chilled water storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrepont

    1993-01-01

    Centralized chilled water systems are commonly used to meet the air conditioning needs of colleges, universities, medical complexes, and other large campuses or district cooling facilities. Data from the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) indicate that over half its members operate central cooling plants. Various configurations are in use, including single and multiple central chilling plants serving single

  16. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  17. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  18. EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

  19. Review of water quality issues associated with coal storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Davis; William J. Boegly

    1981-01-01

    Literature dealing with runoff from coal storage facilities is scarce and poorly documented. Most of the data reported are derived from the analysis of single grab samples taken from leaching experiments or from onsite sampling during rainfall events. There have been few investigations of the long-term environmental effects of coal pile leachate with the emphasis on changing water quality. This

  20. View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at left of image to Launch Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, C. R., (compiler)

    1978-01-01

    This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

  2. REGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available

    E-print Network

    Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    REGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available water in shallow in water storage and plant access to water in the rocky soils of a karst savanna dominated by Ashe juniper used to infer recharge and plant uptake of soil water. Predawn water potentials of trees were sampled

  3. Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

    1993-03-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

  4. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. PMID:23262407

  6. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  7. Method to estimate water storage capacity of capillary barriers - Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ward, Anderson L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Meyer, Philip D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1998-11-01

    This is a brief comment on a previously published paper. The paper by Stormont and Morris[JGGE 124 (4):297-302] provides an interesting approach to computing water storage capacity of capillary barriers used as landfill covers. They correctly show that available water storage capacity can be increased up to a factor of two for a silt loam soil, when it is used in a capillary barrier as compared to existing as a deep soil profile. For this very reason such a capillary barrier, utilizing silt loam soil, was constructed and successfully tested at the U. S. Department of Energy?s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Silt loam soil provides optimal water storage for capillary barriers and ensures minimal drainage. Less benefits are obtained when capillary barriers utilize more sandy soils. We would endorse a limited application of the method of Stormont and Morris. We suggest that there will be large uncertainties in field capacity, wilting point and water retention characteristics and only when these uncertainties are accounted for can such a method be used to provide sound engineering judgement for cover design. A recommended procedure for using this method would include actual field measurements of the soil hydraulic properties of the cover materials.

  8. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  9. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  10. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  11. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  12. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  13. Thermal energy storage using sodium sulfate decahydrate and water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D BISWAS

    1977-01-01

    It appears that the major problem preventing use of sodium sulfate decahydrate for thermal energy storage can be avoided by using the composition which is at or slightly to the water-rich side of the invariant point in the phase diagram. A mixture of 68.2 w\\/o NaâSOâ x 10HâO and 31.8 w\\/o HâO is suggested for a TES material. (WDM)

  14. WATER PROPERTIES IN FERN SPORES: SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS RELATING TO WATER AFFINITY, GLASSY STATES AND STORAGE STABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of ...

  15. Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Ballesteros; Christina Walters

    2007-01-01

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of five homosporeous species of ferns and compared with properties of pollen, seeds, and fern

  16. UNIVERSITYOFSOUTHCAROLINACAMPUSRECREATIONCAMPUSREC.SC.EDU Gallons of paper and

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    UNIVERSITYOFSOUTHCAROLINACAMPUSRECREATIONCAMPUSREC.SC.EDU Gallons of paper and plastic recycled/University of South Carolina 10/2 ­ Pharmacy Fraternity Alumni vs Current Students Flag Football 10/3 ­ Indian

  17. Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite–water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Z. Lu; R. Z. Wang; M. Zhang; S. Jiangzhou

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption cold storage has lately attracted attention for its large storage capacity and zero cold energy loss during the storing process. Thermodynamic and experimental studies on the cold storage capacity and the cold discharging process, in which the adsorber is either air cooled or adiabatic, have been presented. An adsorption cold storage system with zeolite–water working pair has been developed,

  18. Feasibility of lowering the condenser's inlet water temperature of a chiller using thermal water storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Asrael; P. E. Phelan; B. D. Wood

    2000-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for applying cool thermal storage to reduce the on-peak demand of a water-cooled chiller. By charging the store at night via a cooling tower, and using this water to supply the condenser of a chiller during on-peak hours, cooler than normal water is supplied to the chiller. A feasibility study of this system was conducted

  19. Land water storage from space and the geodetic infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A.; Larson, K.; Wahr, J.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, remote sensing techniques have been increasingly used to monitor components of the water balance of large river basins. By complementing scarce in situ observations and hydrological modelling, space observations have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of hydrological processes at work in river basins and their relationship with climate variability and socio-economic life. Among the remote sensing tools used in land hydrology, several originate from space geodesy and are integral parts of the Global Geodetic Observing System. For example, satellite altimetry is used for systematic monitoring of water levels of large rivers, lakes and floodplains. InSAR allows the detection of surface water change. GRACE-based space gravity offers for the first time the possibility of directly measuring the spatio-temporal variations of the vertically integrated water storage in large river basins. GRACE is also extremely useful for measuring changes in mass of the snow pack in boreal regions. Vertical motions of the ground induced by changes in water storage in aquifers can be measured by both GPS and InSAR. These techniques can also be used to investigate water loading effects. Recently GPS has been used to measure changes in surface soil moisture, which would be important for agriculture, weather prediction, and for calibrationg satellite missions such as SMOS and SMAP. These few examples show that space and ground geodetic infrastructures are increasingly important for hydrological sciences and applications. Future missions like SWOT (Surface Waters Ocean Topography; a wide swath interferometric altimetry mission) and GRACE 2 (space gravimetry mission based on new technology) will provide a new generation of hydrological products with improved precision and resolution.

  20. Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs

    E-print Network

    Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs Gallon the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Cups, cups, cups of water, Running down the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Gallons, gallons, gallons of water Rushing

  1. Development of sample storage methods for detecting enteric viruses in environmental water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Haramoto; Hiroyuki Katayama; Etsuko Utagawa; Shinichiro Ohgaki

    2008-01-01

    In a field survey of enteric viruses, water samples collected sometimes need to be stored for a long duration before analysis is performed. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate sample storage method for detecting viruses in environmental water. Three types of sample storage methods were evaluated using MilliQ water, pond water, and treated sewage inoculated with

  2. Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity

    E-print Network

    Keim, Richard

    Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity R.F. Keim a,*, A Little is understood about how storage of water on forest canopies varies during rainfall, even though storage changes intensity of throughfall and thus affects a variety of hydrological processes

  3. Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

  4. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  5. Overview of water treatment practices in thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlgren, R.M. (Ahlgren Associates, Waukesha, WI (US))

    1989-01-01

    Thermal storage is the technology of storing cooling capability generated as chilled water or ice during times of low electrical energy rates for use at times when electric rates are significantly higher. It is in widespread use for large scale comfort cooling as well as many process applications. The use of the technology is promoted by many electric utilities and is acknowledged to be an important part of load management. Several thousand cooling storage systems are not in operation and hundreds are being added each year. Originally the water sides of these systems wee treated as conventional closed chillers or ignored completely. Many cases have shown this to be a serious mistake. A review of waterside technology and water chemistry needs particular to these systems is summarized and discussed. The differences between these systems and other more widely known cooling technology are discussed. Fundamental technology as well as operating experiences from both successful and troubled systems are presented. Observations and suggested guidelines for the special chemical needs and methods of approaching operations are presented in this paper.

  6. Evaluation of power generation operations in response to changes in surface water reservoir storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2013-06-01

    We used a customized, river basin-based model of surface water rights to evaluate the response of power plants to drought via simulated changes in reservoir storage. Our methodology models surface water rights in 11 river basins in Texas using five cases: (1) storage decrease of existing capacity of 10%, (2) storage decrease of 50%, (3) complete elimination of storage, (4) storage increase of 10% (all at existing locations), and (5) construction of new reservoirs (at new locations) with a total increase in baseline reservoir capacity for power plant cooling of 9%. Using the Brazos River basin as a sample, we evaluated power generation operations in terms of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability. As simulated water storage decreases, reliability generally decreases and resiliency and vulnerability remain relatively constant. All three metrics remain relatively constant with increasing reservoir storage, with the exception of one power plant. As reservoir storage changes at power plants, other water users in the basin are also affected. In general, decreasing water storage is beneficial to other water users in the basin, and increasing storage is detrimental for many other users. Our analysis reveals basin-wide and individual power plant-level impacts of changing reservoir storage, demonstrating a methodology for evaluation of the sustainability and feasibility of constructing new reservoir storage as a water and energy management approach.

  7. Pumps, germs and storage: the impact of improved water containers on water quality and health.

    PubMed

    Günther, Isabel; Schipper, Youdi

    2013-07-01

    Applying a randomized controlled trial, we study the impact of improved water transport and storage containers on the water quality and health of poor rural households. The results indicate that improved household water infrastructure improves water quality and health outcomes in an environment where point-of-source water quality is good but where recontamination is widespread, leading to unsafe point-of-use drinking water. Moreover, usage rates of 88% after 7 months are encouraging with regard to sustainable adoption. Our estimates suggest that the provision of improved household water infrastructure could 'keep clean water clean' at a cost of only 5% of the costs of providing households with improved public water supply. Given the general consensus in the literature that recontamination of water from improved public sources is a severe public health problem, improved transport and storage technologies appear to be an effective low-cost supplement to the current standard of financing public water supply for poor rural communities. PMID:22700378

  8. Water quality effects of snow storage areas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, J.M.; Carlson, R.F.; Behr-Andres, C.

    1996-04-01

    This report was prompted by recent water quality concerns associated with meltwaters from Fairbanks and Anchorage snow storage sites. Snow and meltwater samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentration of the following parameters; metals using direct current plasma emission spectroscopy (DCPAES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, ions using ion chromatography, and oil and grease using a freon extraction method followed by infrared spectroscopy. Concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphate, and chemical oxygen demand were determined using standard methods by a commercial laboratory.

  9. Ground-water recharge to and storage in the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Guilford County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C., III; Harned, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground- water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Guilford County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground- water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 15 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an anlytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quantity of ground water in storage also are described. Guilford County covers approximately 658 square miles in the central part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 347,420; approximately 21 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies all of the county. Under natural conditions, recharge to the ground-water system in the county is derived from infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 19 gaging stations that measure streamflow within or from Guilford County were analyzed to produce daily estimates of ground-water recharge in 15 drainage basins and subbasins in the county. The recharge estimates were further analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term recharge rates, as well as recharge duration statistics. Mean annual recharge in the 15 basins and subbasins ranges from 4.03 to 9.69 inches per year, with a mean value of 6.28 inches per year for all basins. In general, recharge rates are highest for basins in the northern and northwestern parts of the county and lowest in the southern and southeastern parts of the county. Median recharge rates in the 15 basins range from 2.47 inches per year (184 gallons per day per acre) to 9.15 inches per year (681 gallons per day per acre), with a median value of 4.65 inches per year (346 gallons per day per acre) for all basins. The distribution of recharge rates in the county suggests a correlation between recharge rates and hydrogeologic units (and derived regolith). The highest recharge estimates occur in the northwestern part of Guilford County in basins unlain by felsic igneous intrusive rocks and lesser areas of metasedimentary rocks. Recharge estimates in this area range from 6.37 to 9.33 inches per year. Basins in the southwestern, central, and northeastern parts of the county are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, and recharge estimates range from 5.32 to 5.51 inches per year. In the extreme southern and southeastern parts of the county, the lower Deep River subbasin and the lower Haw River subbasins have the lowest estimated recharges at 4.15 and 4.03 inches per year, respectively. Although the areas of these subbasins that lie within Guilford County are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, the larger part of these subbasins lies south and southeast of Guilford County in areas underlain by hydrogeologic units of metavolcanic origin. The distribution of recharge rates in the study area is almost the reverse of the distributio

  10. Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, Erik; Halldin, Sven

    2002-01-01

    A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4 October) rainfall, evaporation and runoff were 200, 256, and 43 mm in 1996, respectively, and 310, 286 and 74 mm in 1997, giving negative budgets of -99 mm in 1996 and -50 mm in 1997. Approximately 60% of the total budget was caused by storage changes in the upper 40 cm of the bog and 40% by swelling/shrinking in the layers below. This mire breathing must be incorporated in future models of mire-water dynamics. The water content varied diversely among the different microrelief elements, much depending on the properties of moss and peat together with distance to water table. There also was a strong hysteresis in the relationships between groundwater level and measured volumetric water content, depending partly on pore-throat effects and partly on swelling/shrinking of the peat matrix. A seasonal variation of volumetric water content in a layer beneath water table was found to be larger than what could be justified by compression alone. We think that probable causes could be methane gas expansion together with temperature effects. The main conclusions of this study were: (i) water-transport and storage characteristics are distinctly different among hummocks, ridges and hollows, (ii) mire wetness cannot be deduced from groundwater levels only, and (iii) an important part of the total water storage was caused by swelling/shrinking of the peat, not by changes in unsaturated water content.

  11. Fresh water generation from aquifer-pressured carbon storage: Feasibility of treating saline formation waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger D. Aines; Thomas J. Wolery; William L. Bourcier; Thomas Wolfe; Chris Hausmann

    2011-01-01

    Brines up to 85,000 ppm total dissolved solids produced during Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations may be used as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies via reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the injection of carbon dioxide can provide all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine from

  12. An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities. II - The water battery concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman; V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for a 10 MW water battery installation is presented. General design approaches and cost estimates are developed for the basic water battery module, the energy storage subsystem (which consists of the compressors and storage vessels for the hydrogen and oxygen), and the power conditioning subsystem (which controls and regulates direct current to the water battery and alternating

  13. Seasonal soil water storage changes beneath central Amazonian rainforest and pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Hodnett; L. Pimentel da Silva; H. R. da Rocha; R. Cruz Senna

    1995-01-01

    Evaporation and infiltration were compared for tropical rainforest and pasture, near to Manaus, Brazil from October 1990 to February 1992 using measurements of soil water storage over a depth of 2 m. The soil is a clayey oxisol of low water available capacity. In both of the dry seasons studied, the maximum change in soil water storage in the forest

  14. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  15. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  17. 7X Cleaning Solution Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores 1 gallon bottles of 7X Cleaning solution. This detergent

    E-print Network

    Kim, Philip

    7X Cleaning Solution Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores 1 gallon bottles of 7X Cleaning solution as an industrial cleaning agent. It is effective in preventing deposition on laboratory glassware and is completely soluble in hot or cold water at any concentration. 7X Cleaning Solution is a concentrated liquid composed

  18. Infield test results of heat-recovery units and heat pumps for domestic water heating. Residential Conservation Demonstration Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eno

    1982-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to examine the relative advantages of air-conditioning heat recovery units (HRU's) and dedicated heat pump water heaters (HPWH's) as energy conservation devices. HRU's were retrofitted to six central Florida residences, three of these with additional 80-gallon preheat water storage tanks. The other three residences were equipped with HPWH's which could be operated alternatively to

  19. Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Irrigation Water in Federal Projects: El Paso County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Cornforth, G. C.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has approved a program for farmer storage of surface irrigation water in Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico. This program would allow individual farmers to store part of their annual surface water allotment...

  20. Monitoring effective use of household water treatment and safe storage technologies in Ethiopia and Ghana

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Matthew M

    2009-01-01

    Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) technologies dissemination is beginning to scale-up to reach the almost 900 million people without access to an improved water supply (WHO/UNICEF/JMP, 2008). Without well-informed ...

  1. Tree invasion effects on peat water storage capacity (La Guette peatland, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Stephane; Viel, Emelie; Gogo, Sebastien; Le Moing, Franck; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    In peatlands, carbon fluxes are mainly controlled by peat water saturation state, and this saturation state is an equilibrium between recharge/drainage fluxes and the peat storage capacity. The invasion of Sphagnum peatlands by vascular plants is a current problem in many peat-accumulating systems, raising the question of the relationships between vegetation changes and water storage capacity of peat horizons. To investigate this question, the water storage capacity of the "La Guette" peatland (France), invaded by Betula spp was monitored at the watershed scale since 2008 using a water balance approach and was estimated during the 20th century using historical photographs showing the drainage network and the land cover change. During this period, the site clearly experienced a vegetation change as the site was treeless in 1944. Two main results arise from this experimental device: (1) In this disturbed peatland, tree consumption amplifies the summer drought and the resulting water table drawdown allows an increase of air entrapment in the peat. Even if runoff flows occurred after this drought, the water storage capacity is affected, with about 30% of air that remains trapped in the peat porosity 6 months after the drought period. The effects of a single drought on peat water storage capacity are observed over more than a single hydrological cycle, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of droughts decreasing the peat water storage capacity. (2) Tree invasion is found to drive the drainage network morphology. Hydrological model calibrated for the study site suggested that the development of drainage network had reduced the water storage capacity of the peatland. These observations evidenced a positive feedback between vegetation dynamics and water storage capacity: tree invasion changes the drainage network geometry that decreases the peat water storage capacity, which in return may favor tree development. These two results highlight that the peat water storage capacity is indirectly reduced by tree invasion.

  2. Comparison of energy storage systems in the United States chilled water versus two types of ice storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Fischer

    1984-01-01

    Current U.S. production non-storage heat pumps are compared to heat pumps using stored hot water and stored chilled water and to heat pumps using ice-on-coils as a means of using latent heat of fusion of water as a heat source. This equipment is also used as a means of stored cooling for air conditioning during hot weather. An ice-making heat

  3. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...Missouri River Municipal and Industrial (M & I) Reallocation and Hold Public Meetings...an integrated Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report...to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply may be warranted, and...

  4. Safe water treatment and storage in the home. A practical new strategy to prevent waterborne disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Mintz; Reiff F; Tauxe R

    1995-01-01

    In many parts of the developing world, drinking water is collected from unsafe surface sources outside the home and is then held in household storage vessels. Drinking water may be contaminated at the source or during storage; strategies to reduce waterborne disease transmission must safeguard against both events. We describe a two-component prevention strategy, which allows an individual to disinfect

  5. Terrestrial water storage response to the 2012 drought estimated from GPS vertical

    E-print Network

    Small, Eric

    Terrestrial water storage response to the 2012 drought estimated from GPS vertical position observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS). Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments can be used in hydrologic loading. Here GPS vertical position data, u, are used to assess the timing and duration of TWS

  6. Evaluating the Relative Variability of Lake and Wetland Storage in the Global Water Balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Clark; V. R. Sridhar; D. P. Lettenmaier; C. M. Birkett; K. C. McDonald; L. C. Bowling

    2004-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations commonly stem from the analysis of observed or simulated river discharge which integrates processes upstream including snowpack and soil moisture storage. An understanding of the global water cycle, and in particular the land surface branch; however, requires consideration of all terms in the water budget, including storage in lakes, reservoirs and wetlands, which often is not represented in

  7. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation potential in the presence of excess chlorine was measured. The role of mixing between injection water and ground water and the conservative or non-conservative behavior of trihalomethanes was studied by adding a conservative tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, to the injection water and monitoring its concentration in the extraction water. The potential for biodegradation of trihalomethanes by aquifer bacteria was assessed in laboratory experiments: Microcosms containing ground water or extraction water and sediment or concentrated bacteria were spiked with trihalomethanes, and the amount of trihalomethanes was monitored during an incubation period. The potential for sorption of trihalomethanes to aquifer sediments was assessed in laboratory experiments: Mixtures of sediment and water were spiked with trihalomethanes, and then the trihalomethane concentrations were measured after an equilibration period.

  8. Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Capacity and Flood Potential Using GRACE and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J.

    2008-12-01

    A comparison of GRACE-based terrestrial water storage estimates with time-integrated precipitation observations at a basin scale demonstrates the water retention in a basin relative to the water input. What we see over the GRACE record length are maxima in water storage that fall short of maxima in cumulative precipitation. This suggests some saturation point for a given basin at which additional precipitation must be met by marked increases in runoff or evaporation. Like a bucket that has reached its full volume, these annual saturation periods mark the possible transition to a flood-prone situation. In some basins, these observed storage maxima under precipitation excess vary interannually, making floods more likely in certain years. In order to understand this changing storage capacity, available observations and model outputs of terrestrial water storage, precipitation and temperature are considered over interannual periods.

  9. Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of five homosporeous species of ferns and compared with properties of pollen, seeds, and fern leaf tissue. Isotherms were constructed at 5, 25, and 45 degrees C and analysed using different physicochemical models in order to quantify chemical affinity and heat (enthalpy) of sorption of water in fern spores. Fern spores hydrate slowly but dry rapidly at ambient relative humidity. Low Brunauer-Emmet-Teller monolayer values, few water-binding sites according to the D'Arcy-Watt model, and limited solute-solvent compatibility according to the Flory-Huggins model suggest that fern spores have low affinity for water. Despite the low water affinity, fern spores demonstrate relatively high values of sorption enthalpy (DeltaH(sorp)). Parameters associated with binding sites and DeltaH(sorp) decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting temperature- and hydration-dependent changes in volume of spore macromolecules. Collectively, these data may relate to the degree to which cellular structures within fern spores are stabilized during drying and cooling. Water sorption properties within fern spores suggest that storage at subfreezing temperatures will give longevities comparable with those achieved with seeds. However, the window of optimum water contents for fern spores is very narrow and much lower than that measured in seeds, making precise manipulation of water content imperative for achieving maximum longevity. PMID:17283377

  10. Estimated water use in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Water-use data for 1980 are summarized in this report for 16 counties in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Data include total use of ground water and surface water for each of five water-use categories. The 1980 withdrawals for each category were as follows: 290 million gallons per day for public supply, 63 million gallons per day for rural, 325 million gallons per day for industry, 416 million gallons per day for irrigation, and 6,605 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation. Withdrawals totaled 7,699 million gallons per day and included 983 million gallons per day of ground water and 6,716 million gallons per day of surface water. Excluding thermoelectric power generation, all water withdrawn was freshwater except 38 million gallons per day of saline ground water withdrawn for industrial use in Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  11. Effect of the storage tank thermal insulation on the thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using CFD simulations. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data from literature, we propose a geometrical change allowing limiting the main disadvantage of this solar system which is its high night losses due to the non-insulated storage tank surface. A second 3D CFD model of an ICSSWH in which the storage tank is partially insulated is developed and three values of this tank thermal insulated fraction are studied. Numerical results show that the partially insulated tank based ICSSWH presents lower thermal losses during the night and this night thermal losses coefficient is reduced from 14.6 to 11.64 W K-1 for the tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/4. Similarly, the modified system presents the advantage of its lower thermal losses even during the day. Regarding the thermal production, it is seen that the modified system presents higher water temperature at night and that for all the tank thermal insulation fractions. Concerning the operation of this modified system during the day, the water temperature is lower during the day and that up to 16 h but the water temperature which achieves 324 K for the storage tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/8 still sufficiently high to satisfy a family hot water needs.

  12. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  13. An analysis of terrestrial water storage variations in Illinois with implications for the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rodell; J. S. Famiglietti

    2001-01-01

    Variations in terrestrial water storage affect weather, climate, geophysical phenomena, and life on land, yet observation and understanding of terrestrial water storage are deficient. However, estimates of terrestrial water storage changes soon may be derived from observations of Earth's time-dependent gravity field made by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Previous studies have evaluated that concept using modeled soil

  14. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...14143-000] West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit...2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for...O'Keeffe, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, P.O. Box 1916,...

  15. Effects of handling, temperature and storage time on sediment and pore-water chemistry and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Jackson, B.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). National Biological Survey

    1994-12-31

    Effects of sediment disturbance, storage temperature (230 C and 40 C) and storage time on chemistry and toxicity of sediment and pore water were evaluated using two sediments (sandy freshwater and organic estuarine) contaminated with metals. Solid-phase (10 d with water renewal) and pore-water (96-h static) toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca were conducted upon collection and at two week intervals for 8--10 weeks. Chemistries (redox, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, ammonia, trace metals, major cations and anions) were measured at each toxicity testing interval. Following extraction, pore-water chemistry changed significantly during the initial 96 h due to oxidation reactions and CO{sub 2} equilibration. Pore water collected in situ was slightly less toxic and had major differences in water chemistry compared to pore water extracted from homogenized sediment. Storage temperature and time significantly influenced pore-water toxicity and chemistry, but had minimal effect on solid-phase toxicity. After four weeks, the highly-toxic sandy sediment became slightly less toxic in solid-phase tests and Significantly less toxic in pore-water tests, coinciding with changes in trace-metal concentrations, activities, and speciation. The estuarine sediment became slightly more toxic in both solid-phase and pore-water tests after four weeks, but returned to original levels after six and eight weeks. Sediment disturbance, storage temperature, and storage time significantly influenced toxicity and pore-water chemistry.

  16. Contribution of water vapor pressure to pressurization of plutonium dioxide storage containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kirk Veirs; John S. Morris; Dane R. Spearing

    2000-01-01

    Pressurization of long-term storage containers filled with materials meeting the US DOE storage standard is of concern.1,2 For example, temperatures within storage containers packaged according to the standard and contained in 9975 shipping packages that are stored in full view of the sun can reach internal temperatures of 250 °C.3 Twenty five grams of water (0.5 wt.%) at 250 °C

  17. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  18. Criticality evaluations of scrambled fuel in water basin storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    Fuel stored underwater in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant basins has been subjected to the usual criticality safety evaluations to assure safe storage configurations. Certain accident or emergency conditions, caused by corrosion or a seismic event, could change the fuel configuration and environment to invalidate previous calculations. Consideration is given here to such contingencies for fuel stored in three storage

  19. Development of a Procedure for the Predictive Control Strategy of a Chilled Water Storage System

    E-print Network

    Wei, G.; Sakuri, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    -peak months to minimize demand charges. By optimizing the operation of the building air handling units (AHUs), chilled water pumps, chiller plant and the thermal storage system, the storage tank is better charged while chiller run time is reduced. Both on...

  20. Hydrogen vehicular fuel storage as a step in a water splitting cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Rudman

    1976-01-01

    The paper shows that a unique refueling cycle is possible for hydrogen produced in a thermochemical water-splitting cycle, where fuel production for hydrogen vehicular refueling is an integral part of the refueling loop. Chemical reactions of hydrogen release for fuel storage are identified and discussed, along with acceptance criteria for fuel storage systems. Merits and short-comings of such a hydrogen

  1. Numerical and experimental study on heat pump water heater with PCM for thermal storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-You Long; Dong-Sheng Zhu

    2008-01-01

    An air source heat pump water heater with phase change material (PCM) for thermal storage was designed to take advantage of off-peak electrical energy. The heat transfer model of PCM was based upon a pure conduction formulation. Quasi-steady state method was used to calculate the temperature distribution and phase front location of PCM during thermal storage process. Temperature and thermal

  2. Mechanisms of water storage and flow in the unsaturated zone of the Chalk aquifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Price; R. G Low; C McCann

    2000-01-01

    It is known that the volumes of water draining from some Chalk catchments in recessions are significantly greater than can be explained by gravity drainage from fissure porosity. The most likely source of this water is slow drainage from the matric porosity above the water table. This paper suggests that the location of this storage is in the irregularities on

  3. Aspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    aspect retain as much as 25% more water at any given soil water pressure than samples from the south methods are commonly used to describe the distribution of soil moisture (Famiglietti et al., 1998; GraysonAspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1 M. M. Gribb,2 H. P. Marshall,3

  4. DIARRHEA PREVENTION THROUGH HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL WATER DISINFECTION AND SAFE STORAGE IN ZAMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. QUICK; AKIKO KIMURA; ANGELICA THEVOS; MATHIAS TEMBO; ISIDORE SHAMPUTA; LORI HUTWAGNER; ERIC MINTZ

    2002-01-01

    A water quality intervention that consists of water treatment, safe storage, and community education was field tested in Kitwe, Zambia. A total of 166 intervention households were randomly selected from one community and 94 control households from another. Baseline surveys were conducted and the intervention was distributed. Weekly active diarrhea surveillance, biweekly water testing, and a follow-up survey were conducted.

  5. Water storage capacitance and xylem tension in isolated branches of temperate and tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Rolf; Pockman, William T

    2005-04-01

    Trees of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem-succulent species with low-density wood (< 0.5 g cm(-3)), which maintain high stem water potentials (psi(STEM) > -0.7 MPa) throughout the year, to "drought-tolerant" deciduous hardwood species (wood density > 0.75 g cm(-3)), which dehydrate strongly during seasonal drought (psi(STEM) < -6 MPa). In stem-succulent and other drought-avoiding species, xylem vessels are surrounded by extensive parenchyma providing intracellular water storage, whereas in deciduous species stem water storage is mainly extracellular. Thirteen tropical and two temperate tree species, representing different functional types, were studied. The contribution of stem water storage to these species' water use during water stress was determined by time-series analysis of dehydration and rehydration of excised leaf-bearing branches of these trees. During dehydration, stem water potential slowly declined 1-2 MPa in drought-avoiding species, but in deciduous species it rapidly fell 4-5 MPa, suggesting that water storage capacitance was related to xylem anatomy. After immersion of dehydrated, leafless branches in water, the decline in xylem tension and rate of water uptake during rehydration were linearly related, as predicted by application of Ohm's law to water flux. The decline of xylem tension during rehydration was biphasic, with a phase of rapid water uptake into extracellular spaces being followed by a prolonged phase of slow water uptake into living cells. The rate of water uptake during rehydration and the minima of leaf water potential observed in the field during the dry season were highly correlated with water storage capacitance, indicating that wood anatomy is a major determinant of drought adaptation. PMID:15687094

  6. Estimation of groundwater recharge from water storage structures in a semi-arid climate of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharda, V. N.; Kurothe, R. S.; Sena, D. R.; Pande, V. C.; Tiwari, S. P.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryGroundwater recharge from water storage structures under semi-arid conditions of western India has been estimated by employing water table fluctuation (WTF) and chloride mass balance (CMB) methods. Groundwater recharge was estimated as 7.3% and 9.7% of the annual rainfall by WTF method for the years 2003 and 2004, respectively while the two years average recharge was estimated as 7.5% using CMB method. A Recharge function depicting the relationship between potential recharge from storage structures and successive day averaged storage depths was better exhibited by a power function. A diagnostic relationship correlating the rainfall to the potential recharge from water storage structures has been developed to explain the characteristics of the storage structures for a given geographical location. The study has revealed that a minimum of 104.3 mm cumulative rainfall is required to generate 1 mm of recharge from the water storage structures. It was also inferred that the storage structures have limited capacity to induce maximum recharge irrespective of the amount of rainfall and maximum recharge to rainfall ratio is achieved at a lower rainfall than the average annual rainfall of the area. An empirical linear relationship was found to reasonably correlate the changes in chloride concentration with water table rise or fall in the study area.

  7. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1)

    E-print Network

    INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1) Site HEATING SYSTEMS: SRCC Certified Mfr Name & Model Number Net Solar Fraction (from attached CEC F-Chart) # of Collectors in System Collector Size Solar Tank Volume (gallons) §150(j)1B: Backup storage tanks for solar

  8. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage volume changes. Ground-based data can, in some cases, test the remote sensing accuracy and precision. Data accuracy requirements vary for different applications: reservoir management for flood control, agriculture, or power generation may need more accurate and timely information than (for example) regional assessments of water and food security issues. Thus, the long-term goal for the hydrological sciences community should be to efficiently mesh both types of information and with as extensive geographic coverage as possible.

  9. 55-Gallon Drum Attenuation Corrections for Waste Assay Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-04-03

    The present study shows how the percent attenuation for low-level waste (LLW), carbon-steel 55-gallon drums (44 and 46 mil) and for transuranic (TRU) DOT Type 7A 55-gallon drums (approximately 61 mil) changes with gamma energy from 60 keV to 1400 keV. Attenuation for these drums is in the range of 5 to 15 percent at energies from 400 to 1400 keV and from 15 to 35 percent at energies from 120 to 400 keV. At 60 keV, these drums attenuate 70-80 percent of the gamma rays. Correction factors were determined in order to correct for gamma attenuation of a TRU drum if a calibration is performed with a LLW drum. These correction factors increase the activities of the TRU drum by from 10 percent to 2 percent in the energy range of 165 to 1400 keV, with an increase of about 50 percent at 60 keV. Correction factors for TRU drums and for analyses without a drum were used to adjust the percent yield for frequently measured gamma rays, so that the assay libraries could be modified to provide the drum attenuation corrections.

  10. Monitoring gravity and water storage changes in northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    The humid sudanian zone of West-Africa undergoes a monsoon climate, implying a strong seasonality in water storage changes (WSC). The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims at monitoring both these local and non-local hydrological contributions with the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is located in hard-rock basement context in Djougou, northern Benin, and is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rainfall, soil moisture, water table, evapotranspiration, ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared to hydrological data and to physically-based or conceptual hydrological models calibrated on these data. This presentation shows the results and limitations of each gravimeter in the context of WSC retrieval. This site was first measured with a FG5 absolute gravimeter four times a year from 2008 to 2013. This can be considered as a high sampling rate, given the remote location and the complexity of FG5 carriage and installation. It allowed to derive an average specific yield for the local aquifer, and preliminary estimates of seasonal WSC (up to 120 nm/s2 - 270mm). Yet the lack of continuity in the data avoids further investigations. The SG-060 superconducting gravimeter has been installed in 2010 in order to monitor gravity response to WSC in a continuous way. A strong drift is present (230nm/s2/yr), and FG5 data together with a-priori information on WSC are needed for estimating its effect. Also, frequent power-failures lead to some significant gaps and offsets during which fast WSC may occur (e.g. rain), yielding to a challenging correction for these events. The retrieval of inter-annual WSC suffers from these strong and limiting instrumental effects. At higher frequencies, up to a few days, continuous gravity monitoring may help to quantify evapotranspiration (ET), a poorly-known variable of the hydrological cycle. In Djougou, favorable -flat- topographic conditions and significant ET (up to 5 mm/day) are present. However, the shelter size together with the low altitude of the SG sensor with respect to the ground yield to diminish the expected effect of ET. Also, atmospheric contribution at such frequencies in the equatorial band is governed by S1 and S2 pressure waves of planetary extension, with rather complicated behavior. Therefore, the retrieval of ET is limited by the SG environment (shelter and instrument height) and our ability to fully correct for atmospheric effects. The spatial variations of gravity changes on the local catchment are also investigated by CG5 micro-gravity surveys since July 2011 with weekly measurements in the wet season and monthly in the dry season, resulting in more than two years and 3 wet seasons coverage. This survey helped to identify preferential recharge areas and some specific water-redistribution processes at the catchment scale, driven by subsurface heterogeneities.

  11. Study of Disinfection By-Products and Long Term Storage of Drinking Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, G.; White, D.; Garland, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the challenges facing many of Alaska's communities is providing safe and reliable drinking water from sources containing high concentrations of natural organic material (NOM). These highly colored waters, locally referred to as "tundra tea," often result in the formation of disinfectant byproducts during treatment. Since surface water sources in the Arctic are often frozen for 6-9 months per year, communities are often forced to either store raw water for treatment during the winter or treat and store enough drinking water during the summer to last through the winter. Because long-term storage practices are somewhat unique to water treatment in the rural Northern communities, the practice has not been thoroughly studied and there is limited published information on how water quality is affected by extended storage. Anecdotal evidence and data collected by field engineers indicate that significant changes are occurring and that the quality of the treated water can be adversely impacted. The University of Alaska Small Drinking Water System Technical Assistance Center (ATTAC) is conducting fundamental and applied research to help Alaska's small communities provide safe and reliable drinking water. One research focus area is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in small drinking water systems. Studies to characterize the NOM present in Alaskan surface waters and demonstrations of NOM removal technologies have been have been conducted over the past several years. The study presented here examined the formation of disinfection by-products during long-term storage of water from five small Alaskan water systems. Results from this research suggest that long-term storage has a significant impact on DBP formation. The results suggest that the NOM escaping treatment is likely to react in the storage tank resulting in DBP concentrations that are well above the estimated DBP formation potential.

  12. CO2 Releases from Deep Storage Formations into Drinking Water Aquifers - Assessment of Impacts on Drinking Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Pabalan; S. L. Painter; G. R. Walter; F. P. Bertetti

    2008-01-01

    Geological storage of supercritical CO2 is envisioned as a means of mitigating the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, the potential exists for CO2 to migrate from the deep geologic formations to overlying aquifers that serve as sources of drinking water, which could lead to geochemical alterations that have detrimental effects on drinking water quality. For example, elevated

  13. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  14. The impact of impervious water-storage parametrization on urban climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the representation of the water balance in urban land-surface models, we present a new impervious water-storage parametrization that assumes a distribution of water reservoirs. It has been implemented in TERRA-URB, a new urban parametrization for COSMO-CLM's standard land-surface module TERRA-ML. The water-storage capacity and the maximal wet surface fraction of the urban impervious land cover consisting of streets and buildings are estimated for Toulouse centre by matching the modelled and observed evapotranspiration (ET) rates. They amount to 1.31 ± 0.20 kg m-2} and 12 ± 4%, respectively. The model successfully reproduces the timespan and magnitude of increased ET for both urban observations campaigns CAPITOUL and BUBBLE. Our sensitivity study reveals that water-storage parametrization largely affects the performance of modelled ET rates. Hereby, the simulation employing the new water-storage parametrization is improved compared to arbitrary or existing water-storage parametrizations. The ET, surface sensible heat exchange and upwelling infra-red radiation are all affected until 12 day-time hours after rainfall on average. The modelled annual-mean ET during the CAPITOUL campaign from the urban land in Toulouse is an order of magnitude lower than that observed for the natural surroundings.

  15. The characteristics of the thermal energy storage in a two-compartment water tank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sui Lin; C. C. K. Kwok; J. C. Y. Wang

    1984-01-01

    A water storage tank consisting of two equal compartments of 35.56 cm i.d. and 50.8 cm height, used in a solar water-heating system, was designed and manufactured. The lower compartment, which contained the cold water inlet, was in a loop with a solar energy collector. The upper compartment, from which hot water could be drawn, was connected to the top

  16. On leakage and seepage of CO 2 from geologic storage sites into surface water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Oldenburg; J. L. Lewicki

    2006-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and its storage in deep geologic formations. The processes of CO2 seepage into surface water after migration through water-saturated sediments are reviewed. Natural CO2 and CH4 fluxes are pervasive in surface-water environments and are good analogues to potential leakage and seepage of CO2. Buoyancy-driven bubble rise in surface water

  17. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  18. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  19. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  20. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Purtymun; S. G. McLin; A. K. Stoker; M. N. Maes; B. G. Hammock

    1993-01-01

    Municipal potable water supply during 1990 was 1,642 [times] 10[sup 6] gallons from wells in three fields. The nonpotable water supply used exclusively for industry was about 9 [times] 10[sup 6] gallons from the spring gallery in Water Canyon. ne nonpotable water used for irrigation was 2.2 [times] 10[sup 6] gallons from the Guaje Reservoir and 4.6 [times] 106 gallons

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  2. Drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir during a period of extreme drawdown.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Darren S; Gigney, Helen; Wilson, Jessica S; Watson, Garth; Boulding, Amy N

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir (Lake Hume) during a period of extreme drawdown (to less than 3% of capacity). During the period of extreme drawdown, the reservoir can be thought of as consisting of three separate but inter-related parcels of water. The warm surface mixed layer was about 6m deep. Cold water inflows from the Mitta Mitta River undershot the surface mixed layer in the Mitta Mitta arm of the reservoir and flowed along the bottom of the reservoir to the Dam Wall without substantial interaction with the surface mixed layer. When inflows from the Murray River occurred, the temperature of these inflows was similar to that of the surface mixed layer within the dam and the flows appeared to move within the surface mixed layer towards the Dam Wall. These Murray River inflows were insufficient to promote total mixing of the surface and bottom waters. The Murray River arm of the reservoir became a 'hot spot' for nutrient production. Stratification and subsequent anoxic conditions promoted the release of nutrients - ammonium, organic N and total P - from the sediments into the overlying hypolimnion. Because the depth of the lake was relatively shallow due to the extreme drawdown, wind driven events lead to a substantial deepening (turnover) of the thermocline allowing periodic pulses of nutrients into the warm surface layer. These nutrient pulses appeared to stimulate cyanobacterial growth. Warm inflows from the Murray River then served to push the blooms formed in the Murray arm into the main body of the lake. PMID:18804256

  3. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-05-19

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d. PMID:25989554

  4. Shock Chlorination of Stored Water Supplies 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2005-05-25

    -sleeved shirt when handling and mixing chlorine. To introduce chlorine into a storage tank, particularly when using dry power or tablet forms, place the desired amount of chlorine into a 5-gallon bucket and fill the bucket with clean water. Thoroughly mix... hypochlorite liquid bleach, chose a plain or unscented variety. High-test hypochloride can be purchased in powder or tablet form. Adding Chlorine Products to a Tank After determining the appropriate amount of chlo- rine disinfecting product to use, add...

  5. Solar domestic hot water system, a comparative study and storage tank investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program was developed to simulate five typical solar domestic hot water systems which included both thermosyphon and pumped designs that were assembled and tested. Numerical simulations of these systems were verified by comparison to experimental results. Predicted thermal performance, i.e., collector inlet and outlet temperatures, and auxiliary energy requirements were found to be in excellent agreement with experiments. The computer program was then used to predict the long term annual performance of the various systems at 14 different locations throughout California. Load size and load distribution were also varied. Economic analyses were performed on each system with the goal of identifying the most economical system at each location under a prescribed load (gallons/day) size and distribution pattern (time of day for hot water use). It was found that in almost all cases the two tank thermosyphon system was the most cost effective system for all locations, load sizes and distributions and shows promise of being the most widely used solar domestic hot water system.

  6. Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Donna

    2010-08-01

    Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

  7. Land Water Storage within the Congo Basin Inferred from GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2006-01-01

    GRACE satellite gravity data is used to estimate terrestrial (surface plus ground) water storage within the Congo Basin in Africa for the period of April, 2002 - May, 2006. These estimates exhibit significant seasonal (30 +/- 6 mm of equivalent water thickness) and long-term trends, the latter yielding a total loss of approximately 280 km(exp 3) of water over the 50-month span of data. We also combine GRACE and precipitation data set (CMAP, TRMM) to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Congo Basin. We find that the seasonal water storage tends to saturate for anomalies greater than 30-44 mm of equivalent water thickness. Furthermore, precipitation contributed roughly three times the peak water storage after anomalously rainy seasons, in early 2003 and 2005, implying an approximately 60-70% loss from runoff and evapotranspiration. Finally, a comparison of residual land water storage (monthly estimates minus best-fitting trends) in the Congo and Amazon Basins shows an anticorrelation, in agreement with the 'see-saw' variability inferred by others from runoff data.

  8. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  9. Experimental studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with partitioned hot water storage tank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. F Li; K Sumathy

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system with a partitioned hot water storage tank. The system employs a flat-plate collector array with a surface area of 38 m2 to drive a LiBr–H2O absorption chiller of 4.7 kW cooling capacity. The system is provided with a storage tank (2.75 m3) which is partitioned into

  10. Comparison of energy storage systems in the United States chilled water versus two types of ice storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. C.

    1984-10-01

    Current U.S. production non-storage heat pumps are compared to heat pumps using stored hot water and stored chilled water and to heat pumps using ice-on-coils as a means of using latent heat of fusion of water as a heat source. This equipment is also used as a means of stored cooling for air conditioning during hot weather. An ice-making heat pump which harvests ice as sheets of ice 3 to 4 times per hour and stores the ice in a large inexpensive bin is discussed. The advantages of such an ice-making heat pump to heat in cold weather and cool in hot weather is discussed as it relates to electric utility load management in different parts of the United States.

  11. Delayed incubation as an alternative method to sample storage for enumeration of E. coli and culturable bacteria in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Guardabassi; J. Gravesen; C. Lund; L. Bagge; A. Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The effects of sample storage on enumeration of Escherichia coli in marine bathing water and culturable bacteria in drinking water were evaluated. Results showed that overnight storage at 0?5°C significantly reduced the counts of E. coli in bathing water (p=0.0001) with a mean reduction of 25%. A similar effect of sample storage was observed for the enumeration of culturable bacteria

  12. Economic analysis of air-conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, B.J.; Papaprokopiou, N.D.

    1981-09-01

    This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or Styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

  13. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  14. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  15. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  16. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  17. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  18. Total water storage in Washington, Oregon, and California inferred from GPS observation of surface mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal vertical oscillations in the Pacific mountain system are observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study we invert such GPS measurements of surface mass loading for equivalent water thickness at a resolution of one-quarter degree latitude and longitude. Standard Green's functions based on PREM are used to specify the relationship between equivalent water thickness and the elastic response of solid Earth to the load. A Laplacian is used to limit the change in the value of equivalent water thickness from one pixel to the next. The resulting GPS determination of the seasonal oscillation in the total water thickness has been compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics California's physiographic provinces. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April 1 to October 1 is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. We conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system. Water storage inferred from GPS exceeds that in hydrology model NLDAS-Noah by up to 50%. This difference is likely due to more snow and reservoir water than in the hydrology model. Comparison between GPS inversed seasonal water storage and hydrology model (NLDAS) result for Washington and Oregon.

  19. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  20. Hydrologic effects of withdrawal of ground water on the West Fargo aquifer system, eastern Cass County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The West Fargo area, an area of 230 sq mi in eastern Cass County , is underlain by glaciofluvial sand and gravel deposits that form the West Fargo aquifer system. The aquifer system contains about 131,300 million gallons of available groundwater in storage. Recharge to the aquifer system is estimated to be about 600 to 650 million gallons per year. Discharge in 1980 is estimated to have been 683 million gallons. Pumping from the West fargo aquifer system began in the latter part of the 19th century. No records of pumpage were kept in the early years, but pumpage has averaged 613 million gallons/year near West Fargo at least since 1968. Water levels, which were near or above land surface at West Fargo in 1869, have declined to as much as 121.7 ft below land surface in 1981. In areas of little or no pumpage, water levels have declined much less. The rate of water-level decline in an observation well in the West Fargo South aquifer was as low as 0.2 ft/year, but increased to a rate of 2.1 ft/yr from 1976 through 1981 due to an increase of the average annual pumping rate of about 59.9 million gallons at a well field about 5 miles north. Water in the aquifer system contains from 332 to 2,960 mgs/L of dissolved solids and 25 to 975 mgs/L of chloride ions. (USGS)

  1. International Conference on Water Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC-2009)

    E-print Network

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    papers; two special events on (i) Pollution Abatement in Ganga Basin: Bioremediation Potential of Irrigation, Govt. of U.P.; World Wide Fund for Nature, India (WWF-India) and its Living Ganga Program; Water

  2. Land-subsidence and ground-water storage monitoring in the Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Don R.; Winster, Daniel; Cole, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA) comprises two basins--Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. The TAMA has been directed by Arizona ground-water law to attain an annual balance between groundwater withdrawals and recharge by the year 2025. This balance is defined by the statute as "safe yield." Current ground-water withdrawals exceed recharge, resulting in conditions of ground-water overdraft, which causes removal of water from ground-water storage and subsidence of the land surface. Depletion of storage and associated land subsidence will not be halted until all discharge from the system, both natural and human induced, is balanced by recharge. The amount of the ground-water overdraft has been difficult to estimate until recently because it could not be directly measured. Overdraft has been estimated using indirect water-budget methods that rely on uncertain estimates of recharge. As a result, the status of the ground-water budget could not be known with great certainty. Gravity methods offer a means to directly measure ground-water overdraft through measurement of changes in the gravitational field of the Earth that are caused by changes in the amount of water stored in the subsurface. Changes in vertical position also affect the measured gravity value and thus subsidence also must be monitored. The combination of periodic observations of gravity and vertical positions provide direct measures of changes in stored ground water and land subsidence.

  3. Investigating the Potential for Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage Observations from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellett, K. M.; Walker, J. P.; Western, A. W.; Rodell, M.

    2006-05-01

    Early results from the GRACE satellite mission are providing novel assessment of the global-scale terrestrial water cycle. GRACE observations of changes in total water storage also present new opportunities for model verification and data assimilation. This paper investigates the latter and identifies the primary challenges to utilizing GRACE in this context as (1) GRACE observation resolution and error, (2) downscaling from the observation to model scale and (3) decomposing the vertically integrated total terrestrial water storage change observation into the relevant components (e.g., soil moisture and ground water storage). Results from synthetic twin studies undertaken for the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia (106 km2) indicate that assimilation of GRACE observations can improve model prediction at the catchment scale (104-105 km2) for the case of relatively large errors in the initial soil moisture conditions. Improvement in prediction is a function of the catchment size since the variational-type scheme used in this study relies on areal weighting to implicitly downscale the GRACE observations. This initial investigation suggests that the effectiveness of data assimilation of GRACE observations will depend on the spatial resolution and inherent accuracy of the hydrological model, the size of the basin of interest, and the magnitude of the natural water storage change signal.

  4. Leaf Area and Water Content Changes after Permanent and Temporary Storage

    PubMed Central

    Juneau, Kevyn J.; Tarasoff, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of leaf morphology must be taken to develop models of ecosystem productivity and climate change projections. Once leaves are removed from a plant they begin to lose water and degrade. If specimens cannot be measured immediately after harvest, it is important to store the leaves in a manner that reduces morphological changes. If preserved specimens are used, estimates that closely match fresh measurements need to be calculated. This study examined the change in leaf area after storage treatments and developed models that can be used to more accurately estimate initial leaf area. Fresh leaf area was measured from ten plant species then stored in one of two common storage treatments. After storage, leaf area was re-measured and comparisons were made between species and growth forms. Leaf area decreased the most after permanent storage treatments and the least after temporary storage. Pressed leaves shrunk over 18% while cold storage leaves shrunk under 4%. The woody dicot growth form shrunk the least in all treatments. Shrinkage was positively correlated with initial water content and dissection index, a measure of leaf shape and complexity. PMID:22880051

  5. Water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California inferred from GPS observation of loading deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical loading deformation in the Pacific mountain system is observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to more than 1 cm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise during the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study, we invert such GPS measurements of loading deformation for surface water variations in Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), and study seasonal, interannual and long-term trend water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California. The resulting GPS determination of the total water thickness change is compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics different physiographic provinces of western U.S. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April to October is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. With GPS monthly time series, we infer surface water variation at higher temporal (monthly) interval. The current California drought since 2011 is precisely quantified with GPS inversed surface water change. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, our GPS results indicate ~14 Gigaton/year water loss between 2011 to 2014, and this rate is much larger than that of the previous drought event (~9 Gigaton/year) between 2006 to 2009. Our results inferred from GPS show that rapid near-surface water decrease is occurring in Sierra Nevada Mountain, Klamath Mountain. In the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon, there is no significant water loss there. Because the GPS network in the western U.S. is dense enough and GPS position solutions can be derived very quickly, we conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system at high spatial resolution in near real time.

  6. Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination of lterable reactive phosphorus, total lterable

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    Review Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination and digestion of water samples for ®lterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total ®lterable phosphorus (TFP samples contain digestion of samples

  7. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  8. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. 31...Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. ...sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20...

  9. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1990. Progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Purtymun; S. G. McLin; A. K. Stoker; M. N. Maes; B. G. Hammock

    1993-01-01

    Municipal potable water supply during 1990 was 1,642 à 10⁶ gallons from wells in three fields. The nonpotable water supply used exclusively for industry was about 9 à 10⁶ gallons from the spring gallery in Water Canyon. ne nonpotable water used for irrigation was 2.2 à 10⁶ gallons from the Guaje Reservoir and 4.6 à 106 gallons from the Los

  10. Effects of storage conditions and pH on chlorine loss in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water.

    PubMed

    Len, Soo-Voon; Hung, Yen-Con; Chung, Donghwan; Anderson, James L; Erickson, Marilyn C; Morita, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light. Under closed conditions, the chlorine loss did not follow first-order kinetics, because the primary mechanism of chlorine loss may be self-decomposition of chlorine species rather than chlorine evaporation. The effect of diffused light was more significant compared to agitation after two months of storage under closed conditions. The chlorine loss of EO water and commercial chlorinated water decreased dramatically with the increase of pH from the acidic (pH 2.5) to the alkaline (pH 9.0) region. PMID:11754569

  11. Multi-scale hydropedological controls on water storage, mixing and release in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Birkel, Christian; Soulsby, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Water storage, mixing and flux processes regulate the generation of stream flow and the time scales for the transport of solutes and contaminants. Understanding the space and time variant dominant mechanisms on these processes in different landscapes and climates remains a key challenge in water resource research. The scope of this presentation is to provide an overview of new insights into the multiscale and integrated spatio-temporal controls of hydropedology on water storage, mixing and release in low energy, humid headwater catchments. We provide some examples from the Bruntland Burn experimental catchment (3.2 km2) in the Scottish Highlands. This area is characterised by high precipitation inputs, low evapotranspiration rates and storage reservoirs which are typically close to the threshold of saturation for most of the time. We explored water storage, mixing, and flow processes in the soil matrix, at different soil-vegetation plots, and along a hillslope transect. Sites included two common soil types (Histosols in the riparian zone and Podzols on hillslopes) and both forested (with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)) and non-forested areas. We also explored the integrated effects of the spatio-temporal dynamics in these processes at the catchment scale, using high resolution hydrometric and stable water isotope analyses. By comparing stable water isotopes of soil water held at different soil water tensions, we found that water held at high tensions (i.e. in the smaller pores) had a longer residence time than that held at lower tensions. However, these variations were small in the context of the differences observed in soil water storage and flow dynamics between soil types and their integrated control at the catchment scale. Storage dynamics in the different hydropedological units controlled hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and the stream network, runoff generation, and the evolution of catchment transit time distributions. It was found that vegetation cover played a minor role and only locally during unusually dry conditions. We briefly reflect on the ecohydrological and management implications of these results at multiple scales and provide insights into future directions.

  12. Effects of cold storage and water stress on water relations and gas exchange of white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; MacDonald, S E; Zwiazek, J J

    1995-04-01

    To determine the effects of lifting time and storage on water-stress resistance of nursery-grown white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings, we compared gas exchange, water relations and mortality of 3-year-old seedlings lifted in October 1991 and stored at -2 degrees C for 3 months with seedlings lifted in January 1992. The seedlings were placed in nutrient solution and subjected to -1.1 or -2.7 MPa water stress induced by polyethylene glycol 3350 for 9 days. Water stress, but not lifting time, had a significant effect on seedling net assimilation, symplastic volume and turgor loss point. In a second experiment, seedlings lifted in October 1991 were stored at -2 degrees C for 7 months and compared with seedlings lifted in May 1992. The seedlings were planted in pots, and their gas exchange and water relation parameters measured in response to gradual water stress. The results suggest that prolonged cold storage retards photosynthetic recovery of seedlings after planting. Higher rates of net assimilation in seedlings lifted in May were not directly related to their water status. Nonstomatal limitations were the primary factor influencing photosynthetic rate. We conclude that the inferior ability of cold-stored seedlings to tolerate water stress was due to poor osmotic adjustment and a lag in recovery of photosynthesis. PMID:14965967

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  14. Effects of Storage Conditions and pH on Chlorine Loss in Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Voon Len; Yen-Con Hung; Donghwan Chung; James L. Anderson; Marilyn C. Erickson; Kazuo Morita

    2002-01-01

    The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light.

  15. GPS as an independent measurement to estimate terrestrial water storage variations in Washington and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuning; Argus, Donald F.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) measures elastic ground loading deformation in response to hydrological mass variations on or near Earth's surface. We present a time series of change in terrestrial water storage as a function of position in Washington and Oregon estimated using GPS measurements of vertical displacement of Earth's surface. The distribution of water variation inferred from GPS is highly correlated with physiographic provinces: the seasonal water is mostly located in the mountain areas, such as the Cascade Range and Olympic Mountains, and is much smaller in the basin and valley areas of the Columbia Basin and Harney Basin. GPS is proven to be an independent measurement to distinguish between hydrological models. The drought period of 2008-2010 (maximum in 2010) and the recovery period of 2011-2012 in the Cascade Range are well recovered with GPS-determined time-variable monthly water mass series. The GPS-inferred water storage variation in the Cascade Range is consistent with that derived from JPL's GRACE monthly mass grid solutions. The percentage of RMS reduction is ~62% when we subtract GRACE water series from GPS-derived results. GPS-determined water storage variations can fill gaps in the current GRACE mission, also in the transition period from the current GRACE to the future GRACE Follow-on missions. We demonstrate that the GPS-inferred water storage variations can determine and verify local scaling factors for GRACE measurements; in the Cascade Range, the RMS reduction between GRACE series scaled by GPS and scaled by the hydrological model-based GRACE Tellus gain factors is up to 90.5%.

  16. Impact of Storage Tanks on Drinking Water Quality in Al-Karak Province-Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anf H. Ziadat

    2005-01-01

    One hundred water samples were collected from the residential galvanized steel water storage tanks from three different regions of Al-Karak Province in the southern part of the country Jordan. Samples were analyzed for major anions (HCO3, F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO4-2), major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni), in order

  17. Summary status of advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage\\/transport R and D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mezzina

    1984-01-01

    Major projects within the framework of the U.S. DOE Chemical\\/Hydrogen Energy Systems Program are described. Goals, accomplishments and status of investigations into advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage\\/transport are summarized. Electrolytic hydrogen production systems include: SPE electrolyzers; static feed water electrolysis; high temperature electrolysis; and other advanced concepts. Hydrogen transport studies have emphasized the characterization of hydrogen embrittlement effects on

  18. Estimation of groundwater recharge from water storage structures in a semi-arid climate of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Sharda; R. S. Kurothe; D. R. Sena; V. C. Pande; S. P. Tiwari

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater recharge from water storage structures under semi-arid conditions of western India has been estimated by employing water table fluctuation (WTF) and chloride mass balance (CMB) methods. Groundwater recharge was estimated as 7.3% and 9.7% of the annual rainfall by WTF method for the years 2003 and 2004, respectively while the two years average recharge was estimated as 7.5% using

  19. Effect of water content and storage time on white pan bread quality: instrumental evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gil; M. J. Callejo; G. Rodríguez

    1997-01-01

    The firmness of white pan bread was measured using compression and bending tests to determine the influence of the water\\u000a content of the dough on bread quality and on the changes taking place with storage time. Three sample breads were prepared\\u000a using different flours and three different water contents, and firmness was tested at 24, 48 and 72 h. For

  20. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (? = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (? = 0.35), forgetting (? = -0.22), and self-efficacy (? = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  1. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20?cm) than in the deep layers (20~40?cm and 40~60?cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  2. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...

  3. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

  4. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

  5. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: WATER POLLUTANTS FROM COAL STORAGE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a...

  6. Performance of a hotel chilled water plant with cool storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Gillespie; S. L. Blanc; S. Parker

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring suite was installed at a large convention hotel located in San Francisco, CA. The instrumentation was used for a research project to evaluate the effectiveness of electricity price based controls that automate response to real time pricing and to characterize the operation and performance of the hotel's chilled water plant that included a newly installed ice cool

  7. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  8. Morphology, growth and carbohydrate storage of the plant Typha angustifolia at different water depths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sharma; T. Asaeda; M. Kalibbala; T. Fujino

    2008-01-01

    Morphological characteristics, growth and carbohydrate storage dynamics of Typha angustifolia in relation to water depth were investigated. The study was based on observations carried out in two stands, namely Akigase and Teganuma, for two growth seasons. The latter stand was about two times deeper than the former. Teganuma stands exhibited significantly higher number of thick shoots compared to those of

  9. Lower Mantle Storage of Water in "Anhydrous" High-Pressure Basalt Assemblages

    E-print Network

    Lower Mantle Storage of Water in "Anhydrous" High-Pressure Basalt Assemblages W. R. Panero, L. R into the perovskite + stishovite phase assemblage that is stable at lower-mantle pressures. Synchrotron- based- mantle conditions. At current subduction rates, this corresponds to an accumulation of up to 100 0.10 0

  10. Parametric Study of Single-Pipe Diffusers in Stratified Chilled Water Storage Tanks (RP1185)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Song; William P. Bahnfleth; John M. Cimbala

    2004-01-01

    A parametric study was performed of the charging thermal performance of a full-scale pipe diffuser in a single cylindrical stratified chilled water storage tank by applying factorial experimental theory to the results of simulations performed with a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Dimensional parameters having the potential to influence charging inlet performance were identified and formed into dimensionless groups

  11. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  12. Using Deuterium to trace movement and storage of water in Eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Wyczesany, Tomasz; Eamus, Derek; Pfautsch, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of trees to release water from storage compartments into the transpiration stream can mitigate damage to hydraulic functioning. However, the location and magnitude of these 'mobile' water sources still remains a topic of research. We conducted an experiment on two tree species that naturally grow in regions of high (Eucalyptus tereticornis) and low (E. sideroxylon) rates of annual precipitation. Deuterium enriched water (1350 ‰ label strength) was introduced into the transpiration stream of three trees per species for four consecutive days. Then the trees were felled and samples of all woody tissues were collected from different heights and positions of the stem. Water was extracted from all samples and the isotopic composition measured. Our results indicate that vertical water transport was more efficient in E. tereticornis while radial water transport was more pronounced in E. sideroxylon. The latter has a larger relative stem water storage capacity than E. tereticornis. This is probably related to differences in the hydraulic architecture across the two species, with a larger resistance of the xylem to cavitation in E. sideroxylon due to smaller vessel diameters, resulting in the trade-off of slower growth and lower tree height. Generally water in the phloem is a larger source for capacitance than water in the heartwood. Further integrative data analyses will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that allow trees to survive and adapt to drought.

  13. Estimate of ground water in storage in the Great Lakes basin, United States, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Sheets, Rodney A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data from Regional Aquifer System Analyses (RASA) studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Great Lakes Basin, United States, during 1978-95, were compiled and used to estimate the total volume of water that is stored in the many aquifers of the basin. These studies focused on six regional aquifer systems: the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana; the Silurian- Devonian aquifers in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; the surficial aquifer system (aquifers of alluvial and glacial origin) found throughout the Great Lakes Basin; and the Pennsylvanian sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers and the Mississippian sandstone aquifer in Michigan. Except for the surficial aquifers, all of these aquifer systems are capable of yielding substantial quantities of water and are not small aquifers with only local importance. Individual surficial aquifers, although small in comparison to the bedrock aquifers, collectively represent large potential sources of ground water and therefore have been treated as a regional system. Summation of ground-water volumes in the many regional aquifers of the basin indicates that about 1,340 cubic miles of water is in storage; of this, about 984 cubic miles is considered freshwater (that is, water with dissolved-solids concentration less than 1,000 mg/L). These volumes should not be interpreted as available in their entirety to meet water-supply needs; complete dewatering of any aquifer is environmentally undesirable. The amount of water that is considered available on the basis of water quality and environmental, economic, and legal constraints has not been determined. The effect of heavy pumping in the Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee, Wis., areas, which has caused the regional ground-water divide in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system to shift westward, has been included in the above estimates. This shift in the ground-water divide has increased the amount of water in storage in the deep-bedrock aquifers of the Great Lakes Basin by about 36 cubic miles; however, this water is removed by wells and, after use, is mostly discharged to the Mississippi River Basin rather than to the Great Lakes Basin. The corresponding decrease in ground-water storage that has resulted from lowering of the potentiometric surface due to this heavy pumping (0.059 cubic miles) is negligible compared to the total estimated storage.

  14. Optimization of unconfined shallow aquifer water storage for irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    A physically based simulation model was developed to optimize pumping from shallow unconfined aquifers for irrigation. The model uses evapotranspiration, rainfall, crop, soil, and aquifer properties to calculate runoff, recharge, rejected recharge, and water table depth. The model predicted water table elevations over the five-year period with reasonable accuracy using the data from a small watershed in northwest Bangladesh. Four optimized pumping regimes were developed for shallow deep tubewell irrigation of rice and wheat grown in the Rabi (dry) sea-Bon. The improved irrigation system management increased groundwater recharge, thereby decreasing rejected recharge. Under improved management, pumping of groundwater was distributed over three crop: growing seasons, increasing total crop production as the cropping intensity increased. The net benefits for crop production from the improved management with the rice-based cropping pattern were 15 percent and 27 percent more with shallow and deep tubewells, respectively, than with the existing irrigation management. The average yearly rejection of rainfall recharge decreased from 590 mm under rain fed cropping to 440 mm for the existing irrigation management when irrigation was applied only in the Rabi season. When irrigation was applied in all three crop seasons under an improved irrigation management system, the rejection of recharge was only 160 mm. Thus it was possible to minimize the rejection of recharge by optimizing pumping and thereby to significantly increase the available irrigation water supply. Minimizing the rejected recharge reduced the surface runoff that contributes to the flooding that occurs most years in Bangladesh. By irrigating less than 100 percent of the area with tubewells, it was possible to avoid the overdraft of groundwater. The model can be used for other areas where soil, aquifer, crop, and weather data are available.

  15. Concurrent calcium peroxide pretreatment and wet storage of water hyacinth for fermentable sugar production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a novel concurrent process of pretreatment and wet storage was developed and investigated by applying calcium peroxide for preservation and conversion of fresh water hyacinth biomass to fermentable sugars. The effects of CaO2 loading concentration and moisture content on the lignin reduction, carbohydrate preservation and enzymatic saccharification of water hyacinth biomass were evaluated by experimental design using a response surface methodology. The data showed that the concurrent process could conserve 70% carbohydrates and remove 40% lignin from biomass of water hyacinth at the best condition in this study. The enzymatic digestibility and reducing sugar yield from the best condition of concurrent process were around 93% and 325mg/g (dry weight) of fresh biomass, respectively. The result suggested that the concurrent process developed in this work could be a potential alternative to consolidate the pretreatment and storage of aquatic plant biomass for fermentable sugar production. PMID:25461012

  16. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  17. Monitoring Water Storage Changes using Satellite and Ground-based Data in Texas in Response to the 2011 Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D.; Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Save, H.; Scanlon, B. R.; Maidment, D. R.; Neely, W.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 drought was the most severe one year drought on record since 1895 with large scale impacts on water resources in the state. It is important to quantify the various components of the water budget to optimize water management during droughts. This study focuses on monitoring water storage changes in Texas using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites and comparison with other components of the water budget. Total water storage (TWS) anomalies from GRACE show large interannual variability of about 100 km3. High TWS anomalies were recorded in spring 2005 (+100 km3) and summer 2007 (~ +70 km3) in response to increased precipitation. Low TWS anomalies (-40 to -60 km3) were found in response to droughts in 2006 and 2009. The lowest TWS anomaly (-100 km3) was recorded in September 2011 in response to the extreme drought when precipitation was reduced to 270 mm, equal to 40% of the long-term mean. Surface water reservoir storage decreased by ~ 10 km3 during the 2011 drought. Soil moisture storage anomalies from land surface models track GRACE TWS anomalies during wet periods but deviate at other times, representing ~ 50% of the TWS reduction during the 2011 drought. The residual after subtraction of surface water and soil moisture storages from TWS in 2011 is ~ 40 km3 and is attributed to changes in groundwater storage. The various components of the water budget will be compared with other satellite and ground-based storage estimates to constrain uncertainties. GRACE satellites provide a valuable tool for monitoring state-wide water storage changes that can be used to managing water storage changes, particularly in response to droughts.

  18. Total water storage dynamics in response to climate variability and extremes: Inference from long-term terrestrial gravity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Ferré, Ty; Troch, Peter; Merz, Bruno; Wziontek, Hartmut; Güntner, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial water storage is a basic element of the hydrological cycle and a key state variable for land surface-atmosphere interaction. However, measuring water storage in a comprehensive way for different storage compartments and beyond the point scale is a challenge. In this study, we explore a 10-year time series of total water storage changes derived from high-precision superconducting gravimeter observations in a headwater catchment in Southern Germany. In combination with hydro-meteorological data, we examine the relationship between gravity-derived water storage changes, climate, and river discharge. Distinct seasonal water storage dynamics observed by the gravimeter are strongly related to the meteorological forcing, in particular evapotranspiration. Intra-annual water storage variations demonstrate that the simplifying assumption of water storage averaging to zero at the annual scale is not valid for this catchment. At the event-scale, gravimeters provide a measure of the available subsurface water storage capacity, which can be useful for runoff prediction. During the Central European drought in 2003, the gravimeter data show a strong depletion of water storage and a long-term recovery that extended over a period of several years. In comparison to point measurements or different environmental indices, our findings suggest that depth-integrated gravimeter measurements give a more complete picture of the dynamics of a hydrologic system in response to climate variability and extremes. In view of the considerable costs of gravimeters concerning the infrastructure and measurements, we suggest the strategic deployment of gravimeters at selected sites of hydro-meteorological monitoring networks.

  19. Controlled traffic farming with no tillage for improved fallow water storage and crop yield on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Qingjie; Chen Hao; Li Hongwen; Li Wenying; Wang Xiaoyan; A. D. McHugh; He Jin; Gao Huanwen

    2009-01-01

    On the semi-arid Loess Plateau of northern China, water is typically the biggest constraint to rainfed wheat production. Controlled traffic, combined with zero tillage and residue cover has been proposed to improve soil water, crop yield and water use efficiency. From 1998 to 2005, we conducted a field experiment comparing the water storage and wheat productivity of controlled traffic farming

  20. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

  1. Seasonal variation in total water storage in California inferred from GPS observations of vertical land motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Fu, Yuning; Landerer, Felix W.

    2014-03-01

    GPS is accurately recording vertical motion of Earth's surface in elastic response to seasonal changes in surface water storage in California. California's mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, the rain runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. We invert the GPS observations of seasonal vertical motions to infer changes in equivalent water thickness. GPS resolves the distribution of change in total water across California's physiographic provinces at a resolution of 50 km, compared to 200 km resolution from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. The seasonal surface water thickness change is 0.6 m in the Sierra Nevada, Klamath, and southern Cascade Mountains and decreases sharply to about 0.1 m east into the Great Basin and west toward the Pacific coast. GPS provides an independent inference of change in total surface water, indicating water storage to be on average 50% larger than in the NLDAS-Noah hydrology model, likely due to larger changes in snow and reservoir water than in the model. Seismicity and land uplift produced by groundwater loss in California's Central Valley is also being evaluated.

  2. Designing principles of an ecological water storage basin on coastal saline: a case study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping-ping; Yin, Cheng-qing; Qu, Jiu-hui; Zhang, Guang-yun; Feng, Wen-qing; Liu, Jun-xin; Zhong, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of water source environment becomes serious problems accompanying with rapid urbanization in China. Ecological engineering provides ecologically sound and cost-effective solution to solving this problem. As a case study, a 15 hm2 ecological water storage basin for a water plant was designed and constructed on the TEDA area in Tianjin City. Located on saline, the construction of this project has to face serious difficulties, such as high salinity, scarce seed banks of macrophytes, and strong winds. Freshwater replacement, soil amendation and macrophytes planting at the basinshore, wooden water breaker and plastic membrane installation and other measures were conducted for the assistance of plant community establishment. The result showed that the chloride concentration in the basin water decreased from 11600 mg/L to less than 100 mg/L, and the chloride content in the basin sediment decreased from 2.1 % to 0.35% after freshwater soaking. The introduced macrophytes of 8 species all survived and 11 other macrophytes species were occurred in the basin. A new ecosystem was created with increased biological diversity in the original saline, and the water quality was improved. This ecological water storage basin also provided a pleasing landscape for local people. PMID:15900759

  3. A theoretical study of new-style cool storage air-conditioning systems with high-temperature water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ze-Shao Chen; Xue-Gui Qi; Wen-Long Cheng; Peng Hu

    2006-01-01

    Cool storage technology is an effective means of shifting peak electrical loads by storing cooling capacity during off-peak time. A new-style cool storage scheme working with high-temperature water for air-conditioning is introduced in this paper. By supercooling refrigerant before being throttled with 2–38°C water, the refrigerating output is raised and the water's sensible heat is converted to cool energy to

  4. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  5. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  6. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  7. Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

  8. Survival of Arcobacter butzleri during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Finazzi, Guido; Marchetti, Giacomo; Zambrini, Angelo V; Rosmini, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) is a fresh stretched cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri during WBMC production and storage under different temperature conditions (5, 10, and 20 °C). Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with one reference strain and two isolates of A. butzleri, and the count was monitored during WBMC production and storage. The bacterial count of A. butzleri decreased during curd ripening (from 7.83 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 4.14 log CFU/g in about 4 h) and a further decrease (>4 log CFU/g) was observed at the end of curd stretching. During storage testing, A. butzleri was never detected by direct plating, whereas it was recovered from 12 of the total 162 WBMC until the end of storage testing by enrichment. The results revealed that A. butzleri is able to survive during WBMC production and storage at different temperature conditions. Consequently, traditional WBMC produced from raw milk could represent a potential source of Arcobacter infection for humans. PMID:23806147

  9. Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

  10. Seasonal carbon storage and growth in Mediterranean tree seedlings under different water conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Joffre, Richard

    2009-09-01

    In all Mediterranean-type ecosystems, evergreen and deciduous trees differing in wood anatomy, growth pattern and leaf habit coexist, suggesting distinct adaptative responses to environmental constraints. This study examined the effects of summer water stress on carbon (C) storage and growth in seedlings of three coexisting Mediterranean trees that differed in phenology and wood anatomy characteristics: Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp., Quercus faginea Lam. and Pinus halepensis L. Seedlings were subjected to two levels of watering during two consecutive summers and achieved a minimum of -0.5 and -2.5 MPa of predawn water potential in the control and water stress treatment, respectively. Both Quercus species concentrated their growth in the early growing season, demanding higher C in early spring but replenishing C-stores in autumn. These species allocated more biomass to roots, having larger belowground starch and lipid reserves. Quercus species differed in seasonal storage dynamics from P. halepensis. This species allocated most of its C to aboveground growth, which occurred gradually during the growing season, leading to fewer C-reserves. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations sharply declined in August in P. halepensis, probably because reserves support respiration demands as this species closed stomata earlier under water stress. Drought reduced growth of the three species, mainly in Q. faginea and P. halepensis, but not C-reserves, suggesting that growth under water stress conditions is not limited by C-availability. PMID:19574258

  11. GPS observations of seasonal crustal deformation and long-term land subsidence in response to water storage changes in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. J.; De Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Observations of vertical land surface height from Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) GPS stations throughout California and the Western United States reveal significant seasonal and long-term land surface responses to water storage changes. Long-term land surface subsidence in the Central Valley is due to aquifer compaction resulting from ongoing groundwater depletion. Seasonal motion of the land surface due to elastic crustal loading provides insight about seasonal surface water loads such as snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and reservoir storage. This research explores the relationship between water storage changes observed by GRACE and Snotel and the land surface responses observed by GPS, and the potential for new applications of GPS for monitoring various components of water storage.

  12. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  13. Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

  14. 27 CFR 1.71 - Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...containers of a capacity of one gallon or less. 1.71 Section 1.71 Alcohol...containers of a capacity of one gallon or less. Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one wine gallon or less, except anhydrous alcohol and...

  15. Process Waste Assessment for inorganic solid waste and empty containers <30 gallons

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-12-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the two largest hazardous waste streams generated on-site at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)/California -- ``Other Inorganic Solid Waste`` and ``Empty Containers <30 Gallons.``

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-08-01

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  17. Simulated water-level responses, ground-water fluxes, and storage changes for recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, John P.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2005-01-01

    A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which derives boundary conditions from a basin-scale model, spans the 12-mile reach of Rillito Creek and extends 9 miles south into the Central Well Field. Recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek range from 5,000 to 60,000 acre-feet per year and are simulated to begin in 2005 and extend through 2225 to estimate long-term changes in ground-water level, ground-water storage, ground-water flux, and evapotranspiration. The base case for comparison of simulated water levels and flows, referred to as scenario A, uses a long-term recharge rate of 5,000 acre-feet per year to 2225. Scenario B, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 9,500 acre-feet per year, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 53 feet to 86 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 60 feet to 80 feet. More than half of these rises occur by 2050, and more than 95 percent occur by 2188. Scenario C, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 16,700 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 71 feet to 102 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 80 feet to 95 feet. More than half of the rises occur by 2036, and more than 95 percent occur by 2100. Scenario D, which initially increases the recharge rate by about 55,000 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, resulted in simulated water levels that rise to land surface along Rillito Creek. This rise in water level resulted in rejected recharge. As the water table continued to rise, the area of stream-channel surface intersected by the water table increased causing continual decline in the recharge rate until a long-term recharge rate of about 34,000 acre-feet per year was sustained. The long-term recharge rate for scenario D is about 29,000 acre-feet per year greater than the long-term recharge rate for scenario A. Simulated long-term water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek range from about 97 feet to 131 feet, resulting in water levels near or at the land surface. Shallow depths to water associated with this scenario have implications for contamination owing to the presence of landfills within or adjacent to Rillito Creek. Water-level rises for cells within the Central Well Field range from about 96 feet to 109 feet. More than half of the water-level rises occur by 2018 and more than 95 percent occur by 2041. Almost all the increased water added to the ground-water system in the recharge scenarios can be accounted for by a combination of increased storage near Rillito Creek, ground-water flux to the south, ground-water flux to the northwest, and increased discharge as evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek. The percentage of newly added water accounted for by storage changes is large relative to the percentage accounted for by changes in flux and evapotranspiration at the onset of each scenario; however, the changes in storage become smaller throughout the simulation, and the long-term component accounted for by storage is minimal. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the south increase by about 3,300, 4,840, and 7,500 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The percentage of increased recharge that flows south toward the Central Well Field, therefore, is 35, 29, and 26 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the northwest increase by about 3,100, 3,900, and 6,980 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The long-term percentage of increased recharge flowing northwestward is about 31, 25, and 21 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Shallow ground-water evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek incr

  18. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  19. Foams and surfactants for improved underground storage of natural gas by blockage of water cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Jikich, S.A. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Foam blockage to alleviate water coning during the retrieval stage appears to be the simplest, least expensive, and most easily commercialized foam-based technology for improving the underground storage of natural gas. This paper describes effects of injection rate, surfactant concentration, NaCl salinity, and divalent ions on measured aqueous-phase and gaseous-phase relative permeabilities, as well as why these data are needed for modeling the process and designing single-well field tests.

  20. Measuring gravity change caused by water storage variations: Performance assessment under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Lars; Lund, Sanne; Andersen, Ole B.; Binning, Philip J.; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-05-01

    SummarySubsurface water content is an important state variable in hydrological systems. Established methods to measure subsurface water content have a small support scale which causes scaling problems in many applications. Time-lapse relative gravimetry can give an integrated measure of soil water storage changes over tens to hundreds of cubic meters. The use of time-lapse gravimetry in hydrology has until recent years been limited by the large efforts required to obtain precise and accurate gravity data at the 1 ?Gal (10 -8 ms -2) scale. A typical modern relative gravimeter, the Scintrex CG-5, has a sensitivity of 1 ?Gal, corresponding to a layer of 0.024 m of water in an infinitely extended horizontal sheet. For gravity surveys using relative gravity meters, the precision is highly dependent on the methods used to operate the gravimeter in the field. Systematic errors, which are difficult to detect, can lead to a loss of accuracy. As a performance test of a CG-5 for applications of time-lapse gravity in hydrology, we have measured the change in water storage in an indoor basin. The experiment was designed to resemble a field application, e.g. a pumping test, a forced infiltration experiment or alluvial aquifer storage change along intermittent rivers, so that the results can be applied to field experiments. The use of a 20 m by 30 m rectangular basin with a known water volume resulted in complete control over the instrument accuracy. Precisions of 3 ?Gal and accuracies of < 5 ?Gal were found for the time-lapse gravity change. An introduction to hydrogravimetric measurements and data processing are given in order to facilitate the use of the method by non-geophysicists.

  1. Hotel in the Bahamas profits from solar hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    On Paradise Island, located in the Bahamas, American Energy Technologies Inc. (AET) recently designed and supplied a domestic solar water heating system for the new Comfort Suites Hotel. AET is a Florida manufacturer of solar thermal collectors. The hotel has 150 rooms. Hot water usage entails the laundry facilities and the limited kitchen facilities. Access to hot showers is more of a luxury in some places, but guests at the Comfort Suites Hotel need not be concerned. During the development of the hotel, it was noted that the high heating costs of the propane-fueled hotel boiler were somewhat prohibitive. Propane cost approximately $1.67/gallon, causing the cost of heating water for the hotel to be estimated at over $1,000 per month. To offset the high heating costs, a 49-collector system on a 3200 gallon storage tank was designed into the plans for the new facility. The 49 roof mounted collectors were placed on a direct solar link to the 3200 gallon storage tank. The water is preheated before it gets to the boiler, cutting costs tremendously.

  2. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  3. Temperature stratification from thermal diodes in solar hot water storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Jinny; Campbell, Andrew; Mariadass, Adele; Morhous, Branden [San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192-0087 (United States); 581 North 2nd Street, San Jose, CA 95112 (United States); 460 North Winchester Blvd., Apt. 15, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States); 2442 East Nathan Way, Chandler, AZ 85225 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    In this brief note, we have experimentally measured the temperature stratification in a solar hot water storage tank resulting from a simulated solar heating load. Various modifications using a double chimney device that acts as a thermal diode were examined with the intent of maximizing temperature stratification. The greatest stratification was seen with a unique thermal diode arrangement named the express-elevator design, so-called for the direct hot water path from the bottom third of the tank to the top third. (author)

  4. Effect of water storage on the bonding effectiveness of 6 adhesives to Class I cavity dentin.

    PubMed

    De Munck, Jan; Shirai, Kenichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Lambrechts, Paul; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Shintani, Hideaki; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive-dentin interfaces degrade with time. This study determined the effect water storage may have on the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to occlusal Class I cavity-bottom dentin. Six adhesives, all representing contemporary classes of adhesives, were applied: a 3-step (OptiBond FL, Kerr) and 2-step (Scotchbond 1*, 3M ESPE) etch-and-rinse adhesive, a 2-step (Clearfil SE, Kuraray) and 1-step (Adper prompt, 3M ESPE) self-etch adhesive and a 2-step (FujiBond LC, GC) and 1-step (Reactmer, Shofu) resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by microtensile bond strength testing (MTBS) and electron microscopy (Feg-SEM and TEM). The MTBS was determined after 1 day and 1 year water storage of the entire restored cavity (indirect exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water) and prepared microTBS-beams (direct exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water). The hypotheses tested were: (1) resin-dentin bonds formed at the bottom of Class I cavities resist 1-year water storage and (2) an adjacent composite-enamel bond protects the composite-dentin bond against degradation. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis statistically analyzed the microTBSs. The first hypothesis was rejected, as only the microTBS of OptiBond FL and Clearfil SE did not significantly decrease after 1-year direct and/or indirect water storage. The second hypothesis was corroborated, as the bonding effectiveness of most simplified adhesives (Scotchbond 1, Adper Prompt, FujiBond LC and Reactmer) approached 0 (because of the frequent pre-testing failures) after 1-year direct water exposure. The second hypothesis concluded that the 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive must still be regarded the "gold standard." Though microTBS decreased significantly, Clearfil SE, as a 2-step self-etch adhesive, was the only simplified adhesive to perform reliably after 1-year direct water exposure. PMID:16924986

  5. Examination of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Rods After 15 Years in Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, Robert E. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Tsai Hanchung [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Billone, Michael C. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Hilton, Bruce A. [Argonne National Laboratory-West (United States)

    2003-11-15

    For [approximately equal to]15 yr Dominion Generation's Surry Nuclear Station 15 x 15 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert-atmosphere Castor V/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory at peak cladding temperatures that decreased from {approx}350 to 150 deg. C. Before storage, the loaded cask was subjected to thermal-benchmark tests, during which time the peak temperatures were greater than 400 deg. C. The cask was opened to examine the fuel rods for degradation and to determine if they were suitable for extended storage. No fuel rod breaches and no visible degradation or crud/oxide spallation from the fuel rod surface were observed. The results from profilometry, gas release measurements, metallographic examinations, microhardness determination, and cladding hydrogen behavior are reported in this paper.It appears that little or no fission gas was released from the fuel pellets during either the thermal-benchmark tests or the long-term storage. In the central region of the fuel column, where the axial temperature gradient in storage is small, the measured hydrogen content in the cladding is consistent with the thickness of the oxide layer. At {approx}1 m above the fuel midplane, where a steep temperature gradient existed in the cask, less hydrogen is present than would be expected from the oxide thickness that developed in-reactor. Migration of hydrogen during dry storage probably occurred and may signal a higher-than-expected concentration at the cooler ends of the rod. The volume of hydrides varies azimuthally around the cladding, and at some elevations, the hydrides appear to have segregated somewhat to the inner and outer cladding surfaces. It is, however, impossible to determine if this segregation occurred in-reactor or during transportation, thermal-benchmark tests, or the dry storage period. The hydrides retained the circumferential orientation typical of prestorage PWR fuel rods. Little or no cladding creep occurred during thermal-benchmark testing and dry storage. It is anticipated that the creep would not increase significantly during additional storage because of the lower temperature after 15 yr, continual decrease in temperature from the reduction in decay heat, and concurrent reductions in internal rod pressure and stress. This paper describes the results of the characterization of the fuel and intact cladding, as well as the implications of these results for long-term (i.e., beyond 20 yr) dry-cask storage.

  6. Continental water storage variations in Africa from space gravity and altimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    Precision data from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission, launched in March 2002, permit the recovery of continental water storage variations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Mass variations are directly inverted from the inter-satellite K-band range-rate (KBRR) data using a localized mascon approach. Using appropriate constraints, our regional solutions allow better temporal (10-day) and spatial (2-degrees) resolution, than the classical spherical harmonic solutions. In addition altimetry measurements allow the retrieval of the water level variations at a few centimeter level, for major lakes and reservoirs. Because of its smaller footprint (50 to 100 meters, depending on the laser period) compared to radar altimeters (several kilometers), ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation satellite) laser altimetry is more suitable for the retrieval of water level variations of small inland bodies, and when water returns can be highly contaminated by land or vegetation. We combine these gravity and altimetry measurements with hydrology models and in-situ measurements in order to describe the continental water storage variations at seasonal timescales and also long-term variations in Africa.

  7. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. PMID:26190604

  8. Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage.

    PubMed

    Grings, F; Salvia, M; Karszenbaum, H; Ferrazzoli, P; Kandus, P; Perna, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and vegetation condition). Two marsh species, named junco and cortadera, were monitored. This overall data set gave us the possibility of studying and understanding the basic interactions between the radar, the soil under different flood conditions, and the vegetation structure. The comprehension of the observed features was addressed through electromagnetic models developed for these ecosystems. The procedure used in this work to estimate water level within marshes combines a direct electromagnetic model, field work data specifically obtained to feed the model, the actual ASAR measurements and a well known retrieval scheme based on a cost function. Results are validated with water level evaluations at specific points. A map showing an estimation of the water storage capacity and its error in junco and cortadera areas for the date where the investigation was done is also presented. PMID:18367312

  9. An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities: Part II--The water battery concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman; V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry

    1977-01-01

    The water battery (reversible water electrolyser) as envisaged by Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) is a single energy storage device for use on an electric utility system at dispersed locations such as substations. Available off-peak electric energy can be used to electrolyse water, thus producing hydrogen and oxygen, which can be stored externally to the device. These gases can be recycled,

  10. Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. QUICK; L. V. VENCZEL; E. D. MINTZ; L. SOLETO; J. APARICIO; M. GIRONAZ; L. HUTWAGNER; K. GREENE; C. BOPP; K. MALONEY; D. CHAVEZ; M. SOBSEY; R. V. TAUXE

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households

  11. Microbial reduction and storage quality of fresh-cut cilantro washed with acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Wang; Hao Feng; Yaguang Luo

    2004-01-01

    Efficacy of decontamination treatments in reducing microbial populations on cilantro and in improving its storage quality was investigated. Fresh-cut cilantro samples were washed with one of the five treatments: tap water, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), aqueous ozone, chlorinated water, and aqueous ozone followed by AEW (sequential wash). Treated cilantro was packaged in polyethylene bags prepared with films of selected oxygen

  12. Importance of shrinkage and compression in determining water storage changes in peat: the case of a mined peatland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Price; Susanne M. Schlotzhauer

    1999-01-01

    This study examines changes in peat volume in a mined peatland near Lac St Jean, Quebec, during the spring and summer of 1995 and 1996, and the implication for water storage changes. Lowering of the water table caused drainage above the water table, but the specific yield (Sy) of the peat was relatively small (0.48), and did not adequately describe

  13. Studies of velocity fields in a water heat storage with a video based particle tracking velocimetry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, J.; Hermansson, R.; Veber, P. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Division of Energy Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Thermal storage in water has become very common in the last decades in many countries. Short term water heat storage systems play an important role in combined heat and power plants, in the process industry, in solar thermal systems and for domestic hot water production. The water volume must be thermally stratified to avoid degradation of heat quality. The temperature distribution in the storage is, however, the integrated result of a complicated process where many different phenomena act together. Temperature measurements only will not be sufficient to explain and evaluate the thermal behavior of a storage system; increased knowledge about the velocity field is needed. A video based Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique has been developed and used to document the non-stationary velocity field in a water heat storage system. An ordinary video camera is used to record the in-plane movements of particles in a light sheet in seeded water. The technique offers a powerful method for studies of fluid flow and velocity field. The combination of particle traces and vector plots have proven to be an efficient tool in gaining knowledge about crucial phenomena. Velocity fields are presented, showing mixing near the inlet, natural convection at the wall and exchange of water between the boundary layer and the core, and their impact on the stratification in the storage.

  14. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  15. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  16. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  17. Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Kellner; Sven Halldin

    2002-01-01

    A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4

  18. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of 'vulnerability segmentation' between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

  19. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

  20. Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System. Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates

    E-print Network

    Ribes, Aurélien

    In earth system models, the partitioning of precipitation among the variations of continental water storage climate system sim- ulated by earth system models (ESMs). The continental freshwater reservoirs represent

  1. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29

    Improperly managed manure can contaminate both ground and surface water. Storing manure allows producers to spread it when crops can best use the nutrients. This publication explains safe methods of manure storage, as well as specifics about safe...

  2. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Pesticide Storage and Handling 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29

    Proper pesticide management is important to preventing ground water contamination. This publication contains helpful information about pesticide storage facilities, mixing and loading practices, and spill cleanup. A chart lists pesticides according...

  3. The evaluation of water storage in Death Valley using GRACE satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweigart, Maile J.

    As drought conditions spread across the United States, concerns over water supplies, water use, and water management policies are growing and possible contributing environmental factors are continually being scrutinized. This thesis examines Death Valley as an analog for Southern Nevada and utilizes NASA EOS data, combined with ancillary climate data, to assess the effect of decadal climate variability on groundwater storage in the Death Valley area. Historical climate data, combined with satellite imagery observations, were compiled and calculated for analyses. Conclusions derived from statistical analyses infer trends between GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data and fluctuating levels of recharge and groundwater storage, as well as climatic changes in temperature and rainfall. The observations show seasonal variations in ground water thickness of up to 10 cm from the mean, correlated directly to seasonal temperature variability. Connections were also observed between temperature and precipitation with a correlation factor of -0.5. The relationship between precipitation and groundwater thickness change is also evident, with a correlation factor of 0.4 where evaporation and delayed aquifer response are likely impacting direct correlation. The research illustrates how and which environmental factors are impacting the groundwater storage in Death Valley. Due to the similarity of climates between Death Valley and Southern Nevada, this research may be used as an analogy illustrating the impact of climate variability in Southern Nevada. The research, combining GRACE satellite observations and downscaled historical climate data will show any adverse effects that climate variability may be having on the area, including the impact it has on aquifers, and the impact it has on Death Valley's water supply in general.

  4. Thermal field in a water body for solar energy storage and extraction due to a buoyant two-dimensional surface water jet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Jaluria; B. T. OMara

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study on the thermal field arising in an enclosed water body being employed for energy storage, as sensible heat, due to a horizontally discharged, heated, water jet is carried out. Two-dimensional surface discharges are considered, with an outflow located at the far end of a water body, which is simulated in the laboratory by a tank of rectangular

  5. Total energy food plant 21 million gallon ethanol facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    The Phase I Engineering study includes the following: process description, waste water treatment plant, material summary, energy chart, capital cost estimate, equipment list, personnel requirements, drawings list, specifications list, and project schedule. The economic and financial feasibility of the technical process, and environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic assessments for the project are reported. The costs for extending the following utilities to the property line of the selected site are presented: potable water, sewer system, electricity, roads for truck traffic, and rail service.

  6. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  7. Ecological Links Between Water Storage Behaviors and Aedes aegypti Production: Implications for Dengue Vector Control in Variable Climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Padmanabha; E. Soto; M. Mosquera; C. C. Lord; L. P. Lounibos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding linkages between household behavior and Aedes aegypti (L.) larval ecology is essential for community-based dengue mitigation. Here we associate water storage behaviors with the\\u000a rate of A. aegypti pupal production in three dengue-endemic Colombian cities with different mean temperatures. Qualitative, semi-structured\\u000a interviews and pupal counts were conducted over a 7–15-day period in 235 households containing a water storage vessel

  8. Increases in the annual range of soil water storage at northern middle and high latitudes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Ying; Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-05-01

    Soil water storage is a fundamental signal in the land hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture can affect regional climate. In this study, we used simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to investigate changes in the annual range of soil water storage under global warming at northern middle and high latitudes. Results show that future warming could lead to significant declines in snowfall, and a corresponding lack of snowmelt water recharge to the soil, which makes soil water less available during spring and summer. Conversely, more precipitation as rainfall results in higher recharge to soil water during its accumulating season. Thus, the wettest month of soil water gets wetter, and the driest month gets drier, resulting in an increase of the annual range and suggesting that stronger heterogeneity in global water distribution (changing extremes) could occur under global warming; this has implications for water management and water security under a changing climate.

  9. Balancing Storage - some very different management approaches in a water scarce Developing Country.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollow, Anthony John

    2010-05-01

    Balancing storage may be found in many different forms in South Africa. The first feature is often a large reservoir fairly high up the catchment, where losses are less, or even in a neighbouring catchment. The objective is to catch surplus water for later use. Alternatives include both within basin and interbasin transfers, either pumped over a catchment divide, or fed under gravity through a tunnel. Again there may be a reservoir at the start of the transfer scheme. This may be a large reservoir or may be a balancing storage reservoir. Transfers are required to make up for a deficiency of water in the demand area of the receiving catchment. The deficiency may be intermittent or continuous. Nevertheless, whatever the nature of the deficiency, it is important not to incur losses. The water will be more expensive than if it were possible to obtain it locally from within the demand area. When undertaking river regulation, one major concern is seeing expensive water flowing out to sea. Several different schemes are contrasted. One has been developed to run almost completely by gravity, others use the topography where possible with the aid of canals, gravity tunnels and pipelines. However, in some circumstances expensive electricity is required to pump the water to be transferred. Nowadays with the ever increasing cost of electricity some way is required of reducing the cost. The usual approach is to use "off peak" electricity but river release flows do not always cooperate so there is a further risk of loss, due to the induced "peaks and troughs" in the river hydrograph as the pumps are switched on and off. Balancing storage becomes even more important in this case to act as a smoothing mechanism. Sometimes the storage may take the form of an on stream reservoir, at others a suitable site besides the river may be developed. This latter has another advantage in allowing the system to avoid abstracting the inevitably poor quality of water at the start of the first seasonal flood, or the heavily silt laden water during major floods, or polluted water from upstream pollution incidents. Other forms of balancing storage may take the form of exploiting the natural contours of the river valley so that river control barrages may be built. These may be single purpose such as irrigation transfers or multi purpose where domestic supplies are abstracted. In addition the river may be made navigable and be developed for recreation. Some form of control is required. This may have started off as a manual system operating on very simple ‘control rules' but as either the worth of the water is increased or its scarcity develops, due to increasing demand, more sophisticated computer systems are needed. In South Africa half the water resources were originally allocated to agriculture, mainly irrigation. Now some of this water is required for industrial, environmental and domestic use. Innovative ways of making the resource go further are suggested. In addition some control concepts are developed using the "control band" approach.

  10. 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage.

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage. 2. What is the storage in the dam (in cu.m.)? 3. What is the length and depth of the dam? What is its structure and cost? How much time did it take to build the dam? 4. Where

  11. Anthropogenic Effects on Total Water Storage from GRACE on Large South American Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, L.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Güntner, A.; Rotunno, O.

    2009-12-01

    Over continents, GRACE total water storage (TWS) solutions are expected to represent main surface, soil and groundwater stocks variability. Recent studies have showed that intensive groundwater resources withdrawal in India can be “captured” by GRACE. Another important anthropogenic impact on the natural water cycle is the building and operation of large dams. Even though they impact primarily the local water stock variations, one can expect subsequent changes on the water cycle and some evidence of this from GRACE. This would be particularly evident where the volume of stored water behind dams represents a significant proportion of the total TWS. In this study, we analyzed the effect on the water cycle of large dams over South American large watersheds. Most of Brazilians large dams are located in the Upper Paraná watershed, upstream the Itaipu dam. By performing a correlation analysis between the upstream integrated rainfall and the GRACE TWS series, we found a noticeable phase difference between the two quantities. The phase difference is larger over the utmost upstream region of Upper Parana watershed. We assumed that this pattern could be due to an effect of man-made reservoirs. We took into account the reservoirs storage and found that they induce an additional phase-lag of about 1 month in the TWS response to precipitation forcing. We also investigated dams’ impact on the simulations of the Water Gap Hydrological Model. The results also show a similar time delay similar, suggesting that the model correctly accounts for the dam effect. Finally we see similar lags, though smaller, over other South American river basins.

  12. The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2001-01-01

    One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

  13. Estimated water use in Florida, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. Evaluating Water Storage Variations in the MENA region using GRACE Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, O.; Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations over large river basins can be derived from temporal gravity field variations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. These signals are useful for determining accurate estimates of water storage and fluxes over areas covering a minimum of 150,000 km2 (length scales of a few hundred kilometers) and thus prove to be a valuable tool for regional water resources management, particularly for areas with a lack of in-situ data availability or inconsistent monitoring, such as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This already stressed arid region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and overdraft of its non-renewable freshwater sources, and thus direction in managing its resources is a valuable aid. An inter-comparison of different GRACE-derived TWS products was done in order to provide a quantitative assessment on their uncertainty and their utility for diagnosing spatio-temporal variability in water storage over the MENA region. Different processing approaches for the inter-satellite tracking data from the GRACE mission have resulted in the development of TWS products, with resolutions in time from 10 days to 1 month and in space from 0.5 to 1 degree global gridded data, while some of them use input from land surface models in order to restore the original signal amplitudes. These processing differences and the difficulties in recovering the mass change signals over arid regions will be addressed. Output from the different products will be evaluated and compared over basins inside the MENA region, and compared to output from land surface models.

  15. Calorimetric properties of water and triacylglycerols in fern spores relating to storage at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-08-01

    Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at -15 degrees C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to monitor enthalpy and temperature of water and TAG phase transitions within spores of five fern species: Pteris vittata, Thelypteris palustris, Dryopteris filix-mas, Polystichum aculeatum, Polystichum setiferum. The analyses suggested that these fern spores contained between 26% and 39% TAG, and were comprised of mostly oleic (P. vittata) or linoleic acid (other species) depending on species. The water contents at which water melting events were first observable ranged from 0.06 (P. vittata) to 0.12 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, and were highly correlated with water affinity parameters. In spores containing more than 0.09 (P. vittata) to 0.25 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, some water partitioned into a near pure water fraction that melted at about 0 degrees C. These sharp peaks near 0 degrees C were associated with lethal freezing treatments. The enthalpy of water melting transitions was similar in fern spores, pollen and seeds; however, the unfrozen water content was much lower in fern spores compared to other forms of germplasm. Though there is a narrow range of water contents appropriate for low temperature storage of fern spores, water content can be precisely manipulated to avoid both desiccation and freezing damage. PMID:17553480

  16. Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

  17. Modeling the effects of surface storage, macropore flow and water repellency on infiltration after wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Smith, Hugh G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires can reduce infiltration capacity of hillslopes by causing (i) extreme soil drying, (ii) increased water repellency and (iii) reduced soil structure. High severity wildfire often results in a non-repellent layer of loose ash and burned soil overlying a water repellent soil matrix. In these conditions the hydraulic parameters vary across discrete layers in the soil profile, making the infiltration process difficult to measure and model. The difficulty is often exacerbated by the discrepancy between actual infiltration processes and the assumptions that underlie commonly used infiltration models, most of which stem from controlled laboratory experiments or agricultural environments, where soils are homogeneous and less variable in space and time than forest soils. This study uses a simple two-layered infiltration model consisting of surface storage (H), macropore flow (Kmac) and matrix flow (Kmat) in order to identify and analyze spatial-temporal infiltration patterns in forest soils recovering from the 2009 Black Saturday wildfires in Victoria, southeast Australia. Infiltration experiments on intact soil cores showed that the soil profile contained a region of strong water repellency that was slow to take on water and inactive in the infiltration process, thus restricting flow through the matrix. The flow resistance due to water repellent soil was represented by the minimum critical surface tension (CSTmin) within the top 10 cm of the soil profile. Under field conditions in small headwaters, the CSTmin remained in a water repellent domain throughout a 3-year recovery period, but the strength of water repellency diminished exponentially during wet conditions, resulting in some weather induced temporal variation in steady-state infiltration capacity (Kp). An increasing trend in macropore availability during recovery was the main source of temporal variability in Kp during the study period, indicating (in accordance with previous studies) that macropore flow dominates infiltration processes in these forest soils. Storage in ash and burned surface soil after wildfire was initially high (?4 mm), then declined exponentially with time since fire. Overall the study showed that the two layered soil can be represented and parameterized by partitioning the infiltration process into surface storage and flow through a partially saturated and restrictive soil layer. Ash, water repellency and macropore flow are key characteristics of burned forest soils in general, and the proposed model may therefore be a useful tool for characterizing fire impact and recovery in other systems.

  18. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  19. Chilled water storage cooling system at Fort Jackson, SC. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, C.W.; Fuchs, J.; Gruber, M.

    1998-11-01

    For many Army installations, the electrical demand charge of their utility bills can be as high as 50 percent of the total bill. One effective way to reduce peak electrical demand and electrical utility costs is by use of storage cooling systems. To curb the anticipated growing cost of the electrical utility at Fort Jackson, the engineers at the Directorate of Public Works (DPW), Fort Jackson, decided to install a 2.25M gal capacity chilled water storage (CWS) cooling system for the Energy Plant No. 2, which serves more than half of the Fort`s cooling load. During the first year operation (1996--1997), the system saved about $0.43M in electrical utility bill charges from reduced on peak electrical demand and reduced energy consumption for cooling. This report documents the design, construction, operation, and performance of the system.

  20. Preliminary Study Of The Permeability Of Cement-Resin Admixture For Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Ardian; Handayani, Gunawan; Satira, Suparno; Viridi, Sparisoma; Nugraha, Nirwan

    2010-12-01

    Admixtures of cement and polymer resin were prepared for water storage in an aquifer layer. Water to cement (w/c) ratio was in the range of 6/7 to 10/7 and the resin added was between 10 and 60 ml. Samples were formed in two ways: by injecting the admixture into a box of 80×60×60 cm3 with a pressure of 6 bar and by molding to fit a certain dimension based on the requirements of the standard measurement. It was found that the increase of water to cement ratio enhances the coefficient of permeability. In addition, the coefficient of permeability decreases with increasing the volume of resin. An attempt to make a relationship between the permeability and the porosity showed that a power law would hold. However, more data are required for confirming the power law.

  1. CONSERVING WATER AND WASHDOWN EFFECTIVENESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1990's before the implementation of the Pathogen Reduction/HACCP (PR/HACCP) regulation, poultry processing plants used 4.5 to 5.5 gallons of water to process each broiler. At this time, the average water cost across the United States was approximately $2.50/1000 gallons of water. This...

  2. Water storage and runoff processes in plinthic soils under forest and pasture in eastern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moraes, Jorge M.; Schuler, Azeneth E.; Dunne, Thomas; Figueiredo, Ricardo De O.; Victoria, Reynaldo L.

    2006-08-01

    Extensive areas of the Amazon River basin are underlain by soils with shallow impeding horizons. To evaluate how the distinctive hydraulic properties of soil with a plinthic horizon under forest and pasture affect water storage and runoff process, two first-order catchments drained by ephemeral streams were instrumental in eastern Amazonia. Field measurements showed the presence of a strong vertical gradient of saturated hydraulic conductivity, which declines to extremely low values (median <1 mm h-1) at the plinthite layer, limiting both vertical and lateral flow, and keeping the soil water content close to saturation throughout most of the wet season. This scenario led to the frequent occurrence of saturation overland flow (SOF) under both land covers and very small amounts of shallow sub-surface flow (SSF). The annual flow in the exit channels was 3.2% of throughfall (2.7% of annual rainfall) under forest and 17% of annual rainfall for pasture, while the frequency of days with overland flow (OVF) was about 60% of the days for both catchments during the wet season. In the forest, all OVF originated from saturated areas, while in the pasture, infiltration-excess OVF accounted for 40% of the runoff and SOF accounted for 55% of runoff. The higher flow generation in the pasture could be explained by the higher water storage compared to the forest, promoting more frequent SOF, and additionally by the lower hydraulic conductivity near the surface favouring the occurrence of Horton overland flow (HOF).

  3. The Mantle Transition-Zone Water Filter Model: Implications for Volatile Transport and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Karato, S.; Leahy, G.; Richard, G.; Jing, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The transition-zone water-filter model of mantle convection was proposed (Bercovici and Karato, Nature v425, p39, 2003) to reconcile geochemical observations of isolated chemical mantle reservoirs (evident in distinct chemical signatures of OIB and MORB) with geophysical, especially seismological evidence for whole mantle circulation and mixing. The model proposed that as the background ambient mantle upwelling (rising in response to the downward flux of subducting slabs) moves out of the high-water-solubility transition zone into the less-solubile upper mantle above 410km, it undergoes water supersaturation and partial melting that filters out incompatible elements. The remaining solid phase continues to ascend and supplies relatively dry and depleted materials to the MORB source region; however, in contrast to recent "bulk water storage capacity" arguments, the water transported up by the solid phase is less than solidus water limit which is itself considerably less than the sub-eutectic solubility limit. The residual melt is presumed denser than the surrounding solid and is thus trapped at the 410km boundary until slab entrainment recirculates the enriched material back into the deeper mantle. The filtering effect is suppressed for hotter mantle plumes because of their greater ascent rates, allowing plumes to generate more enriched OIBs. Experimental data implies that while melting is likely under a broad range of conditions, the presence of a dense melt likely requires dense volatiles, such as K2O, in addition to water. Theoretical models of a melt layer structure and the circulation of volatiles suggests a relatively thin melt-rich layer that can be efficiently entrained by reaction with ambient downgoing mantle (mantle dragged down by slabs). Moreover, circulation of entrained water is focussed in the transition zone by slabs lingering at the 660km, thereby providing a mechanism to keep the transition zone hydrated and water concentration well mixed.

  4. Effects of water storage of E-glass fiber reinforced denture base polymers on residual methyl methacrylate content.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Gulsen; Duran, Ozlem; Bural, Canan; Guvener, Bora

    2004-07-15

    This study investigated the effect of water storage on residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) content of continuous E-glass fiber (Wetrotex International) reinforced denture base polymers. Heat-polymerization (short- and long-term boiling and conventional curing cycle using Meliodent), autopolymerization (processed in air at room temperature and in water at 60 degrees C with the use of Meliodent Rapid Repair), and microwave-polymerization (3 min at 500 W with the use of Acron MC) were employed. The residual MMA contents of 120 specimens were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at deflasking (control) and after water (37 degrees C) storage of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Bonferroni's pairwise comparison test was used for statistical analysis. Significant reduction were determined only in the long-term terminal boiled heat-polymerized test group at the end of 1 day (p < 0.01), 1 week (p < 0.05) and also 1 month of water storage (p < 0.01). Significant reduction in autopolymerized test groups started even after 1 week of water storage (p < 0.05). Microwave-polymerized test groups did not show a significant residual MMA reduction in all time intervals (p > 0.05). The polymerization methods and cycles applied to the glass fiber reinforced denture base polymers influence both the content and the reduction of residual MMA after water storage. PMID:15199597

  5. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from Arctic watersheds, then the state of downstream aquatic ecosystems is strongly tied with upstream changes in surface energy balance and precipitation regimes. Future analyses will relate storage exceedance and water flux to biogeochemical cycling and solute fluxes in these hillslope watersheds.

  6. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  7. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001?2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

  8. Assessment of ground and surface water effects around coal and mineral storage areas. Final report Sep 79Feb 82

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Koch; J. R. Stetson; B. R. Genes

    1982-01-01

    The project investigated the impacts of coal and mineral storage piles on both ground and surface water quality. Ten coal and mineral stockpile sites (5 coal and 5 mineral--phosphate, lead, copper, iron, and uranium) across the country were visited to determine the actual impact of coal and mineral stockpiles on water quality. A series of leaching experiments was conducted in

  9. The relationship between water loss, lipid content, membrane integrity and LOX activity in ripe pepper fruit after storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kissinger Maalekuu; Yonatan Elkind; Alicia Leikin-Frenkel; Susan Lurie; Elazar Fallik

    2006-01-01

    Ten pepper genotypes with wide variation in rate of water loss after storage were examined in relationship to their membrane lipid content, loss of membrane integrity (electrolyte leakage) and lipoxygenase activity. Pepper genotypes susceptible to high rates of water loss, membrane ion leakage and lipoxygenase activity were found to have correspondingly low amounts of total lipids, total phospholipids and phospholipids

  10. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  11. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  12. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Hui Lo; James S. Famiglietti; P. J.-F. Yeh; T. H. Syed

    2010-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown the significance of representing shallow groundwater in land surface model (LSM) simulations. However, optimal methods for parameter estimation in order to realistically simulate water table depth have received little attention. The recent availability of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage data provides a unique opportunity to constrain LSM simulations of terrestrial hydrology. In

  14. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

  15. Effect of water storage in silver container on the viability of enteric bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kotigadde, Subbannayya; Anusha, G R; Sandya, V; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Nayak, Shivananda

    2012-12-01

    Silver is one of the heavy metals traditionally played major role in the human life. It is used in the form of ornaments or as containers to store or drink water and other consumable liquids. The study was designed to observe the effect of water storage in silver containers on enteric pathogens. Three sets of sterile silver, stainless steel and glass metal screw capped containers were filled with non-chlorinated sterilized well water. One each of the three sets was inoculated with enteric pathogens viz. Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Salmonella typhi cultures drawn from the laboratory stock and incubated at 37 degrees C for varying periods. Preliminary findings of this study indicated that silver is bactericidal within an hour to Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Salmonella typhi which cause life-threatening enteric human diseases. The quantity of silver needed to eliminate these bacteria was found to be less than 2.5 ug/dl at pH 6.5. This study reveals the potential for silver containers to be used to disinfect natural water in areas of poor hygiene and sanitation where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. PMID:25145073

  16. Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

    1997-01-01

    Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue. PMID:12223860

  17. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  18. Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4?·?2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O with no FeSO4?·?2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions. PMID:24682481

  19. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-03-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

  20. Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

  1. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Laura C.; Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison

    2012-03-01

    Storage in subsurface geologic formations, principally saline aquifers, is currently under development as a major approach to counter anthropogenic CO2 emissions. To ensure the stability and long-term viability of geologic carbon storage, injected CO2 must be kept in place by an overlying cap rock of very low permeability. Capillary forces in the cap rock act to prevent upward migration and escape of the stored supercritical fluid, with interfacial tension (IFT) between the aqueous brine phase and the CO2 phase being the primary control. However, published experimental CO2-water IFT data vary widely, mainly because of inadequate experimental protocols or inappropriate use of bulk-fluid properties in computing IFT from experimental observations. Only two published data sets were found to meet all criteria of merit for an accurate measurement of IFT over the entire range of pressure (5-45 MPa) and temperature (298-383 K) pertinent to geologic carbon storage. In such circumstances, molecular simulations can enhance the utility of limited data when used to validate assumptions made in their interpretation, resolve discrepancies among data, and fill gaps where data are lacking. Simulations may also be used to provide insight into the relationship between IFT and fundamental properties, such as the strength of the CO2-H2O interaction. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we compared the quality of three CO2 models and two H2O models (SPC/E and TIP4P2005) in predicting IFT under the pressure and temperature conditions relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration. Interfacial tension at fixed temperature simulated via molecular dynamics decreased strongly with increasing pressure below the critical CO2 pressure of 7 MPa, then leveled off, in agreement with experiment, whereas increasing temperature from 300 to 383 K at fixed pressure had little effect on IFT, which is also consistent with experimental data. Our results demonstrated that the strength of the short-range portion of the CO2-H2O interaction exerts a major influence on IFT. The CO2 model that best represented the attractive part of this interaction for randomly-oriented water molecules also best captures the experimental pressure dependence of IFT when combined with either water model. When combined with the SPC/E water model, this CO2 model underestimated IFT by ˜10 mN/m, which approximately equals the amount by which the SPC/E water model underestimates the surface tension of pure water. When combined with the TIP4P2005 water model, this model accurately captured the pressure dependence of the CO2-H2O IFT at 383 K over the entire pressure range examined. These pressure variations will have the dominant effect on IFT—especially at pressures lower than the CO2 critical pressure (˜7 MPa)—and, therefore, on the CO2 storage capacity and sealing integrity of a subsurface reservoir.

  2. The relationship of increasing trends in GRACE observed total water storage to landscape changes in the Southern Taiga Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Huang, J.; Chasmer, L.; Ambadan, J. T.; Connon, R.; Stone, L.

    2014-12-01

    The southern margin of discontinuous permafrost in Canada is highly sensitive to climate change. Warming to this region causes rapid thaw and disappearance of permafrost resulting in large changes to ecological and hydrological processes. Changes in hydrology result from permafrost thaw induced subsidence and conversion of tree-covered peat plateaus into bogs and channel fens. . Bogs, fens and plateaus have contrasting hydrological functions. The elevated plateaus with their shallow root zone due to frozen soils convert a relatively high proportion of hydrological input to runoff which they convey to adjacent channel fens and bogs. Bogs are largely water storage features and are typically surrounded by raised peat plateaus, while channel fens transmit water to streams and rivers. In the Scotty Creek watershed, within the southern Taiga Plains regions of Canada's Northwest Territories, numerous researchers have documented the decline of peat plateaus as a proxy for areal loss of permafrost terrain, and concomitant increases of wetland coverage. Analysis of spatial trends in global total water storage as measured by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites suggest a increasing trend of 6+/-1 mm/year water equivalent units over this region during the period 2003-2013. Analysis of a water budget constructed for the Scotty Creek watershed suggest that this long term trend is only weakly associated to the moderate increases to precipitation while the statistically significant increasing trends observed in discharge in this watershed would likely result in opposite sign. Further, seasonal trend analysis of the GRACE total water storage observations suggest that much of the increase in total water mass over this region occurs over the warm season suggesting that larger snowpacks are not driving the mass increase. In this presentation the changes to total water storage are compared to the trends of landscape change over this region to corroborate the rates of total water mass increase with changes in area of storage features.

  3. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Jason W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clemmons, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sur, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  4. the impact of industrial biofuels on people and global hunger Meals per gallon

    E-print Network

    the impact of industrial biofuels on people and global hunger Meals per gallon #12;Contents Executive summary 2 Chapter 1: Introduction 6 Chapter 2: Industrial biofuels ­ the context 8 What's driving the EU industrial biofuel boom? 9 Chapter 3: What's wrong with industrial biofuels? 12 Industrial

  5. Bias investigation of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Hurd; S. M. Long; T. E. Sampson

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses a series of studies undertaken while fulfilling the measurement requirements for certification of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner to be used at the plutonium facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos. These studies were initiated to investigate anomalies seen in the data as well as gain a quantifiable understanding of effects caused by using standards of considerably different

  6. Drought analysis of the Haihe river basin based on GRACE terrestrial water storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  7. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  8. Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment on the reduction of nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Huiying; Wan, Yangfang; Liu, Haijie

    2015-03-01

    Leafy vegetables are the major source of nitrite intake in the human diet, and technological processing to control nitrite levels in harvested vegetables is necessary. In the current work, the effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the nitrite and nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage was studied. EOW treatment, including slightly acidic electrolyzed water and acidic electrolyzed water, was found to effectively reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage; levels in the late period were 30 to 40% lower than that of the control. However, the nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage were not influenced by EOW treatment. The reduction of nitrite levels in EOW-treated fresh spinach during storage can be attributed to the inactivation of nitrate reductase directly and to the reduction of bacterial populations. Our results suggest that treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water may be a better choice to control nitrite levels in fresh vegetables during storage. This study provided a useful method to reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach. PMID:25719879

  9. Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge. Observed land-subsidence during the monitoring period was less than 1 inch except in the central part of Tucson Basin where land subsidence was about 2-3 inches. Correlations of gravity-based storage and water-level change at 37 wells were variable and illustrate the complex nature of the aquifer system. Storage and water-level variations were insufficient to estimate specific yield at many wells. Correlations at several wells were poor, inverse, or resulted in unreasonably large values of specific yield. Causes of anomalously correlated gravity and water levels include significant storage change in thick unsaturated zones, especially near major ephemeral channels, and multiple aquifers that are poorly connected hydraulically. Good correlation of storage and water-level change at 10 wells that were not near major streams where significant changes in unsaturated zone storage occur resulted in an average specific-yield value of 0.27.

  10. Thermal field in a water body for solar energy storage and extraction due to a buoyant two-dimensional surface water jet

    SciTech Connect

    Jaluria, Y.; O'Mara, B.T. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA))

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study on the thermal field arising in an enclosed water body being employed for energy storage, as sensible heat, due to a horizontally discharged, heated, water jet is carried out. Two-dimensional surface discharges are considered, with an outflow located at the far end of a water body, which is simulated in the laboratory by a tank of rectangular cross section. Energy loss occurs ant the sides and at the top of the water body largely by convective transport and at the bottom by conduction to the ground. The study initially considers the transient behavior of the water body due to the input of thermal energy. A rapid transient, followed by a very gradual variation to an essentially steady-state temperature distribution, is observed. Experimental results are obtained in this steady regime for a water body of large extent, simulated by allowing a gradual outflow far from the inflow. The effects of the inflow conditions, aspect ratio, and the position of the outflow on the resulting thermal stratification are then studied in detail. Several interesting trends are observed and related to the basic mechanisms that arise in such energy storage systems. These flows are of interest in the storage and the extraction of energy, as sensible heat, in systems such as salt-gradient solar ponds. The thermal field is important in the design of such storage systems, particularly with respect to the selection of inlet conditions and the location of the outflow.

  11. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  12. A Study on a Perfaormance of Water-Spray-Type Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel with Vertical Heat Exchange Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Koyama, Shigeru; Fukuda, Toshihito; Ohba, Hideki

    A system with a water -embedded-type ice storage vessel is widely used because of its simple structure compactness. However, this ice storage vessel has a disadvantage, that is, the melting rate is very small. The use of falling water film seems to be one of promising ways for solving this disadvantage. We have found in our previous study that the use of the falling water film is very effective, especially for high initial water temperatures. In the present study, we examined the melting performance of a falling-water-film-type ice thermal energy storage vessel with practical size, having vertical heat exchange plates. The results obtained are as follows : the quantity of melting ice increases with increase of the water film flow rate, the melting rate decreases with time because ice surface are decreases with time gradually, the heat transfer coefficient of melting increases with increase of the water film flow rate, and the melting rate increases with increase of the water-spray temperature.

  13. Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Predicting storage-lipid water partitioning of organic solutes from molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Anett; Oemisch, Luise; Endo, Satoshi; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Partitioning to storage fat is the major process for bioaccumulation of many neutral organic chemicals. In this work, we evaluated the performance of four predictive models, ABSOLV, COSMOtherm, KOWWIN, and SPARC to calculate storage lipid-water partition coefficients. In a first step of the validation, we used over 300 literature data for chemicals with relatively simple molecular structures. For these compounds the overall performance was similar for all models with a root-mean-square error (rmse) between 0.45 and 0.61 log units. Clear differences became visible in the second validation step where a subset with only H-bond-donor compounds was used. Here, COSMOtherm and SPARC performed clearly better with an rmse of 0.35 and 0.42 log units, respectively, compared to ABSOLV and KOWWIN with an rmse of 0.91 and 0.85 log units, respectively. The last step in our validation was a comparison with experimental values for 22 complex, multifunctional chemicals (including pesticides, hormones, mycotoxins) that we measured specifically for this validation purpose. For these chemicals, predictions by all models were less accurate than those for simpler chemicals. COSMOtherm performed the best (rmse 0.71 log units) while the other methods showed considerably poorer results (rmse 1.29 (ABSOLV), 1.25 (SPARC), and 1.62 (KOWWIN) log units). PMID:25834931

  15. Evaluating surface and subsurface water storage variations at small time and space scales from relative gravity measurements in semiarid Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Julia; Champollion, CéDric; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Hinderer, Jacques; Boucher, Marie; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Oï, Monique; Mouyen, Maxime; Henri, Christopher; Moigne, Nicolas; Deroussi, SéBastien; Demarty, JéRôMe; Boulain, Nicolas; Benarrosh, Nathalie; Robert, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    The acquisition of reliable data sets representative of hydrological regimes and their variations is a critical concern for water resource assessment. For the subsurface, traditional approaches based on probe measurements, core analysis, and well data can be laborious, expensive, and highly intrusive, while only yielding sparse data sets. For this study, an innovative field survey, merging relative microgravimetry, magnetic resonance soundings, and hydrological measurements, was conducted to evaluate both surface and subsurface water storage variations in a semiarid Sahelian area. The instrumental setup was implemented in the lower part of a typical hillslope feeding to a temporary pond. Weekly measurements were carried out using relative spring gravimeters during 3 months of the rainy season in 2009 over a 350 × 500 m2 network of 12 microgravity stations. Gravity variations of small to medium amplitude (?220 nm s-2) were measured with accuracies better than 50 nm s-2, revealing significant variations of the water storage at small time (from 1 week up to 3 months) and space (from a couple of meters up to a few hundred meters) scales. Consistent spatial organization of the water storage variations were detected, suggesting high infiltration at the outlet of a small gully. The comparison with hydrological measurements and magnetic resonance soundings involved that most of the microgravity variations came from the heterogeneity in the vadose zone. The results highlight the potential of time lapse microgravity surveys for detecting intraseasonal water storage variations and providing rich space-time data sets for process investigation or hydrological model calibration/evaluation.

  16. Assessment of Large-scale Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics at Multiple Timescales from Multiple Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Among global water cycle components, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) is one of the most difficult to estimate. Despite its importance in affecting global circulation of atmosphere and ocean and shaping weather and climate of the Earth, there are no extensive in-situ networks existent for monitoring large-scale TWS variations. At present, three methods are most commonly used to estimate large-scale TWS variations. First, the atmospheric column-integrated water vapor convergence provides a global distribution of precipitation minus evapotranspiration. The combined land-atmosphere water balance computation can be used to estimate the temporal change of spatially averaged TWS over large areas. Second, satellite observations of Earth’s time-variable gravity field from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides a unique opportunity of monitoring TWS variations from space. Short-term (monthly, seasonal, and interannual) temporal variations in gravity on land are largely due to corresponding changes in vertically integrated TWS. Third, land surface hydrologic modeling is perhaps the only available tool to estimate TWS variations at any temporal and spatial scales, provided that the land surface models used are well constrained by realistic meteorological forcing and satellite- and ground-based observational data. Previous estimates on TWS found in literature focused only on the long-term climatology or monthly to seasonal timescales. In this study, large-scale TWS variations are estimated over selected world largest river basins by using combining atmospheric-land water balance computation at daily, monthly, seasonal and interannual timescales from 1984-2006. The estimates are then compared with direct observations (only in Illinois), land surface model simulations, and GRACE TWS data. The ultimate goal is to provide a quantitative assessment on the dynamics controlling the propagation of hydroclimatic anomalies across the atmospheric and terrestrial branches of regional hydrology from daily to interannual timescales.

  17. Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of

    E-print Network

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of vehicles proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standard for cars and trucks. In 2004, American cars needed to achieve an average fuel economy of 27.5 miles per gallon (MPG) while light trucks needed

  18. Recovery of several volatile organic compounds from simulated water samples: Effect of transport and storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, L.C.; Schroder, L.J.; Brooks, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Solutions containing volatile organic compounds were prepared in organic-free water and 2% methanol and submitted to two U.S. Geological Survey laboratories. Data from the determination of volatile compounds in these samples were compared to analytical data for the same volatile compounds that had been kept in solutions 100 times more concentrated until immediately before analysis; there was no statistically significant difference in the analytical recoveries. Addition of 2% methanol to the storage containers hindered the recovery of bromomethane and vinyl chloride. Methanol addition did not enhance sample stability. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in results from the two laboratories, and the recovery efficiency was more than 80% in more than half of the determinations made. In a subsequent study, six of eight volatile compounds showed no significant loss of recovery after 34 days.

  19. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

  20. Terrestrial water storage response to the 2012 drought estimated from GPS vertical position anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Clara C.; Small, Eric E.

    2014-09-01

    Historically, drought monitoring systems have not incorporated observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS). Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments can be used to estimate TWS variations in near real time because the solid Earth responds elastically to changes in hydrologic loading. Here GPS vertical position data, u, are used to assess the timing and duration of TWS anomalies in the High Plains caused by the 2012 drought; u indicates an initial TWS minimum in 2012, consistent with GRACE TWS, several months after the most severe meteorological forcing. Standard drought indices show recovery from drought during spring 2013. In contrast, u indicates that the TWS anomaly intensified by approximately 15% during summer 2013, an interval when no GRACE data are available. Hydrologic observations indicate that depletion of groundwater, not soil moisture, is the source of the persistent TWS anomaly. These results show that GPS data could be used to monitor drought-induced variations in TWS in near real time.

  1. Terrestrial water storage anomalies of Yangtze River Basin droughts observed by GRACE and connections with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zizhan; Chao, B. F.; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, C. R.

    2015-03-01

    Two severe drought events occurred in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) of China in the summer of 2006 and the spring of 2011. We examine terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in the YRB for these events using time-variable gravity data from the GRACE satellite mission, in combination with observations made by TRMM satellite and in situ river gauges, along with hydrological models GLDAS and WGHM. GRACE TWS deficit estimates clearly quantify these YRB droughts, and a normalized GRACE-based TWS anomaly provides an alternative and useful hydro-climatological index in the YRB. We find that an El Niño (La Niña) event is significantly correlated with high (low) TWS in the YRB with a phase lead of ~ 7-8 months, and the lower YRB is more sensitive to ENSO variability than the upper basin. The possible linkage between TWS anomaly and ENSO is raised in terms of physical mechanisms of influencing the precipitation over the YRB.

  2. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

  3. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the saltwater in the Floridan aquifer system probably is connate or unflushed seawater from high stands of sea level. The principal use of the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida is for subsurface storage of liquid waste. The Boulder Zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer is extensively used as a receptacle for injected treated municipal wastewater, oil field brine, and, to a lesser extent, industrial wastewater. Pilot studies indicate a potential for cyclic storage of freshwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer in southern Florida.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  6. Forecasting Total Water Storage Changes in the Amazon basin using Atlantic and Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting the transportation, river navigation, agriculture, economy and the carbon balance and biodiversity of several South American countries. The present study aims to find the main variables controlling the natural interannual variability of terrestrial water storage in the Amazon region and to propose a modeling framework for flood and drought forecasting. We propose three simple empirical models using a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) sea surface temperatures (SST) to predict a decade-long record of 3°, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA) observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. In addition to a SST forcing term, the models included a relaxation term to simulate the memory of water storage anomalies in response to external variability in forcing. Model parameters were spatially-variable and individually optimized for each 3° grid cell. We also investigated the evolution of the predictive capability of our models with increasing minimum lead times for TWSA forecasts. TNAI was the primary external forcing for the central and western regions of the southern Amazon (35% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast), whereas Niño 4 was dominant in the northeastern part of the basin (61% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast). Forcing the model with a combination of the two indices improved the fit significantly (p<0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model was able to explain 43% of the variance in the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3-month lead time. While 66% of the observed variance was explained in the northeastern Amazon, only 39% of the variance was captured by the combined model in the central and western regions, suggesting that other, more local, forcing sources were important in these regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was monotonically degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using a 8-month lead time versus 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the western and central regions of southern Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months versus 43% at 1 month). Our model may provide early warning information about flooding in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin, where floodplain areas are extensive and the sensitivity of floods to external SST forcing was shown to be high. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as TWSA deficits may subsequently lead to atmospheric water vapor deficits and reduced cloudiness via water-limited evapotranspiration. Finally, this work helps to bridge the gap between the current GRACE mission and the follow-on gravity mission.

  7. Linking chemostatic behaviour of streams to storage dynamics and long tails in water age distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2013-04-01

    The water storage and release dynamics at the catchment scale are still incompletely understood. This is in particular true when considering actual particle transport rather than only the hydraulic response. Environmental tracers are frequently instrumental in inferring transport process dynamics. Several recent research papers for example highlight the importance of difference time scales in transport dynamics. While on the short term, particle transport patterns can exhibit considerable variability, many catchments are characterized by near-chemostatic behaviour on the long term. In other words although the tracer response can show considerable fluctuations on the intra-annual scale, it remains surprisingly stable at the inter-annual scale. This suggests (1) that at the long term the composition of water can be largely independent of flow volumes and (2) that water as well as tracers/contaminants, once stored in a catchment can remain in the system for a very long time. Here we use long term (< 20 years) precipitation, flow and tracer (chloride) data of three contrasting upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands to inform integrated conceptual models investigating different mixing assumptions. Using the models as diagnostic tools in a functional comparison, water and tracer fluxes were then tracked with the objective of exploring the origin and pattern of near-chemostatic behaviour which manifests itself in long, power-law tails of water age distributions. The results highlight the potential importance of partial mixing processes in the generation of long tails in water age distributions. However, the degree to which partial mixing influences the generation of long tails is dependent on the hydrological functioning of a catchment. As second influential factor controlling the tailing behaviour of water age distributions was identified to be the interplay of flow path connectivity with the relative importance and timing of different flow paths. This understanding will allow classification of catchments according to their vulnerability to and the persistence of contamination, allowing for the development of more adequate, tailor-made contamination protection and mitigation strategies. In general this study highlights the potential of customized integrated conceptual models, based on multiple mixing assumptions, to infer system internal transport dynamics and their sensitivity to catchment wetness states.

  8. Gasoline leaking from underground storage tanks: impact on drinking water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Page, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    Of the 1.4 million underground storage tanks (USTs) now in use for storing gasoline, it is estimated that 10-35% are leaking or fail to pass a tightness test. In order to assess the potential for pollution of drinking water due to gasoline leaking from USTs, it is necessary to understand the complex composition of gasoline, the movement of individual gasoline components through the soil matrix to the water table and their transport via groundwater movement to receptor wells. The primary factors that contribute to the environmental movement of gasoline components are water solubility, soil-sorption, biodegradation, and rainfall. Gasoline is a complex mixture of at least 150 hydrocarbons with about 60-70% paraffins and 25-30% aromatics. Of these, the aromatics are of greatest concern due to their water solubility and resistance to biodegradation. Benzene, toluene, and xylenes are of particular concern. Another chemical of concern is methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE), a hydrocarbon now being added in large quantities in many brands as an octane-enhancer. MTBE has been found in many wells as the first chemical arriving at receptor wells following a gasoline leak or spill. Models are available for predicting concentrations at receptor wells; however, site specific input, e.g., soil type, biodegradation, and rainfall, are necessary for the meaningful and reliable application of the models. Movement of chemicals through the environment is a slow process; often it may take several years for a chemical to move from a leaking tank to the nearest receptor well.

  9. Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2007 in the Amazon Basin2 from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level3

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2003-2007 of different hydrological parameters in28 the Amazon river basin: vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry29 mission, surface water level over the Amazon River and its storage from GRACE and31 in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries. We also

  10. Comprehensive Analysis of Radioactive and Chemical Contamination of Water Bodies in the Area of Radium-Industry Waste Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Evseeva; S. A. Geras'kin; I. I. Shuktomova; E. S. Khramova

    2003-01-01

    Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water samples from the creeks flowing through the area of radium mining waste storage into the Ukhta River and from this river were assessed using biological tests with Allium schoenoprasum L. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that concentrations of parent heavy natural radionuclides, 210Pb, and 210Po do not exceed the allowable level. Of ten heavy

  11. Corrosion experience in nuclear waste processing at Battelle Northwest. [InCan Melter vitrification; interim canister storage in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Slate; R. F. Maness

    1976-01-01

    Emphasis is on corrosion as related to waste storage canister. Most work has been done in support of the In-Can Melter (ICM) vitrification system. It is assumed that the canister goes through the ICM process and is then stored in a water basin. The most severe corrosion effect seen is oxidation of stainless steel (SS) surfaces in contact with gases

  12. Validation of GRACE-derived Terrestrial Water Storage from a regional1 approach over South America2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Validation of GRACE-derived Terrestrial Water Storage from a regional1 approach over South Recherche en Géodésie Spatiale6 7 Abstract : We propose to validate regional solutions consisting of 2° surface tiles of surface8 mass concentration over South America (90°W-30°W; 60°S-20°N) computed using

  13. THE FLOW AND STORAGE OF WATER IN THE WETLAND-DOMINATED CENTRAL MACKENZIE RIVER BASIN: RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Quinton; M. Hayashi

    Field studies were initiated in 1999 at Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada in order to improve the understanding and model-representation of the major water flux and storage processes within a wetland-dominated region of the discontinuous permafrost zone. This paper contributes to this end by presenting selected results on: 1) the physical and hydraulic properties of the active layer soils in

  14. Searching the Social Science Literature on Water: A Guide to Selected Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. Preliminary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogge, Fred; And Others

    The guide was prepared in connection with a state-of-the-art survey and literature review on 'Institutions for urban-metropolitan water planning, development and management.' The guide has three objectives: to review developments in information storage and retrieval; to indicate progress being made in developing systems; and to describe available…

  15. Dynamics of water storage in mature subalpine Picea abies: temporal and spatial patterns of change in stem radius.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, R; Häsler, R

    2001-06-01

    Internal water reserves in bark and foliage of trees contribute to transpiration (T) and play an essential role in optimizing water transport by buffering extreme peaks of water consumption. We examined patterns of stem shrinkage and their relationship to tree water dynamics. We measured fluctuations in root radius and stem radius at different stem heights, T of twigs at the top of the crown and sap flow velocities in stem sections of mature subalpine Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees over 2 years. The output of each sensor was coupled by physical functions to a mechanistic flow and storage model of tree water relations. The data verified the model-predicted lag in water storage depletion in response to the onset of transpiration and the lag increased with increasing distance from the crown periphery. Between the crown and stem base, the delay ranged from a few minutes to several hours, depending on microclimatic conditions and tree water status. Stem volume changes were proportional to the amount of water exchanged between the elastic tissues of the bark and the rigid xylem, indicating that the "peristaltic" wave of stem contraction along the flow path represented depletion of water stored in bark. On a daily basis, stems lost between 0.2 and 0.5% of their volume as a result of bark dehydration, corresponding to about 2 to 5 l of water. This water contributed directly to T. According to the model based on hydraulic principles, there are three main components underlying the dynamics of water storage depletion: flow resistance, storage capacities of needles and bark, and T of each tree section. The resistances and capacities were proportional to the response delay, whereas T in the lower parts of the tree was inversely proportional. The pattern of T within the crown depended on water intercepted by the branches. Because of these weather-dependent factors, there was no time constant for the response delay along the flow path. Nevertheless, the upper crown and the root section tended to have longer response delays per meter of flow path than the stem. The diurnal course of stem radius fluctuations represents the sum of all external and internal conditions affecting tree water relations; stem radius fluctuations, therefore, provide a sensitive measure of tree water status. PMID:11390300

  16. Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, H.G., Jr.; Olmsted, F.H.; LeRoux, E.F.

    1960-01-01

    The area described is confined largely to the valley-floor and foothill lands of Solano County, which lies directly between Sacramento, the State capital, and San Francisco. The area is considered in two subareas: The Putah area, which extends from Putah Creek southward to the Montezuma Hills and from the foothills of the Coast Ranges eastward to the west edge of the Yolo Bypass; and the Suisun-Fairfield area, which is to the southwest in the notch in the Coast Ranges through which the waters of the Great Central Valley of California reach San Francisco Bay. There are no known hydrologic interconnections between the two subareas, through either surface streams or underground aquifers. The climate of the area is characterized by warm, rainless summers and by cool winters in which temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. The rainfall ranges from about 17 inches per year along the east side to perhaps 24 inches in the foothills to the west, and irrigation is necessary for all crops except dry-farmed grains, pastures, and some orchards. PUTAH AREA The Putah area occupies the southwestern corner of the Sacramento Valley, a topographic and structural basin underlain by a thick accumulation of sediments eroded from the surrounding hills and mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The eastern Coast Ranges and foothills lying west of the Sacramento Valley are a generally northward-trending belt of eastward-dipping sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Successively younger strata are exposed eastward, and the essentially undeformed deposits of late Pleistocene and Recent age that immediately underlie the valley lap onto the tilted sediments of the foothills. Most of the streams of the Putah area rise east of the high ridge of Cretaceous rocks marking the western boundaries of Solano and Yolo Counties, but Putah Creek, the largest stream in the area, rises far west of that ridge and flows across it in a deep, narrow canyon. Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

  17. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  18. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Helium and LN2 Storage Requirements for D-Zero Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-04-04

    Calculations were done to determine a recommended size for the liquid helium storage dewar, gas helium storage tanks, and liquid nitrogen dewar requirements. I recommend a Liquid helium storage dewar with a nominal size of at least 2500 liters (660 gallons), preferably 3000 liters (792 gallons). I recommend obtaining gas helium storage tanks with a maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) of 250 psig or greater. Combined volume to be at least 5880 cubic feet (44,000 gallons). I recommend obtaining a second liquid nitrogen dewar at D-Zero, dedicated to the refrigerator, solenoid and VLPC systems. The ideal dewar would have a volume of around 16,000 gallons. It's MAWP needs to be greater than 55 psig.

  19. Calculation of the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon liquid-helium dewar

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.

    1983-01-04

    The writing of a computer program to calculate the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon dewar was motivated by the writing of a Fermilab engineering note on the safety of the dewar which is presently being installed at the Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier. The calculation is intended to verify that the pressure in the inner vessel will not rise above a safe level in a catastrophic venting situation.

  20. Global spaceborne assessment of the relationship between terrestrial water storage and evaporative demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, P. A.; De Linage, C.; Velicogna, I.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Feedbacks between terrestrial water storage (TWS) and the atmosphere can impact climatic extremes such as droughts and heat waves. High evaporative demand (high temperature and/or low humidity) removes more water by evapotranspiration, leading to lower TWS. At the same time, low TWS availability limits evapotranspiration, which increases evaporative demand by reducing the ratio of latent to sensible heat fluxes from the land surface. Studies using coupled land-atmosphere models have explored the strength of these relationships, and have been validated using local observational data, but global-scale observational studies are limited by data availability. We quantified these relationships globally using TWS data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), surface air temperature and relative humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Our approach demonstrated a strong relationship between antecedent TWS and subsequent evaporative demand in certain key regions of the globe. These regions are consistent with the "hot spots" of land-atmosphere coupling found in modeling studies, and represent semi-arid transitional areas where TWS strongly limits evapotranspiration. We also found a strong relationship between antecedent evaporative demand and subsequent TWS throughout most of the global land surface. These observational relationships provide a benchmark for comparison with climate model simulations. We found good agreement between the satellite-derived relationships and the equivalent relationships calculated with output from the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5.

  1. A Preliminary Geomorphological Analysis of Water storage capacity: The Providence Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Critical Zone of Earth, as defined by NSF in 2007, is series of systems that extend from the top of the canopy to the bottom of the aquifer. The soil system has been used as the primary connection between the various systems. Knowledge of water storage capacity is essential for predicting water availability in the critical zone. Soil depth is one of the most important parameters used to study water storage capacity. Unfortunately, it is challenging to obtain an accurate representation of the degree of spatial variability of soil depth in a watershed. To obtain this data requires extensive and expensive surveys, which can be compounded in forested regions. We make the assumption that soil depth is a function of surface and subsurface geomorphological processes. The Providence Watershed, which is a Critical Zone Center (CZO) is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Providence Watershed is ~ 2.8 km2. The general trend of the watershed is northeast and ranges in elevation from 1,700 m to 2,100 m. The dominant vegetation cover is coniferous. In this area, we compiled indices from LIDAR imagery and compared these to hand-auguring profiles collected along Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) transects. Auguring profiles exist at a spacing of 123 m. The depths of these profiles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 m. We correlated the auguring data with nine indices. None of the correlations, which ranged from -0.50 to 0.21 (Pearson product-moment), were strong. The most significant finding of this study strengthens the important role that GPR can provide to capture the spatial heterogeneity present. GPR lines complimentary to geomorphological mapping can be used as an approach to obtain more accurate results in soil depth and bedrock topography mapping. The appropriate scale of work, however, depends on the understanding of the scale of processes controlling soil formation and erosion. This work is part of the collaborative effort of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory.

  2. GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Di; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Sun, Alexander Y.; Fernando, D. Nelun; Save, Himanshu

    2013-07-01

    Texas experienced the most extreme one-year drought on record in 2011 with precipitation at 40% of long-term mean and agricultural losses of $7.6 billion. We assess the value of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-derived total water storage (TWS) change as an alternative remote sensing-based drought indicator, independent of traditional drought indicators based on in situ monitoring. GRACE shows depletion in TWS of 62.3 ± 17.7 km3 during the 2011 drought. Large uncertainties in simulated soil moisture storage depletion (14-83 km3) from six land surface models indicate that GRACE TWS is a more reliable drought indicator than disaggregated soil moisture or groundwater storage. Groundwater use and groundwater level data indicate that depletion is dominated by changes in soil moisture storage, consistent with high correlation between GRACE TWS and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. GRACE provides a valuable tool for monitoring statewide water storage depletion, linking meteorological and hydrological droughts.

  3. Heat transfer enhancement in water when used as PCM in thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Cabeza; H. Mehling; S. Hiebler; F. Ziegler

    2002-01-01

    Efficient and reliable storage systems for thermal energy are an important requirement in many applications where heat demand and supply or availability do not coincide. Heat and cold stores can basically be divided in two groups. In sensible heat stores the temperature of the storage material is increased significantly. Latent heat stores, on the contrary, use a storage material that

  4. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  5. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  6. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2012-10-26

    The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. PMID:22608116

  7. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Effect of Endodontic Irrigants on Microtensile Bond Strength to Dentin After Thermocycling and Long-Term Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Galafassi, Daniel; Colucci, Vivian; Cecchin, Doglas; Scatena, Camila; Nascimento, Telma N.; Corona, Silmara A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The bond strength of adhesives in irrigated dentin behaves differently over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of long-term water storage and thermocycling on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin irrigated with endodontic solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human molars were used after removal of the occlusal portion and exposure of the dentin by grinding. The specimens were irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl for 30 minutes and then 17% EDTA for 5 minutes and assigned to six groups according to the adhesive system (n=10): G1 and G2–Clearfil SE Bond; G3 and G4–Single Bond 2; and G5 and G6–XP Bond. The teeth were restored with composite and were subjected to water storage for different time periods. G1, G3 and G5 were stored for 24 h; G2, G4 and G6 were stored for 6 months and were subjected to thermocycling (12,000 cycles, 5°C to 55°C, 500 cycles per week for 6 months). After storage, the tooth/restoration assembly was sectioned to obtain four sticks of approximately 1 mm2, for microtensile bond strength testing. The results were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Significant differences were observed among the adhesives (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the microtensile bond strength between samples after 24 hours of storage without thermocycling and after 6-month storage with 12,000 cycles (p<0.05). Conclusion: The bond strengths of G5 and G6 after irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were significantly different from those of other groups. Long-term water storage/thermocycling had no effect on bond strength to dentin. PMID:24910650

  9. Quantifying impacts of coupled chemical and physical heterogeneity on water quality evolution during Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Descourvieres, C.; Seibert, S.; Harris, B.; Atteia, O.; Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an important water management option in water-scarce regions. During wet periods surplus water is injected into suitable aquifers for storage and later recovery. ASR sites are, however, also ideal natural laboratories that provide opportunities for studying coupled physical and geochemical processes and water quality evolution at field-scale under well-controlled hydrological conditions. In this study, we use reactive transport modelling to assess the impacts of physical and chemical heterogeneities on the water quality evolution during the injection of oxic surface water into the anoxic, pyrite-bearing Leederville aquifer in Perth, Western Australia. Physical heterogeneity was identified from geophysical well logs and time lapse temperature logs. Those data were used to define the spatial, depth-varying alternation of three lithofacies (sandstone, siltstone and clay). Chemical heterogeneity was incorporated through distinct chemical zones, based on data derived from a comprehensive pre-trial geochemical characterization and from dedicated laboratory respirometer experiments. Calibration of flow and conservative transport parameters was constrained by the spatially varying measured chloride breakthrough behavior. Subsequent reactive transport modeling discerned the key geochemical processes that affected the water quality evolution during ASR. Clearly identified processes included oxidation of pyrite, mineralization of sedimentary organic carbon, ion exchange, dissolution of calcite and precipitation of ferrihydrite and siderite. We use the calibrated model to analyze the individual and the combined effects of the physical and chemical heterogeneities on the chemical composition of the recovered water during ASR.

  10. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts. PMID:25764851

  11. The effect of fiber reinforcement type and water storage on strength properties of a provisional fixed partial denture resin.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Gülay; Keyf, Filiz

    2003-04-01

    Fracture resistance of provisional restorations is an important clinical concern. This property is directly related to transverse strength. Strengthening of provisional fixed partial dentures may result from reinforcement with various fiber types. This study evaluated the effect of fiber type and water storage on the transverse strength of a commercially available provisional resin under two different conditions. The denture resin was reinforced with either glass or aramid fiber or no reinforcement was used. Uniform samples were made from a commercially available autopolymerizing provisional fixed partial denture resin. Sixteen bar-shaped specimens (60 x 10 x 4 mm) were reinforced with pre-treated epoxy resin-coated glass fibers, with aramid fibers, or with no fibers. Eight specimens of each group, with and without fibers, were tested after 24 h of fabrication (immediate group), and after 30-day water storage. A three-point loading test was used to measure the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, and the modulus of elasticity. The Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance was used to examine differences among the three groups, and then the Mann-Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were applied to determine pair-wise differences. The transverse strength and the maximal deflection values in the immediate group and in the 30-day water storage group were not statistically significant. In the group tested immediately, the elasticity modulus was found to be significant (P = 0.042). In the 30-day water storage group, all the values were statistically insignificant. The highest transverse strength was displayed by the glass-reinforced resin (66.25MPa) in the immediate group. The transverse strength value was 62.04MPa for the unreinforced samples in the immediate group. All the specimens exhibited lower transverse strength with an increase in water immersion time. The transverse strength value was 61.13 MPa for the glass-reinforced resin and was 61.24 MPa for the unreinforced resin. The aramid-reinforced resin decreased from 62.29 to 58.77 MPa. The addition of fiber reinforcement enhanced the physical properties (the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, the modulus of elasticity) of the processed material over that seen with no addition of fiber. Water storage did not statistically affect the transverse strength of the provisional denture resin compared to that of the unreinforced resin. The transverse strength was lowered at water storage but it was not statistically significant. The transverse strength was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. The glass fiber was superior to the other fiber. Also the modulus of elasticity was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. PMID:12797420

  12. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man

    2012-04-01

    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution. PMID:22720556

  13. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    González-Uribe, Catalina; Cortés, Sebastian; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot) and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information. Results Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3). The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins) is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking. Conclusions It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation. PMID:26061628

  14. Ground water in carbonate rocks and regolith in the Fairview area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchett, C.R.; Zurawski, Ann; Sparkes, A.K.; Hollyday, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen test wells drilled in the Fairview area, Tennessee, produce from 3 to 100 gallons per minute and have an average yield of 32 gallons per minute, measured while blowing water from the wells with compressed air. In comparison, the average yield of supply wells reported by drillers is 13 gallons per minute. Specific capacities for three of the test wells ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown after 8 hours of pumping at 20 to 47 gallons per minute. Two test wells had specific capacities of 1.1 and 0.4 gallons per foot of drawdown after 72 hours of pumping at 55 and 43 gallons per minute. The mineral content of ground water increases greatly below a gypsum horizon approximately 100 feet below the top of the Fort Payne Formation. Ground water above the gypsum horizon, however, meets the standards for finished drinking water. (USGS)

  15. Interannual variability in water storage over 2003–2008 in the Amazon Basin from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level and precipitation data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Xavier; M. Becker; A. Cazenave; L. Longuevergne; W. Llovel; O. C. Rotunno Filho

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the interannual variability over 2003–2008 of different hydrological parameters in the Amazon river basin: (1) vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry mission, (2) surface water level of the Amazon River and its tributaries from in situ gauge stations, and (3) precipitation. We analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of total water storage from GRACE and in situ river

  16. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  17. Campus Water Uses and Potential Water Efficiencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin Kuo; Melany Hunt; John Onderdonk; Matthew Berbee

    2008-01-01

    With recent increases in the price of water, saving water has become one of the main focuses for sustainability. The California Institute of Technology used 200,000,000 gallons of water in the year 2008; however the institute has never tracked this water to its destination within the campus. Using data collected from water meters on campus and from the utility company

  18. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-07-01

    The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

  19. Land Water Storage Changes from Ground and Space Geodesy: First Results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, J.; Pfeffer, J.; Boucher, M.; Nahmani, S.; De Linage, C.; Boy, J.-P.; Genthon, P.; Seguis, L.; Favreau, G.; Bock, O.; Descloitres, M.

    2012-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the first results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) experiment conducted since 2008 in West Africa and is aimed at investigating the changes in water storage in different regions sampling a strong rainfall gradient from the Sahara to the monsoon zone. The analysis of GPS vertical displacement in Niamey (Niger) and Djougou (Benin) shows that there is a clear annual signature of the hydrological load in agreement with global hydrology models like GLDAS. The comparison of GRACE solutions in West Africa, and more specifically in the Niger and Lake Chad basins, reveals a good agreement for the large scale annual water storage changes between global hydrology models and space gravity observations. Ground gravity observations done with an FG5 absolute gravimeter also show signals which can be well related to measured changes in soil and ground water. We present the first results for two sites in the Sahelian band (Wankama and Diffa in Niger) and one (Djougou in Benin) in the Sudanian monsoon region related to the recharge-discharge processes due to the monsoonal event in summer 2008 and the following dry season. It is confirmed that ground gravimetry is a useful tool to constrain local water storage changes when associated to hydrological and subsurface geophysical in situ measurements.

  20. Predicting Agricultural Drought using NOAH Land Surface Model, MODIS Evapotranspiration and GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wu, J.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a major natural hazard in the world which costs 6-8 billion per year in the United States. Drought monitoring and prediction are difficult because it usually develops slowly and it is hard to be recognized until it becomes severe. The severity of agricultural drought was estimated by using Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI) based on soil moisture simulated by Noah land surface model. Based on general water balance and delayed response of soil moisture to the forcing of climate variables, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model for agricultural drought prediction was developed, the inputs of which included data at the previous one and two months of precipitation from Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), evapotranspiration from MODIS MOD 16 product and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). The stability of the MLR model is tested using different training datasets from 2003 to 2009 with time spans of one year to six years and the results indicated that the model is stable, with very limited changes in estimated parameters between different datasets. A sensitivity analysis shows that evapotranspiration is the most significant variable affecting soil moisture change compared to precipitation and TWS. The predicted SMDI was compared with U.S. drought monitor products to evaluate its performance for the period of 2010-2012 when a severe drought occurred in the U.S. (Fig.1). The predicted SMDI successfully forecasted the severe drought in the southern U.S. in early 2012 and its expansion in the following summer. The MLR model has a high predictive skill with short-term forecast (1-2 months), while less accuracy is observed for the long-term forecast (3-6 months) (Fig.2).

  1. Linkage between canopy water storage and drop size distributions of leaf drips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, Kazuki; Watanabe, Ai; Hotta, Norifumi; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2013-04-01

    Differences in drop size distribution (DSD) of leaf drips among tree species have been estimated and physically interpreted to clarify the leaf drip generation process. Leaf drip generation experiments for nine species were conducted in an indoor location without foliage vibration using an automatic mist spray. Broad-leaved species produced a similar DSD among species whose leaves had a matte surface and a second similar DSD among species whose leaves had a coated surface. The matte broad leaves produced a larger and wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves. Coated coniferous needles had a wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves and different DSDs were observed for different species. The species with shorter dense needles generated a larger DSD. The leaf drip diameter was calculated through the estimation of a state of equilibrium of a hanging drop on the leaves based on physical theory. The calculations indicated that the maximum diameter of leaf drips was determined by the contact angle, and the range of DSDs was determined by the variation in contact length and the contact diameter at the hanging points. The results revealed that leaf drip DSD changed due to variations in leaf hydrophobicity, leaf roughness, leaf geometry and leaf inclination among the different tree species. This study allows the modelization of throughfall DSD. Furthermore, it indicates the possibility of interpreting canopy water processes from canopy water storage to drainage through the contact angle and leaf drip DSD. The part of this study is published in Nanko et al. (2013, Agric. Forest. Meteorol. 169, 74-84).

  2. Global analysis of approaches for deriving total water storage changes from GRACE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Di; Longuevergne, Laurent; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing interest in use of GRACE satellites and a variety of new products to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) underscores the need to assess the reliability of output from different products. The objective of this study was to assess skills and uncertainties of different approaches for processing GRACE data to restore signal losses caused by spatial filtering based on analysis of 1° × 1° grid-scale data and in 60 river basins globally. Results indicate that scaling factors from six LSMs, including GLDAS-1 four models (Noah2.7, Mosaic, VIC, and CLM 2.0), CLM 4.0, and WGHM, are similar over most of humid, subhumid, and high-latitude regions but can differ by up to 100% over arid and semiarid basins and areas with intensive irrigation. Temporal variability in scaling factors is generally minor at the basin scale except in arid and semiarid regions, but can be appreciable at the 1° × 1° grid scale. Large differences in TWS anomalies from three processing approaches (scaling factor, additive, and multiplicative corrections) were found in arid and semiarid regions, areas with intensive irrigation, and relatively small basins (e.g., ?200,000 km2). Furthermore, TWS anomaly products from gridded data with CLM4.0 scaling factors and the additive correction approach more closely agree with WGHM output than the multiplicative correction approach. This comprehensive evaluation of GRACE processing approaches should provide valuable guidance on applicability of different processing approaches with different climate settings and varying levels of irrigation.

  3. Improving un-gauged hydrological modeling by assimilating GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Li, X.; Liang, J.; Liu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrological modeling usually requires accurate meteorological gauge data, which might pose challenges for those sparsely gauged or un-gauged regions. One alternative approach is to use reanalysis datasets from meteorological modeling. However, models driven by reanalysis data are less reliable than those driven by well-gauged ones, due to the relatively inaccurate meteorological forces. In this paper, we propose a new approach to improve the reliability of the hydrological modeling driven by reanalysis data, via assimilating the terrestrial water storage (TWS) data measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite system. Launched at 2002, the GRACE system enables the unprecedented measurements of global TWS anomalies, which are potentially useful in the poorly gauged regions. In order to justify this approach, we assimilated the GRACE TWS data into a reanalysis data driven SWAT model. This catchment model was driven by Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data, and was set up to simulate the hydrological process in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), South China, from 2003 to 2005. The simulated stream flows were then evaluated against the monthly observations obtained from 9 hydrological stations in the PRB. Overall, the RMSE of the assimilation results (10080 cms) is about 30% smaller than that of the open-loop simulation (15452 cms). The experimental results suggest that the assimilation of GRACE TWS data is capable of improving the reliability of reanalysis data-driven modeling, and this approach is potentially useful in those sparsely gauged or un-gauged regions.

  4. Solar collector heat exchanger or hot water storage tank and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, B. S.

    1985-06-25

    A solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy is formed from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one form one of the sheets is coated with a layer of release agent, over all areas except the discrete areas and the peripheral areas so that only such uncoated areas will bond during cure. In another form, a sheet of non-adherent plastic, slightly smaller than the two sheets and having holes or holidays to form the discrete areas, is bonded between the two sheets. In a third form, the peripheral edges are first sealed to form a chamber, then the chamber is inflated and a forming die presses together the discrete areas only. Reinforcing fibers are employed or molded, into at least one of the uncured sheets. Woven fabric sheets may be stitched or fastened together, coated with a thermosetting plastic and then formed into a panel or tank chamber as above. In the solar collector panel embodiment, at least one of the reinforcing fibers is metal, most preferably, in a metal screen to equalize temperatures between the bonded discrete areas and areas overlying liquid carrying volumes of the panel.

  5. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a lake for the storage of reclaimed water before and after usage as cooling water.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu-Chen; Xi, Jin-Ying; Li, Guo-Qiang; Shi, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-06-10

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse is a promising way to relieve water scarcity by substituting for natural water consumption by industrial cooling. However, health concerns regarding cooling water originating from reclaimed water are increasing because an abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been detected in reclaimed water. To assess the potential increase of ARB risks in reclaimed water after reuse for industrial cooling, the prevalence of six types of ARB was investigated in water and sediment samples from Lake Gaobeidian, which serves as an artificial circular storage reservoir for reclaimed water for cooling reuse. The effect of treated wastewater and cooling water drainage on the ARB distribution in water and sediment samples was also studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of six types of ARB in lake water samples were as high as those in treated wastewater. The annual median concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria (HPC) and ARB in discharged cooling water after usage were 0.6-log and 0.4-log higher than those in treated wastewater and the cooling water intake site, respectively, indicating that the process of cooling water usage enhanced the proliferation of HPC and consequently increased the concentrations of ARB. Furthermore, the percentages of penicillin-, ampicillin-, and cephalothin-resistant bacteria in water were 30-57%, 36-48%, and 23-40% higher than those in sediment, respectively. However, the proportions of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in water were 35-85% lower than those in sediment. Quantitative evaluation of antibiotic resistance showed that HPC in water had a significant tolerance to penicillin and chloramphenicol, with 50% inhibitory concentrations reaching 22.90 mg L(-1) and 29.11 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:25997982

  6. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? 80.271 Section 80.271...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? (a) EPA may in its discretion adjust the small refiner per-gallon cap sulfur standard established for...

  7. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? 80.271 Section 80.271...adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? (a) EPA may in its discretion adjust the small refiner per-gallon cap sulfur standard established for...

  8. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  9. Measurements of Water and B4C Content of Rackable Can Storage Boxes for HEU Storage at the HEUMF at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, JS

    2003-03-24

    Extensive measurements at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with BoroBond{trademark} blocks of varying thickness, natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) content, and water content, and with a simplified mockup of the Rackable Can Storage Box (RCSB) of fixed natural B{sub 4}C and water content, have led to a method of quantifying the water content of RCSBs by fast neutron time-of-flight transmission measurements (NMIS)* and quantifying the B{sub 4}C content with gamma ray spectrometry assuming the water content is known. The time-of-flight transmission measurements results can also be used to assess the uniformity of the BoroBond{trademark} in the RCSB. The data from both measurements will be stored for future comparisons to initial measurements. These methods can also be implemented at the RCSB production site, or subsequently at the Y-12 National Security Complex during the operating lifetime of the RCSBs at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility.

  10. Source, use, and disposition of water in Florida, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    An average of 21,206 million gallons of water was withdrawn for use in Florida each day for the combined use for public supplies , rural domestic and livestock, industrial self-supplied, irrigation, and thermoelectric power generation. This amount, broken down into 7,309 millions gallons per day of freshwater and 13,897 million gallons per day of saline water, indicates an increase of more than 40 percent for all uses during the 10-year period 1970-80. The largest user of freshwater in Florida was for irrigation--2,997 million gallons per day which also is responsible for the greatest consumption, 1,530 million gallons on the average each day or about half the water applied. The remaining use of freshwater amounted to 1,859 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation (which also used about 13.7 billion gallons per day of saline water); 1,361 million gallons per day of public supply; 797 million gallons per day for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 310 million gallons per day, on the average, for rural domestic and livestock use. (USGS)

  11. Water Supply at Los Alamos during 1997

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Maes; S. G. McLin; W. D. Purtymun

    1998-12-01

    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1997 totaled about 1,285.9 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1997. About 2.4 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used to irrigate public parks and recreational lands. The total water usage in 1997 was about 1,288.3 million gallons, or about 135 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was down about 82.2 million gallons in 1997 compared with the pumpage in 1996. Four new replacement wells were drilled and cased in Guaje Canyon between October 1997 and March 1998. These wells are currently being developed and aquifer tests are being performed. A special report summarizing the geological, geophysical, and well construction logs will be issued in the near future for these new wells.

  12. Water Storage Changes in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; De Linage, C.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 ± 0.6 mm/year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. We use additional remote-sensing information and output from land-surface models to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach followed here provides an example of 'best current capabilities' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin region lost 15.6 ± 2.9 mm/year of groundwater during the study period, or 82.3 ± 15.4 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  13. Effect of heat treatment, water activity and storage temperature on the oxidative stability of whole milk powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Stapelfeldt; Bo R. Nielsen; Leif H. Skibsted

    1997-01-01

    The oxidative status of high-heat, medium-heat and low-heat whole milk powder was investigated at moderately accelerated storage conditions, with exposure to atmospheric air at 25 or 45 °C and at three water activities (0.11, 0.23 and 0.33 at 25 °C, and 0.11, 0.17 and 0.31 at 45 °C) for 2 months using: (i) electron spin resonance spectrometry for measurement of

  14. Interfacial integrity of bonded restorations with self-etching adhesives: Water storage and thermo-mechanical cycling

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Gislaine Cristine; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; D’Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln; Gomes, João Carlos; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Objective: To evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC) on the microleakage (?L) and axial gap width (AG) of Class V bonded restorations in premolars using self-etching adhesive systems. The bond strength of composite restorations to dentin (?TBS) using the same adhesives was also evaluated in third molars after water storage: 24 h and 6 months. The research hypotheses were tested for the results of two self-etching adhesives in comparison when a conventional two-step adhesive was used: (1) the ?L and AG would be lower, regardless of TMC; (2) the ?TBS of self-etching adhesives would be higher, irrespective of evaluation times. Methods: Sixty Class V composite restorations were made in 30 premolars and bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB2), AdheSE (ASE), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APL-P) (n=20). Dentin ?L and AG were immediately measured for half of the sample. The other half was evaluated after TMC. Eighteen third molars were also selected and bonded using the same adhesives to test the ?TBS to dentin. Specimens were evaluated after 24 h and 6 months of water storage. Results: No differences in ?L and AG were found among the groups (P>.05). The ?TBS mean values were: ASB2>ASE>APL-P (P<.05); only Adper Single Bond 2 presented a significantly lower ?TBS after water storage (P<.05). Conclusions: The bonding approach does not influence the microleakage and interfacial gap extension. Despite the decrease in the mean values, the bond strength to dentin of the conventional, two-step adhesive remains high after 6 months of water storage. PMID:22509120

  15. Case Study of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Utilization for Comfort and Process Cooling in a Hot, Humid Climate

    E-print Network

    Bahnfleth, W. P.; Musser, A.

    1998-01-01

    . To observe the effects of inlet conditions, thermocline thickness should be measured near the inlet diffuser in a tank that is initially isothermal. In this study, it was not possible to perform complete controlled flow rate tests because of constraints... of the system and its operation is followed by presentation of operating data taken during 1997. INTRODUCTION Chilled water thermal energy storage ('TES) in naturally stratified tanks has been shown to be a valuable central cooling plant load management...

  16. Methodology for determining the optimal operating strategies for a chilled-water-storage system—Part I: Theoretical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiqin Zhang; William D. Turner; Qiang Chen; Chen Xu; Song Deng

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a new methodology for determining the optimal operating strategies for a chilled-water storage system under a time-of-use electricity rate structure. It is based on a new classification of operating strategies and an investigation of multiple search paths. Each operating strategy consists of a control strategy and the maximum number of chillers running during the off-peak and on-peak

  17. Storage and release of solutes from a subalpine seasonal snowpack: soil and stream water response, Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Williams; Christine Seibold; Kurt Chowanski

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research on the chemistry of snow and surface waters of the western US, Europe, and Asia has been conducted in\\u000a high-elevation catchments above treeline. Here we provide information on the solute content of the seasonal snowpack at the\\u000a Soddie site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado, a subalpine site near treeline. We focus on the storage and release of

  18. Gigawatt-year nuclear-geothermal energy storage for light-water and high-temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C. W.; Lee, Y.; Kulhanek, M.; Driscoll, M. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Capital-intensive, low-operating cost nuclear plants are most economical when operated under base-load conditions. However, electricity demand varies on a daily, weekly, and seasonal basis. In deregulated utility markets this implies high prices for electricity at times of high electricity demand and low prices for electricity at times of low electricity demand. We examined coupling nuclear heat sources to geothermal heat storage systems to enable these power sources to meet hourly to seasonal variable electricity demand. At times of low electricity demand the reactor heats a fluid that is then injected a kilometer or more underground to heat rock to high temperatures. The fluid travels through the permeable-rock heat-storage zone, transfers heat to the rock, is returned to the surface to be reheated, and re-injected underground. At times of high electricity demand the cycle is reversed, heat is extracted, and the heat is used to power a geothermal power plant to produce intermediate or peak power. When coupling geothermal heat storage with light-water reactors (LWRs), pressurized water (<300 deg. C) is the preferred heat transfer fluid. When coupling geothermal heat storage with high temperature reactors at higher temperatures, supercritical carbon dioxide is the preferred heat transfer fluid. The non-ideal characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide create the potential for efficient coupling with supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles. Underground rock cannot be insulated, thus small heat storage systems with high surface to volume ratios are not feasible because of excessive heat losses. The minimum heat storage capacity to enable seasonal storage is {approx}0.1 Gigawatt-year. Three technologies can create the required permeable rock: (1) hydro-fracture, (2) cave-block mining, and (3) selective rock dissolution. The economic assessments indicated a potentially competitive system for production of intermediate load electricity. The basis for a nuclear geothermal system with LWRs exists today; but, there is need for added research and development before deployment. There are significantly greater challenges for geothermal heat storage at higher temperatures. Such systems are strongly dependent upon the local geology. (authors)

  19. Copula-based estimation of large-scale water storage changes: exploiting the dependence structure between hydrological and GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modiri, Sadegh; Lorenz, Christof; Sneeuw, Nico; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has significantly improved our knowledge of the terrestrial water cycle. With the availability of GRACE data from 2002, we are now able to even perform climate change studies with respect to water storage variations. However, as GRACE is already after its lifetime, we have to find methods for filling the gaps of both past data and also until the launch of GRACE Follow On. In this study, we therefore analyze the potential of Copula based methods for simulating GRACE data from other hydrological data sources. The method exploits linear and non-linear relationships between two or more variables by fitting a theoretical Copula function into an empirical bivariate or multivariate distribution function. Finally, new data, which is then consistent with the previously derived dependence structure, can be simulated by evaluating the conditional distribution function which given by the theoretical Copula. First, we want to analyze the applicability of the proposed method to spherical harmonic data from GRACE. As the approach involves several drawings of random data, we are interested if this random nature has any impact on the results. We therefore generate filtered out of unfiltered GRACE coefficients, based on the previously derived dependence structure. The comparison between this simulated and the filtered data shows very good agreement with negligible differences in both the spatial and spectral domain. We also want to evaluate if copula based methods are able to estimate reliable water storage changes from independent hydrological data. Therefore, we derive the dependence structure between filtered water storage changes from GRACE and global gridded precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre GPCC. Based on the fitted theoretical Copula, we then simulate water storage changes from precipitation data. The Copula based estimates are compared with filtered GRACE data in both the spectral and spatial domain. We also perform a catchment-based analysis between area-aggregated time-series of simulated and GRACE-derived water storage change. The analysis shows that our estimates and the original filtered GRACE data are in very good agreement. Thus, we conclude that the proposed method is indeed able to fill the missing months in the GRACE-dataset and to even extend the time-series until the launch of GRACE Follow On.

  20. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750?mW?cm(-2) at 750?°C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2?h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons. PMID:24798121

  1. Effects of increasing forest plantation area and management practices on carbon storage and water use in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.; Tian, H.

    2013-12-01

    Planted forest area in the United States gradually increased during the last half century, and by 2007 accounted for about 20% of the total forest area in the southern United States and about 13% in the entire country. Intensive plantation management activities - such as slash burning, thinning, weed control, fertilization and the use of genetically improved seedlings - are routinely applied during the forest rotation. However, no comprehensive assessments have been made to examine the impacts of this increased forest plantation area and associated management practices on ecosystem function. In this study, we integrated field measurement data and process-based modeling to quantitatively estimate the changes in carbon storage, nitrogen cycling and water use as influenced by forest plantations in the United States from 1925 to 2007. The results indicated that forest plantations and management practices greatly increased forest productivity, vegetation carbon, and wood product carbon storage in the United States, but slightly reduce soil carbon storage at some areas; however, the carbon sink induced by forest plantations was at the expense of more water use as represented by higher evapotranspiration. Stronger nitrogen and water limitations were found for forest plantations as compared to natural or naturally-regenerated forests.

  2. Thermal storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, J.

    1982-04-13

    The increase in volume of a heat storage medium comprising water or a first eutectic mixture of water and a salt hydrate, when such storage medium passes from the liquid to the solid state, is prevented from occurring by adding 1 to 6% by volume of a second water-salt hydrate eutectic having a lower freezing point to the storage medium.

  3. Efficient Hole Extraction from a Hole-Storage-Layer-Stabilized Tantalum Nitride Photoanode for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiji; Fu, Ping; Zhou, Lingyu; Yan, Pengli; Ding, Chunmei; Shi, Jingying; Li, Can

    2015-06-26

    One of the major hurdles that impedes the practical application of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is the lack of stable photoanodes with low onset potentials. Here, we report that the Ni(OH)x /MoO3 bilayer, acting as a hole-storage layer (HSL), efficiently harvests and stores holes from Ta3 N5 , resulting in at least 24?h of sustained water oxidation at the otherwise unstable Ta3 N5 electrode and inducing a large cathodic shift of ?600?mV in the onset potential of the Ta3 N5 electrode. PMID:26032659

  4. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, K.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations.

  5. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations.

  6. Experimental study on latent heat storage characteristics of W/O emulsion -Supercooling rate of dispersed water drops by direct contact heat exchange-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Shin-ichi; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Inaba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to investigate the latent heat storage system. Using of ice heat storage system brings an equalization of electric power demand, because it will solved the electric -power-demand-concentration on day-time of summer by the air conditioning. The flowable latent heat storage material, Oil/Water type emulsion, microencapsulated latent heat material-water mixture or ice slurry, etc., is enable to transport the latent heat in a pipe. The flowable latent heat storage material can realize the pipe size reduction and system efficiency improvement. Supercooling phenomenon of the dispersed latent heat storage material in continuous phase brings the obstruction of latent heat storage. The latent heat storage rates of dispersed water drops in W/O (Water/Oil) emulsion are investigated experimentally in this study. The water drops in emulsion has the diameter within 3 ˜ 25?m, the averaged water drop diameter is 7.3?m and the standard deviation is 2.9?m. The direct contact heat exchange method is chosen as the phase change rate evaluation of water drops in W/O emulsion. The supercooled temperature and the cooling rate are set as parameters of this study. The evaluation is performed by comparison between the results of this study and the past research. The obtained experimental result is shown that the 35K or more degree from melting point brings 100% latent heat storage rate of W/O emulsion. It was clarified that the supercooling rate of dispersed water particles in emulsion shows the larger value than that of the bulk water.

  7. Ground-water resources of the south metropolitan Atlanta region, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Peck, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water resources of the nine county south metropolitan Atlanta region were evaluated in response to an increased demand for water supplies and concern that existing surface water supplies may not be able to meet future supply demands. Previous investigations have suggested that crystalline rock in the study area has low permeability and can not sustain well yields suitable for public supply. However, the reported yield for 406 wells drilled into crystalIine rock units in this area ranged from less than 1 to about 700 gallons per minute, and averaged 43 gallons per minute. The reported flow from 13 springs ranged from 0.5 to 679 gallons per minute. The yield of 43 wells and flow from five springs was reported to exceed 100 gallons per minute. Most of the high-yielding wells and springs were near contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithologic and weathering properties. The high-yielding wells and springs are located in a variety of topographic settings: hillsides, upland draws, and hilltops were most prevalent. The study area, which includes Henry, Fayette, Coweta, Spalding, Lamar, Pike, Meriwether, Upson and Talbot Counties, is within the Piedmont physiographic province except for the southernmost part of Talbot County, which is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In the Piedmont, ground-water storage occurs in joints, fractures and other secondary openings in the bedrock, and in pore spaces in the regolith. The most favorable geologic settings for siting highyielding wells are along contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithology and permeability, major zones of fracturing such as the Towaliga and Auchumpkee fault zones, and other numerous shear and microbreccia zones. Although most wells in the study area are from 101 to 300 feet deep, the highest average yields were obtained from wells 51 to 100 feet deep, and 301 to 500 feet deep. Of the wells inventoried, the average diameter of well casing was largest for wells located on hills and ridges, possibly indicating a preference for such topographic locations by cities and industrial users who typically develop larger diameter wells than do domestic users. Generally, for a given depth range or well diameter, the highest yielding wells were obtained in draws and valleys, followed by hills and ridges and slopes and flats. In 1985, wells and springs supplied about 16 million gallons per day or 37 percent of the total water withdrawn in the area. Average recharge to the aquifers in the upper Flint River basin, which constitutes 66 percent of the area, was estimated to be about 575 million gallons per day. Groundwater recharge in this basin ranged from 414 million gallons per day during an average dry year, to 77 million gallons per day during an average wet year. During the severe drought of 1954, the estimated recharge was 70 million gallons per day. Ground water in the study area generally is suitable for most uses. With the exception of local occurences of excessive iron, fluoride, and manganese, concentrations of total and/or dissolved constituents generally meets State and Federal drinking water standards. Ground-water quality may be affected by the presence of radionuclides associated with the decay of uranium found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  8. Analysis of Long-term Terrestrial Water Storage Variations in the Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bob; Huang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Salama, Suhyb; Krol, Maaten; Hoekstra, Arjen; Zhou, Yunxuan; van der Velde, Rogier

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyze 32 years of TWS data obtained from Interim Reanalysis Data (ERA-Interim) and Noah model from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-Noah) for the period between 1979 and 2010. The accuracy of these datasets is validated against 26 years (1979-2004) of runoff dataset from Yichang gauging station and compared to 32 years of independent precipitation data obtained from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Full Data Reanalysis Version 6 (GPCC) and NOAA's PRECipitation REConstruction over Land (PREC/L). Spatial and temporal analysis of the TWS data shows that TWS in the Yangtze River basin is decreasing significantly since the year 1998. The driest period of the basin is noted from 2005 to 2010, especially in the middle and lower Yangtze reaches. The TWS changed abruptly into persistently high negative anomalies in the middle and lower Yangtze Reaches in 2004. From both basin and annual perspectives, 2006 is detected as the major inflection point at which the system exhibits a persistent decrease in TWS. Comparing these TWS trends to independent precipitation datasets shows that the recent decrease in TWS can mainly be attributed to a decrease in precipitation amount. Our finding is based on observation and modeling data sets and confirms previous results based on gauging station datasets. Reference: Huang, Y., Salama, M.S., Krol, M.S., van der Velde, R., Hoekstra, A.Y., Zhou, Y. and Su, Z. (2013) Analysis of long - term terrestrial water storage variations in the Yangtze River basin. In: Hydrology and earth system sciences (HESS): 17 (2013)5 pp. 1985-2000.

  9. Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H.; Schroer, B.J.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing and average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. 39 figures, 12 tables.

  10. Solar process water heat for the Iris Images Custom Color Photo Lab. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar facility locted at Iris Images Custom Photo Laboratory in Mill Valley, California. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100/sup 0/F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxiliary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Freeze protection in this mild climate was originally provided by closed-loop circulation of hot water from the storage tank. Later this was changed to a drain-down system due to a freeze when electrical power failed. This system has been relatively successful with little or no scheduled maintenance. The site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are included.

  11. Characterization of surface-water quality in the S-Line Canal and potential geochemical reactions from storage of surface water in the Basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lico, Michael S.; McCormack, John K.

    2005-01-01

    The Fallon basalt aquifer serves as the sole source of municipal water supply for the Lahontan Valley in west-central Nevada. Principal users include the City of Fallon, Naval Air Station Fallon, and the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. Pumpage from the aquifer increased from about 1,700 acre-feet per year in the early 1970's to more than 3,000 acre-feet per year in the late 1990's, and has been accompanied by declines in water levels and changes in water quality. Storage of surface water in the basalt may mitigate the effects of pumpage, but may cause undesirable changes in water chemistry. In May 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study, in cooperation with the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, to characterize the surface-water quality of the S-Line Canal, a likely source of water for augmenting recharge. Because arsenic concentrations in ground water of the basalt aquifer exceed drinking water standards, the potential for arsenic release to artificial recharge was explored by using geochemical modeling. Model results suggest that arsenic release may increase concentrations to levels that could limit the use of artificial recharge. Field-based experiments are needed to evaluate the underlying model assumptions.

  12. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B? (AFB?), B? (AFB?), G? (AFG?) and G? (AFG?) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p < 0.001) affected the total fungal count and aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB? content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B? increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG? and AFG? contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed. PMID:25290990

  13. Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faissal; Mandi, Laila; Boussaid, Abdellatif; Boraam, Fatima; Ouazzani, Naaila

    2013-03-01

    Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia). PMID:23428557

  14. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2014-01-01

    By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for selected segments of five perennial streams (Cottonwood, North Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, and South Arkansas River) in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin for calendar year 2011. Differences between reported diversions and estimated crop irrigation requirements were used to estimate groundwater recharge in the areas irrigated by water supplied from the diversions. The amount of groundwater recharge in all the basins varied monthly; however, the greatest amount of recharge was during June and July for Cottonwood, North Cottonwood, and Chalk Creeks and South Arkansas River. The greatest amount of recharge in 2011 in Browns Creek occurred in July and August. The large seasonal fluctuations of groundwater near irrigated areas in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin indicate that the increased groundwater storage resulting from infiltration of surface-water diversions has dissipated by the following spring. Areas within the Buena Vista-Salida Basin with the potential for underground storage were identified using geographic information system data, including topographic, geologic, and hydrologic data, excluding the mountainous areas that border the Buena Vista-Salida Basin and igneous and metamorphic rock outcrop areas. The areas that met the selection criteria for underground water storage are located on terrace deposits near the Arkansas River and adjacent to its major tributaries. The selected areas also contain much of the irrigated land within the basin; consequently, irrigation ditches and canals could provide a means of conveying water to potential recharge sites.

  15. LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions is presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a Dump-type because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

  16. Development of a Procedure for the Predictive Control Strategy of a Chilled Water Storage System 

    E-print Network

    Wei, G.; Sakuri, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems store the thermal energy produced by the chiller plant in periods of off-peak electrical demand or when cheaper electricity is available. The stored thermal energy is then withdrawn from the reservoir to satisfy...

  17. Numerical simulation of water solidification phenomenon for ice-on-coil thermal energy storage application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak K Soltan; Morteza M Ardehali

    2003-01-01

    The increasing demand for higher energy efficiency in existing power generation facilities requires implementation of demand-side management strategies, such as valley filling and load shifting. As an operational strategy, thermal energy storage (TES) is considered as an effective means for shifting electric loads from on-peak to off-peak hours. For manufacturing storage tanks and design of systems, prediction of the time

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF OPEN STORAGE OF TREATED DRINKING WATER ON QUALITY PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two open reservoirs storing treated drinking water were investigated with primary focus upon definition of water quality and development of alternative water quality control measures. Water quality of each reservoir was defined by a comprehensive water sampling/analysis program a...

  19. Determining Spatio-temporal Patterns of Regional Hydrologic Drought and Resulting Water Deficiency Using GRACE and GLDAS/Noah Terrestrial Water Storage Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Regional-scale hydrologic drought is investigated using water storage data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and terrestrial moisture output fields from the Global Land Data Assimilation System driving the community Noah land surface model (GLDAS/Noah). The objective is to utilize probability theory, statistics, and principle component analysis to track the spatio-temporal propagation of hydrologic drought for the purposes of detailing the degree, time frame, and extent of drought within the terrestrial hydrologic system, while exploring the drought monitoring potential of the GRACE satellites. The probability and magnitude of a drought event based on probability distribution functions allows for a simpler expression of the temporal aspect of drought severity, while principal component analysis allows for exploration of the spatial facets of drought. Hydrologic drought is defined as the persistence of negative water storage anomalies ranging between 30% (abnormally dry) and <2% (exceptional drought) probability frequency, based on the region's long term (61 years), GLDAS/Noah terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) cumulative distribution function. Once this region-specific threshold is defined, drought magnitude, intensity, and duration are calculated to form a general picture of the temporal variation of drought specifically in land water stores. Combining probability theory and principle components allows us to demarcate clusters of dry spells within a region over a given timeframe. Water deficiency will be addressed by using TWSA data to calculate the volume of water entering and leaving a region. The focus here is to statistically assess monthly and seasonal water volume changes in surface and subsurface stores to determine the "total water deficit", an attribute that is difficult to characterize on a global scale. Correlation analyses will relate the severity and duration of various droughts to subsequent water deficits, which helps advance drought prediction capabilities. This work will lead to the recognition of causalities associated with drought magnitude and duration in addition to the identification of commonalities between hydrologic droughts from varying river basins around the world by way of correlation and regression analyses with TWSA, regional climatology, and land-atmospheric patterns (i.e., El Niño Southern Oscillation).

  20. Biosand filtration of high turbidity water : modified filter design and safe filtrate storage

    E-print Network

    Collin, Clair

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of water-related diseases that predominantly affect people living in developing countries. The most prevalent water-related disease is diarrhea, estimated to kill 1.8 million children ...

  1. Safe water storage in Kenya's modified clay pot : standardization, tap design, and cost recovery

    E-print Network

    Young, Suzanne E

    2005-01-01

    One of the main components necessary for providing safe drinking water for users who lack piped water in the home is the ability to safely store it in the home. Users in the Nyanza Province of Kenya frequently carry water ...

  2. 73 FR 6202 - Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study; Benton, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-02-01

    ...potential to supply the water needed for ecosystem...habitat, basin-wide agriculture, and municipal...fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply under the...fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply. There...

  3. 71 FR 78463 - Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study; Benton, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-12-29

    ...potential to supply the water needed for ecosystem...habitat, basin-wide agriculture, and municipal...fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply under the...fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply. There...

  4. 73 FR 79163 - Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study; Benton, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-12-24

    ...potential to supply the water needed for ecosystem...habitat, basin-wide agriculture, and municipal...fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply under the...fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply. There...

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experience Using 30-Gallon Drum Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Measuring Plutonium-Bearing Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been performing accountability measurements of plutonium (Pu) -bearing items with the 30-gallon drum neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) since August 1998. A previous paper focused on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing oxide and metal items. This paper expands on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing salts containing low masses of Pu. All Pu-bearing salts used in this study were measured using calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) as well as the 30-gallon drum NMC. The Cal/Iso values were treated as being the true measure of Pu content because of the inherent high accuracy of the Cal/Iso technique, even at low masses of Pu, when measured over a sufficient period of time. Unfortunately, the long time period required to achieve high accuracy from Cal/Iso can impact other required accountability measurements. The 30-gallon drum NMC is a much quicker system for making accountability measurements of a Pu-bearing salt and might be a desirable tradeoff. The accuracy of 30-gallon drum NMC measurements of Pu-bearing salts, relative to that of Cal/Iso, is presented in relation to the mass range and alpha associated with each item. Conclusions drawn from the use of the 30-gallon drum NMC for accountability measurements of salts are also included.

  6. Isotopic composition of transpiration and rates of change in leaf water isotopologue storage in response to environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Roddy, Adam B; Link, Percy; Apodaca, Randy; Tu, Kevin P; Hu, Jia; Dawson, Todd E; Barbour, Margaret M

    2013-12-01

    During daylight hours, the isotope composition of leaf water generally approximates steady-state leaf water isotope enrichment model predictions. However, until very recently there was little direct confirmation that isotopic steady-state (ISS) transpiration in fact exists. Using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) and leaf gas exchange systems we evaluated the isotope composition of transpiration and the rate of change in leaf water isotopologue storage (isostorage) when leaves were exposed to variable environments. In doing so, we developed a method for controlling the absolute humidity entering the gas exchange cuvette for a wide range of concentrations without changing the isotope composition of water vapour. The measurement system allowed estimation of (18)O enrichment both at the evaporation site and for bulk leaf water, in the steady state and the non-steady state. We show that non-steady-state effects dominate the transpiration isoflux even when leaves are at physiological steady state. Our results suggest that a variable environment likely prevents ISS transpiration from being achieved and that this effect may be exacerbated by lengthy leaf water turnover times due to high leaf water contents. PMID:23647101

  7. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-02-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  8. Remarkable antiagglomeration effect of a yeast biosurfactant, diacylmannosylerythritol, on ice-water slurry for cold thermal storage.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, D; Yanagishita, H; Endo, A; Nakaiwa, M; Nakane, T; Akiya, T

    2001-01-01

    Antiagglomeration effects of different surfactants on ice slurry formation were examined to improve the efficiency of an ice-water slurry system to be used for cold thermal storage. Among the chemical surfactants tested, a nonionic surfactant, poly(oxyethylene) sorbitan dioleate, was found to show a greater antiagglomeration effect on the slurry than anionic, cationic, or amphoteric surfactants. More interestingly, diacylmannosylerythritol, a glycolipid biosurfactant produced by a yeast strain of Candida antarctica, exhibited a remarkable effect on the slurry, attaining a high ice packing factor (35%) for 8 h at a biosurfactant concentration of 10 mg/L. These nonionic glycolipid surfactants are likely to effectively adsorb on the ice surface in a highly regulated manner to suppress the agglomeration or growth of the ice particles. This is the first report on the utilization of biosurfactant for thermal energy storage, which may significantly expand the commercial applications of the highly environmentally friendly slurry system. PMID:11312716

  9. Effects of sodium caseinate concentration and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    O' Dwyer, Sandra P; O' Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O' Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative stability of various oils (sunflower, camelina and fish) and 20% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, were examined. The mean particle size decreased from 1179 to 325 nm as sodium caseinate (emulsifier) concentration was increased from 0.25% to 3% in O/W emulsions (P<0.05). Increasing the microfluidisation pressure from 21 to 138 MPa, resulted in a particle size decrease from 289 to 194 nm (P<0.05). Emulsified oils had lower detectable lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values than their corresponding bulk oils (P<0.05). The lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values of emulsions generally decreased as sodium caseinate concentration increased, and similarly decreased as microfluidisation pressure increased (P<0.05). Increasing storage temperature of the emulsions from 5 to 60°C, resulted in lower detectable lipid oxidation products during storage (P<0.05). PMID:23411225

  10. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their criticality safety prior to their deployment and implementation.

  11. Combining power plant water needs and carbon dioxide storage using saline formations: Implications for carbon dioxide and water management policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Kobos; Malynda A. Cappelle; Jim L. Krumhansl; Thomas A. Dewers; Andrea McNemar; David J. Borns

    2011-01-01

    Research involving management of carbon dioxide has increased markedly over the last decade as it relates to concerns over climate change. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations is one of many proposed methods to manage, and likely reduce, CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Saline formations represent a vast storage resource, and the

  12. Stress Variation Caused by the Terrestrial Water Storage Inferred from GRACE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H.; Wen, L.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate stress variation caused by the terrestrial water storage (TWS) change from 2003 to 2013. We first infer the TWS change from the monthly gravity field change in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We then estimate the stress change at the Earth's surface caused by elastic loading of mass change associated with the inferred TWS change.The monthly spherical harmonics of the GRACE gravity solutions are processed using a decorrelation filter and Gaussian smoothing, to suppress the noise in high degree and order, following the approach of Swenson and Wahr [2006] and Chen et al. [2007]. The gravity variation associated with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is further removed from the GRACE solutions based on a geodynamical model by Paulson et al. [2007]. The inferred TWS changes exhibit a trend of increase from 2003 to 2013 in Amazon basin, southern Africa, the northern United State America (USA) and Queen Maud Land of Antarctica, and a trend of decrease in the same period in central Argentina, southern Chile, northern India, northern Iran, Alaska of the USA, Greenland and Marie Byrd Land of Antarctica.Surface stress variation due to the TWS loading is calculated, assuming an incompressible and self-gravitating Earth, with an elastic crust and a viscoelastic mantle overlying an inviscid core based on PREM model. We will present the geographical distribution of the stress variation caused by the TWS loading and discuss its possible implications. Chen, J. L., C. R. Wilson, B. D. Tapley, and S. Grand (2007), GRACE detects coseismic and postseismic deformation from the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, Geophys Res Lett, 34(13), doi:10.1029/2007GL030356. Paulson, A., S. J. Zhong, and J. Wahr (2007), Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data, Geophys J Int, 171(2), 497-508, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03556.x. Swenson, S., and J. Wahr (2006), Post-processing removal of correlated errors in GRACE data, Geophys Res Lett, 33(8), doi:10.1029/2005GL025285.

  13. Reducing US import oil dependence by one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year

    SciTech Connect

    Bilanin, A.J.; Williamson, G.G.; Geyer, R.G.

    1985-08-01

    A system of simple plates attached to the aft-end of a Ford Club Wagon passenger van was configured to significantly reduce the base drag of the van. When these results are scaled to tractor/semi-trailers or trailer vans it is shown that vehicle-drag reductions in excess of 10% are possible. Based on the current size of the U.S. semi-trailer van fleet, and yearly over-the-road use estimates, this drag reduction translates into a yearly fuel saving well in excess of 1,000,000,000 gallons. Questions remain unanswered with regard to mechanisms that result in the base drag reduction, as well as performance of the device in a crosswind.

  14. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  15. Solar electricity storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jensen; C. Perram

    1980-01-01

    Possible methods for the storage of solar-energy-generated electricity are reviewed. Attention is given to mechanical systems, including elevated weights, pumped water, compressed air, springs and flywheels, electric and magnetic field storage in a capacitor, electromagnet or superconducting coil, and chemical storage systems, including the electrolyzer hydrogen fuel cell and secondary electric storage batteries. Consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of

  16. Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison of different global data sources

    E-print Network

    water is stored, surface waters comprised of rivers, lakes, man-made reservoirs, wetlands a primary role in the global water cycle and climate. Among the different reservoirs in which terrestrial, evaporation, infiltration, and runoff, are still not well-known [Bullock and Acreman, 2003]. Lacking spatially

  17. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC\\/MENA region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noreddine Ghaffour; Thomas M. Missimer; Gary L. Amy

    2012-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to

  18. Monitoring of soil water storage along elevation transech on morphological diverse study-sites affected by soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Fer, Miroslav; Klement, Ales; Kratina, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Soil water availability is one of the key factors determining plant growth. Spatial distribution of soil water content is influenced by many factors. For the field-scale, one of the most important factors is terrain and its shape. The goal of our study was to characterize soil water storage within the soil profile with respect to terrain attributes. Two morphologically diverse study sites were chosen, in order to monitor soil water storage during vegetation season. The first site Brumovice in located in the Southern Moravian Region. The original soil unit was Haplic Chernozem developed on loess, which was gradually degraded by soil erosion. In the steepest parts, due to substantial loss of soil material, soil is transformed to Regosol. As a result of consequently sedimentation of previously eroded material in toe slopes and terrain depressions colluvial soils are formed. The second site Vidim is placed in the Central Bohemia. Dominant soil unit in wider area is Haplic Luvisol on loess loam. Similar process of progressive soil transformation was identified. On each study site, two elevation transects were delimited, where each consists of 5 monitoring spots. Access tubes were installed in order to measure soil moisture in six different depths (10, 20, 30 40, 60 a 100 cm) using Profile Probe PR2. The monitoring was conducted during vegetation season: April - July 2012 in Brumovice and May - July 2013 in Vidim. The average soil water contents were calculated for following three layers: topsoil A (0-20 cm), subsoil B (20-40cm), and substrate (40-100cm). The soil water storage within the soil profile was also expressed. Sensors TMS3 were also used for continual soil water content monitoring in the depth of 0-15 cm. In addition undisturbed soil samples were taken from topsoil to measure soil hydraulic properties using the multistep outflow experiment. Data were used to assess retention ability of erosion affected soils. The soil water storage and particularly average soil water content of the topsoil layers were dominantly affected by evapotranspiration (which apparently depended on aspect of the slope) and secondary by soil properties change due to soil erosion especially on steep slopes. Both transects in Brumovice a one transect in Vidim were located on north-facing slopes, while one transect in Vidim was located on south-facing slope. As result higher soil water contents were observed at the steepest part of all 3 transects (north aspects). We found strong significant relationship between slope and average soil moisture for both transects in Brumovice. In the case of the south-facing transect no apparent trend of soil water content with respect to terrain position was observed. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319).

  19. Towards the Separation of Integral GRACE Signals of Continental Water Storage Using Multi-Sensor Space and In-situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Hedman, K.

    2012-12-01

    The latest IPCC assessment report identified once more the land hydrology as the most uncertain component of the global water cycle. Variations of continental water storage occur in several hydrological compartments such as groundwater, soil moisture, surface water and snow. These storage variations and related changes of mass and surface water extensions map into a considerable number of different space based or in-situ observation systems such as the GRACE gravity field mission, radar and laser altimeter systems, radiometers, optical sensors, synthetic aperture radar, and in-situ river gauges. We perform a multi-sensor approach in order to detect, separate and balance individual contributions to continental water storage variations for selected large river basins. A specific focus is placed on the analysis of climate signals. The study exploits the synergies of various observation systems and combines their output with hydrological simulation models. Thus, the project provides significant new and valuable insights into hydrological processes and the impacts of climate change on the global water cycle. The roadmap includes (1) the elaboration of the potential und usability of contemporary space-borne and terrestrial sensors, (2) a quantification of water storage variations in different compartments from multi-mission analysis, (3) an assessment of the total water storage change from GRACE gravimetry, (4) the computation of the water balance for different study areas, (5) the analysis of balance inconsistencies with respect to non-hydrological mass changes, and (6) the interpretation of the results for water storage changes in terms of variability of weather and climate.

  20. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  1. Influence of water storage time on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Darlene Cristina Ramos Eloy; Ribeiro, Ana Isabella Arruda Meira; Lima, Lúcia Helena Marques de Almeida; de Lima, Marcelino Guedes; Guênes, Gymenna Maria Tenório; Braz, Ana Karla Souza; Braz, Rodivan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate comparatively the shear bond strength (SBS) of etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotch Bond Multi Purpose--ASBMP and Adper Single Bond 2--ASB2) and self-etching (AdheSe--AD and Adper Prompt--AP) adhesive systems after short- and long-term water storage. Eighty bovine teeth were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=20, 10 teeth for 24 h and 10 for 6 months). After surface treatment, composite resin cylinders were made with Tetric Ceram using a bisected metallic matrix. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for either 24 h or 6 months. After these periods, shear strength was assessed in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Data were submitted to ANOVA and F test at 5% significance level. Mean SBSs (MPa) for ASBMP (10.03 +/- 3.78) and ASB2 (6.10 +/- 2.67) showed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between times. The self-etching systems did not differ significantly from each other within the 24-h period, but significant difference was found for AD (1.37 +/- 0.64) after 6 months of water storage. In conclusion, the tested etch-and-rinse systems had a better performance in terms of bond durability over time than the self-etching systems. PMID:18949294

  2. Water-quality analysis of an intensively used on-farm storage reservoir in the northeast arkansas delta.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew T; Pierce, Jon R; Farris, Jerry L

    2015-07-01

    The use of farm reservoirs for supplemental irrigation is gaining popularity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP). Due to depletions of several aquifers, many counties within the MAP have been designated as critical-use groundwater areas. To help alleviate stress on these aquifers, many farmers are implementing storage reservoirs for economic and conservation benefits. When used in tandem with a tailwater recovery system, reservoirs have the potential to trap and transform potential contaminants (e.g., nutrients and pesticides) rather than releasing them through drainage into receiving systems such as lakes, rivers, and streams. Roberts Reservoir is an intensively used, 49-ha on-farm storage reservoir located in Poinsett County, Arkansas. Water-quality analyses and toxicity assessments of the reservoir and surrounding ditches indicated a stable water-quality environment with no observed toxicity present in collected samples. Results of this study suggest that water released into a local receiving stream poses no contaminant risk and could be maintained for irrigation purposes, thereby decreasing the need for additional groundwater depletion. PMID:25912809

  3. Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Quick, R. E.; Venczel, L. V.; Mintz, E. D.; Soleto, L.; Aparicio, J.; Gironaz, M.; Hutwagner, L.; Greene, K.; Bopp, C.; Maloney, K.; Chavez, D.; Sobsey, M.; Tauxe, R. V.

    1999-01-01

    A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households had 44% fewer diarrhoea episodes than control households (P = 0.002). Infants < 1 year old (P = 0.05) and children 5-14 years old (P = 0.01) in intervention households had significantly less diarrhoea than control children. Campylobacter was less commonly isolated from intervention than control patients (P = 0.02). Stored water in intervention households was less contaminated with Escherichia coli than stored water in control households (P < 0.0001). Intervention households exhibited less E. coli contamination of stored water and less diarrhoea than control households. This promising new strategy may have broad applicability for waterborne disease prevention. PMID:10098789

  4. Fire tests of five-gallon containers used for storage in underground coal mines. Report of Investigations/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Perzak, F.J.; Kubala, T.A.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines conducted a study to develop a standard fire test for 5-gal containers used for storing combustible fluids in underground coal mines. A standard test method was developed which evaluates the performance of the container in a 4-min tray fire. Bureau investigators used the standard test method to evaluate several types of closed 5-gal plastic and metal cans in outdoor tests. Each can tested contained 1 gal of nonfire-resistant (NFR) hydraulic oil. A container failed the test if it lost its contents in any of seven trials. Contents spilled either as a result of thermal rupture or melting.

  5. Fire tests of five-gallon containers used for storage in underground coal mines. Report of Investigations\\/1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Perzak; T. A. Kubala; C. P. Lazzara

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines conducted a study to develop a standard fire test for 5-gal containers used for storing combustible fluids in underground coal mines. A standard test method was developed which evaluates the performance of the container in a 4-min tray fire. Bureau investigators used the standard test method to evaluate several types of closed 5-gal plastic and metal

  6. Ecological links between water storage behaviors and Aedes aegypti production: implications for dengue vector control in variable climates.

    PubMed

    Padmanabha, H; Soto, E; Mosquera, M; Lord, C C; Lounibos, L P

    2010-08-01

    Understanding linkages between household behavior and Aedes aegypti (L.) larval ecology is essential for community-based dengue mitigation. Here we associate water storage behaviors with the rate of A. aegypti pupal production in three dengue-endemic Colombian cities with different mean temperatures. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews and pupal counts were conducted over a 7-15-day period in 235 households containing a water storage vessel infested with larvae. Emptying vessels more often than every 7 days strongly reduced pupal production in all three cities. Emptying every 7-15 days reduced production by a similar magnitude as emptying <7 days in Armenia (21.9 degrees C), has a threefold smaller reduction as compared to <7 days in Bucaramanga (23.9 degrees C), and did not reduce production in Barranquilla (29.0 degrees C). Lidding vessels reduced mosquito production and was most feasible in Barranquilla because of container structure. Vessel emptying strongly correlated with usage in Barranquilla, where many households stored water in case of interruptions in piped service rather than for regular use. In the cooler cities, >90% of households regularly used stored water for washing clothes, generating a weaker correlation between emptying and usage. Emptying was less frequent in the households surveyed in the dry season in all three cities. These results show that A. aegypti production and human behaviors are coupled in a temperature-dependent manner. In addition to biological effects on aquatic stages, climate change may impact A. aegypti production through human behavioral adaptations. Vector control programs should account for geographic variation in temperature and water usage behaviors in designing targeted interventions. PMID:20358255

  7. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. SUMP TANK (DIAMETER 33 FEET; CAPACITY 100,000 GALLONS) LOCATION IN HIGH ROOF SECTION ON WEST SIDE. REPAIR SHOP AND STORAGE AREA IN LOW-ROOF AREA. WALL DETAILS: THICKNESS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE RANGES FROM 1'-6" TO 2' THICK. FOUNDATIONS FOR FIVE CELLS ENCLOSING PUMPS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-805-2, 12/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0605-62-098-100658, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  9. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Savannah, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar System was designed to provide 50 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Liquid Flat Plate Collectors (900 square feet) are used for the collector subsystem. The collector subsystem is closed loop, using 50 percent Ethylene Glycol solution antifreeze for freeze protection. The 1,000 gallon fiber glass storage tank contains two heat exchangers. One of the heat exchangers heats the storage tank with the collector solar energy. The other heat exchanger preheats the cold supply water as it passes through on the way to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tank heaters. Electrical energy supplements the solar energy for the DHW. The Collector Mounting System utilizes guy wires to structurally tie the collector array to the building.

  10. A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the downtown area of Austin, it is planned to build a new naturally stratified chilled water storage tank and share it among four separated chilled water plants. An underground piping system is to be established to connect these four plants...

  11. A stand-alone photovoltaic power system for remote villages using pumped water energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Manolakos; G. Papadakis; D. Papantonis; S. Kyritsis

    2004-01-01

    The present paper regards the implementation of a stand-alone photovoltaic plant in which battery storage is partially replaced by a micro-hydraulic system. The plant was installed on Donoussa Island in the Aegean Sea, Greece to cover basic electricity needs of the remote village of Merssini (13 houses). Lighting, TV set and refrigerator were considered basic electricity needs for each house.

  12. Change in Water in Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies about 175,000 square miles in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer is the principal source of water for irrigation and public supply in this area, which is one of the major agricultural areas in the United States. However, soon after groundwater irrigation began, water-level declines occurred in some parts of the aquifer. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resource agencies, began monitoring groundwater levels in the aquifer. Water levels are measured annually primarily in irrigation wells in winter to early spring (generally January to May, depending on location), when water levels generally have recovered from groundwater pumping for irrigation in the previous growing season and before the current year's irrigation season. The water-level elevation for predevelopment (about 1950) conditions was determined using water-level measurements from more than 20,000 wells. The water-level elevation for 2013 was measured in more than 9,000 wells. The water-level measurements were analyzed and interpolated to map discrete intervals of water-level changes from predevelopment to the year 2013. The change in the volume of drainable water stored in the aquifer was calculated using the mapped area of each water-level-change interval, the average water-level change within each mapped interval, and the estimated average specific yield for the aquifer.

  13. Bedrock infiltration estimates from a catchment water storage-based modeling approach in the rain snow transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos, Patrick R.; McNamara, James P.; Seyfried, Mark S.; Marshall, Hans Peter; Marks, Danny; Flores, Alejandro N.

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of bedrock infiltration from mountain catchments in the western U.S. are essential to water resource managers because they provide an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. On smaller scales, bedrock infiltration is an important term in water mass balance studies, which attempt to estimate hydrologic states and fluxes in watersheds with fractured or transmissive bedrock. We estimate the a daily time series of bedrock infiltration in a small catchment in the rain snow transition zone in southwest Idaho, using the difference between measured stream discharge and modeled soil drainage. The accuracy of spatial patterns in soil water storage are optimized, rather than the more common approach of minimizing error in integrated quantities such as streamflow. Bedrock infiltration is estimated to be 289 mm ± 50 mm for the 2011 water year, which is 34% ± 12% of the precipitation (95% confidence). Soils on the southwest facing slope drain more often throughout the snow season, but the northeast facing slope contributes more total soil drainage for the water year. Peaks in catchment soil drainage and bedrock infiltration coincide with rain on snow events.

  14. Evaluation of a novel water treatment and storage intenvention in Nicaragua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Macy J; Quick R

    1996-01-01

    The cholera epidemic in Latin America has spotlighted inadequate water quality and sanitation in the Region. The long-term solution to this problem would be for every community to have piped, disinfected water as well as sewage treatment facilities, but sufficient resources to provide such services do not exist. An alternative strategy for improving water quality shows promise. This strategy has

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  16. Towards the use of gravity data for monitoring water storage changes: results from a comparison with neutron probes and piezometers data in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Wubda, M.; Luck, B.; Le Moigne, N.

    2011-12-01

    Advances in water storage monitoring are crucial to characterize the spatial variability of hydrological processes. Classical water storage investigation methods often involve point measurements (piezometers, neutron probes, humidity sensors...), which may be irrelevant in heterogeneous mediums. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of gravimeters for hydrological studies. Water mass redistribution leads to variations in the Earth's gravity field which can be measured by gravimetry. In the framework of the GHYRAF (Gravimetry and Hydrology in Africa) project, 3 years of repeated absolute gravity measurements have been undertaken at Nalohou, a Sudanian site in northern Benin. Hydrological monitoring is carried out within the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch (an observatory of RBV, the French critical zone exploration network). Seasonal gravity variations in link with the hydrological cycle can reach 11 ?gal at this site, equivalent to a 26cm thick infinite layer of water. The vadose zone and a shallow unconfined aquifer in weathered metamorphic rocks are responsible for most of the water storage. For the first time in the climatic context of the West African monsoon, gravity data are compared to the time evolution of the water storages deduced from neutron probes and water-table variations. The approach is two-fold: first, total storage variations are estimated from neutron probe-derived moisture through the whole vertical profile monitored at the gravimetric site and uniformly extended according to the topography. Results show a very good fit with gravity data, enlightening the fact that absolute gravimeters are sensitive to total water storage variations from the soil surface to the aquifer. The second approach introduces a spatial variability: it was undertaken to check a structural model for specific yield of the aquifer, based on magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) and spatialized with resistivity data (TDEM). We distinguish the soil moisture variations estimated by neutron probes in the vadose zone and the groundwater storage variations calculated from water-table observations and specific yield estimations. This experiment allows discussing each layer (i.e. soil and water table fluctuation zone) relative contribution to gravity signal in term of amplitude and relevant lateral extension. Again, a conclusive fit shows the interest of gravimetric measurements to strengthen a structural model. This hydro-geophysical experiment shows that time-lapse gravity data can effectively be used as an integrative tool to monitor the long-term water storage variations in tropical West Africa. In a close future, gravimetric measurements could become a calibration variable in hydrological modeling as streamflow discharge do today.

  17. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Petroleum Product Storage 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

    1997-08-29

    quarts of gasoline in the ground water may be enough to severely pollute drinking water. At low levels of contamination, fuel contaminants in water cannot be detected by smell or taste, yet seem- ingly pure water may be contaminated to the point... for owners and operators many years later. They will continue to corrode and, if they still contain gas or oil, will likely contaminate ground water. Try to determine the location of any unused tanks on your property. Also, try to find out whether the tanks...

  18. High frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J. C.; Visser, A.; Borren, W.; Winegram, M.; van der Velde, Y.; Klein, J.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-06-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. We designed a small scale (1 ha) field experiment to investigate the hydrological and chemical changes after introducing controlled drainage. Precipitation rates and the response of water tables and drain fluxes were measured in the periods before the introduction of controlled drainage (2007-2008) and after (2009-2011). For the N and P concentration measurements, we combined auto-analysers for continuous records with passive samplers for time-average concentrations at individual drain outlets. Our experimental setup yielded continuous time series for all relevant hydrological and chemical parameters, which enabled us to quantify changes in the field water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. We concluded that controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field. The introduction of controlled drainage did not have clear positive effects on nutrient losses to surface water.

  19. Trace element distribution in the water and sediments of certain storage lakes from the Jijia catchment, (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dughila, A.; Iancu, O. G.; Romanescu, G. T.

    2012-04-01

    The present study aims at investigating the concentrations and distribution levels of a series of trace elements in water and sediment samples collected from six storage lakes located in the Jijia catchment - NE of Romania. The lakes are multi-purpose water reservoirs, three of them being mainly used as a source of municipal drinking water, or for fishing, irrigation for the farms in the area, protection against floods and the regulation of river flows. By contrast, agricultural wastes, fertilizers, raw sewage effluents and road runoff constitute the predominant anthropogenic sources, which supply the lakes in question with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The present study was conducted on a series of 63 sediment samples and 18 water samples, collected from the same locations, in order to establish the distribution levels of certain trace elements from the water through sediments. Sediment cores were collected from two sections across each lake by means of a motor boat, using a system that consists of a graduated sampling tube (0.9 m in length and 72.5 mm in diameter) made of Plexiglas (Eijkelkamp sample tube guide). Prior to the analyses, the samples were air-dried, ground and homogenized using an agate mortar, oven-dried at 50 °C for 6 days and then sieved through 63 µm sieves. The sediment and water samples were subjected to a digestion technique with concentrated nitric acid using a microwave oven (Berghof type), and analyzed for the following elements: Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni. The total concentration of the elements was measured through atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with an RSD of < 10 % from solutions. The vertical distribution of most elements in the cores examined could be characterized as relatively uniform, with higher concentrations for those collected from the lakes which are more influenced by anthropogenic factors, compared to those situated in forested areas. The lake-water quality characteristics were below the recommended drinking water standards imposed by the current legislation (MMGA Ord. No. 161/16.02.2006 - Normative regarding the classification of surface waters in order to establish the ecological status of water bodies, which combines European and Romanian provisions), with the exception of copper (with very high concentrations in all the water samples), lead and cadmium. Keywords: AAS, Jijia catchment (Romania), lake water, sediment core, trace elements

  20. Investigations in cool thermal storage: storage process optimization and glycol sensible storage enhancement 

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Michaela Marie

    1993-01-01

    storage capacity due to a large decrease in the latent heat of fusion of the water in the storage solution. Carnot efficiencies, for the storage process, decrease with the lower operating temperatures. Finally, despite a fixed temperature differential...

  1. A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

    2010-01-01

    electric centrifugal chillers) or loading chillers at the optimal Part Load Ratio (PLA). In an energy retrofit project, a chilled water (ChW) storage system is ofen prefered since existing equipment can be kept and the least system changes... on limited information and assumptions. It should be performed within a reasonable time, while yield accurate and reliable results. An in-depth literature search and study shows that the studies on ChW storage systems are mainly concentrated on field...

  2. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Disposal of 0.2 Curie\\/gallon MAVRC Project Equipment in Vault 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Millings; Margaret R

    2005-01-01

    The Saltstone Facility 0.2 Curie\\/gallon MAVRC (Mixer At Vault Roof Concept) Project will utilize various pieces of process equipment that have not been analyzed from a Performance Assessment perspective for future disposal. The proposed activity will involve the disposal of Saltstone process equipment in an empty Vault 1 cell and encasing the equipment in clean (nonradioactive) grout. An examination of

  3. SU8 Developer Use The CEPSR Clean Room stores and supplies one gallon bottles of SU8 developer. The bottles

    E-print Network

    Kim, Philip

    SU8 Developer Use The CEPSR Clean Room stores and supplies one gallon bottles of SU8 developer. The bottles are located in the small and large yellow rooms under the fume hoods. They are placed with other into the SU8 developer waste container, located in the cabinet below the fume hood. 7) Clean up your work

  4. The Scale of the Energy Challenge 22,000 gallons of fuel oil 150 tons of coal

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    The Scale of the Energy Challenge Biomass Wind Nuclear Solar 22,000 gallons of fuel oil 150 tons% of cultivated land algae vats kW-h/m2/day 6 5 4 3 The average U.S. power consumption is 3 terawatts. That's 3, or half of California. The area required for biomass fuel exceeds the total amount of currently cultivated

  5. Measured HEU Content in 110-Gallon overpacks and partly filled drums by field y-PHA Assay

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND, DEWBERRY

    2004-12-06

    The 321-M Reactor Fuel Fabrication facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. It operated for 25 years. During this time, thousands of uranium-aluminum-alloy (U-Al) fuel tubes were produced. After the facility terminated operations in 1995, all of the easily accessible U-Al was removed from the building, and only residual amounts remained. The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was tasked to conduct the required assays of highly enriched uranium in the deactivation and decommissioning activities of the facility. In this report we demonstrate successful assay of thirteen 55-gallon and 110-gallon drums in the far field transmission corrected point source acquisition configuration. Several of the drums were assayed using the commercial Q2 instrument in both the direct mode and in the segmented gamma scanner mode adapted by SRTC in addition to the far field method described here. The 110-gallon drums would not fit into the Q2 instrument, and so assay by the far field technique was necessary. While the far field transmission corrected method used for these drums is a straightforward technique, it was important to obtain comparison measurements between it and the Q2 techniques to establish its accuracy for the 110-gallon overpack drums.

  6. Monitoring water storage changes using absolute gravity measurements, neutron probes and piezometer data in West Africa: advances in specific yield and recharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloîtres, M.; Hinderer, J.; Wubda, M.; Luck, B.; Le Moigne, N.

    2012-04-01

    Advances in water storage monitoring are crucial to characterize the spatial variability of hydrological processes. Classical water storage investigation methods often involve point measurements (piezometers, neutron probes, humidity sensors…), which may be irrelevant in heterogeneous mediums. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of gravimeters for hydrological studies. Water mass redistribution leads to variations in the Earth's gravity field which can be measured by gravimetry. In the framework of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project, 3 years of repeated absolute gravity measurements using FG5#206 from Micro-g Solutions Inc. have been undertaken at Nalohou, a Sudanian site in northern Benin. Hydrological monitoring is carried out within the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch (an observatory of RBV, the French critical zone exploration network). Seasonal gravity variations in link with the hydrological cycle can reach 11 µgal at this site, equivalent to a 26cm thick infinite layer of water. The vadose zone and a shallow unconfined aquifer in weathered metamorphic rocks are responsible for most of the water storage variations. For the first time in the climatic context of the West African monsoon, gravity data are compared to the time evolution of the water storages deduced from neutron probes and water-table variations. The approach is two-fold: first, total storage variations are estimated from neutron probe-derived moisture through the whole vertical profile (surface to groundwater) monitored at the gravimetric site and uniformly extended according to the topography. Results show a very good fit with gravity data, enlightening the fact that absolute gravimeters are sensitive to total water storage variations from the soil surface to the aquifer. The second approach introduces a spatial variability: it was undertaken to check a structural model for specific yield of the aquifer, based on magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) and spatialized with resistivity data (TDEM). We distinguish the soil moisture variations estimated by neutron probes in the vadose zone and the groundwater storage variations calculated from water-table observations and specific yield estimations. This experiment allows discussing specific yield values obtained by different methods and gravimeters contribution to recharge estimation. This hydro-geophysical experiment shows that time-lapse gravity data can effectively be used as an integrative tool to monitor the long-term water storage variations in tropical West Africa. In a close future, gravimetric measurements could become a calibration variable in hydrological modeling as streamflow discharge do today.

  7. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  8. Determining treatment requirements for turbid river water to avoid clogging of aquifer storage and recovery wells in siliceous alluvium.

    PubMed

    Page, Declan; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Miotli?ski, Konrad; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Lawrie, Ken; Brodie, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    The success of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) schemes relies on defining appropriate design and operational parameters in order to maintain high rates of recharge over the long term. The main contribution of this study was to define the water quality criteria and hence minimum pre-treatment requirements to allow sustained recharge at an acceptable rate in a medium-coarse sand aquifer. The source water was turbid, natural water from the River Darling, Australia. Three treatments were evaluated: bank filtration; coagulation and chlorine disinfection; and coagulation plus granular activated carbon and chlorine disinfection (GAC). Raw source water and the three treated waters were used in laboratory columns packed with aquifer material in replicate experiments in saturated conditions at constant temperature (19 °C) with light excluded for 37 days. Declines in hydraulic conductivity from a mean of 2.17 m/d occurred over the 37 days of the experiment. The GAC-treated water gave an 8% decline in hydraulic conductivity over the 16 cm length of columns, which was significantly different from the other three source waters, which had mean declines of 26-29%. Within the first 3 cm of column length, where most clogging occurred in each column, the mean hydraulic conductivity declined by 10% for GAC-treated water compared with 40-50% for the other source waters. There was very little difference between the columns until day 21, despite high turbidity (78 NTU) in the source water. Reducing turbidity by treatment was not sufficient to offset the reductions in hydraulic conductivity. Biological clogging was found to be most important as revealed by the accumulation of polysaccharides and bacterial numbers in columns when they were dissected and analysed at the end of the experiment. Further chemical clogging through precipitation of minerals was found not to occur within the laboratory columns, and dispersion of clay was also found to be negligible. Due to the low reduction in hydraulic conductivity, GAC-treated water quality was used to set pre-treatment targets for ASR injection of turbidity <0.6 NTU, membrane filtration index (MFI) < 2 s/L(2), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) < 0.2 mg/L, total nitrogen < 0.3 mg/L and residual chlorine > 0.2 mg/L. PMID:25195029

  9. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 3, development of a three-dimensional digital ground-water flow model for storage unit I of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter; Berenbrock, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Water-bearing rocks within the 7 sq mi of Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara Groundwater Basin, consist of unconsolidated deposits that range in thickness from < 300 ft along the north perimeter of the unit to > 1,000 ft near the Pacific Ocean. The groundwater system was simulated as two horizontal layers separated by a confining bed. The model boundaries coincide with mapped faults on all sides. The faults were considered no-flow boundaries except for the offshore fault that forms the south boundary. This boundary was simulated as a general-head boundary , which allows water to move into and out of the modeled area. The model was calibrated by simulating both steady-state conditions (approximated by July 1978 and February 1983 water levels) and transient-state conditions (represented by May 1978 through December 1979 water level changes). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the period from January 1980 through December 1983 in order to verify the model. Model results generally closely matched measured data throughout Storage Unit I. During the transient and verification simulations, 9,980 acre-ft of groundwater was pumped from Storage Unit I for municipal use. Results of the model indicate that 42% (4,190 acre-ft) of the water pumped from the system was withdrawn from storage, 33% (3,290 acre-ft) was derived from changes in underflow across the offshore fault, and 25% (2,500 acre-ft) was derived from decreased groundwater discharge to drains. The model simulated that municipal pumpage induced about 1,380 acre-ft of water to move across the offshore fault toward Storage Unit I. Several model simulations were used to estimate aquifer response to different municipal pumpage patterns that could be used as management alternatives. Results of the simulations indicate that spreading municipal pumpage more evenly throughout Storage Unit I, by increasing the number of wells while reducing the pumping rate at the individual wells to maintain the same total pumpage, significantly reduces the inflow of groundwater across the offshore fault. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Temporal dynamics of patterns and structure of electrical conductivity and water storage along three transects irrigated with water at different salinity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Ali; Ajeel, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the role of local scale soil heterogeneities on water and salinity distribution in the soil. The study used a large spatial and temporal dataset of Electromagnetic Induction (EMI), Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Diviner 2000 sensor readings collected at regularly spaced monitoring sites and in several time campaigns along three transects irrigated with water at different salinity levels. The experiment was carried out in a 558m2 field at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, south-eastern coast of Italy. The experimental field consisted of three adjacent transects, 30 m long and 4.2 m wide, with a distance between transects of 3.0 m. The three transects were irrigated with irrigation water at three different salinity levels (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). The irrigation volumes were calculated according to the time-dynamics of water storage measured by the Diviner 2000 capacitance sensor. For each transect, thirteen access tubes, 2 m apart, were installed along the middle line at 60 cm depth to monitor water content in the soil before and after irrigation. A Fourier's analysis was applied to explore the different patterns and structures of variability of the original TDR data series. The analysis was also applied to filter the original data series, in order to extract the predominant, high-variance signal after removing the noise of both the EMI and TDR data series. It is our opinion that identifying the predominant patterns of variability should reveal specific features of the space-time variability of soil water content and salinity to be explicitly used for upscaling water flow and salt transport processes from local to field scale.

  11. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone. PMID:25341413

  12. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18 percent less than withdrawals for irrigation in 1974. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer for irrigation in 2000 were 21 million acre-feet (McGuire, 2007). Water-level changes in the aquifer result from an imbalance between discharge and recharge. Discharge is primarily ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. Discharge also includes evapotranspiration, where the water table is near the land surface, and seepage to streams and springs, where the water table intersects with the land surface. Recharge is primarily from precipitation. Other sources of recharge are irrigation return flow and seepage from streams, canals, and reservoirs. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for ground-water withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Water-level declines also can affect ground-water availability, surface-water flow, and near-stream (riparian) habitat areas (Alley and others, 1999).

  13. Integration of altimetric lake levels and GRACE gravimetry over Africa: Inferences for terrestrial water storage change 2003-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.

  14. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the values are in accordance with expected ET values (up to about 5mm/day). Seasonal WSC are analyzed since 2008 using FG5 absolute gravity measurements four times a year and since 2010 using the continuous SG time series. They can reach up to 12 microGal (?270mm) and show a clear interannual variability, as can be expected from rainfall variability in the area. This data set allows some estimates of an average specific yield for the local aquifer, together with a scaling factor for Magnetic Resonance Soundings-derived water content.

  15. Integrating Enhanced Grace Terrestrial Water Storage Data Into the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations nf the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including ground water. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors are two of the premier drought monitoring products available to decision-makers for assessing and minimizing drought impacts, but they rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors hy filling this observational gap. Horizontal, vertical and temporal disaggregation of the coarse-resolution GRACE TWS data has been accomplished by assimilating GRACE TWS anomalies into the Catchment Land Surface Model using ensemble Kalman smoother. The Drought Monitors combine several short-term and long-term drought indices and indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence for the location and time of year in question. To be consistent, we are in the process of generating a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on m 60-year Catchment model simulation which will subsequently be used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into soil moisture and groundwater percentiles. for systematic incorporation into the objective blends that constitute Drought Monitor baselines. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of GRACE assimilated Catchment model output against independent datasets including soil moisture observations from Aqua AMSR-E and groundwater level observations from the U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Climate Response Network.

  16. Effect of a point-of-use water treatment and safe water storage intervention on diarrhea in infants of HIV-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie R; Greene, Sharon K; Thomas, Timothy K; Ndivo, Richard; Okanda, John; Masaba, Rose; Nyangau, Isabel; Thigpen, Michael C; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert E

    2009-10-15

    To reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource-poor settings, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months, followed by rapid weaning if replacement feeding is affordable, feasible, available, safe, and sustainable. In the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00146380), infants of HIV-infected mothers who received antiretroviral therapy experienced high rates of diarrhea at weaning. To address this problem, mothers in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study were given safe water storage vessels, hygiene education, and bleach for household water treatment. We compared the incidence of diarrhea in infants enrolled before (cohort A) and after (cohort B) implementation of the intervention. Cohort B infants experienced less diarrhea than cohort A infants, before and after weaning (P < .001 and P = .047, respectively); however, during the weaning period, there were no differences in the frequency of diarrhea between cohorts (P = 0.89). Testing of stored water in cohort B homes indicated high adherence (monthly range, 80%-95%) to recommended chlorination practices. Among infants who were weaned early, provision of safe water may be insufficient to prevent weaning-associated diarrhea. PMID:19758095

  17. Systematic procedures for sizing photovoltaic pumping system, using water tank storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hamidat; B. Benyoucef

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the performances of the photovoltaic pumping destined to supply drinking water in remote and scattered small villages have been studied. The methodology adopted proposes various procedures based on the water consumption profiles, total head, tank capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. A method of the load losses probability (LLP) has been used to optimize sizing of the

  18. Calorimetric properties of water and triacylglycerols in fern spores relating to storage at cryogenic temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Ballesteros; Christina Walters

    2007-01-01

    Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at ?15°C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to monitor enthalpy and temperature of water and TAG phase transitions within spores

  19. Safe household water treatment and storage using ceramic drip filters: a randomised controlled trial in Bolivia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Clasen; J. Brown; O. Suntura; S. Collin

    2004-01-01

    A randomised controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ceramic drip filters to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water in a low-income community in rural Bolivia. In four rounds of water sampling over five months, 100% of the samples were free of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) compared to an arithmetic mean TTC count of 1517, 406,

  20. Source assessment: water pollutants from coal storage areas. Final task report Nov 1976Dec 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Wachter; T. R. Blackwood

    1978-01-01

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a rainfall simulator. Drainage samples were analyzed for water quality parameters, organic and inorganic substances, and pollutants covered by

  1. THE EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT AND POSTIRRADIATION STORAGE ON RADIATION SENSITIVITY OF BRINE SHRIMP CYSTS (EGGS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Engel; D. J. Fluke

    1962-01-01

    Eggs of the brine shrimp Artemia salina were conditioned o various wster ; content values and then were irradiated in air with doses up to 600 kr of Co\\/sup ; 60\\/ gamma rays. Scored for emergence of larvae, the driest eggs showed greater ; sensitivity than those at intermediate water content values. Water contents from ; 1.3 to 50% showed

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in traditional brass and earthernware water storage vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Puja Tandon; Sanjay Chhibber; H. Robert Reed

    2005-01-01

    The detection and enumeration of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli is used to assess the extent of faecal contamination of drinking water. On the basis of this approach, the effectiveness of storing water contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria in brass or earthern vessels (mutkas) of the type used in rural India have been investigated. Suspensions of bacteria in sterile

  3. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil water storage under dryland agriculture at the watershed scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water patterns vary significantly due to precipitation, soil properties, topographic features, and land use. We used empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to characterize the spatial variability of soil water across a 37-ha field of the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm near...

  4. to characterize the impervious water storage with an urban surface-flux parameterization TERRA-MLU: evaluation and calibration for Toulouse city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole; Vogel, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Evaporation from the urban impervious surface could have a considerable impact on the surface energy and moisture balance on rainy days. In particular, the ever increasing urbanization could alter the interaction between evaporation from the surface and precipitation within the urban climate (change) in the future. However, uncertainty exists within the determination of water storage parameters for the impervious surface, and hydrological parameters of the soil for the natural fraction in urban environments. In order to investigate the water balance over urban areas in more detail, TERRA-MLU, a new urban surface-flux parameterization, is applied over Toulouse city centre during the CAPITOUL campaign during 2004. The new urban parameterization covers a direct implementation of urban characteristics in TERRA_ML, Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model of COSMO. Besides anthropogenic heat, specific dynamic, radiative and thermal parameters including roughness length, heat capacity, conductivity, albedo and emissivity are assigned for the urban land-cover. A bluff-roughness thermal roughness length parametrization is used. New surface-layer transfer coefficients are adopted which can deal with very small thermal roughness lengths typical for urban surfaces. An new impervious water storage parameterization is introduced as well. TERRA-MLU is evaluated 'offline' for Marseille, Toulouse, Basel and Vancouver. Sensitivity analysis at the Toulouse site demonstrates that the maximum impervious water storage needs to be equal or less than 1kg/m2 if one only considers evaporation at a potential rate from the impervious surface. Furthermore, results are improved by implementing a storage form parameter that accounts for the reduction of evaporative surface fraction in case of small water content on the impervious surface. An offline sensitivity analysis is performed to estimate the maximum water storage and the storage form parameter. At last, it is found that the rooting depth of the vegetation needs to be described carefully in urban environments with large trees in order not to underestimate the latent heat during summer.

  5. Comprehensive, Process-based Identification of Hydrologic Models using Satellite and In-situ Water Storage Data: A Multi-objective calibration Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo Yassin, Fuad; Wheater, Howard; Razavi, Saman; Sapriza, Gonzalo; Davison, Bruce; Pietroniro, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The credible identification of vertical and horizontal hydrological components and their associated parameters is very challenging (if not impossible) by only constraining the model to streamflow data, especially in regions where the vertical processes significantly dominate the horizontal processes. The prairie areas of the Saskatchewan River basin, a major water system in Canada, demonstrate such behavior, where the hydrologic connectivity and vertical fluxes are mainly controlled by the amount of surface and sub-surface water storages. In this study, we develop a framework for distributed hydrologic model identification and calibration that jointly constrains the model response (i.e., streamflows) as well as a set of model state variables (i.e., water storages) to observations. This framework is set up in the form of multi-objective optimization, where multiple performance criteria are defined and used to simultaneously evaluate the fidelity of the model to streamflow observations and observed (estimated) changes of water storage in the gridded landscape over daily and monthly time scales. The time series of estimated changes in total water storage (including soil, canopy, snow and pond storages) used in this study were derived from an experimental study enhanced by the information obtained from the GRACE satellite. We test this framework on the calibration of a Land Surface Scheme-Hydrology model, called MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology), for the Saskatchewan River basin. Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS) is used as the multi-objective optimization engine. The significance of using the developed framework is demonstrated in comparison with the results obtained through a conventional calibration approach to streamflow observations. The approach of incorporating water storage data into the model identification process can more potentially constrain the posterior parameter space, more comprehensively evaluate the model fidelity, and yield more credible predictions.

  6. Hydrologic considerations for estimation of storage-capacity requirements of impounding and side-channel reservoirs for water supply in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G. F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides data and methods to aid in the hydrologic design or evaluation of impounding reservoirs and side-channel reservoirs used for water supply in Ohio. Data from 117 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Ohio were analyzed by means of nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques to develop relations between storage requirements, water demand, duration, and frequency. Information also is provided on minimum runoff for selected durations and frequencies. Systematic record lengths for the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from about 10 to 75 years; however, in many cases, additional streamflow record was synthesized. For impounding reservoirs, families of curves are provided to facilitate the estimation of storage requirements as a function of demand and the ratio of the 7-day, 2-year low flow to the mean annual flow. Information is provided with which to evaluate separately the effects of evaporation on storage requirements. Comparisons of storage requirements for impounding reservoirs determined by nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques with storage requirements determined by annual-mass-curve techniques that employ probability routing to account for carryover-storage requirements indicate that large differences in computed required storages can result from the two methods, particularly for conditions where demand cannot be met from within-year storage. For side-channel reservoirs, tables of demand-storage-frequency information are provided for a primary pump relation consisting of one variable-speed pump with a pumping capacity that ranges from 0.1 to 20 times demand. Tables of adjustment ratios are provided to facilitate determination of storage requirements for 19 other pump sets consisting of assorted combinations of fixed-speed pumps or variable-speed pumps with aggregate pumping capacities smaller than or equal to the primary pump relation. The effects of evaporation on side-channel reservoir storage requirements are incorporated into the storage-requirement estimates. The effects of an instream-flow requirement equal to the 80-percent-duration flow are also incorporated into the storage-requirement estimates.

  7. Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

  8. Comparison of techniques for estimating evaporation from an irrigation water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJannet, D. L.; Cook, F. J.; Burn, S.

    2013-03-01

    With the emergence of water supply and food security issues as a result of increasing population and climate change pressures, the need for efficient use of available water supplies is paramount. Management of available resources and improved efficiency require accurate specification of evaporation, which is a major water loss pathway, yet evaporation remains difficult to accurately quantify. This study uses scintillometry-derived measurements of evaporation to test the performance of water balance, pan coefficient, and combination modeling techniques, which might commonly be used by resource managers. Both pan coefficient and water balance techniques performed poorly, but the Penman-Monteith model with local site data and site-specific wind function produced estimates within 2% of those measured. Recognizing that such a model parameterization would rarely be a possibility in most environments, further testing involving the range of data sets that might be available for a location was undertaken. Modeling using over-water measurements and, generally, applicable wind functions from the literature produced estimates 26% greater than those measured. Estimates within 12% of those measured were made for the equivalent model setup using over-land meteorological data; however, when data from the nearest meteorological station was used, this difference increased to 27%. The different evaporation estimation techniques tested were shown to produce a range of estimates of water availability, which varied by nearly 30%. The large differences between measured and predicted evaporation highlight the uncertainty that still exists in evaporation estimation and the sensitivity of predictions to the source of input data.

  9. Simulated effects of ground-water development on potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William Edward; Gerhart, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model of two-dimensional ground-water flow was used to predict changes in the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1976-2000, in a 5,938-square-mile area of west-central Florida. In 1975, ground water withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer for irrigation, phosphate mines, other industries, and municipal supplies averaged about 649 million gallons per day. Rates are projected to increase to about 840 million gallons per day by 2000. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. Input parameters included transmissivity and storage coefficient of the Floridan aquifer; thickness, vertical hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient of the upper confining bed; altitudes of the water table and potentiometric surface; and ground-water withdrawals. Simulation of May 1976 to May 2000, using projected combined pumping rates for municipal supplies, irrigation, and industry (including existing and proposed phosphate mines), resulted in a rise in the potentiometric surface of about 10 feet in Polk County, and a decline of about 35 feet in parts of Manatee and Hardee Counties. The lowest predicted potentiometric level was about 30 feet below sea level. Predicted declines for November 1976 to October 2000 were generally 5 to 10 feet less than those for May 1976 to May 2000. (USGS)

  10. Simulated effects of ground-water development on potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, W.E.; Gerhart, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A digital model of two-dimensional ground-water flow was used to predict changes in the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1976 to 2000, in a 5,938-square-mile area of west-central Florida. In 1975, ground water withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer for irrigation, phosphate mines, other industries, and municipal supplies averaged about 649 million gallons per day. Rates are projected to increase to about 840 million gallons per day by 2000. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. Input parameters included transmissivity and storage coefficient of the Floridan aquifer; thickness, vertical hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient of the upper confining bed; altitudes of the water table and potentiometric surface; and ground-water withdrawals. Simulation of May 1976 to May 2000, using projected combined pumping rates for municipal supplies, irrigation, and industry (including existing and proposed phosphate mines), resulted in a rise in the potentiometric surface of about 10 feet in Polk County, and a decline of about 35 feet in parts of Manatee and Hardee Counties. The lowest predicted potentiometric level was about 30 feet below sea level. Predicted declines for November 1976 to October 2000 were generally 5 to 10 feet less than those for May 1976 to May 2000. (USGS)

  11. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity...1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits...884.1 proof gallons. The equivalent gallonage for 70...

  12. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity...1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits...884.1 proof gallons. The equivalent gallonage for 70...

  13. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity...1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits...884.1 proof gallons. The equivalent gallonage for 70...

  14. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity...1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits...884.1 proof gallons. The equivalent gallonage for 70...

  15. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity...1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits...884.1 proof gallons. The equivalent gallonage for 70...

  16. Water-storage capacity controls energy partitioning and water use in karst ecosystems on the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    E-print Network

    Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    capacity underlain by substrates that impede water retention and root growth (Milly, 1994). Uncertainties H. Kamps1 and Susanne Schwinning4 1 Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University Department of Biology, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA ABSTRACT Woody plants

  17. Impact of Coupled Heat Transfer and Water Flow on Soil Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (SBTES) Systems: Experimental and Modeling Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A.; Smits, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    A promising energy storage option to compensate for daily and seasonal energy offsets is to inject and store heat generated from renewable energy sources (e.g. solar energy) in the ground, oftentimes referred to as soil borehole thermal energy storage (SBTES). Nonetheless in SBTES modeling efforts, it is widely recognized that the movement of water vapor is closely coupled to thermal processes. However, their mutual interactions are rarely considered in most soil water modeling efforts or in practical applications. The validation of numerical models that are designed to capture these processes is difficult due to the scarcity of experimental data, limiting the testing and refinement of heat and water transfer theories. A common assumption in most SBTES modeling approaches is to consider the soil as a purely conductive medium with constant hydraulic and thermal properties. However, this simplified approach can be improved upon by better understanding the coupled processes at play. Consequently, developing new modeling techniques along with suitable experimental tools to add more complexity in coupled processes has critical importance in obtaining necessary knowledge in efficient design and implementation of SBTES systems. The goal of this work is to better understand heat and mass transfer processes for SBTES. In this study, we implemented a fully coupled numerical model that solves for heat, liquid water and water vapor flux and allows for non-equilibrium liquid/gas phase change. This model was then used to investigate the influence of different hydraulic and thermal parameterizations on SBTES system efficiency. A two dimensional tank apparatus was used with a series of soil moisture, temperature and soil thermal properties sensors. Four experiments were performed with different test soils. Experimental results provide evidences of thermally induced moisture flow that was also confirmed by numerical results. Numerical results showed that for the test conditions applied here, moisture flow is more influenced by thermal gradients rather than hydraulic gradients. The results also demonstrate that convective fluxes are higher compared to conductive fluxes indicating that moisture flow has more contribution to the overall heat flux than conductive fluxes.

  18. Modelling key water storages and fluxes in the Arctic drainage basin to explain observed trends in river flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, David; Isberg, Kristina; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The pace of change in the arctic system during recent decades has captured the world's attention. Observations and model simulations both indicate that the arctic experiences an amplified response to climate forcing relative to that at lower latitudes. At the core of these changes is the arctic hydrologic system, which includes ice, gaseous vapor in the atmosphere, liquid water in soils and fluvial networks on land, and the freshwater content of the ocean. 11% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in the delicate fresh-water balance. River monitoring show increase in annual discharge from the largest rivers and spring snow-cover is reduced at a higher rate than estimated by climate projections. However, about 30% of the Arctic Ocean drainage basin is still ungauged, and thus, the total influence of interacting processes across the drainage basin still remains unknown. The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model was recently set-up for the entire drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean (excluding Greenland), simulating daily discharge rates for the period 1961-2010. The model domain cover 23 million km2 and is divided into 30 700 subbasins in the model set-up. The aim is to increase the understanding of climate impact on fine-scale hydrology in the entire drainage basin, with the aim to improve predictions of river discharge into the ocean in present and future climate. Special attention is given to key processes, which dominate the discharge pattern and/or are sensitive to climate change. Process descriptions and observed trends from several data sources are co-evaluated by using global earth observations and in-situ datasets for the region. The presentation will show spatial patterns of water load contribution to the sea for various seasons, tends terrestrial water cycle fluxes and storage (especially precipitation, evapotranspiration, snow, ice and lakes). We focus on separating changes in weather and changes in water storages for explaining current trends in river flow.

  19. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; McLin, S.G.; Stoker, A.K.; Maes, M.N.

    1995-09-01

    Municipal potable water supply during 1992 was 1,516 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons from wells in the Guaje and Pajarito well fields. About 13 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons were pumped from the Los Alamos Well Field and used in the construction of State Road 501 adjacent to the Field. The last year the Las Alamos Field was used for municipal supply was 1991. The nonpotable water supply used for steam plant support was about 0.12 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons from the spring gallery in Water Canyon. No nonpotable water was used for irrigation from Guaje and Los Alamos Reservoirs. Thus, the total water usage in 1992 was about 1,529 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons. Neither of the two new wells in the Otowi Well Field were operational in 1992.

  20. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements...4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lamblia, and 2-log Cryptosporidium using a protocol approved by the State. (d)...

  1. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements...4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lamblia, and 2-log Cryptosporidium using a protocol approved by the State. (d)...

  2. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements...4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lamblia, and 2-log Cryptosporidium using a protocol approved by the State. (d)...

  3. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements...4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lamblia, and 2-log Cryptosporidium using a protocol approved by the State. (d)...

  4. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements...4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lamblia, and 2-log Cryptosporidium using a protocol approved by the State. (d)...

  5. Studies of water storage and other contributions to changes in the rotation of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Clark R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects were determined of the global redistribution of water mass on various geodetic observables, especially polar motion, and complementary observables such as geodetic satellite positions. The effect of water mass redistribution has been and continues to be less well known and more difficult to observe than effects of air mass distribution, yet the water contribution is potentially significant over a large range of periods. The current understanding is reviewed of the contribution of polar drift, decadal polar motion, Chandler and annual wobbles, and higher frequency polar motion, as determined through the efforts of the funded work within the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project, and in the context of the general literature on the subject. Water mass redistribution is either demonstrably important to the excitation of each of these, or is probably important given a lack of other likely excitation sources.

  6. An Analysis on Ice Storing CharacterIstics in Dynamic-type Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Naoki; Tanino, Masayuki; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    For an application of the Dynamic-type Ice Storage System to the District Cooling and Heating System, the effects of ice content (IPF) and mass flow rate of supplying ice-slurry on the ice storing characteristics in a tank were investigated by experiments and analyses. In the analytical model, we considered that the ice-rich layer would be ununiform by raising of IPF and the water permeability in the ice-rich layer increases. By raising of IPF and reducing of mass flow rate of supplying ice-slurry, ice-rich layer could not spread in a tank. The porosity of ice-rich layer was contracting to the value of 0.8-0.9 in the ice storing process. The stored ice quantity depends on distribution and porosity of ice-rich layer in a tank decreased to 10% by raising IPF from 2.5wt% to 10wt% and reducing mass flow rate as constant ice flow rate. The analytical results could express the experimental results about stored ice quantity. Our analytical model is considered to be applicable to prediction of the ice storing characteristics and to design of an ice storage tank.

  7. Measured performance of a solar augmented heat pump/chiller system with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water

    SciTech Connect

    Wildin, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the heating and cooling system in a building designed to illustrate energy conservation, solar energy use and thermal storage for electric load management and energy conservation was monitored for a period of 20 months, beginning in January 1981. Solar energy was employed to augment the heating energy obtained by heat recovery using electric-driven reciprocating heat pump/chillers and an air-to-air heat exchanger. Solar energy was gathered by 289 m/sup 2/ (3110 ft/sup 2/) of evacuated tube collectors on the roof of the building, which has a gross floor area of 5330 m/sup 2/ (57,350 ft/sup 2/). The fractions of the total active heating load, including air-to-air heat recovery, supplied by solar energy for the one partial and one completed heating season for which results were obtained, were 50 and 42 percent, respectively. Stratified water tanks were used in the heating season to store excess solar energy and both heating and cooling capacity generated by the heat pump/chillers. During the cooling season, the tanks were used to store cooling capacity generated by the chillers. An economic analysis using the results for energy consumption obtained from this building indicated that the solar system was not economically attractive, despite its encouraging technical performance. Thermal storage for electric load management was attractive for moderate costs of capital.

  8. Water-resources investigation using analog model techniques in the Saugus-Newhall area, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1972-01-01

    The Saugus-Newhall area is in the upper Santa Clara River valley, in northwestern Los Angeles. County, about 30 miles north of Los Angeles. The area has two main aquifers, the alluvial aquifer and the underlying Saugus aquifer. These two aquifers are the subject of this investigation. The alluvial aquifer consists of river channel alluvium as much as 200 feet thick with a transmissibility ranging from 50,000 to 325,000 gallons per day per foot and a storage coefficient of i0 to 20 percent. In 1945 about 210,000 acre-feet of recoverable ground water was in storage in the alluvial aquifer. The alluvial aquifer is the major source of ground-water pumpage and has supplied about 600,000 acre-feet of effective pumpage during the period 1945 through 1967. Ground-water pumpage and variations in the quantities of surface-water recharge have caused large fluctuations in the water levels in the alluvial aquifer. The Saugus aquifer has. a maximum saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and ranges in transmissibility from 2,000 to 200,000 gallons per day per foot. Based on limited available data, the Saugus aquifer may contain as much as 6 million acre-feet of ground water in storage under steady-state conditions. Meager available data indicate the water quality in some areas of the Saugus aquifer is poor so that only a fraction of the ground water in storage in the aquifer may be usable for domestic water supplies. Floodflow in the streams in the area is the major source of recharge to the alluvial aquifer and the underlying Saugus aquifer. The chemical quality of the ground water is largely dependent on the chemical quality of the surface-water recharge. Ground-water discharge occurs along the Santa Clara River below Castaic Junction. Water will be imported to supplement the existing water resources. An analog model of the ground-water basin indicates that it will not be possible to artificially recharge the proposed quantities of imported water into the alluvial aquifer above Saugus unless ground-water pumpage from that area is increased. The model further indicates that the alluvial aquifer may not be able to supply enough water, even when artificially recharged with imported water, to meet the estimated maximum pumping rate to 1990 used in the model and that increased pumpage from the Saugus aquifer may cause water-level declines in both aquifers and may eliminate the natural ground-water discharge from the aquifers.

  9. Methodology for Determining the Optimal Operating Strategies for a Chilled Water Storage System 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhiqin

    2011-08-08

    of this is for them. vii NOMENCLATURE 4CP Four Coincident Peak AHU Air Handling Unit CHLR Chiller ChW Chilled Water ChWLT Chilled Water Leaving Temperature COP Coefficient of Performance C-P Chiller-Priority CPP Sam Houston Central Plant CSB... .........................................................................................70 3.4.1 Tank state transition equation ..............................................................70 3.4.2 Temperature relationship......................................................................72 3.5 ChW Plant Modeling...

  10. Methodology for Determining the Optimal Operating Strategies for a Chilled Water Storage System

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhiqin

    2011-08-08

    of this is for them. vii NOMENCLATURE 4CP Four Coincident Peak AHU Air Handling Unit CHLR Chiller ChW Chilled Water ChWLT Chilled Water Leaving Temperature COP Coefficient of Performance C-P Chiller-Priority CPP Sam Houston Central Plant CSB... .........................................................................................70 3.4.1 Tank state transition equation ..............................................................70 3.4.2 Temperature relationship......................................................................72 3.5 ChW Plant Modeling...

  11. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations in water storage from gravimetric and hydrological observations in Sutherland, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahed, Gaathier; de Wit, Maarten; Doucoure, Moctar; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Kroner, Corinna; Guntner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in water storage can be attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface. In this paper, the properties of soil and fractured rock aquifers are examined for the example of the South African Gravimetric Observation Station (SAGOS) in Sutherland. Also, aspects of groundwater recharge and their implications for gravimetric observations are reviewed. First results obtained from a hydro-meteorological monitoring system that was installed about one and a half years ago in Sutherland, measuring climate variables, soil moisture and groundwater levels, are evaluated. The results will aid in the development of a local 3-D subsurface model and in interpreting the gravity residuals of the superconducting gravimeter in Sutherland.

  12. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species are less shade tolerant than evergreen species. PMID:25428825

  13. Storage and recycling of water and carbon dioxide in the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Bernard J.

    1994-01-01

    The stabilities and properties of water- and carbon-bearing phases in the earth have been determined from phase equilibrium measurements, combined with new data on the equations of state of water, carbon dioxide, carbonates and hydrates. The data have then been used to predict the fate of calcite and hydrous phases in subducting oceanic lithosphere. From the compositions of MORB's one can estimate concentrations of water and carbon of around 200 ppm and 80 ppm respectively in the upper mantle. Lower mantle estimates are very uncertain, but 1900 ppm water and 2000 ppm C are plausible concentrations. Measurements of the density of supercritical water to 3 GPa demonstrate that this phase is less compressible than anticipated from the equations of state of Haar et al. or Saul and Wagner and is closer to predictions based on molecular dynamics simulations. Conversely, fugacity measurements on carbon dioxide to 7 GPa show that this fluid is more compressible than predicted from the MRK equation of state. The results imply that hydrates are relatively more stable and carbonates less stable at pressures greater than 5 GPa than would be predicted from simple extrapolation of the low pressure data. Nevertheless, carbonates remain extremely refractory phases within both the upper and lower mantle.

  14. Water Use for Hydraulic Fracturing: A Texas Sized Problem? 

    E-print Network

    LeClere, David

    2014-01-01

    The state of Texas could face a 2.7 trillion gallon shortfall of water by 2060. Hydraulic fracturing (HF) requires large amounts of water for each well. Tax incentives should be offered to companies that substitute brackish ...

  15. Aquifers for energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minor

    1980-01-01

    Aquifers for energy storage, as well as other natural formations such as ponds, earth, or lakes, is the goal of a new five-year, US Department of Energy research and demonstration program called Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage, to be managed by the Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Initially, the program will demonstrate energy storage by pumping hot or cold water

  16. Geologic features and ground-water storage capacity of the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Davis, G.H.

    1961-01-01

    The Sacramento Valley constitutes the northern and smaller arm of the Central Valley of California. It is about 150 miles long by about 30 miles wide; and its area is about 5,000 square miles. The Sacramento Valley is drained by the Sacramento River, the largest in California, which rises west of Mount Shasta and flows southward to join the San Joaquin River near Suisun Bay and discharges through San Francisco Bay to the Pacific. Most of the valley floor is suitable for growing crops, and under irrigation the land is highly productive. The Sacramento Valley is underlain by sediments transported from the surrounding mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The floor of the valley slopes southward from about 300 feet above sea level at the north end near Red Bluff to sea level at Suisun Bay. The Sutter Buttes, which are erosional remnants of an old volcano rise to 2,132 feet above sea level near the center of the valley. The valley floor is not a featureless plain but is characterized by various types of topography, which have been assigned to four principal groups: 1, low hills and dissected alluvial uplands; 2, low alluvial plains and fans; 3, flood plains and natural levees; and 4, flood basins; a fifth and relatively minor group consists of the tidal Islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which are south of the principal area of investigation. The rocks that underlie the Sacramento Valley and the bordering mountains range from crystalline rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age to unconsolidated alluvium of Recent age. These rocks have been subdivided into 20 geologic units which may be assigned to 2 broad categories: rocks that yield little water and rocks that yield water freely. The rocks of the first category are chiefly marine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Early Tertiary age and a basement complex of pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks. The rocks of the second category consist predominantly of nonmarine valley-filling sediments of late Tertiary and Quaternary age, which constitute the principal ground-water reservoir in the Sacramento Valley. The rocks that yield little or no water includes the following geologic units: 1, Basement complex of the Sierra Nevada (pre-Tertiary); 2, Shasta series (Lower Cretaceous); 3, Chico formation (Upper Cretaceous); 4, Paleocene series; 5, Eocene series (in part, water yielding); 6, basalt (Tertiary); 7, sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin on the west side of the Sacramento Valley (Tertiary, in part water yielding) ; 8, intrusive rhyolite and andesite and vent tuff of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene); and 9, tuff-breccia of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene, in part water yielding). The rocks that yield water freely, comprises the following geologic units: 1, Volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada (Eocene to Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 2, Tuscan formation (Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 3, Tehama formation (Pliocene); 4, Tehama formation and related continental sediments, undifferentiated (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 5, Laguna formation and related continental sediments (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 6, fanglomerate from the Cascade Range (Pleistocene); 7, Red Bluff formation (Pleistocene); 8, Victor formation and related deposits (Pleistocene); 9, alluvial-fan deposits (Pleistocene and Recent); 10, river deposits (Recent); and 11, flood-basin deposits (Recent). The volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada consist chiefly of andesitic and rhyolitic detritus. Most of these volcanic rocks are fragmental and were deposited either as mudflows or by streams. Their permeability is extremely variable, the poorly consolidated sandstone and conglomerate strata locally yield water copiously to wells, but the interbedded fine-grained and cemented strata are virtually impermeable and act as confining layers. The Tuscan formation, which occurs in the northeastern part of the valley, consists of fragmental andesitic and basaltic mate

  17. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles.

    PubMed

    Greifenstein, Michael; White, Duvel W; Stubner, Alex; Hout, Joseph; Whelton, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0mg/L and <0.05 ?g/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 ?g/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 ?g/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 ?g/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 ?g/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 ?g/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 ?g/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. PMID:23624011

  18. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL THROUGH IN-RECEIVING WATER STORAGE: AN EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the Flow Balance Method (FBM) used to control a Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) and a statistically based performance evaluation for the system. he FBM uses containment within a receiving water body to store CSO followed by pumpback to the wastewater treatment ...

  19. STORAGE WATER ACTIVITY EFFECT ON OXIDATION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-OLEIC PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts were stored under different water activities and maintained using saturated salt solutions, for 14 wks. Peroxide values, percent moisture, and sensory attributes were determined at 2 wk intervals. Peroxide values increased over time for all treatments. The highest oxidation values were obser...

  20. A unique rapid hot water treatment to improve storage quality of sweet pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elazar Fallik; Shoshana Grinberg; Sharon Alkalai; Oded Yekutieli; Aharon Wiseblum; Rafi Regev; Hagai Beres; Eli Bar-Lev

    1999-01-01

    A unique and rapid method for simultaneously rinsing and disinfecting sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) using hot water and brushes has been developed (Israeli patent 116965). The efficiency of this method was tested on both laboratory and commercial scale machines with several bell sweet pepper varieties. The optimal treatment for cleaning and disinfecting pepper while maintaining fruit quality after prolonged