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1

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient

M. J. Griffin; B. G. Harris

1993-01-01

2

CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

Watson, W.T.

1997-01-20

3

Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container  

SciTech Connect

The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

Richins, W.D.

1996-07-01

4

Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-07-01

5

Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC h...

W. D. Richins

1996-01-01

6

CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP  

SciTech Connect

This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

DOBBIN, K.D.

2000-05-24

7

Water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a cylindrical water storage tank for a solar water heater which tank is entirely surrounded by a layer of insulating material, said cylindrical tank being arranged to be horizontally disposed in use and having water outlet means in an upper region thereof and water inlet means in a lower region thereof, wherein the portion of

Riley

1983-01-01

8

Dewvaporation Desalination 5,000-Gallon-Per Day Pilot Plant. Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 120.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 5,000-gallon-per-day dewvaporation pilot plant was designed, built, and operated at the 23rd Avenue Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Phoenix, Arizona. The City of Phoenix Water Services Department, along with the Bureau of Reclamation Phoenix Area ...

J. R. Beckman

2008-01-01

9

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P. J.

1996-01-01

10

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

11

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long...

D. P. Chambers J. S. Famiglietti M. Rodell

2011-01-01

12

124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

13

Residential hot water solar energy storage subsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost, efficient, and practical hot water solar energy storage subsystems for heating and cooling of residences are discussed. Both new and innovative vessel materials and configurations are investigated, together with insulation materials. Storage subsystem locations considered include basement, crawl-space, living space, garage, attic, surface exterior and underground exterior. Performance requirements for residential hot water storage systems are investigated. A matrix

E. E. Pickering

1976-01-01

14

An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic aspects of an ice storage system employing supercooled water were compared with those of a chilled water system. In this analysis, the characteristics of the thermal storage tank and the system-COP were selected as technological factors, that have particular relevance to the economic issues at introduction of tharmal storage systems. The following results were obtained : (1) The cooling rate of the ice storage system was comparable with the rate of a chilled water storage system. (2) The cooling rate of the ice storage system was not hardly influenced by the cost of thermal storage tank. (3) In the hybrid thermal storage system, the ice storage system could surely satisfy the requirement for large peak shift.

Tanino, Masayuki; Iribe, Masatake; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

15

Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for monitoring higher level parameters such as fauna diversity. The regenerating rainforest environment presents a number of interesting challenges for wireless sensor networks related to energy harvesting and to reliable low-power wireless communications through dense and wet vegetation. Located downstream from the Springbrook plateau, the Little Nerang and Hinze dams are the two major water supply storages for the Gold Coast region. In September 2009 we fitted methane, light, wind, and sonar sensors to our autonomous electric boat platform and successfully demonstrated autonomous collection of methane flux release data on Little Nerang Dam. Sensor and boat status data were relayed back to a human operator on the shore of the dam via a small network of our Fleck™ nodes. The network also included 4 floating nodes each fitted with a string of 6 temperature sensors for profiling temperature at different water depths. We plan to expand the network further during 2010 to incorporate floating methane nodes, additional temperature sensing nodes, as well as land-based microclimate nodes. The overall monitoring system will provide significant data to understand the connected catchment-to-storage system and will provide continuous data to monitor and understand change trends within this world heritage area.

Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

2010-05-01

16

ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

17

Terrestrial water storage and polar motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares observed polar motion for the period 1900-1985 with meteorologic and hydrologic data for the world over the same period, in an effort to determine whether water storage, in combination with air mass redistribution, can account for the observed variance of polar motion. Monthly time series of estimated continental water storage and air mass excitation functions have been

John Kuehne; Clark R. Wilson

1991-01-01

18

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

19

Storage configuration and water quality  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the accuracy of models of the transport and decay of chlorine in waste systems, in particular the representation of storage reservoirs as compartmentalized, completely-mixed vessels. Three systems were examined; an elevated large diameter structure, a standpipe, and an elevated tank with an intermediate diameter-to-height ratio.

Billings, C.H.

1993-10-01

20

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA\\/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from

J. Boy; C. C. Carabajal; S. B. Luthcke; D. D. Rowlands; F. G. Lemoine; T. J. Sabaka

2009-01-01

21

SUBSTRATE DEGRADATION AND METAL REMOVAL PERFORMANCE OF A 1,500- GALLON SULFATE-REDUCING BIOREACTOR FOR MINING-INFLUENCED WATER TREATMENT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful long-term operation and sustainability of passive systems for the treatment of mining influenced water (MIW) affected by metals and acidity has been challenged by a lack of understanding on organic substrate design. Metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in bioreactors produces H2S that precipitates dissolved metals, and it is the main mechanism that removes metals from solution. Fermentation

Ana Ruiz; Linda Figueroa; Marek Zaluski; Diana Bless

22

Hot Water Storage Tank for Solar Collectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A baffled hot storage tank for solar collector systems is provided. The tank includes a concentric of the baffle and another circulation part at the top of the baffle. This configuration restricts the mixing of water allowing both a vertical temperature g...

J. S. Roehl

1992-01-01

23

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from only KBRR (K-band range rate) data using a mascon approach. We compare our solutions to classical spherical harmonic solutions and also to different global hydrology models, and regional models in the

Jean-Paul Boy; Claudia Carabajal; Scott Luthcke; David Rowlands; Frank Lemoine; Terence Sabaka

2010-01-01

24

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from only KBRR (K-band range rate) data using a mascon approach. We compare our solutions to classical spherical harmonic solutions and also to different global hydrology models, and regional models in the African monsoon area (thanks to the ALMIP project). We compare mass estimates of major Africa lakes and reservoirs to volume estimates from laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. We investigate the improvement of our mass retrievals when hydrology (GLDAS/Noah model) is forward modeled, compared to the more classical approach when continental water storages variations are not taken into when processing GRACE data. We solve the water mass balance equations using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as ground rain gauge stations, using fresh water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from various atmospheric models (reanalysis and operational). As a result, our runoff are compared to river flux measurements. In addition to the comparison with the ALMIP models, we also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

Boy, Jean-Paul; Carabajal, Claudia; Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Sabaka, Terence

2010-05-01

25

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as meteorological stations, using water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from different atmospheric models. As a result, our runoff estimates are compared to river fluxes measurements. We compare mass estimates of major African lakes to volume estimated from space Laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. As our forward modeling includes the continental water storage variations (using GLDAS/Noah model), leaking effects are significantly reduced. We also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.

2009-12-01

26

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

27

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

28

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

29

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO WEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

30

Atmospheric drivers of storage water use in Scots pine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we determined the microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and - storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May-18 October). Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation was the main driver of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed, mainly driven by vapour pressure deficit (VPD). During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD) storage water use was reduced. This reduction was disproportionally higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. A third important factor was the tree water deficit. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water deficit.

Verbeeck, H.; Steppe, K.; Nadezhdina, N.; de Beeck, M. Op; Deckmyn, G.; Meiresonne, L.; Lemeur, R.; ?ermák, J.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I. A.

2007-02-01

31

49 CFR 173.311 - Metal hydride storage systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...173.311 Metal hydride storage systems. The following...transportable UN Metal hydride storage systems (UN3468) with pressure...150 liters (40 gallons) in water capacity and having a maximum...exceeding 25 MPa. Metal hydride storage systems must be...

2012-10-01

32

Residential hot water solar energy storage subsystems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost, efficient, and practical hot water solar energy storage subsystems for heating and cooling of residences are discussed. Both new and innovative vessel materials and configurations are investigated, together with insulation materials. Storage subsystem locations considered include basement, crawl-space, living space, garage, attic, surface exterior, and underground exterior. Performance requirements for residential hot water storage systems are investigated. A matrix

Pickering

1976-01-01

33

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

34

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlea Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

35

Relationship of Regional Water Quality to Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) involves injection and withdrawal of temperature-conditioned water into and from a permeable water-bearing formation. The purpose of this study was to assess ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristic...

R. D. Allen J. R. Raymond

1983-01-01

36

Observed and simulated movement of bank-storage water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed hydrologic and water-chemistry data were collected that document the movement of bank-storage water during March 7-April 17, 1990, in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River, Iowa. Hydrologic data included 745 daily ground-water-level measurements from 27 observation wells. Water-chemistry data indicate that bank-storage water had smaller specific conductance and larger concentration of atrazine than ambient ground water. To quantify the movement of the bank-storage water, a two-dimensional ground-water flow model was constructed, and the resulting calibrated model accurately simulated observed conditions. Analysis of water chemistry and model results indicate that a 2-meter rise in the river stage caused bank-storage water to move horizontally at least 30 meters into the aquifer and vertically about 4 meters below the river bottom, whereas the remaining 30 percent moved laterally through the riverbank. The model also showed that bank storage caused the ground-water flux to the river to increase by a factor of five during the first three weeks of base flow after runoff and that it required about five weeks for bank-storage water to discharge from the alluvial aquifer after the peak river stage. These results quantitatively demonstrate the importance of bank storage as a source of recharge to the alluvial aquifer and as a source of water to the river during early base-flow conditions.

Squillace, P. J.

1996-01-01

37

Movement and Storage of Water in North Carolina Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most important soil physical properties affecting the movement and storage of water in soils are given, including analyses for bulk density, total porosity, pore-size distribution, total and available water-holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity....

J. F. Lutz

1970-01-01

38

Case studies of chilled water storage  

SciTech Connect

Centralized chilled water systems are commonly used to meet the air conditioning needs of colleges, universities, medical complexes, and other large campuses or district cooling facilities. Data from the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) indicate that over half its members operate central cooling plants. Various configurations are in use, including single and multiple central chilling plants serving single distribution systems, nonconnected miniature central systems, and combinations of one central and one or more satellite plants on a single distribution loop. Central plant chillers may be electric motor-driven centrifugal compressors, gas engine-driven centrifugal compressors, steam turbine-driven centrifugal compressors, heat-driven absorption chillers, or combinations of these types. The usual refrigerants are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); but alternatives such as HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia (NH[sub 3]), and absorption solutions may also be employed. Free cooling via cooling towers is sometimes used, directly or indirectly, during periods of relatively low ambient air temperatures. During any central plant capacity expansion, O and M, capital, and life cycle costs are among the major concerns, as are the increasingly critical issues of reliability, flexibility, safety, and the environment. Specifically, atmospheric ozone depletion and the CFC refrigerant issue are now impacting everyone involved in the air conditioning field. Anyone selecting or planning for new chiller capacity is faced with choosing from such options as CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia, and absorption refrigeration. These choices have unique and serious drawbacks. Because of this chilled water storage is now experiencing increased application.

Andrepont, J.S. (Chicago Bridge and Iron Co., Oak Brook, IL (United States))

1993-01-01

39

Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-01-01

40

Multisensor analysis of water storage variations of the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a multi-sensor analysis of water storage and surface height variations of the Caspian Sea, from mid-2002 through 2006. Data from three satellite missions (GRACE, Jason-1, and Aqua) are used to examine the relationship between changes in spatially averaged sea surface height (SSH) and water storage in and around the Caspian Sea. Two composite time series are constructed to

Sean Swenson; John Wahr

2007-01-01

41

Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

42

General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

43

Water storage and evaporation as constituents of rainfall interception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercepted rainfall may be evaporated during or after the rain event. Intercepted rain is generally determined as the difference between rainfall measurements outside and inside the forest. Such measurements are often used to discriminate between water storage and evaporation during rain as well. Two well-accepted methods underestimate water storage by a factor two as compared to direct observations. The underestimation

Wim Klaassen; Fred Bosveld; E. de Water

1998-01-01

44

General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

45

Storability Investigations of Water, Long-Term Storage Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to gather data that will permit the Air Force to assess the long term storage characteristics of water particularly with regard to formation of particulate matter, so that the feasibility of long-term storage of water for ...

E. M. Vander Wall G. R. Janser

1975-01-01

46

Alternatives for Water Basin Spent Fuel Storage Using Racked and Unracked Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spent fuel storage alternatives to conventional racking were: core plate storage, horizontal racks, stacked racks, and unracked storage. (1) The parameter that controls storage density in water basin spent fuel storage is the spacing between fuel assembli...

J. M. Viebrock P. E. Eggers

1979-01-01

47

Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been

S. Liu; D. Butler; F. A. Memon; C. Makropoulos; L. Avery; B. Jefferson

2010-01-01

48

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Table IâGallon Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823...823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726...

2012-10-01

49

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Table IâGallon Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823...823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726...

2011-10-01

50

A water-battery concept for electric utility energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water battery (reversible water electrolyzer or regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell), as envisioned by BCL, is a single energy-storage device with long operational life and high storage efficiency suitable for use on an electric utility system at dispersed locations (e.g., substations). Available off-peak electric energy could be used to electrolyze water, thereby generating hydrogen and oxygen which can be stored

J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman

1976-01-01

51

29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 104, mess hall in lower left, building 101, administration, recreation, and storage building in center, and building 103, non-commissioned officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far right, looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

52

Drilling, production and oil storage caisson for deep water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a deep water offshore apparatus for use in drilling, production and oil storage, this patent describes the combination of: an elongated caisson having an upper end portion above the water surface and a lower end portion extending to a water depth subject to only minimal excitation forces caused by wave action, the caisson having an outer surface of uniform

1987-01-01

53

Experimentally determined water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace amounts of hydrogen dissolved as defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) in the mantle are believed to play a key role in physical and chemical processes in the Earth's upper mantle. Hence, the estimation of water storage in mantle phases and solubility mechanisms are important in order to better understand the effect of water. Experimental data on water solubility

A. Ferot; N. Bolfan-Casanova

2010-01-01

54

Experimental study of thermally stratified hot water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is determined experimentally for removing hot water from a storage tank and adding cold water to the tank while maintaining steep thermoclines. Results of experiments performed with two vertical plexiglass cylinders are reported which show that thermal stratification can be maintained in cylindrical water tanks even at very large flow rates; that stratification improves with increasing tank height\\/diameter

Z. Lavan; J. Thompson

1977-01-01

55

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

56

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

57

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK (BUILDING 2824), WITH EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) AT LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

58

Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums  

SciTech Connect

When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ``an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.`` It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research.

Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

1995-06-01

59

Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant

R. H. Ferris; B. P. Hildebrand; R. L. Hockey; D. M. Riechers; J. C. Spanner; D. R. Duncan

1993-01-01

60

Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East - North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Li, B.; Bolten, J. D.; Houborg, R.; Velicogna, I.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2009-12-01

61

A global analysis of temporal and spatial variations in continental water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

While continental water storage plays a key role in the Earth's water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles, its temporal and spatial variations are poorly known, in particular, for large areas. This study analyzes water storage simulated with the Watergap Global Hydrology Model. The model represents four major storage compartments: surface water, snow, soil, and groundwater. Water storage variations are analyzed for

Andreas Güntner; Jochen Stuck; Susanna Werth; Petra Döll; Kerstin Verzano; Bruno Merz

2007-01-01

62

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54 ? Ef ? 0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation.

Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, James S.

2013-06-01

63

A simplified method for forest water storage capacity measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplification of direct methods to measure canopy storage capacity is presented. It is based on measurement of water retained by vegetal entities (needles, stems and branches) and the up-scaling of these measurements using the determination of the surface of canopy elements from common vertical photographs taken from the ground. The specific water retention capacities of Pinus sylvestris pine needles

P. Llorens; F Gallart

2000-01-01

64

Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities  

SciTech Connect

In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

1997-10-30

65

Performance of a hotel chilled water plant with cool storage  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive monitoring suite was installed at a large convention hotel located in San Francisco, CA. The instrumentation was used for a research project to evaluate the effectiveness of electricity price based controls that automate response to real time pricing and to characterize the operation and performance of the hotel's chilled water plant that included a newly installed ice cool storage system. The hotel operates under real-time electricity rates. To date, over four years of data have been collected. Data included electricity use for all chillers, secondary coolant, chilled water, condenser pumps, and the cooling tower fans. Thermal flow data were also collected for the storage system, ice chiller, direct cooling chillers, and chilled water load loops. This paper (1) describes the chilled water plant, (2) defines the performance measurement objectives for the project, (3) discusses operational experience with the plant, focusing on the cool storage system, (4) analyzes chilled water plant and cool storage system operation by examining the charge/discharge heat flow data, and (5) evaluates how well the plant as a whole and the cool storage system specifically met cooling loads of the facility, and how this affected their use.

Gillespie, K.L.; Blanc, S.L.; Parker, S.

1999-07-01

66

Performance enhancement of an integrated collector storage hot water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated collector storage (ICS) systems offer a solution to reduce the height of the conventional flat-plate thermosiphon type collectors. The initial system developed had an aperture area of 1.77 m2, a receiver diameter of 200 mm, a concentration ratio of 1.47 and total water storage volume of 65 litres. The main disadvantage of the ICS systems comes from their design,

Soteris A. Kalogirou

1999-01-01

67

Optimal Water Pricing and Storage: The Effect of Discounting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimizing the use of an exhaustible resource is a special case of the problem of storing a resource available as a periodic function of time. An extension of Hotelling's rule describes optimal storage policies: When water is in storage, its price should rise at the rate of interest, except that with contents at capacity the price must go up faster than the rate of interest. When contents are exhausted the price rises no more quickly than the rate of interest, and it must fall at some time. A rule is given for optimal storage capacity, and a version of Hotelling's rule is found for approximately optimal policies.

Manning, R.; Gallagher, D.

1982-02-01

68

Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers  

SciTech Connect

Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

Shaw, M.E.

1991-12-01

69

Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers  

SciTech Connect

Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

Shaw, M.E.

1991-12-01

70

Decision support for integrated water-energy planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While

Vincent Carroll Tidwell; Leonard A. Malczynski; Peter Holmes Kobos; Cesar Castillo; William Eugene Hart; Geoffrey T. Klise

2009-01-01

71

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for...

2013-07-01

72

Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

1997-07-14

73

Hot-water aquifer storage: A field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic water injection cycle used in a large-scale field study of heat storage in a confined aquifer near Mobile, Alabama is described. Water was pumped from an upper semi-confined aquifer, passed through a boiler where it was heated to a temperature of about 55 C, and injected into a medium sand confined aquifer. The injection well has a 6-inch

A. D. Parr; F. J. Molz; P. F. Andersen

1980-01-01

74

Storage response of cactus pear fruit following hot water brushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage response of cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] following hot water brushing was investigated. Fruit were simultaneously brushed for spine removal and sprayed with water. Ranges of temperature (60–70°C) and treatment time intervals (10–30s) were evaluated. All tested treatments were found not to significantly affect respiration rate, total soluble solids or acid concentrations. Treatments at 60 and 65°C

Lydakis Dimitris; N. Pompodakis; E. Markellou; S. M. Lionakis

2005-01-01

75

EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

76

32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building in center, and building 161, fallout shelter in lower right corner, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

77

GRACE observations of changes in continental water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signatures between monthly global Earth gravity field solutions obtained from GRACE satellite mission data are analyzed with respect to continental water storage variability. GRACE gravity field models are derived in terms of Stokes' coefficients of a spherical harmonic expansion of the gravitational potential from the analysis of gravitational orbit perturbations of the two GRACE satellites using GPS high–low and K-band

R. Schmidt; P. Schwintzer; F. Flechtner; Ch. Reigber; A. Güntner; P. Döll; G. Ramillien; A. Cazenave; S. Petrovic; H. Jochmann; J. Wünsch

2006-01-01

78

28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building on right, Minnesota Department of Transportation communication tower in center, and Minnesota Bureau of Mines wind tunnel on left, looking southwest toward launch pad area - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

79

A Water Storage Adaptation in the Maya Lowlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prehispanic water management in the Maya Lowlands emphasized collection and storage rather than the canalization and diversion accentuated in highland Mexico. Reexamination of site maps of the ancient Maya city of Tikal, Guatemala, has revealed an important, overlooked factor in Maya centralization and urban settlement organization. In a geographical zone affected by an extended dry season and away from permanent

Vernon L. Scarborough; Gary G. Gallopin

1991-01-01

80

Wastewater minimisation using central reusable water storage in batch plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a continuous-time mathematical formulation for freshwater and wastewater minimisation in multipurpose batch plants with and without a central reusable water storage facility. The minimisation of wastewater is achieved through the exploitation of recycle and reuse opportunities. A superstructure that entails all the possible recycle and reuse possibilities is used as the basis for the formulation. Initia lly,

Thokozani Majozi

2005-01-01

81

Soil water Storage, from Profile to Watershed (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, stream discharge from a watershed is the only integrated hydrologic measurement that is practical at many scales. For this reason, an enormous effort has gone into the description of water leaving watersheds as streamflow. Relatively little attention has been paid to water that is retained on the watershed. This water is critical for estimating upland processes such as carbon sequestration, transpiration and contaminant transport or for predicting streamflow using distributed modeling approaches. We present field data illustrating how soil water, viewed in a storage context, can be useful for describing both upland processes in a spatially distributed manner and for estimating watershed-scale stream discharge. Point scale soil water data, which is becoming increasingly available with new instrumentation, is amenable to direct parameterization for one dimensional modeling using a water balance approach. An advantage of this approach over the commonly used Richards equation, is that the parameters exhibit relatively low spatial variability and are closely related to soil texture, perhaps the best known field soil characteristic. These aspects facilitate extrapolation across the landscape to the watershed scale. We show that, because storage terms are additive and all parts of the watershed are ultimately connected, the entire watershed can be regarded as a single store with an effective storage capacity and lower limit.

Seyfried, M. S.

2010-12-01

82

Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

Compiled by Showen, C. R.

1978-01-01

83

CSER 97-008: 327 Building hot cell and SERF one-gallon can criticality analysis  

SciTech Connect

This CSER gives the limits for the storage of one-gallon cans in the hot cells and the SERF in the 327 Building. The 327 Building is used to perform post irradiation testing of fissionable materials in remotely manipulated hot cells. Historically, scrap pieces of fuel cladding, cleanup materials, and other items have been placed into one-gallon paint cans for storage and ultimately disposal. These cans of materials had been assumed to contain no (or essentially no) fissionable materials, and therefore were not specifically controlled for material accountability. Recently, eight cans with high radiation levels were selected to be assayed for content. These cans contained from 0 to 2.5 grams of fissionable material, with an average of 1 gram per can. Since several of the hot cells contained a significant quantity of the cans, concerns were raised as to whether a CPS nonconformance had occurred, and should the cans have some limits for operation placed on them. This analysis is a response to the concerns raised, and gives guidance for incorporating operating limits for the one-gallon waste cans.

Erickson, D.G.

1997-10-22

84

Commissioning and Operating Instructions of One Gallon (US) Mixer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A one gallon (US) vertical bladed planetary action mixer was installed in Production Development Area No. 2 of MRL, EOD-Salisbury. This report describes the rationale for manufacturing the mixer, along with a description of the equipment installed.... Pro...

P. J. Barry J. Levers

1993-01-01

85

55Gallon Drum Attenuation Corrections for Waste Assay Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study shows how the percent attenuation for low-level waste (LLW), carbon-steel 55-gallon drums (44 and 46 mil) and for transuranic (TRU) DOT Type 7A 55-gallon drums (approximately 61 mil) changes with gamma energy from 60 keV to 1400 keV. Attenuation for these drums is in the range of 5 to 15 percent at energies from 400 to 1400

Casella

2002-01-01

86

Land Water Storage Variation over Southern India from Space Gravimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity Recovery and Climatic Experiment (GRACE) satellite is mapping earth’s gravity field with unprecedented accuracy of few micro-Gals every month. This provides vast prospects of studying hydrological, climatic and tectonic processes that redistribute mass, producing temporal gravity changes. Hydrological changes contribute strongest signal in the GRACE gravity field on a seasonal, annual and inter-annual scale. This paper presents, GRACE captured seasonal and annual hydrological signals over India and compare them with in-situ measurements. The spatio-temporal variations of water storage over southern Indian region for 2002-2008, show positive and negative trends both due to the changes in precipitation. Some parts of southern India covering Kerala and Tamilnadu consistently show a negative trend of water storage that partly coincides with over exploited areas reported by CGWB based on long period ground data and thus need a management programme for sustainable water development for these region. Our analyses demonstrate the usefulness of utilizing satellite gravity observations for studying variation of water storage over a region of areal extent similar to individual states or basins.

Tiwari, V. M.; Wahr, J.; Swenson, S. C.; Rao, A. D.; Singh, B.

2009-12-01

87

SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

88

Tanker mooring, storage for sub-Arctic waters  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of exploration into sub-arctic offshore waters has created a need for tanker mooring facilities for floating storage vessels and tanker loading. In many sub-arctic areas mooring facilities are subject to wind, wave and current conditions which approach conditions in the North Sea during storm seasons. In other seasons, the same facilities will be subject to impact and overturning forces from drifting ice floes and massive ice ridges. A study to develop suitable concepts and preliminary designs for such tanker mooring facilities is discussed. The study was limited to areas where risk of iceberg collision may be ignored, but where ice conditions generally occur 4-6 months during each year with ice coverage ranging up to 100% during this period. The scope of the study required development of suitable concepts and preliminary design studies for three basic SPM tanker loading and storage systems: for direct loading of ice-strengthened shuttle tankers; with a permanently moored icebreaking storage vessel with storage capacity for 1,400,000 bbl of crude oil; and with submerged storage capacity for 1,400,00 bbl of crude oil.

Pedersen, K.I.; King, R.D.; Post, G.J.

1985-11-01

89

A coefficient to characterize mixing in solar water storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A dimensionless coefficient is developed to characterize the level of mixing in solar water storage tanks. The MIX number, based on the height weighted energy, or moment of energy, in the tank, ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 representing a perfectly stratified (unmixed) tank and 1 representing a fully mixed tank. Limiting values are based on theoretical determinations of the maximum and minimum values of the moment of energy in a tank without mixing and a tank with complete mixing, respectively. Use of the new MIX number is illustrated by experimental data obtained in a 372-liter storage tank operated with both a conventional drop-tube inlet and a rigid, porous stratification manifold. The initial tank temperature profile, the temperature of the water entering the tank, and test duration are varied in three testing schemes. Fluid mixing is quantified by measured vertical temperature profiles and the dimensionless MIX number.

Davidson, J.H. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Adams, D.A.; Miller, J.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Solar Energy Applications Lab.)

1994-05-01

90

An Economic Analysis of Air-Conditioning Systems with Off-Peak Chilled-Water Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing ...

B. J. McMullen N. D. Papaprokopiou

1981-01-01

91

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

2013-04-01

92

Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with\\/without phase change materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units

Sefa Tarhan; Ahmet Sari; M. Hakan Yardim

2006-01-01

93

77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report and Environmental...if changes to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply may be...

2012-07-19

94

Hillslope scale temporal stability of soil water storage in diverse soil layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysed soil water storage (SWS) temporal stability in three layers on two hillslopes.Spatial variation in mean SWS increased with increasing soil depth.At greater depths, soil water storage tended to be more temporally stable.A representative site can estimate mean soil water storage on a hillslope.Strong temporal stability due to texture, organic carbon, elevation, vegetation.

Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming’an; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yunqiang

2013-08-01

95

Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.  

PubMed

Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks. PMID:23428547

van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

2013-03-01

96

Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

French, James J.

1978-01-01

97

Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and - storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May-18 October). Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD) storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night. Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content deficit.

Verbeeck, H.; Steppe, K.; Nadezhdina, N.; de Beeck, M. Op; Deckmyn, G.; Meiresonne, L.; Lemeur, R.; ?ermák, J.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I. A.

2007-08-01

98

Quantifying the Dimensions of Water Crisis in India: Spatial Water Deficits and Storage Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is facing threats of mounting water resources crisis with growing concerns on the reliable supply of water for various agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability, limited storage infrastructure to buffer the variations, and increasing consumptive uses across the country exacerbates the situation further. In this study, a detailed quantitative assessment of the water availability and storage requirements for India is presented. Considering the climate variability over a century time scale and the current water demands, Potential Storage Index (PSI) is developed for all districts in India using the sequent peak algorithm. The Potential Storage Index highlights the districts with high water stress, thus identifying the regions where water demand management or new storage infrastructure is needed. Preliminary analysis shows that the regions under high stress are the regions with high inter-annual variability in rainfall and depleted groundwater aquifers. The sensitivity of the model and applications to irrigated and rainfed crop management are presented. The results of the analysis are further used to assess differential vulnerability of particular sectors within the nation which can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions.

Perveen, S.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

2010-12-01

99

Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single

Shelley A. James; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; David Woodruff; Timothy Jones; Teresa Restom; Monica Mejia; Michael Clearwater; Paula Campanello

2003-01-01

100

Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239  

SciTech Connect

The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

Chou, P

2011-12-14

101

Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

Milly, P. C. D.

1994-01-01

102

Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is understood about how storage of water on forest canopies varies during rainfall, even though storage changes intensity of throughfall and thus affects a variety of hydrological processes. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments using varying intensities yielded a better understanding of dynamics of rainfall storage on woody vegetation. Branches of eight species generally retained more water at

R. F. Keim; A. E. Skaugset; M. Weiler

2006-01-01

103

Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms in GIS, potential water storage sites are identified for constructing regional reservoirs. Subsequently, sites are prioritized based on runoff generation potential (m3 per unit area), and geographical suitability for constructing storage structures. The results from the spatial analysis are used as input for the optimization model. Allocation of resources and appropriate dimension for dams and associated structures are identified using the optimization model. The model evaluates the capability of alternative reservoirs for cost-efficient water management. The Geographic Information System is used to store, analyze, and integrate spatially explicit and non-spatial attribute information whereas the algebraic modeling platform is used to develop the dynamic optimization model. The results of this methodology are validated over space against satellite remote sensing data and existing data on reservoir capacities and runoff. The method is suitable for application of on-farm water storage structures, water distribution networks, and moisture conservation structures in a global context.

Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

2010-05-01

104

Following the Water: A Controlled Study of Drinking Water Storage in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. Objectives We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. Methods We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. Results We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Conclusions Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important.

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

2008-01-01

105

Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.

Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.

1987-01-01

106

Water quality effects of snow storage areas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report was prompted by recent water quality concerns associated with meltwaters from Fairbanks and Anchorage snow storage sites. Snow and meltwater samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentration of the following parameters; metals using direct current plasma emission spectroscopy (DCPAES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, ions using ion chromatography, and oil and grease using a freon extraction method followed by infrared spectroscopy. Concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphate, and chemical oxygen demand were determined using standard methods by a commercial laboratory.

Merli, J.M.; Carlson, R.F.; Behr-Andres, C.

1996-04-01

107

Storage stability of DDT water-dispersible powders*  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a study of the change in suspensibility of two series of 75% DDT water-dispersible powders during storage in simulated commercial packages at 27°C, 50°C and 65°C and as “shelf” samples at ambient temperatures. All the products tested in both series were made under the conditions of regular commercial production, and all those in the second series were prepared in 1954 under contract to the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) and according to ICA specifications. The results showed that: (a) a high initial suspensibility is no criterion of “shelf” life; (b) the suspensibility after the so-called “tropical storage pre-treatment” is no criterion of stability, except perhaps in the case of very poorly formulated products; (c) periodic observations, made over a period of a month or more, of the suspensibility of powders stored in commercial or simulated commercial packages at 50°C and 65°C will provide an indication as to the probable long-term stability of the products in question; and (d) it seems likely that a reasonable estimate of long-term storage stability at ambient temperatures could be obtained by subjecting the samples to high temperatures for a very short period.

Pearce, George W.; Goette, Mary B.; Sedlak, Vincent A.

1959-01-01

108

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4 October) rainfall, evaporation and runoff were 200, 256, and 43 mm in 1996, respectively, and 310, 286 and 74 mm in 1997, giving negative budgets of -99 mm in 1996 and -50 mm in 1997. Approximately 60% of the total budget was caused by storage changes in the upper 40 cm of the bog and 40% by swelling/shrinking in the layers below. This mire breathing must be incorporated in future models of mire-water dynamics. The water content varied diversely among the different microrelief elements, much depending on the properties of moss and peat together with distance to water table. There also was a strong hysteresis in the relationships between groundwater level and measured volumetric water content, depending partly on pore-throat effects and partly on swelling/shrinking of the peat matrix. A seasonal variation of volumetric water content in a layer beneath water table was found to be larger than what could be justified by compression alone. We think that probable causes could be methane gas expansion together with temperature effects. The main conclusions of this study were: (i) water-transport and storage characteristics are distinctly different among hummocks, ridges and hollows, (ii) mire wetness cannot be deduced from groundwater levels only, and (iii) an important part of the total water storage was caused by swelling/shrinking of the peat, not by changes in unsaturated water content.

Kellner, Erik; Halldin, Sven

2002-01-01

109

Optimal Parameter Determination for Tritiated Water Storage in Polyacrylic Networks  

SciTech Connect

Due to the remarkable capacity of water retaining, croslinked polyacrylic acids (PAA) represent an interesting alternative for tritiated water trapping. The study was developed on radiolytical processes in PAA:HTO systems derivated from irradiation of polymeric network by disintegration of tritium atoms from HTO. The aim of these studies is the identification of polymeric structures and optimal storage conditions.Sol and gel fractions were determinated by radiometrical methods using PAA labeled with 14-C at carboxylic groups and T at main chains of the polymer. Simulation of radiolytical processes was realized using {gamma} radiation field emitted by a irradiation source of 60-Co which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 3 kGy/h. Self-radiolytical effects were investigated using labeled PAA in HTO with great radioactive concentration (37-185 GBq/mL). The experiment suggests as optimum for HTO storage as tritium liquid wastes a 1:30 PAA:HTO swelling degree at 18.5-37 MBqL. HTO radioactive concentration.RES studies of radiolytical processes were also realized on dry polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyacrylic based hydrogels irradiated and determined at 77 K. In the study we observed the effect of swelling capacity of hydrogel o the formation of free radicals.

Postolache, C. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Matei, Lidia [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Ionita, Gh. [National R and D Institute for Criogenics and Isotopic Techologies (Romania)

2005-07-15

110

Satellite based estimates of terrestrial water storage variations in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided a new tool to study terrestrial water storage variations (TWS) at medium and large spatial scales, providing quantitative measures of TWS change. Linear trends in TWS variations in Turkey were estimated using GRACE observations for the period March 2003 to March 2009. GRACE showed a significant decrease in TWS in the southern part of the central Anatolian region up to a rate of 4 cm/year. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model also captured this TWS decrease event but with underestimated trend values. The GLDAS model represents only a part of the total TWS variations, the sum of soil moisture (2 m column depth) and snow water equivalent, ignoring groundwater variations. Therefore, GLDAS model derived TWS variations were subtracted from GRACE derived TWS variations to estimate groundwater storage variations. Results revealed that decreasing trends of TWS observed by GRACE in the southern part of central Anatolia were largely explained by the decreasing trends of groundwater variations which were confirmed by the limited available well groundwater level data in the region.

Lenk, Onur

2013-07-01

111

Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison of different global data sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the period 2003-2004 and for six large river basins, the present study compares monthly time series of multi-satellite-derived surface water extent with other independent global data sets related to land water dynamics, such as water mass variations monitored by GRACE, simulated surface and total water storage from WGHM, water levels from altimetry, and GPCP precipitation estimates. In general, the datasets show a strong agreement with each other at seasonal timescale. In particular, over the Amazon and the Ganges basins, analysis of seasonal phase differences and hysteresis behavior between surface water extent, water level and storage reveal the complex relations between water extent and storage variations and the different effects of water transport processes within large river basins. The results highlight the value of combining multi-satellite techniques for retrieving surface water storage dynamics.

Papa, F.; Güntner, A.; Frappart, F.; Prigent, C.; Rossow, W. B.

2008-06-01

112

Ground-water recharge to and storage in the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Guilford County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground- water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Guilford County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground- water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 15 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an anlytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quantity of ground water in storage also are described. Guilford County covers approximately 658 square miles in the central part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 347,420; approximately 21 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies all of the county. Under natural conditions, recharge to the ground-water system in the county is derived from infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 19 gaging stations that measure streamflow within or from Guilford County were analyzed to produce daily estimates of ground-water recharge in 15 drainage basins and subbasins in the county. The recharge estimates were further analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term recharge rates, as well as recharge duration statistics. Mean annual recharge in the 15 basins and subbasins ranges from 4.03 to 9.69 inches per year, with a mean value of 6.28 inches per year for all basins. In general, recharge rates are highest for basins in the northern and northwestern parts of the county and lowest in the southern and southeastern parts of the county. Median recharge rates in the 15 basins range from 2.47 inches per year (184 gallons per day per acre) to 9.15 inches per year (681 gallons per day per acre), with a median value of 4.65 inches per year (346 gallons per day per acre) for all basins. The distribution of recharge rates in the county suggests a correlation between recharge rates and hydrogeologic units (and derived regolith). The highest recharge estimates occur in the northwestern part of Guilford County in basins unlain by felsic igneous intrusive rocks and lesser areas of metasedimentary rocks. Recharge estimates in this area range from 6.37 to 9.33 inches per year. Basins in the southwestern, central, and northeastern parts of the county are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, and recharge estimates range from 5.32 to 5.51 inches per year. In the extreme southern and southeastern parts of the county, the lower Deep River subbasin and the lower Haw River subbasins have the lowest estimated recharges at 4.15 and 4.03 inches per year, respectively. Although the areas of these subbasins that lie within Guilford County are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, the larger part of these subbasins lies south and southeast of Guilford County in areas underlain by hydrogeologic units of metavolcanic origin. The distribution of recharge rates in the study area is almost the reverse of the distributio

Daniel, C. C., III; Harned, D. A.

1998-01-01

113

Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

Allen, R.D.

1983-11-01

114

Assimilation of GRACE Derived Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Hydrological Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRACE has great potential to benefit hydrology, because no other observation system, ground- or space-based, has ever mapped variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS; the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, because its spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observing systems and because total terrestrial water storage is a variable unfamiliar to

M. Rodell; B. F. Zaitchik; R. H. Reichle

2007-01-01

115

Inferring Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Using ERA40 Reanalysis Data: The Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial water storage is an essential part of the hydrological cycle, encompassing crucial elements of the climate system, such as soil moisture, groundwater, snow, and land ice. On a regional scale, it is however not a readily measured variable and observations of its individual components are scarce. This study investigates the feasability of estimating monthly terrestrial water-storage variations from water-balance

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Pedro Viterbo; Daniel Lüthi; Christoph Schär

2004-01-01

116

Seasonal soil water storage changes beneath central Amazonian rainforest and pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation and infiltration were compared for tropical rainforest and pasture, near to Manaus, Brazil from October 1990 to February 1992 using measurements of soil water storage over a depth of 2 m. The soil is a clayey oxisol of low water available capacity. In both of the dry seasons studied, the maximum change in soil water storage in the forest

M. G. Hodnett; L. Pimentel da Silva; H. R. da Rocha; R. Cruz Senna

1995-01-01

117

An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities. II - The water battery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design for a 10 MW water battery installation is presented. General design approaches and cost estimates are developed for the basic water battery module, the energy storage subsystem (which consists of the compressors and storage vessels for the hydrogen and oxygen), and the power conditioning subsystem (which controls and regulates direct current to the water battery and alternating

J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman; V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry

1977-01-01

118

GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not a major factor. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO observations.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

2012-10-01

119

Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

2012-04-01

120

Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

1980-03-01

121

Reliability of Cyclic Surface and Groundwater Storage Systems for Water Supply: A Preliminary Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simplified cyclic water resources system involving a single surface reservoir and an adjacent storage aquifer was modeled and evaluated both physically and economically. If fixed annual water demand cannot be met by annual inflows to the surface reservo...

D. P. Lettenmaier S. J. Burges

1979-01-01

122

Solar Hot Water System Installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not run...

1980-01-01

123

Solar Hot Water System Installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat...

1980-01-01

124

Contribution of Climate-Driven Change in Continental Water Storage to Recent Sea-Level Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snow pack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be

P. C. D. Milly; A. Cazenave; M. C. Gennero

2003-01-01

125

Effect of storage on soluble phosphorus fractions in water extracts of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of storage on soluble phosphorus (P) fractions in water extracts of two soils, and standard solutions of inorganic and organic P compounds have been quantified. The water extracts were obtained from a peaty podzol and an iron humus podzol and contained about 140 and 270 ?g P\\/dm, respectively. The standard solutions contined 100 ?g P\\/dm. Storage conditions investigated

M. D. Ron Vaz; C. A. Shand; A. C. Edwards

1994-01-01

126

Safe water treatment and storage in the home. A practical new strategy to prevent waterborne disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many parts of the developing world, drinking water is collected from unsafe surface sources outside the home and is then held in household storage vessels. Drinking water may be contaminated at the source or during storage; strategies to reduce waterborne disease transmission must safeguard against both events. We describe a two-component prevention strategy, which allows an individual to disinfect

E. D. Mintz; Reiff F; Tauxe R

1995-01-01

127

Detectability of variations in continental water storage from satellite observations of the time dependent gravity field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental water storage is a key variable in the Earth system that has never been adequately monitored globally. Since variations in water storage on land affect the time dependent component of Earth's gravity field, the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, which will accurately map the gravity field at 2-4 week intervals, may soon provide global data

M. Rodell; J. S. Famiglietti

1999-01-01

128

Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs: biotic and abiotic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many lands of the Mediterranean basin of European Union have been abandoned in the last decades and consequently vegetation type changes too. This modifies hydrologic processes, changing the volume and the way in which the rainfall reaches the soil. To predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. Only 11% of publications have addressed this issue in shrubs. A technique for measuring in countryside interception loss, throughfall and stemflow in shrubs is reported. It allows expressing the results in relation to rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions for low intensity events. Simulated rainfall tests were also conducted in controlled conditions on 9 Mediterranean shrubs in order to assess the influence of varying anatomic and morphological features. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35 mm to 3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8 % to 26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30 to 260). Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. In this report, we discuss the ecological and hydrological significance of stemflow and the funneling ratio.

Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Alegre, Jesús

2010-05-01

129

55-Gallon Drum Attenuation Corrections for Waste Assay Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The present study shows how the percent attenuation for low-level waste (LLW), carbon-steel 55-gallon drums (44 and 46 mil) and for transuranic (TRU) DOT Type 7A 55-gallon drums (approximately 61 mil) changes with gamma energy from 60 keV to 1400 keV. Attenuation for these drums is in the range of 5 to 15 percent at energies from 400 to 1400 keV and from 15 to 35 percent at energies from 120 to 400 keV. At 60 keV, these drums attenuate 70-80 percent of the gamma rays. Correction factors were determined in order to correct for gamma attenuation of a TRU drum if a calibration is performed with a LLW drum. These correction factors increase the activities of the TRU drum by from 10 percent to 2 percent in the energy range of 165 to 1400 keV, with an increase of about 50 percent at 60 keV. Correction factors for TRU drums and for analyses without a drum were used to adjust the percent yield for frequently measured gamma rays, so that the assay libraries could be modified to provide the drum attenuation corrections.

Casella, V.R.

2002-04-03

130

Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees.  

PubMed

Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single individual of Anacardium excelsum, Ficus insipida, Schefflera morototoni, and Cordia alliodora during two consecutive dry seasons. Vessel lumen diameter and vessel density did not exhibit a consistent trend axially from the base of the stem to the base of the crown. However, lumen diameter decreased sharply from the base of the crown to the terminal branches. The ratio of vessel lumen area to sapwood cross-sectional area was consistently higher at the base of the crown than at the base of the trunk in A. excelsum, F. insipida and C. alliodora, but no axial trend was apparent in S. morototoni. Radial profiles of the preceding wood anatomical characteristics varied according to species and the height at which the wood samples were obtained. Radial profiles of sap flux density measured with thermal dissipation sensors of variable length near the base of the crown were highly correlated with radial profiles of specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) calculated from xylem anatomical characteristics. The relationship between sap flux density and k(s) was species-independent. Deuterium oxide (D(2)O) injected into the base of the trunk of the four study trees was detected in the water transpired from the upper crown after only 1 day in the 26-m-tall C. alliodora tree, 2 days in the 28-m-tall F. insipida tree, 3 days in the 38-m-tall A. excelsum tree, and 5 days in the 22-m-tall S. morototoni tree. Radial transport of injected D(2)O was detected in A. excelsum, F. insipida and S. morototoni, but not C. alliodora. The rate of axial D(2)O transport, a surrogate for maximum sap velocity, was positively correlated with the predicted sapwood k(s) and with tree height normalized by the relative diurnal water storage capacity. Residence times for the disappearance of the D(2)O tracer in transpired water ranged from 2 days in C. alliodora to 22 days in A. excelsum and were positively correlated with a normalized index of diurnal water storage capacity. Capacitive exchange of water between stem storage compartments and the transpiration stream thus had a profound influence on apparent rates of axial water transport, the magnitude of radial water movement, and the retention time in the tree of water taken up by the roots. The inverse relationship between internal water exchange capacity and k(s) was consistent with a trade-off contributing to stability of leaf water status through highly efficient water transport at one extreme and release of stored water at the other extreme. PMID:12647177

James, Shelley A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo; Woodruff, David; Jones, Timothy; Restom, Teresa; Mejia, Monica; Clearwater, Michael; Campanello, Paula

2002-10-18

131

[Effect of containers material on the structure of water in its storage].  

PubMed

When water is stored, the material of crockery is of vital importance as it affects the properties of water. Contacting the material having a crystalline structure causes water structurization and uncrystalline materials (plastic and enamel ware) fail to maintain the structural property of water or destruct the property in storage. Ceramic foodware positively affects the structure of water although there is a significant increase in the content of its structurized fraction only in just 2 days. The water storage type that is optimal and most acceptable in private life is glassware in diffused sunlight that causes positive water structural changes increasing by day 2. Addition of a metallic component, silver in particular, enhances the process of water structurization. The worst type is plastic ware water storage. PMID:17726945

Farashchuk, N F; Mikha?lova, R I; Telenkova, O G

132

Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-03-01

133

Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing safe water to .1 billion people in need is a major challenge. To address this need, the Safe Water System (SWS) - household water treatment with dilute bleach, safe water storage, and behavior change - has been implemented in .20 countries. To assess the potential sustainability of the SWS, we analyzed costs in Zambia of \\

Anyana Banerjee; Deborah A. McFarland; Ritu Singh; Robert Quick

2007-01-01

134

Collector cum storage solar water heaters with and without transparent insulation material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated collector–storage solar water heaters are less expensive and can offer the best alternative for domestic applications particularly to small families to meet hot water requirements. The top heat losses of such solar water heaters are quite high during the night and the temperature of stored hot water is considerably reduced unless covered with extra insulating cover in the

P. B. L. Chaurasia; John Twidell

2001-01-01

135

Ground Water Storage Variability in the Mississippi River Basin and Potential Estimation Using GRACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water may be a significant component of the water cycle, but little is known of its variability at regional scales. In this study, ground water storage changes in the Mississippi River basin and its four major sub-basins were estimated from multiyear time series of water level measurements. Approximately 60 wells were selected from the US Geological Survey's online archive

M. Rodell; D. Rowlands; S. Klosko; F. Lemoine; S. Luthcke; J. Chen; J. Famiglietti; C. Wilson

2005-01-01

136

The Influence of Return Loop Flow Rate on Stratification in a Vertical Hot Water Storage Tank Connected to a Heat Pump Water Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temperature-controlled hot water heat pump was simulated using heating in a vertical, domestic hot water storage tank. The influence of the return loop flow rate on stratification was investigated experimentally. The return loop is the water line that supplies a long line of consumers with hot water, and returns colder water to the middle of the hot water storage

P. Meyer; P. J. A. Raubenheimer; E. Krueger

2000-01-01

137

Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

1980-01-01

138

The effectiveness of a magnetic physical water treatment device on scaling in domestic hot-water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effectiveness of a permanent magnet for the prevention of scale was investigated. Experiments were conducted on two electrically heated domestic hot-water storage tanks. Ten experiments were conducted, each over a period of 28 d in which 8 000 l of water was heated to 75°C, while the quality of the feed water and mass precipitation of

C Smith; PP Coetzee

139

Parametric studies on thermally stratified chilled water storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the stratification decay in thermally stratified vertical cylindrical cool storage systems is presented using a one dimensional conjugate heat conduction model. The degree of thermal stratification depends upon the length to diameter ratio, wall thickness to length ratio, the thermo-physical properties of the material of the storage tank, the type and thickness of the insulation and the

J. E. B. Nelson; A. R. Balakrishnan; S. Srinivasa Murthy

1999-01-01

140

An analysis of terrestrial water storage variations in Illinois with implications for the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in terrestrial water storage affect weather, climate, geophysical phenomena, and life on land, yet observation and understanding of terrestrial water storage are deficient. However, estimates of terrestrial water storage changes soon may be derived from observations of Earth's time-dependent gravity field made by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Previous studies have evaluated that concept using modeled soil

M. Rodell; J. S. Famiglietti

2001-01-01

141

76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...14143-000] West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary...April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application...O'Keeffe, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, P.O. Box...

2011-05-27

142

76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary...April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application...feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located...

2011-05-13

143

ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

SciTech Connect

The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

LEWIS, M.E.

2000-04-06

144

Energy Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

Eaton, William W.

145

Energy Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

Eaton, William W.

146

Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of NO2-saturated BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials to H2O vapour results in the conversion of surface nitrates to Ba(NO3)2 crystallites, causing dramatic morphological changes in the Ba-containing phase, demonstrating a role for water in affecting the NOx storage/reduction properties of these materials.

Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan; Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Peden, Charles HF

2007-03-07

147

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being taken on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. The results will serve to benchmark the computer codes used in designing nuclear power reactor fuel storage racks.

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler; R. L. Eng; F. G. Welfare

1978-01-01

148

Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P) in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry) is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage, contamination, interference and analytical errors. Key issues identified include: The need to tailor analytical

Helen P. Jarvie; J. A. Withers; Colin Neal

2002-01-01

149

Calibration analysis for water storage variability of the global hydrological model WGHM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes to an improved global simulation of continental water storage variations by calibrating the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) for 28 of the largest river basins worldwide. Five years (01/2003-12/2007) of satellite-based estimates of total water storage changes from the GRACE mission are combined with river discharge data in a multi-objective calibration framework of the most sensitive WGHM model parameters. The uncertainty and significance of the calibration results is analyzed with respect to errors in the observation data. An independent simulation period (01/2008-12/2008) is used for validation. The contribution of single storage compartments to the total water budget before and after calibration is analyzed in detail. A multi-objective improvement of the model states is obtained for most of the river basins, with mean error reductions up to 110 km3/month for discharge and up to 24 mm of a water mass equivalent column for total water storage changes, as for the Amazon basin. Errors in phase and signal variability of seasonal water mass changes are reduced. The calibration is shown to primarily affect soil water storage in most river basins. The variability of groundwater storage variations is reduced at the global scale after calibration. Structural model errors are identified from a small contribution of surface water storage including wetlands in river basins with large inundation areas, such as the Amazon or the Mississippi. The results demonstrate the value of GRACE data and the multi-objective calibration approach for improvements of large-scale hydrological simulations, as they constitute a starting-point for improvements of model structure. The integration of complimentary observation data to further constrain the simulation of single storage compartments is encouraged.

Werth, S.; Güntner, A.

2009-07-01

150

Calibration analysis for water storage variability of the global hydrological model WGHM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide an improved global simulation of continental water storage variations by calibrating the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) for 28 of the largest river basins worldwide. Five years (January 2003-December 2007) of satellite-based estimates of the total water storage changes from the GRACE mission were combined with river discharge data in a multi-objective calibration framework that uses the most sensitive WGHM model parameters. The uncertainty and significance of the calibration results were analysed with respect to errors in the observation data. An independent simulation period (January 2008-December 2008) was used for validation. The contribution of single storage compartments to the total water budget before and after calibration was analysed in detail. A multi-objective improvement of the model states was obtained for most of the river basins, with mean error reductions of up to 110 km3/month for discharge and up to 24 mm of a water mass equivalent column for total water storage changes, such as for the Amazon basin. Errors in the phase and signal variability of seasonal water mass changes were reduced. The calibration is shown to primarily affect soil water storage in most river basins. The variability of groundwater storage variations was reduced on a global scale after calibration. Structural model errors were identified from a small contribution of surface water storage including wetlands in river basins with large inundation areas, such as the Amazon or the Mississippi. Our results demonstrate the value of both the GRACE data and the multi-objective calibration approach for improving large-scale hydrological simulations, and they provide a starting-point for improving model structures. The integration of complimentary observation data to further constrain the simulation of single storage compartments is encouraged.

Werth, S.; Güntner, A.

2010-01-01

151

Effects of Climate Variability on Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the long-term (interannual–decadal) variability of water availability in river basins is paramount for water resources management. Here, the authors analyze time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation, and discharge spanning 74 yr in the Colorado River basin and relate them to climate indices that describe variability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure in the

R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; Peter A. Troch; Remko Uijlenhoet; P. J. J. F. Torfs; Matej Durcik

2009-01-01

152

Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods involves migration through both the air cells and the solid matrix. For systems in which the water migration distance

J. A. Voogt; A. Hirte; M. B. J. Meinders

2011-01-01

153

GROUND-WATER STORAGE CALCULATION IN KARST AQUIFERS WITH ALLUVIUM OR NO-FLOW BOUNDARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of water-budget parameters, such as change in storage and subsurface inflow and outflow, is costly and unreliable due to heterogeneities of karst aquifers. Some karst aquifers may have one or a combination of boundaries such as impermeable formations, alluvial aquifers, and known ground-water divides. Karst water only discharges through springs or flows to the adjacent alluvium. A new

EZATOLLAH RAEISI

154

Changes in Soil Water Storage in Winter Fallowed and Cover Cropped Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of winter cover crops to improve the productivity and sustainability of agroecosystems in California has increased during the last decade. Little information exists however, on water use by winter cover crops. This 3-year study was conducted in the Central Valley of California to quantify changes in water storage in winter fallowed and cover cropped soils. Soil water depletions

J. P. Mitchell; D. W. Peters; C. Shennan

1999-01-01

155

EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

156

An analytic solution of the stochastic storage problem applicable to soil water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of soil water during rainfall events and the subsequent depletion of soil water by evaporation between storms can be described, to first order, by simple accounting models. When the alternating supplies (precipitation) and demands (potential evaporation) are viewed as random variables, it follows that soil-water storage, evaporation, and runoff are also random variables. If the forcing (supply and

P. C. D. Milly

1993-01-01

157

Mechanisms of water storage and flow in the unsaturated zone of the Chalk aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the volumes of water draining from some Chalk catchments in recessions are significantly greater than can be explained by gravity drainage from fissure porosity. The most likely source of this water is slow drainage from the matric porosity above the water table. This paper suggests that the location of this storage is in the irregularities on

M. Price; R. G Low; C McCann

2000-01-01

158

The rates of solar energy storage and retrieval in a zeolite-water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salient features that determine the possible use of a water vapour-zeolite 13X system as a method of energy storage were investigated. Cycling studies over two months revealed no decrease in water capacity nor any structural deterioration. The rate at which water could be desorbed in a static situation was determined at various temperatures from 110 to 250 C. The

R. Gopal; B. R. Hollebone; C. H. Langford; R. A. Shigeishi

1982-01-01

159

Integrated rock bed heat exchanger-cum-storage unit for residential-cum-water heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a simulation study of a forced circulation, solar hybrid residential-cum-water heating system which comprises a corrugated absorber water heater and a rock-bed water-to-air heat exchanger-cum-storage unit integrated to a residential building to be heated. The system has been evaluated without and with the hot water load (which is the standard hot water demand for

C. Choudhury; H. P. Garg

1995-01-01

160

Effects of solvent drying time and water storage on ultimate tensile strength of adhesives.  

PubMed

AIM: Simplified adhesives are a blend of monomers with solvents that are expected to evaporate before light curing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of drying time and water storage on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of three adhesives: Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB), One-Step Plus (OSP) and Clearfil S(3) Bond (CSB). METHODS: Dumbbell-shaped samples from each adhesive were prepared in three groups: (a) air drying prior to light curing; (b) no drying equal to active air drying; and (c) 3-h drying. Each group was further divided into two subgroups of no storage or 7 days' water storage, prior to the UTS measurement (n = 10). RESULTS: Material, drying-time, and storage had a significant effect on UTS, and the interactions of the factors were also significant (P < 0.05). OSP showed a higher evaporation rate under passive air drying, and OSP and CSB showed higher UTS values compared to ASB (P < 0.05). Air drying improved UTS in OSP and CSB, but not in ASB. Likewise, water storage only affected the UTS of OSP and CSB. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of air drying and water storage period on UTS are material dependent. Whenever solvent evaporation improved the UTS of adhesive, water storage decreased it. The all-in-one self-etching adhesive can maximize its best properties when the solvent is dried for an extended period. PMID:23355434

Emamieh, Shila; Sadr, Alireza; Ghasemi, Amir; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Akhavanzanjani, Vegharedin; Tagami, Junji

2013-01-25

161

Combination of a Pumped Water Power Plant with a Storage Gas Electric Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of building a storage gas power plant combined with a pumped water power plant was investigated. The combination would offer various cost and construction advantages and the combination compares favorably with conventional thermal electric...

J. Vivod

1974-01-01

162

43. ARAIII Water storage tank ARA709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. ARA-III Water storage tank ARA-709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow of ARA-611 at lower right corner of view. Ineel photo no. 3-18. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

163

The role of groundwater in the Amazon water cycle: 3. Influence on terrestrial water storage computations and comparison with GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

explore the mechanisms whereby groundwater influences terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Amazon using GRACE observations and two contrasting versions of the LEAF-Hydro-Flood hydrological model: one with and the other without an interactive groundwater. We find that, first, where the water table is shallow as in northwestern Amazonia and floodplains elsewhere, subsurface stores (vadose zone and groundwater) are nearly saturated year-round, hence river and flooding dominate TWS variation; where the water table is deep as in southeastern Amazonia, the large subsurface storage capacity holds the infiltrated water longer before releasing it to streams, hence the subsurface storage dominates TWS variation. Second, over the whole Amazon, the subsurface water contribution far exceeds surface water contribution to total TWS variations. Based on LEAF-Hydro-Flood simulations, 71% of TWS change is from subsurface water, 24% from flood water, and 5% from water in river channels. Third, the subsurface store includes two competing terms, soil water in the vadose zone and groundwater below the water table. As the water table rises, the length of vadose zone is shortened and hence the change in groundwater store is accompanied by an opposite change in soil water store resulting in their opposite phase and contributions to total TWS. We conclude that the inclusion of a prognostic groundwater store and its interactions with the vadose zone, rivers, and floodplains in hydrological simulations enhances seasonal amplitudes and delays seasonal peaks of TWS anomaly, leading to an improved agreement with GRACE observations.

Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Han, Shin-Chan

2013-04-01

164

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

165

Interaction of hot water treatments and controlled atmosphere storage on quality of `Fuyu' persimmons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A matrix of 80 hot water treatment (HWT) temperatures\\/durations and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage regimes were tested for effects on respiratory activity, ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde accumulation (AA), and storage quality of `Fuyu' persimmon. Fruit were hot water treated at 47°C for 45, 60, 90, or 120; min, 50°C for 30, 45, 55, or 60 min; 52°C for 20, 30,

Douglas M Burmeister; Sarah Ball; Stephen Green; Allan B Woolf

1997-01-01

166

Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in examining scaling properties of the spatial patterns of soil water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the scaling properties of soil water storage is crucial in transferring locally measured fluctuations to larger scales and vice-versa. Studies based on remotely sensed data have shown that the variability in surface soil water has clear scaling properties (i.e., statistically self similar) over a wider range of spatial scales. However, the scaling property of soil water storage to a certain depth at a field scale is not well understood. The major challenges in scaling analysis for soil water are the presence of localized trends and nonstationarities in the spatial series. The objective of this study was to characterize scaling properties of soil water storage variability through multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). A field experiment was conducted in a sub-humid climate at Alvena, Saskatchewan, Canada. A north-south transect of 624-m long was established on a rolling landscape. Soil water storage was monitored weekly between 2002 and 2005 at 104 locations along the transect. The spatial scaling property of the surface 0 to 40 cm depth was characterized using the MFDFA technique for six of the soil water content series (all gravimetrically determined) representing soil water storage after snowmelt, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. For the studied transect, scaling properties of soil water storage are different between drier periods and wet periods. It also appears that local controls such as site topography and texture (that dominantly control the pattern during wet states) results in multiscaling property. The nonlocal controls such as evapotranspiration results in the reduction of the degree of multiscaling and improvement in the simple scaling. Therefore, the scaling property of soil water storage is a function of both soil moisture status and the spatial extent considered.

Biswas, A.; Zeleke, T. B.; Si, B. C.

2012-03-01

167

Retrieval of surface water storage in large river basins from multi-satellite and topographic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal variations of water storage in surface water bodies (rivers channels, lakes, floodplains and inundation areas) are still widely unknown for large areas. In this study, we present a technique to estimate surface water volumes for large river basins by the combination of (1) a global data set of inundation areas with a resolution of about 25km generated with a multi-satellite method using passive microwave (SSM/I), scatterometer (ERS) and visible and near-IR (AVHRR), and (2) topographic data from global Digital Elevation Models such as SRTM or ACE. We derived time series of monthly surface water storage for the period 1993-2004 based on a hypsographic curve approach. The average water level and volume per month and grid cell was estimated by intersecting the cumulative distribution function of elevation values in each grid cell with the inundation area extent. The focus of the study was the Amazon basin. For the Rio Negro sub-basin, results where compared to complementary methods that used altimetry-based and in-situ water level data. Additionally, results where compared to total water storage variations as derived from time-variable gravity fields of the GRACE satellite mission, highlighting the large contribution of surface water to total storage variations. The results are also discussed with respect to simulated surface water storage of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). Parameter values in WGHM have been constrained by using water storage from GRACE and the additional benefit of incorporating the surface water information into the calibration process is evaluated.

Güntner, A.; Werth, S.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.

2009-04-01

168

Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

Yager, R. M.; Fountain, J. C.

2001-01-01

169

Study of Disinfection By-Products and Long Term Storage of Drinking Water.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenges facing many of Alaska's communities is providing safe and reliable drinking water from sources containing high concentrations of natural organic material (NOM). These highly colored waters, locally referred to as "tundra tea," often result in the formation of disinfectant byproducts during treatment. Since surface water sources in the Arctic are often frozen for 6-9 months per year, communities are often forced to either store raw water for treatment during the winter or treat and store enough drinking water during the summer to last through the winter. Because long-term storage practices are somewhat unique to water treatment in the rural Northern communities, the practice has not been thoroughly studied and there is limited published information on how water quality is affected by extended storage. Anecdotal evidence and data collected by field engineers indicate that significant changes are occurring and that the quality of the treated water can be adversely impacted. The University of Alaska Small Drinking Water System Technical Assistance Center (ATTAC) is conducting fundamental and applied research to help Alaska's small communities provide safe and reliable drinking water. One research focus area is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in small drinking water systems. Studies to characterize the NOM present in Alaskan surface waters and demonstrations of NOM removal technologies have been have been conducted over the past several years. The study presented here examined the formation of disinfection by-products during long-term storage of water from five small Alaskan water systems. Results from this research suggest that long-term storage has a significant impact on DBP formation. The results suggest that the NOM escaping treatment is likely to react in the storage tank resulting in DBP concentrations that are well above the estimated DBP formation potential.

McGee, G.; White, D.; Garland, S.

2002-12-01

170

Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid and dry subhumid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This paper addresses the following

Pieter van der Zaag; Joyeeta Gupta

2008-01-01

171

Freeze separation of salt contaminated melt water and sand wash water at snow storage and sand recycling facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze separation is used to concentrate dilute salt in snow melt water and sand recycling wash water into concentrated brine that will be supplemented with crystal salt to treat recycled road sand. This reuse decreases the salt released to the environment. Field observations from a case study of a snow storage site in Edmonton, Albert, Canada confirmed freeze separation naturally

Christina Tatarniuk; Robert Donahue; David Sego

2009-01-01

172

Variability of Basin-Scale Terrestrial Water Storage from a PER Water Budget Method: The Amazon and the Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an approach termed the PER method, where the key input variables are observed precipitation P and runoff R and estimated evaporation, the authors apply the basin water budget equation to diagnose the long-term variability of the total terrestrial water storage (TWS). Unlike the typical offline land surface model estimate where only atmospheric variables are used as input, the direct

Ning Zeng; Jin-Ho Yoon; Annarita Mariotti; Sean Swenson

2008-01-01

173

Method of forming a solar collector or hot water storage tank and solar water heating apparatus using same  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method of forming a solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy. It also relates to articles of manufacture so formed and to solar water heating apparatus using said articles. Three methods of forming the panel or tank from two sheets of uncured elastic material,

H. M. Anderson; M. E. Negley

1984-01-01

174

Micromorphological changes in resin-dentin bonds after 1 year of water storage.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degradation of resin-dentin bonds after 1 year of water storage. Resin-dentin-bonded specimens were prepared with the use of an adhesive resin system (One-Step: Bisco). Half of the experimental specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce a beam (adhesive area: 0.9 mm(2)) before being stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 1 year. The remaining half of the bonded specimens were sectioned into beams of similar dimensions after 1 year of water storage. Additional bonded specimens that had been stored in water for 24 h before sectioning into beams were used as controls. The beams in the two experimental groups and the control group were subjected to microtensile bond testing. Fractography was performed on all fractured beams with the use of FE-SEM. There were significant (p <.05) differences in bond strength among the control specimens (55.9 +/- 12.9 MPa), specimens that had been sectioned into beams after water storage (68.9 +/- 18.6 MPa), and specimens that had been sectioned into beams before water storage (28.1 +/- 9.3 MPa). Fractography revealed that the resin material was gradually extracted from the periphery to the center portion of the beam. This probably accounted for the decrease in bond strength after 1 year of water storage. PMID:12115762

Hashimoto, Masanori; Ohno, Hiroki; Sano, Hidehiko; Tay, Franklin R; Kaga, Masayuki; Kudou, Yoshiyuki; Oguchi, Haruhisa; Araki, Yoshima; Kubota, Minoru

2002-01-01

175

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

176

Hydrogen storage, water electrolysis and fuel cells for electric energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process and physical configuration, performance and costs of such a system are presented and discussed, as well as the prognosis for eventual application in a utility system. The key requirement necessary to make hydrogen production attractive for utility applications is the flexible and maximum utilization of the capital facilities required for production, storage, and where applicable, electric conversion.

F. J. Salzano; C. Braun; A. Beaufrere; S. Srinivasan; G. Strickland; J. J. Reilly

1976-01-01

177

Terrestrial water storage across scales: Applications of the GRACE satellite mission for global hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage is difficult to observe over large areas, and as a result, studies of the global water cycle under changing climate tend to focus on a few key methodologies: monitoring of the large-scale fluxes of precipitation, evaporation and discharge; modeling the relationship between runoff response and precipitation forcing; or applying limited in-situ data sets to generalize and scale behavior. With NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are finally able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2) with monthly time resolution, opening what was previously an unobservable 'black box' in land-surface water dynamics. GRACE data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in basin water storage behavior that are relevant for global climate studies. In this research we explore global to regional scale applications of GRACE data that highlight the novelty, functionality and importance of these groundbreaking observations. First, we present a new metric for the monitoring of global water cycle health and energy expenditure — the time-series of Total Global Ocean Mass Anomaly and Total Global Land Mass Anomaly from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment — and show that this metric is heavily influenced by highly variable regional water cycle dynamics in a few global "wet spots". Second, we provide results of a statistical model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation for the world's largest basins. Third, we combine new 1-degree GRACE storage observations with state-of-the-art global land-surface model representations of surface, canopy and snow water, to derive a 1-degree spatially variable sub-surface water storage anomaly time series with error estimates. We convolve this result with global estimates of porosity from FAO Harmonized Soil Database to estimate an effective global active soil depth range and changes during the GRACE record. Finally, terrestrial water storage anomaly from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and precipitation observations from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) are applied at the regional scale to show the usefulness of a remotely sensed, storage-based flood potential method.

Reager, J. T.

178

Variations in surface water-ground water interactions along a headwater mountain stream: Comparisons between transient storage and water balance analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of discharge along a stream valley is frequently assumed to be the primary control on solute transport processes. Relationships of both increasing and decreasing transient storage, and decreased gross losses of stream water have been reported with increasing discharge; however, we have yet to validate these relationships with extensive field study. We conducted transient storage and mass recovery analyses of artificial tracer studies completed for 28 contiguous 100 m reaches along a stream valley, repeated under four base-flow conditions. We calculated net and gross gains and losses, temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves, and best fit transient storage model parameters (with uncertainty estimates) for 106 individual tracer injections. Results supported predictions that gross loss of channel water would decrease with increased discharge. However, results showed no clear relationship between discharge and transient storage, and further analysis of solute tracer methods demonstrated that the lack of this relation may be explained by uncertainty and equifinality in the transient storage model framework. Furthermore, comparison of water balance and transient storage approaches reveals complications in clear interpretation of either method due to changes in advective transport time, which sets a the temporal boundary separating transient storage and channel water balance. We have little ability to parse this limitation of solute tracer methods from the physical processes we seek to study. We suggest the combined analysis of both transient storage and channel water balance more completely characterizes transport of solutes in stream networks than can be inferred from either method alone.

Ward, Adam S.; Payn, Robert A.; Gooseff, Michael N.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Kelleher, Christa A.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Wagener, Thorsten

2013-06-01

179

The characteristics of the thermal energy storage in a two-compartment water tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water storage tank consisting of two equal compartments of 35.56 cm i.d. and 50.8 cm height, used in a solar water-heating system, was designed and manufactured. The lower compartment, which contained the cold water inlet, was in a loop with a solar energy collector. The upper compartment, from which hot water could be drawn, was connected to the top

Sui Lin; C. C. K. Kwok; J. C. Y. Wang

1984-01-01

180

Water-storage capacity of Thuja, Tsuga and Acer stems measured by dehydration isotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-storage capacity was measured inThuja occidentalis L.,Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr., andAcer saccharum Marsh. during the dehydration of stem segments 1.5–2.5 cm in diameter. Stem water potential was measured with a temperature-corrected\\u000a stem hygrometer and cavitations were detected acoustically. Water loss was measured by weight change. Dehydration isotherms\\u000a consistently displayed three phases. The first phase, from water potential (?) 0 to

Melvin T. Tyree; Shudong Yang

1990-01-01

181

Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations of the Latin America cholera epidemic have repeatedly implicated untreated drinking water and water touched by hands during storage as important vehicles for disease transmission. To prevent such transmission, we provided a new narrow-mouthed, plastic, water storage vessel and 5% calcium hypochlorite solution for home disinfection of stored water to a Bolivian Aymara Indian community at risk for

Quick R; Venczel L; Espada A; Damiani E; Bean N

182

Energy conservation system for hot water heaters and storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a furnace for heating a building and a water heater, an energy conservation system is described comprising a first coil of water pipe disposed within a chamber or duct of said furnace for absorbing heat from said furnace to heat water in said first coil, said pipe being connected between a pressurized source of cold water for said building and a cold water inlet of said heater, said system further comprising a spurge tank for storing a quantity of water therein selectively connectable across said first coil, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the presure of the water flowing between said first coil and heater increases to a first pre-selected maximum pressure value, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the temperature of the water flowing betwen said first coil and heater inlet increases to a first pre-selected maximu temperature value, first check valve means for restraining the back-filling of said spurge tank with water flowing from said source and from the upstream end of said forst coil, second check valve means for restraining the back flow of water to said source from said spurge tank and said first coil, means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank when the water temperature in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected temperature value.

Farris, W.

1980-07-08

183

CARBONATED WATER INJECTION FOR OIL RECOVERY AND CO2 STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 injection is increasingly considered as having potential applications as a possible enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process for oil reservoirs. Storage potential of these reservoirs to store CO2 for a long period of time also provides an opportunity to develop sustainable solutions in response to the challenge of continued use of fossil fuels, climate-change and compliance with national and international

M. Sohrabi; M. Riazi; M. Jamiolahmady; S. Ireland; C. Brown

184

Using Hydrologic and Climatologic Data to Distinguish Regional Drought Characteristics in GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research attempts to identify drought signatures in terrestrial water storage (TWS) datasets measured by NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. Global drought and precipitation spatial maps and temporal records will be compared with TWS records to ascertain similarities, differences and patterns between the data for the purpose of broadening the drought monitoring capabilities of the GRACE satellites. I hypothesize that seasonal to yearly drought signals can be delineated in GRACE TWS data through qualitative and quantitative analyses of climate records and GRACE data across several watersheds. Principle component (EOF) analysis will determine the dominant modes of variability as well as identify spatio-temporal patterns of water storage and precipitation anomalies within the regions. Expected results include: determination of relationships between regional climatology and TWS along with the establishment of watershed-level maps of drought magnitude and spatial extent in relation to changes in terrestrial water storage. This research will specify the degree and time frame to which drought affects short-term changes in water storage systems and has the potential to extend into long-term monitoring as more data becomes available. The project directly benefits water resource management by providing an alternate view of the temporal and spatial variation of water storage in the presence of drought conditions via GRACE satellite data. Findings from this work will also help improve how global climate models distinguish drought.

Thomas, A. C.; Famiglietti, J.; Rodell, M.

2010-12-01

185

Residue Management Impacts on Field-Scale Snow Redistribution and Soil Water Storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spatial variation of soil water affects crop performance, fertilizer use efficiencies and other important economic and environmental factors. Soil water storage could be increased and field variability reduced by residue management practices such as no-tillage (NT) as surface residues can retain mor...

186

Impact of soil water storage and distribution on snowmelt generated streamflow  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Snowmelt is the primary source of water generating streamflow in much of the western USA and Canada. The amount and timing of this streamflow, which affects a number of management decisions, is directly related to the amount and timing of snowmelt, soil water storage and transmission. The impact of...

187

A Tool for Optimizing Unit Configuration of Heat Pump Water Heater System with a Storage Battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are one of the key technologies for reducing CO2 emissions from the household sector and must be downsized to expand their use in high density urban areas. Though the reduction of tank capacity is vital for downsizing HPWH, this often increases operation costs because it means heat pumps must boil water with expensive electricity during the day in order to avoid running out of hot water. Consequently, the development of a heat pump water heater with a storage battery (HPWH-SB) was investigated. In this paper, we develop an optimizing unit configuration tool that finds the optimal combination of heat pump, storage tank, and storage battery and estimate battery break-even point.

Tokoro, Ken-Ichi; Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuuichi

188

Water Supply and Water Quality Control Study, Conemaugh River Basin, Pennsylvania. A Study of Needs and Value of Storage for Water Supply and Water Quality Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to determine the need for and value of storage of water for municipal and industrial supply and for quality control in the Conemaugh watershed. The area included in this study encompasses portions of Cambria, Indiana, Somerset ...

1971-01-01

189

How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood?  

PubMed

The goal of this research project was to determine the water transport behaviour of earlywood versus latewood in the trunk of 21-year-old Douglas-fir [Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees. Specific conductivity (k(s)) and the vulnerability of xylem to embolism were measured on a single growth ring and in a subset of earlywood and latewood samples within the same ring. Earlywood/latewood ratio, trunk water potential (Psi) and relative water content (RWC) were used to predict differences in conductivities and vulnerability to embolism. Earlywood has about 11 times the k(s) of latewood, and up to 90% of the total flow occurred through the earlywood. Earlywood's vulnerability to embolism followed the same trend as that of the whole wood, with 50% loss of conductivity at -2.2 MPa (P(50)). Latewood was more vulnerable to embolism than earlywood at high Psi, but as Psi decreased, the latewood showed very little further embolism, with a P(50) <-5.0 MPa. The lowest trunk Psi estimated in the field was about -1.4 MPa, indicating that latewood and earlywood in the field experienced about 42% and 16% loss of k(s), respectively. The higher vulnerability to embolism in latewood than in earlywood at field Psi was associated with higher water storage capacity (21.8% RWC MPa(-1) versus 4.1% RWC MPa(-1), latewood and earlywood, respectively). The shape of the vulnerability curve suggests that air seeding through latewood may occur directly through pores in the margo and seal off at lower pressure than earlywood pores. PMID:12432029

Domec, Jean-Christophe; Gartner, Barbara L

2002-12-01

190

Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Swenson, S. C.; Milly, P. C. D.

2006-01-01

191

A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 10 to the 11th power gallons. Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustaned basis. (Woodard-USGS)

Dale, R. H.

1978-01-01

192

Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

Narayanan, M.

2009-12-01

193

Comparative study of transparent insulation materials cover systems for integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of transparently insulated integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters is investigated theoretically as well as experimentally for a comparative study of cover systems having transparent insulation materials devices placed between the top glazing and the absorber. The data on solar transmittance, heat loss reduction characteristics and solar collector-storage efficiencies of various configurations is generated for the system performance comparisons.

K. S. Reddy; N. D. Kaushika

1999-01-01

194

Development in myofibrillar water distribution of two pork qualities during 10-month freezer storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fresh meat quality (PSE versus DFD), freezing temperature (?20°C versus ?80C°) and duration of freezer storage on changes in water mobility and distribution were followed at intervals of 1–2 months during 10-month freezer storage of pork using low-field NMR T2 relaxometry. Fresh meat quality was found to have a strong significant effect (P<0.0001) on the amount of

Hanne Christine Bertram; Rikke Høll Andersen; Henrik J. Andersen

2007-01-01

195

Experimental studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with partitioned hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the performance of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system with a partitioned hot water storage tank. The system employs a flat-plate collector array with a surface area of 38 m2 to drive a LiBr–H2O absorption chiller of 4.7 kW cooling capacity. The system is provided with a storage tank (2.75 m3) which is partitioned into

Z. F Li; K Sumathy

2001-01-01

196

Physicochemical properties and bactericidal efficiency of neutral and acidic electrolyzed water under different storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral (NEW) and acidic (AEW) electrolyzed water were stored in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at 20°C for 30 days. The pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), available chlorine concentration (ACC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and bactericidal efficiency of NEW and AEW were determined during storage or before and after storage, respectively. The pH and

Xiaodong Cui; Yuchao Shang; Zhengxiang Shi; Hongwei Xin; Wei Cao

2009-01-01

197

Storage of oil field-produced waters alters their chemical and microbiological characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many oil fields are in remote locations, and the time required for shipment of produced water samples for microbiological\\u000a examination may be lengthy. No studies have reported on how storage of oil field waters can change their characteristics.\\u000a Produced water samples from three Alberta oil fields were collected in sterile, industry-approved 4-l epoxy-lined steel cans,\\u000a sealed with minimal headspace and

Jordan C. Hulecki; Julia M. Foght; Phillip M. Fedorak

2010-01-01

198

Water storage loss in central and south Asia from GRACE satellite gravity: correlations with climate data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent decrease of water supply in central Asia and south Asia affects billions of people here. By filtering the errors at\\u000a higher frequency components and correcting for the contaminated components, we enhance the monthly GRACE gravity fields to\\u000a improve the determination of change in equivalent water height (EWH). The water storage changes from GRACE and the GLDAS hydrology\\u000a model all

Natthachet Tangdamrongsub; Cheinway Hwang; Yu-Chi Kao

199

Glassy State and Seed Storage Stability: The WLF Kinetics of Seed Viability Loss at T>T gand the Plasticization Effect of Water on Storage Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the glassy state in seeds and storage stability was examined, using the glass transition curve and a seed viability database from previous experiments. Storage data for seeds at various water contents were studied by Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF) kinetics, whereas the glass transition curves of seeds with different storage stability were analysed by the Gordon–Taylor equation in terms of

WENDELL Q. SUN

1997-01-01

200

Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might partly explain the competitive position of babassu palms on pastures or secondary forests.

Germer, Sonja

2013-04-01

201

Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.  

PubMed

Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic ?-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) ?-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of ?-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

2011-12-01

202

Historical and Hypothetical Future Sedimentation and Water Storage in Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUMMARY Sedimentation has reduced water storage in Kajakai Reservoir. If current sedimentation rates continue, hypothetical future reservoir water volumes at the spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters could be reduced about 22 percent from 2006 to 2057. Even if the spillway elevation is raised to 1,045 meters, a severe drought could result in large multiyear irrigation-supply deficits in which reservoir water levels remain below 1,022 meters for more than 4 years. Hypothetical climate change and sedimentation could result in greater water-supply deficits. The chance of having sufficient water supplies in Kajakai Reservoir during the worst month is about 47 percent.

Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2008-01-01

203

Storage of oil field-produced waters alters their chemical and microbiological characteristics.  

PubMed

Many oil fields are in remote locations, and the time required for shipment of produced water samples for microbiological examination may be lengthy. No studies have reported on how storage of oil field waters can change their characteristics. Produced water samples from three Alberta oil fields were collected in sterile, industry-approved 4-l epoxy-lined steel cans, sealed with minimal headspace and stored under anoxic conditions for 14 days at either 4 degrees C or room temperature (ca. 21 degrees C). Storage resulted in significant changes in water chemistry, microbial number estimates and/or community response to amendment with nitrate. During room-temperature storage, activity and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (and, to a lesser extent, fermenters and methanogens) in the samples led to significant changes in sulfide, acetate and propionate concentrations as well as a significant increase in most probable number estimates, particularly of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfide production during room-temperature storage was likely to be responsible for the altered response to nitrate amendment observed in microcosms containing sulfidogenic samples. Refrigerated storage suppressed sulfate reduction and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. However, declines in sulfide concentrations were observed in two of the three samples stored at 4 degrees C, suggesting abiotic losses of sulfide. In one of the samples stored at room temperature, nitrate amendment led to ammonification. These results demonstrate that storage of oil field water samples for 14 days, such as might occur because of lengthy transport times or delays before analysis in the laboratory, can affect microbial numbers and activity as well as water sample chemistry. PMID:20186564

Hulecki, Jordan C; Foght, Julia M; Fedorak, Phillip M

2010-02-27

204

Sea level rise and water storage on land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate data was used to model the relationship between sea level rise and the loss of water stored in soils and snowpack on land. It was found that water stored on land did not make any lasting contribution to sea level rise during the 50 year period, although strong variation in precipitation and subsequent runoff, particularly in the tropics, caused sea level to fluctuate every ten years or so.

Al., Duc E.; Agu

205

Temporal changes in continental water storage from GRACE observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on land hydrology based on the inversion of monthly GRACE geoids spanning over a 2-year period (mid-2002 to mid-2004).The method of separation we have developed is based on generalized least-squares inversion (Ramillien et al., 2004). It consists of solving for `water height equivalent' spherical harmonic coefficients of four separate fluid reservoirs (atmosphere, ocean, soil waters and snow) after inverting the observed geoid coefficients (expressed in terms of time-variable anomalies with respect to a mean reference geoid) and using global hydrological model outputs as constrainsts. A cutoff at degree 30 (half-wavelenth of 650 km) is considered. The solutions are compared to two global hydrological models : the Land Dynamics model (Milly and Shmakin, 2002) and the Watergap Global Hydrology model (Doll et al, 2003). The monthly GRACE solutions for total land waters (sum of soil water, including underground waters, plus snow) show patterns in rather good agreement with the models, especially at the seasonal frequency. The strongest signal is observed in large tropical river basins (Amazon basin in South America, Congo and Niger basins in Africa, Ganges and Bramhapoutra basin in North Western India, etc.), as well as in Northeast America, and Western Asia (Volga basin) and Central Asia (Ob and Lena basins). In these northern hemisphere regions, the observed signal results from the combined contributions of total soil water and snow. In terms of relative amplitude, the solution differs significantly from the models however, as do the models each other.

Cazenave, A.; Ramillien, G.

2004-12-01

206

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

1981-01-01

207

Change in land water storage in the East Africa region inferred from GRACE and altimetry data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought can be regarded as one of the most damaging of natural disasters in human, environmental, and economic terms. It occurs as a result of extremes in climate that are driven by natural variability but may be exacerbated or dampened by anthropogenic influences. In East Africa rainfall exhibits a great spatial and temporal variability. Such events have impact on the water budget of this region. But water use and more generally anthropogenic forcing also affect regional hydrology. In this study, we investigate water storage change (surface and ground) using in synergy satellite radar altimetry, GRACE satellite gravity and other data to quantify recent change in surface waters and total land storage in East Africa over the recent years. Water levels of most East African lakes display significant decrease since the strong ENSO event of 1997- 1998. GRACE data available since 2002 also show decrease in total water storage over this region. The volume of water stored within lakes and reservoirs is a sensitive proxy for precipitation and may be used to study the combined impact of climate change and water-resource management. We also combine GRACE, altimetry and precipitation data sets to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal and interannual hydrological balance of this area and its link with the western Indian Ocean thermal change

Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.

2008-12-01

208

Parametric study of rock pile thermal storage for solar heating and cooling phase 1. Final report. [Water-filled cans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test data and an analysis were presented, of heat transfer characteristics of a solar thermal energy storage bed utilizing water filled cans as the energy storage medium. An attempt was made to optimize can size, can arrangement, and bed flow rates by experimental and analytical means. Liquid filled cans, as storage media, utilize benefits of both solids like rocks,

Saha

1977-01-01

209

Water resources of Jackson and Independence Counties, Arkansas; Contributions to the Hydrology of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present (1965) water use in Jackson and Independence Counties is about 55.6 million gallons per day, and quantities sufficient for any foreseeable use are available. Supplies for the large-scale uses--municipal, industrial, and irrigation--can best be obtained from wells in the Coastal Plain and from streams in the highlands. Wells in the Coastal Plain will yield 1,000-2,000 gallons of water per minute when screened at depths from 100 to 150 feet in alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The water will require treatment for the removal of iron and the reduction of hardness to be suitable for municipal and industrial uses. Wells in the highlands generally yield less than 50 gallons per minute of water that is of good quality, though hard. The dependable flow of .the White River at Newport is about 4.2 billion gallons per day. The dependable 'base flows of the small streams tributary to the White River in the Salem Plateau and Springfield Plateau sections range from 0.25 to 5 million gallons per day, and the dependable flow of Polk Bayou at Batesville is about 21 million gallons per day. These streams can be utilized for water supply with little or no artificial storage required. Streams in the Boston Mountains section and in the Arkansas Valley section recede to very low flow or to no flow during extended dry periods, but dependable, supplies can be obtained from these streams 'by construction of storage facilities Water from all the highland streams is af excellent chemical quality except that it generally is hard.

Albin, Donald R.; Hines, Marion S.; Stephens, John W.

1967-01-01

210

Leaf Area and Water Content Changes after Permanent and Temporary Storage  

PubMed Central

Accurate measurements of leaf morphology must be taken to develop models of ecosystem productivity and climate change projections. Once leaves are removed from a plant they begin to lose water and degrade. If specimens cannot be measured immediately after harvest, it is important to store the leaves in a manner that reduces morphological changes. If preserved specimens are used, estimates that closely match fresh measurements need to be calculated. This study examined the change in leaf area after storage treatments and developed models that can be used to more accurately estimate initial leaf area. Fresh leaf area was measured from ten plant species then stored in one of two common storage treatments. After storage, leaf area was re-measured and comparisons were made between species and growth forms. Leaf area decreased the most after permanent storage treatments and the least after temporary storage. Pressed leaves shrunk over 18% while cold storage leaves shrunk under 4%. The woody dicot growth form shrunk the least in all treatments. Shrinkage was positively correlated with initial water content and dissection index, a measure of leaf shape and complexity.

Juneau, Kevyn J.; Tarasoff, Catherine S.

2012-01-01

211

Land-subsidence and ground-water storage monitoring in the Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA) comprises two basins?Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. The TAMA has been directed by Arizona ground-water law to attain an annual balance between groundwater withdrawals and recharge by the year 2025. This balance is defined by the statute as 'safe yield.' Current ground-water withdrawals exceed recharge, resulting in conditions of ground-water overdraft, which causes removal of water from ground-water storage and subsidence of the land surface. Depletion of storage and associated land subsidence will not be halted until all discharge from the system, both natural and human induced, is balanced by recharge. The amount of the ground-water overdraft has been difficult to estimate until recently because it could not be directly measured. Overdraft has been estimated using indirect water-budget methods that rely on uncertain estimates of recharge. As a result, the status of the ground-water budget could not be known with great certainty. Gravity methods offer a means to directly measure ground-water overdraft through measurement of changes in the gravitational field of the Earth that are caused by changes in the amount of water stored in the subsurface. Changes in vertical position also affect the measured gravity value and thus subsidence also must be monitored. The combination of periodic observations of gravity and vertical positions provide direct measures of changes in stored ground water and land subsidence.

Pool, D. R.; Winster, Daniel; Cole, K. C.

2000-01-01

212

Long term water storage deteriorates bonding of composite resin to alumina and zirconia short communication.  

PubMed

Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long term water storage and ageing on the bond strength of resin composite cement to yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide (zirconia) and dialuminium trioxide (alumina). Substrate specimens of alumina and zirconia were air particle abraded with dialuminium trioxide before priming and application of composite resin. Priming was made with gamma metharyloxy-trimethoxysilane or acryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane monomer after which the intermediate dimethacrylate resin was applied and photopolymerized. This was followed by curing particulate composite resin cement (Relyx ARC) to the substrate as a resin stub. The ageing methods of the specimens (n=6) were: (1) they stored four years in 37±1ºC distilled water, (2) thermocycled 8000 times between 55±1ºC and 5±1ºC, (3) stored first in water for four years and then thermocycled. Specimens which were stored dry, were used as controls. Bonding of composite resin was measured by shear-bond strength test set-up. Both thermocycling and long-term water storage decreased significantly shear bond strength values compared to the control group (from the level of 20 MPa to 5 MPa) regardless of the used primer or the type of the substrate. Combination of four years water storage and thermocyling reduced the bond strength even more, to the level of two to three megapascals. In can be concluded that water storage and thermocycling itselves, and especially combination of water storage and thermocycling can cause considerable reduction in the bond strength of composite resin cement to alumina and zirconia. PMID:24167535

Heikkinen, T T; Matinlinna, J P; Vallittu, P K; Lassila, L V J

2013-09-30

213

Long Term Water Storage Deteriorates Bonding of Composite Resin to Alumina and Zirconia Short Communication  

PubMed Central

Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long term water storage and ageing on the bond strength of resin composite cement to yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide (zirconia) and dialuminium trioxide (alumina). Substrate specimens of alumina and zirconia were air particle abraded with dialuminium trioxide before priming and application of composite resin. Priming was made with gamma metharyloxy-trimethoxysilane or acryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane monomer after which the intermediate dimethacrylate resin was applied and photopolymerized. This was followed by curing particulate composite resin cement (Relyx ARC) to the substrate as a resin stub. The ageing methods of the specimens (n=6) were: (1) they stored four years in 37±1ºC distilled water, (2) thermocycled 8000 times between 55±1ºC and 5±1ºC, (3) stored first in water for four years and then thermocycled. Specimens which were stored dry, were used as controls. Bonding of composite resin was measured by shear-bond strength test set-up. Both thermocycling and long-term water storage decreased significantly shear bond strength values compared to the control group (from the level of 20 MPa to 5 MPa) regardless of the used primer or the type of the substrate. Combination of four years water storage and thermocyling reduced the bond strength even more, to the level of two to three megapascals. In can be concluded that water storage and thermocycling itselves, and especially combination of water storage and thermocycling can cause considerable reduction in the bond strength of composite resin cement to alumina and zirconia.

Heikkinen, T.T.; Matinlinna, J.P; Vallittu, P.K.; Lassila, L.V.J.

2013-01-01

214

Effects of tillage on soil microrelief, surface depression storage and soil water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of soil water is an important management objective for crop production in the semi-arid tropics where droughts are persistent. Identification of the best tillage methods to achieve this objective is thus imperative. The integrated effects of conservation tillage on soil micro topography and soil moisture on a sandy loam soil were evaluated. The field experiment consisted of five tillage

A. C Guzha

2004-01-01

215

What is the total water storage in catchments and can tracers help?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In catchments where both hydrometric and tracer data are available, there is usually a clear difference between the dynamic storage inferred by changes in the annual water balance and the total storage implied by damping of input-output signals in conservative tracers. Dynamic storage changes inferred by hydrometric data (ca. 100mm) are substantially less than the total storage (>1000mmm) inferred by conservative tracers. In this contribution we examine contrasting catchments in cool, humid montane environments in the UK where hydrometric and tracer data are available. These show that whilst the changes in dynamic storage are relatively constant, total storage can be an order of magnitude greater and are inter-catchment variability is more marked depending on soils, topography and geology. The utility of integrating high resolution (daily) tracer data in rainfall-runoff modelling to reconcile such differences over a hydrological year is demonstrated. It is argued that the integration of multi-proxy field data - including conservative tracers - in a modelling framework is an essential prerequisite to understanding how storage changes in catchments influence runoff processes and their associated sources.

Soulsby, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Hrachowitz, M.; Birkel, C.

2010-12-01

216

Water Storage and Early Hydrous Melting of the Martian Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental investigation of a water-saturated analogue of the Martian mantle at low temperature (700-920°C) and high pressure (4-7GPa) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The results of this study are used to explore the role of water in the early chemical differentiation of the planet, and to further our understanding of the near-solidus behavior in planetary mantle compositions at high pressure. Water has a significant effect on the temperature of melting and therefore, on accretion and subsequent differentiation processes. Results show that the wet solidus reaction, located at ~800°C, remains at that temperature between 4GPa and 7GPa. The Martian primitive mantle can store significant amounts of water in hydrous minerals stable near the solidus. Humite minerals and phase E represent the most abundant hydrated minerals stable under pressure. The amount of water that can be stored in the mantle and mobilized during melting ranges from 1 to up to 4wt% at the wet solidus. Hydrous melt has also been analyzed in an experiment at 920°C and 5.2GPa and is roughly andesitic, consistent with the findings of others that partial melting of peridotite produces high silica melts. Based on our experimental data and considering both impact and radioactive heat sources, we propose a thermal model of Mars accretion. We assume that Mars formed very rapidly (3.6 Myr or less according to recent studies) and accreted initially from a mix of chondrites (85%H, 11%CV, 4%CI) that contain a bulk water content of 1.1 wt.% H2O. Because Mars accreted quickly and early in solar system history, 26Al decay played an important role in the thermal evolution of the planet. We found that at 20% of its present mass (corresponding to ~60% of its size), the planet is cool enough to retain the water stored in hydrous minerals. At 30% (~70% of its size), melting starts at -but is not limited to- a shallow depth (1-3GPa) and water can still be bound in crystalline solids. The critical stage is at 50% (~80% of its size), where Mars is now above the wet and dry solidi with most of its interior melted. Water allows melting to occur earlier in the accretion process and the presence of water promotes the formation of a significant amount of melt, contrasting with dry accretion scenarios. Interestingly, the 50 % accretion step matches with the time estimated for core formation by recent Hf/W isotopic studies [1]. Therefore, we suggest that water may have promoted early core formation on Mars and rapidly extended melting over a large portion of Mars interior. [1] Dauphas, N., Pourmand, A., 2011. Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo. Nature, 473, doi:10.1038/nature10077.

Pommier, A.; Grove, T. L.; Charlier, B.

2011-12-01

217

Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

Lata

1996-09-26

218

Determination of phosphate in water after storage in polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in phosphate concentration which take place when lake water is stored in polyethyleno bottles have been studied. The reduction in phosphate concentration which occurs is attributed to bacterial action and not to absorption of phosphate by the polyethy- lene. Appreciable changes in phosphate concentration can be avoided by collecting the sample in a polyethylene bottle which has been

J. HERON

1962-01-01

219

Improved estimation of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field caused by fluctuations in terrestrial water mass can be inferred from changes in GRACE monthly gravity field solutions. Such methods have limited spatial resolution due to a necessary and possibly arbitrary truncation and smoothing of the coefficients. Limiting the temporal resolution to one month was necessary to solve the gravity field by

Shin-Chan Han; C. K. Shum; Christopher Jekeli; Doug Alsdorf

2005-01-01

220

Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global sea level has been rising over the past half century, according to tide-gauge data. Thermal expansion of oceans, melting of glaciers and loss of the ice masses in Greenland and Antarctica are commonly considered as the largest contributors, but these contributions do not entirely explain the observed sea-level rise. Changes in terrestrial water storage are also likely to affect sea level, but comprehensive and reliable estimates of this contribution, particularly through human water use, are scarce. Here, we estimate sea-level change in response to human impacts on terrestrial water storage by using an integrated model that simulates global terrestrial water stocks and flows (exclusive to Greenland and Antarctica) and especially accounts for human activities such as reservoir operation and irrigation. We find that, together, unsustainable groundwater use, artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in terrestrial water storage and the loss of water from closed basins have contributed a sea-level rise of about 0.77mmyr-1 between 1961 and 2003, about 42% of the observed sea-level rise. We note that, of these components, the unsustainable use of groundwater represents the largest contribution.

Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

2012-06-01

221

Heat storage to cut towers' demand costs  

SciTech Connect

A thermal-storage system that will permit a Dallas office building (twin towers) to run its chiller at night during off-peak hours will lower electricity-demand charges $495,000 per year. A $411,000 utility credit will cut equipment costs to $340,000, an incentive the utility feels will help to reduce peak-demand load and delay the need for new generating capacity. Three storage tanks holding up to a total of 1.5 million gallons of water will be retrofitted into the office towers. One tank will hold hot water in the winter for morning space heating, but chilling is required on a year-round basis. (DCK)

Raymond, M.

1983-01-24

222

Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 haiti earthquake.  

PubMed

Abstract. When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

2013-07-08

223

Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

1997-01-01

224

Assimilation of GRACE Derived Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Hydrological Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GRACE has great potential to benefit hydrology, because no other observation system, ground- or space-based, has ever mapped variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS; the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, because its spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observing systems and because total terrestrial water storage is a variable unfamiliar to hydrologists, GRACE has yet to become a standard tool for hydrology. Land surface models (LSMs) simulate the redistribution of water and energy incident on the land surface, but their accuracy is limited by the quality of the input data used to parameterize and force the models, the model developers' understanding of the physics involved, and the simplifications necessary to depict the Earth system economically. The advantages of GRACE and LSMs can be harnessed by data assimilation, which synthesizes discontinuous and imperfect observations with our knowledge of physical processes, as represented in a LSM. The model fills observational gaps, provides quality control, and enables data from disparate measurement systems to be merged, while the observations anchor the results in reality. We have assimilated TWS anomalies derived from GRACE into the Catchment LSM. The experimental domain was the Mississippi River Basin. Monthly GRACE estimates were derived for each of the four major sub-basins. Assimilation was performed using an Ensemble Kalman smoother. In addition to simulating soil and snow water storages, the Catchment LSM accounts for variations in the elevation of the water table, making it appropriate for total terrestrial water storage applications. The assimilated results produced groundwater storage time series which more closely resembled piezometer based estimates, relative to the open loop (non-assimilating) simulations. These results emphasize the potential for GRACE to improve the accuracy of hydrologic model output, which will benefit water cycle science and water resources applications. Furthermore, data assimilation enables coarse resolution, vertically integrated terrestrial water storage anomalies from GRACE to be spatially and temporally disaggregated and attributed to different levels of the snow-soil-aquifer column in a physically meaningful way.

Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Reichle, R. H.

2007-12-01

225

DAM EA$Y—software for assessing the costs and benefits of on-farm water storage based production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demands for water from all sectors of the Australian economy means that irrigated agriculture (the single biggest user of water) has to develop more efficient ways of using the water that is made available. Farmers in many catchments are turning to on-farm water storages (OFWSs) as a means of capturing as much water as they can and to provide

S. N. Lisson; L. E. Brennan; K. L. Bristow; B. A. Keating; D. A. Hughes

2003-01-01

226

Stirring system for radioactive waste water storage tank  

SciTech Connect

A stirring system for 100-m[sup 3] radioactive liquid waste tanks was constructed to unify radioactive concentrations in the tank. The stirring system is effective in certifying that the radioactive concentrations in the tanks are less than the legal limits before they are drained away as waste liquid. This system is composed of discharge units, pipe lines, and a controller. The performance of the system was assessed by comparing the calculated red ink and [sup 32]P concentrations with those monitored at six locations in the tanks. The concentration reached equilibrium after stirring 60 o 120 min with discharge units equipped with six fixed openings configured in differing directions. Residual chlorine in city water used for dilution occasionally bleached the red ink and reduced its concentration. The adsorption of [sup 32]P by slime on the walls of the tanks storing actual waste water lowered the equilibrium concentration.

Ogata, Yoshimune; Nishizawa, Kunihide (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center)

1999-07-01

227

Methyl modified MOF-5: a water stable hydrogen storage material.  

PubMed

Water stable methyl modified MOF-5s have been synthesized via a solvothermal route. Methyl- and 2,5-dimethyl-modified MOF-5s show the same topology and hydrogen uptake capability as that of MOF-5. The H(2) uptake capacity of MOF-5, however, drops rapidly when exposed to the ambient air, whereas the H(2) uptake capacities of the methyl modified MOF-5s remain stable for 4 days. PMID:21451855

Yang, Jie; Grzech, Anna; Mulder, Fokko M; Dingemans, Theo J

2011-03-30

228

Energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review is provided concerning publications which are related to approaches for the storage of energy. Attention is given to the storage of oil and coal, gas storage in tanks and underground locations, energy storage with the aid of flywheels, the storage of energy as potential energy in the form of water pumped to a higher level, short-term and

G. Eisenmann; E. Hahne

1977-01-01

229

Water storage mapping of pyroclastic covers through electrical resistivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the geological setting of pyroclastic covers and their water content distribution represents crucial information for stability analyses of slopes potentially subject to debris-flow phenomena. The study we here present would provide a contribution to this issue by means of an approach based on electrical resistivity measurements. Specifically, we describe the results of high-resolution 2D resistivity surveys carried out in a test area on Sarno Mountains (Campania Region - Southern Italy), where shallow landslides involving pyroclastic soils periodically occur triggered by critical rainfall events. We discuss the results in relation to the geology of the area in order to locate characteristic horizons of pyroclastic soils below the ground surface. Then, on the basis of a laboratory characterization of pyroclastic samples collected from the same test area at representative depths, we provide an estimation of the soil water content distribution in the field. Finally, we analyze temporal variations of the soil water content distribution by comparing the data of two surveys carried out in the autumnal and spring seasons, respectively.

di Maio, R.; Piegari, E.

2011-10-01

230

Summary status of advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage\\/transport R and D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major projects within the framework of the U.S. DOE Chemical\\/Hydrogen Energy Systems Program are described. Goals, accomplishments and status of investigations into advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage\\/transport are summarized. Electrolytic hydrogen production systems include: SPE electrolyzers; static feed water electrolysis; high temperature electrolysis; and other advanced concepts. Hydrogen transport studies have emphasized the characterization of hydrogen embrittlement effects on

Mezzina

1984-01-01

231

Effects of Storage Conditions and pH on Chlorine Loss in Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light.

Soo-Voon Len; Yen-Con Hung; Donghwan Chung; James L. Anderson; Marilyn C. Erickson; Kazuo Morita

2002-01-01

232

Crop production and soil water storage in long-term winter wheat–fallow tillage experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water is the major limiting factor in dryland crop production in the Central Great Plains. No-till fallow management increases soil water storage and reduces soil erosion potential. Two experiments were initiated in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE to compare effects of moldboard plow (Plow), sub-tillage (Sub-till) and no-tillage (No-till) fallow systems on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

Drew J. Lyon; Walter W. Stroup; Randall E. Brown

1998-01-01

233

Potential Impact of Earthen Waste Storage Structures on Water Resources in Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthen waste storage structures (EWSS) associated with large confined (concentrated) animal feeding operations (CAFOs) were evaluated for their potential to impact water resources in Iowa. A representative sample of 34 EWSS from a digital database of 439 lagoons and basins permitted between 1987 and 1994 was analyzed. Eighteen percent (6 of 34) directly overlie alluvial aquifers that are used widely

William W. Simpkins; Michael R. Burkhart; Martin F. Helmke; Trenton N. Twedt; David E. James; Robert J. Jaquis; Kevin J. Cole

2002-01-01

234

DESIGN FEATURES OF A CONSTRUCTED MINI WET POND FOR WATER QUALITY CONTROL AND RUNOFF STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In stormwater management, controlling water quantity and stormwater generated pollution at the source needs to be practised towards achieving ecologically sustainable development in urban areas in Malaysia. Constructed mini wet ponds can be used for small scale runoff\\/flow attenuation which provide temporary runoff storage to reduce downstream flow peaks; stormwater quality management and control through removing of nutrients and pollutants

Mohamed Roseli; Bin Zainal Abidin; Jalil Bin Hassan

235

Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h

A. G. Minke; C. J. Westbrook; G. van der Kamp

2009-01-01

236

Study of melting and freezing processes of water for application to ice thermal energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents the results of a study of the solid-liquid phase change process of water in a rectangular enclosure for application to thermal energy storage systems. The work performed combined experimental results with analytical and numerical methods to develop computer models of the system. Experiments were performed to obtain data to verify the models under various melting and freezing

Liang Yong

1993-01-01

237

Time-lapse microgravity surveys reveal water storage heterogeneity of a karst aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-lapse microgravity surveying combined with absolute gravity measurements is used to investigate water storage changes in a karst aquifer of ?100 km2 area. The survey consists of 40 gravity stations measured with a relative gravimeter; absolute gravity is measured at three stations for each survey. In total, four gravity surveys are performed over a 2 year time period during consecutive

Thomas Jacob; Roger Bayer; Jean Chery; Nicolas Le Moigne

2010-01-01

238

Dynamics of biogenic gas bubbles in peat: Potential effects on water storage and peat deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of biogenic bubbles in peat soils were studied at a field site in southern Québec, Canada. The maximum gas content measured in this study varied spatially with a maximum seasonal increase in volumetric gas content of 0.15. The size of changes in total gas content of a 1 m deep profile was comparable to the seasonal water storage change.

E. Kellner; J. M. Waddington; J. S. Price

2005-01-01

239

Conserving precious water at the Rocky Mountain pumped-storage project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocky Mountain is a 760-MW pumped-storage project being constructed about 10 miles northwest of Rome, Georgia. The project's sole source for filling and operating water, Heath Creek, drains only 15 square miles. Flow in the creek averages just 28 cubic feet per second (cfs). Even though the project area receives an average of 55 inches of precipitation each year, rainfall

1993-01-01

240

Solar collector heat exchanger or hot water storage tank and method of forming same  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy is formed from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one

Buckley

1985-01-01

241

Intercomparsion of global hydrological models in terms of water storage simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global hydrology modeling is an indispensable tool to study hydrological processes on continental scales. Furthermore, the output of global hydrological models provides an important input for studies on water availability or climate change. Until now, differences between global hydrological models are larger than predicted signals within many regions. This challenges the reliability of single model predictions. In order to understand reasons and sources of these differences, we compare the output of total water storage variations as well as groundwater, soil, snow and canopy storages simulated with three global hydrological models: the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the Land Dynamics model (LaD) and the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). The main source of model inconsistency originates from the differences in global simulations of soil moisture. The differences between the models are mainly due to different model strategies (including the definition of storage compartments), different process formulations and errors in the input data. We suggest improving model simulations by an increased effort into research of process understandings on continental scales. Furthermore, a successful and world-wide integration of satellite observations of hydrological variables into these models is desirable to reduce uncertainties in global hydrological simulations. For instance, the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission depicts a useful measurement system to detect and assimilate total water storage changes on the continents.

Guentner, A.; Werth, S.

2008-12-01

242

Dryland crop sequence and tillage influences on soil water storage: First 15 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices and cropping systems have greatly changed over the past half century. In the northern Great Plains, soil water storage during the non-crop period of annual cropping systems helps to stabilize crop yields. Our objectives were to determine the influences of six crop sequences an...

243

Estimated accuracies of regional water storage variations inferred from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The satellite Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides data describing monthly changes in the geoid, which are closely related to changes in vertically integrated terrestrial water storage. Unlike conventional point or gridded hydrologic measurements, such as those from rain gauges, stream gauges, rain radars, and radiometric satellite images, GRACE data are sets of Stokes coefficients in a truncated spherical

Sean Swenson; John Wahr; P. C. D. Milly

2003-01-01

244

SPERTI Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER602) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER-602) under construction to its right. Control Building (PER-601) in background to right of tank. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: December 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-3575 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

245

Water activatable, lead--acid storage battery and method for manufacturing same  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of manufacturing a lead--acid storage battery capable of being stored after completing the battery processing and thereafter activated by the addition of water is described. The method includes coordinating the formation and processing of the battery elements with a deep discharge to provide residual sulfuric acid electrolyte within the battery elements with a desired specific gravity level and

Sabatino

1978-01-01

246

Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by

L. C Shirvill

2004-01-01

247

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10

248

Multi-objective calibration of a global hydrology model using GRACE water storage variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite gravity mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) was launched in 2002. Since then, GRACE provides global maps of time variations of the Earth's gravity field. These gravity variations are directly linked to mass redistributions on the Earth's surface. Thus, various geophysical and climatologically- driven processes can be observed. In particular, GRACE observations of large-scale water storage changes provide a comprehensive data set to analyze the global water cycle and to validate and calibrate hydrological models. In this contribution, we present the first results on the calibration of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) based on surface mass variations derived from the current RL04 GRACE-only gravity field model time series generated at GFZ Potsdam (GFZ-RL04). WGHM models the continental water storage including the most important water storage components, i.e., soil, snow, groundwater and surface water. The model is forced by climate data at a 0.5 degree resolution and hitherto calibrated against observed river runoff at 1235 gauging stations world wide. The station-based calibration of WGHM results in locally fitted discharge data, but model accuracy may decrease with distance from the calibration stations and for other water flux components or storage compartments. Previous studies of measured (by GRACE) and simulated (by WGHM) seasonal variations of total water storage in large river basins partially show significant differences, especially for the seasonal amplitudes. Combining both the present station-based accuracy of the model in terms of river discharge and the integrative nature of the GRACE data with global coverage, more realistic and improved simulation results are expected from a multi-objective calibration approach. This denotes the evaluation of model parameters through their simulation performance against more than one model output objective. In this contribution, these objectives are river discharge and total water storage change from GRACE. The Dynamically Dimension Search (DDS) calibration method was extended for a multi-objective problem and used to improve WGHM parameterization. Results of the multi-objective calibration of WGHM against GRACE data are presented and improvements compared to a single- objective approach are highlighted. Furthermore, calibrations against a reduced GRACE signal containing only the dominant (annual, semi-annual, or longer) signal components were tested. The results reveal the innovative contribution of the GRACE satellite mission to the field of hydrological modeling.

G\\Ddot Untner, A.; Werth, S.; Schmidt, R.; Petrovic, S.; W\\Ddot Unsch, J.; Barthelmes, F.

2007-12-01

249

The effect of water storage and light exposure on the color and translucency of a hybrid and a microfilled composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of Problem. Internal discoloration may occur with the intraoral use of resin-based restoration materials. Water storage and light exposure influence the color properties of microfilled and hybrid composites. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine color and translucency changes in a hybrid and a microfilled composite after light exposure with and without water storage. Material and Methods.

Wolfgang Buchalla; Thomas Attin; Ralf-Dieter Hilgers; Elmar Hellwig

2002-01-01

250

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V. L.

2009-01-01

251

Total energy food plant 21 million gallon ethanol facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Phase I Engineering study includes the following: process description, waste water treatment plant, material summary, energy chart, capital cost estimate, equipment list, personnel requirements, drawings list, specifications list, and project schedule. The economic and financial feasibility of the technical process, and environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic assessments for the project are reported. The costs for extending the following utilities to the property line of the selected site are presented: potable water, sewer system, electricity, roads for truck traffic, and rail service.

1981-10-01

252

Estimate of ground water in storage in the Great Lakes basin, United States, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic data from Regional Aquifer System Analyses (RASA) studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Great Lakes Basin, United States, during 1978-95, were compiled and used to estimate the total volume of water that is stored in the many aquifers of the basin. These studies focused on six regional aquifer systems: the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana; the Silurian- Devonian aquifers in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; the surficial aquifer system (aquifers of alluvial and glacial origin) found throughout the Great Lakes Basin; and the Pennsylvanian sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers and the Mississippian sandstone aquifer in Michigan. Except for the surficial aquifers, all of these aquifer systems are capable of yielding substantial quantities of water and are not small aquifers with only local importance. Individual surficial aquifers, although small in comparison to the bedrock aquifers, collectively represent large potential sources of ground water and therefore have been treated as a regional system. Summation of ground-water volumes in the many regional aquifers of the basin indicates that about 1,340 cubic miles of water is in storage; of this, about 984 cubic miles is considered freshwater (that is, water with dissolved-solids concentration less than 1,000 mg/L). These volumes should not be interpreted as available in their entirety to meet water-supply needs; complete dewatering of any aquifer is environmentally undesirable. The amount of water that is considered available on the basis of water quality and environmental, economic, and legal constraints has not been determined. The effect of heavy pumping in the Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee, Wis., areas, which has caused the regional ground-water divide in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system to shift westward, has been included in the above estimates. This shift in the ground-water divide has increased the amount of water in storage in the deep-bedrock aquifers of the Great Lakes Basin by about 36 cubic miles; however, this water is removed by wells and, after use, is mostly discharged to the Mississippi River Basin rather than to the Great Lakes Basin. The corresponding decrease in ground-water storage that has resulted from lowering of the potentiometric surface due to this heavy pumping (0.059 cubic miles) is negligible compared to the total estimated storage.

Coon, William F.; Sheets, Rodney A.

2006-01-01

253

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

254

Effects of inter-annual climate variability on water storage in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River Basin (CRB), located in the Southwestern United States, is largely semi-arid. 70% of streamflow originates from the high-elevation snowpack, and precipitation is generally concentrated in the North-American Monsoon period (summer). Recently, the CRB experienced a severe multi-year drought, and the population in the area is growing fast, increasing the pressure on water resources. Understanding the long-term (inter-annual to decadal) variability of water availability, therefore, is paramount for water resources management. Here, we analyze monthly time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation and discharge spanning 74 years in the Colorado River Basin and statistically relate them to monthly climate indices that describe variability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure in the tropical and extra-tropical Pacific. ENSO indices in winter (JFM) are related to winter precipitation, as well as to soil moisture and discharge in the Lower Colorado. The low-frequency mode of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) appears to be strongly correlated with saturated water storage (groundwater). During the negative PDO phase, saturated storage anomalies tend to be negative, and the "amplitudes" (mean absolute anomalies) of soil moisture, snow and discharge are lower compared with periods having positive PDO phases. Predicting inter-annual variability, therefore, strongly depends on the capability of predicting PDO regime shifts. If indeed a shift to a cool PDO phase occurred in the mid-nineties, as data suggest, the current dry conditions in the Colorado basin may persist.

Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Troch, P., A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Durcik, M.

2009-04-01

255

Thermal energy storage material comprising hydrated compound and water-swollen cross-linked polymer  

SciTech Connect

The thermal energy storage material comprises at least one hydrated compound (Such as an inorganic salt) having a reversible transition to the anhydrous or a less hydrated form and a hydrogel, comprising a water-swollen cross-linked polymer formed by cross-linking a synthetic hydrophilic polymer by a covalent cross-linking mechanism, throughout which the compound is dispersed. The hydrogel is made by reacting a water-soluble or water-dispersible synthetic hydrophilic polymer, which is preferably linear and thermoplastic, with a cross-linking agent therefor in an aqueous medium containing the hydrated compound. The hydrophilic polymer, the aqueous medium and the hydrated compound are used in such amounts that the storage material contains a major proportion, by weight, of the hydrated compound and a minor proportion, by weight, of the cross-linked polymer.

Kent, P.J.; Page, J.K.

1981-06-16

256

40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Summary of Control Requirements for Storage Vessels at New and Existing Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Summary of Control Requirements for Storage Vessels at New and Existing Sources 3...63âSummary of Control Requirements for Storage Vessels at New and Existing Sources If the storage vessel capacity (gallons) is . . ....

2013-07-01

257

Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

Ludden, A. P.; Frink, D. L.; Johnson, D. H.

1983-01-01

258

Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil) by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic) shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm) for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ? 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0-60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ?V-?W relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5) and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616). Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5) and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616). Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ?V-?W relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

te Brake, B.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; de Rooij, G. H.

2013-05-01

259

Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.  

PubMed

Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time. PMID:23064864

Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2012-10-13

260

Total water storage dynamics in response to climate variability and extremes: Inference from long-term terrestrial gravity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage is a basic element of the hydrological cycle and a key state variable for land surface-atmosphere interaction. However, measuring water storage in a comprehensive way for different storage compartments and beyond the point scale is a challenge. In this study, we explore a 10-year time series of total water storage changes derived from high-precision superconducting gravimeter observations in a headwater catchment in Southern Germany. In combination with hydro-meteorological data, we examine the relationship between gravity-derived water storage changes, climate, and river discharge. Distinct seasonal water storage dynamics observed by the gravimeter are strongly related to the meteorological forcing, in particular evapotranspiration. Intra-annual water storage variations demonstrate that the simplifying assumption of water storage averaging to zero at the annual scale is not valid for this catchment. At the event-scale, gravimeters provide a measure of the available subsurface water storage capacity, which can be useful for runoff prediction. During the Central European drought in 2003, the gravimeter data show a strong depletion of water storage and a long-term recovery that extended over a period of several years. In comparison to point measurements or different environmental indices, our findings suggest that depth-integrated gravimeter measurements give a more complete picture of the dynamics of a hydrologic system in response to climate variability and extremes. In view of the considerable costs of gravimeters concerning the infrastructure and measurements, we suggest the strategic deployment of gravimeters at selected sites of hydro-meteorological monitoring networks.

Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Ferré, Ty; Troch, Peter; Merz, Bruno; Wziontek, Hartmut; Güntner, Andreas

2012-04-01

261

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

2009-11-25

262

Evaluating interannual water storage changes at watersheds in Illinois based on long-term soil moisture and groundwater level data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual water storage changes at 12 watersheds in Illinois are estimated based on the long-term soil moisture and groundwater level observations during 1981-2003. Storage change is usually ignored in mean annual and interannual water balance calculations. However, the interannual variability of storage change can be an important component in annual water balance during dry or wet years. Annual precipitation anomaly is partitioned into annual runoff anomaly, annual evaporation anomaly, and annual storage change. The estimated annual storage change ratios vary from -60% to 40% at the study watersheds. The interannual variability of evaporation is not strongly correlated with the interannual variability of precipitation, but is correlated with the interannual variations of effective precipitation. As a response to the interannual variability of precipitation, the interannual variation of evaporation is smaller than those of runoff and storage change. The effect of annual water storage change increases the correlation coefficients between annual evaporation ratio and climate dryness index. Therefore, interannual water storage changes need to be included in the estimation of evaporation and total water supply in the Budyko framework. Effective precipitation can be used as a substitute for precipitation when computing evaporation ratio and climate dryness index.

Wang, Dingbao

2012-03-01

263

Multivariate forecasting of total water storage anomalies over West Africa from multi-satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For West Africa, large-scale weather-related extreme hydrological conditions such as droughts or floods may persist over several months and usually have devastating environmental, social and economic impacts. Assessing and forecasting these conditions is therefore an important activity, in which data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has been shown to be very useful. In this study, we describe a new statistical, data-driven approach to predict total water storage anomalies over West Africa from gravity data obtained from of GRACE, rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and sea surface temperature data products over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified by independent component analysis, and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework for forecasting total water storage, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for agricultural and water resource management. After a learning phase of 80 months, our approach predicts water storage from rainfall and sea surface temperature data alone that fits to observed GRACE data at 79% after one year and 62% after two years. This means, our approach should be able to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of one month about each 162 days as well as a - hopefully - limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE-FO mission for West Africa. Keywords: Forecasting GRACE-TWS, West-Africa, ICA; AR model

Kusche, Jürgen; Forootan, Ehsan; Krasbutter, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, Ck

2013-04-01

264

Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

2012-01-01

265

Large Scale Variability of Ground Water Storage: the Mississippi River Basin (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is known to be a valuable resource, but its importance as a component of the hydrological cycle is not well documented. In particular, little is known of its variability at regional to global scales and on seasonal to interannual timescales. In this study, data from more than 70 shallow groundwater monitoring wells in the Mississippi River basin were used to construct a multi-decadal time series of groundwater storage variability and a climatology of groundwater in the basin. Wells were selected from the U.S. Geological Survey's online archive based primarily on the following criteria: length and completeness of the record, location in an unconfined aquifer, and minimal direct anthropogenic influence. Well levels were converted to water storage changes using aquifer-specific estimates of the specific yield. Area weighted averaging was used to basin averaged time series. These were then compared with precipitation data and model based estimates of soil moisture and snow water storage in order to characterize the relationship of groundwater to other hydrometeorological variables. Results demonstrate that groundwater storage varies significantly on seasonal and interannual timescales, and that the slow pace of groundwater fluxes acts like a low pass filter on hydrometeorological forcings. Thus groundwater is an important indicator of long period hydrological variability and phenomena such as droughts.

Rodell, M.; Townsend, T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Li, B.; Nigro, J.

2010-12-01

266

Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development, analysis, and results, are discussed for the two phase (air-water), two dimensional (cylindrical) modeling of compressed air energy storage (CAES) porous media reservoirs. Numerical methods used to deal with the combined effects of the nonlinear terms, the convergent nature of the flow, and the anisotropy at the wellbore are described. The analysis of water coning was based on a set of reference conditions about which single parameters or groups of parameters were varied to determine their effect on water coning. Results for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem. Water coning will depend on site specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development.

Wiles, L. E.; McCann, R. A.

1981-06-01

267

Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

1981-06-01

268

Optimizing power complexes operating on renewable energy resources with the use of water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Pumped water storage of renewable energy sources is an effective method of coordinating the arrivals of renewable energy and\\u000a consumer's load which are nonuniform in time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The use of water storage makes it possible to increase the firm output of power produced by plants based on RESs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a The proposed characteristic makes it possible to optimize the

V. V. Elistratov; A. L. Tin'kov

1998-01-01

269

Interspecific variation of bark water storage capacity of three deciduous tree species in relation to stemflow yield and solute flux to forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to: (1) test if normative bark water storage capacities differed significantly among three co-occurring deciduous tree species; and (2) examine the extent to which stemflow production and resulting solute inputs in temperate deciduous forests are affected by bark water storage capacity. Normative bark water storage capacities were determined for: Betula lenta L. (sweet birch),

D. F. Levia; S. R. Herwitz

2005-01-01

270

Anthropogenic CO2 estimates in the Southern Ocean: storage partitioning in the different water masses.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key issues in understanding the global carbon cycle and predicting future climate change is determining the role of the Southern Ocean (SO). Approximately, more than one third of the global anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) uptake occurs in the SO (18% of the global ocean area), where the coldest source waters involved in the meridional counterclockwise overturning circulation are formed. Nevertheless, the distributions of CANT in the SO obtained from models and data-based methods present huge differences. Little storage of CANT has usually been associated with Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which is in contradiction with significant concentrations of CFCs observed along the continental slope and in Antarctic deep and bottom waters. The lack of accurate ocean carbon measurements could be the cause for hampering more exact CANT estimates. Besides, there is compelling evidence that sinking and ventilation in the SO is not only associated to the AABW but also to various less dense Antarctic waters located at intermediate and deep levels of the water column. In this study, data south of 45° S were chosen from GLODAP (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap/Glodap_home.htm) and CARINA (http://store.pangaea.de/Projects/CARBOOCEAN/carina/index.htm) project databases (n=82792) in order to estimate CANT through different data-based methods. These methods go from the classical back-calculation methods (?C* and improved new ones taking into account the variability in the CO2 air-sea disequilibrium term) to TTD and TROCA methods. Results from an eOMP together with a volumetric census of the water masses within the SO serve as base for partitioning CANT storages in the more representative water masses of the SO. Thus, South Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water account for the CANT storage in intermediate layers while North Atlantic Deep Waters and Circumpolar Deep Water are responsible for injecting CANT at deep layers. The contributions of AABW and Shelf Waters to the CANT uptake and redistribution were also taken into account.

Pardo, P. C.; Pérez, F. F.; Velo, A.; Khatiwala, S.,; Ríos, A. F.

2012-04-01

271

Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230°C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd\\/kgM), reactor

L. E. Thomas; L. A. Charlot; J. E. Coleman; R. W. Knoll

1989-01-01

272

Continental Water Storage Changes from GRACE Line-of-Sight Range Acceleration Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spaceborne gravimetry such as GRACE provides a unique opportunity to observe basin-scale surface and subsurface global water\\u000a storage changes with unprecedented accuracy and temporal and spatial coverages. The contemporary methodology to process GRACE\\u000a data for hydrologic studies is in terms of monthly spherical harmonic geopotential solutions with a spatial resolution longer\\u000a than 600–800,km (half-wavelength), after proper smoothing. Alternative methods include

Y. Chen; B. Schaffrin; C. K. Shum

273

Concentration trends and water-level fluctuations at underground storage tank sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration trends of monitor wells utilized in monitored natural attenuation at petroleum underground storage tank sites\\u000a can be used to predict achievement of regulatory standards if the data approximate a first-order decline trend. However, declining\\u000a concentration trends often display seasonal and other fluctuations that complicate trend interpretation. Seasonal correlations\\u000a between concentration and water-level elevation, including in-phase and inverse relationships, constitute

Alan E. KehewPatrick; Patrick M. Lynch

2011-01-01

274

Foliar Nitrogen Uptake from Wet Deposition and the Relation with Leaf Wettability and Water Storage Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the foliar uptake of 15N-labelled nitrogen (N) originating from wet deposition along with leaf surface conditions, measured by wettability and water\\u000a storage capacity. Foliar 15N uptake was measured on saplings of silver birch, European beech, pedunculate oak and Scots pine and the effect of nitrogen\\u000a form (NH4+ or NO3?), NH4+ to NO3? ratio and leaf phenology on

Sandy Adriaenssens; Jeroen Staelens; Karen Wuyts; An de Schrijver; Shari Van Wittenberghe; Tatiana Wuytack; Fatemeh Kardel; Kris Verheyen; Roeland Samson; Pascal Boeckx

2011-01-01

275

Mixed convective flow and thermal stratification in hot water storage tanks during discharging mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of transient, two dimensional, mixed convection and thermal stratification in cylindrical hot water storage tanks\\u000a is presented. The governing equations together with inflow and outflow boundary conditions are written for laminar mixed convection\\u000a flow using a finite volume based computational code in the dynamic discharging mode based on Boussinesq approximations and\\u000a conjugate heat transfer. The equations are solved

N. Gopalakrishnan; S. Srinivasa Murthy

2009-01-01

276

Inactivation of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in traditional brass and earthernware water storage vessels.  

PubMed

The detection and enumeration of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli is used to assess the extent of faecal contamination of drinking water. On the basis of this approach, the effectiveness of storing water contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria in brass or earthern vessels (mutkas) of the type used in rural India have been investigated. Suspensions of bacteria in sterile distilled water were maintained for up to 48 h in each vessel and enumerated by surface plate counts on nutrient agar (non-selective) and several selective coliform media at 37 degrees C either under standard aerobic conditions, or under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. using an anaerobic cabinet to prepare plates of pre-reduced growth medium or by inclusion of sodium pyruvate in the growth medium, with incubation of aerobically-prepared plates in an anaerobic jar. The counts obtained for E. coli decreased on short-term storage in a brass mutka; counts for selective media were lower than for equivalent counts for non-selective medium, with ROS-neutralised conditions giving consistently higher counts than aerobic incubation. However, after 48 h, no bacteria were cultivable under any conditions. Similar results were obtained using water from environmental sources in the Panjab, and from rural households where brass and earthern mutkas are used for storage of drinking water, with enumeration on selective coliform media (presumptive total coliforms). In all cases results indicated that, while storage of water in a brass mutka can inactivate E. coli and coliforms over a 48 h period, standard aerobic plate counting using selective media may not be fully effective in enumerating sub-lethally damaged bacteria. PMID:15928975

Tandon, Puja; Chhibber, Sanjay; Reed, Robert H

2005-07-01

277

Evaluation of an instrumental method to reduce error in canopy water storage estimates via mechanical displacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve water budgeting of forested catchments and inform relevant hydrologic theory regarding forest water cycling, the scientific community has been seeking simple, inexpensive, direct methods for determining rainwater storage on in-situ tree canopies. This paper evaluates an installation arrangement/routine for one such method: mechanical displacement sensors placed on the trunk to directly monitor compression under canopy water loading from rainfall. The evaluated installation routine aligns mechanical displacement sensors along orthogonal axes passing through the trunk's mechanical center to reduce wind-induced noise. Experimental attainment of neutral bending axes for a subject hard- and softwood tree suggest the routine is precise and approximates the trunk's mechanical center well regardless of differences in cellular axial stiffness between heart and sapwood. When installed in this precise sensor arrangement, bending tests of different direction produced consistent signal ratios between sensor pairs about -1 (1 unit compression/1 unit elongation), allowing the identification and removal of bending strains from raw strain signals to isolate the compression component attributable to canopy water storage. The same experiments performed on sensors 5cm off the computed mechanical center were unable to produce neutral bending axes or consistent signal ratios during directional bending. Results from the method evaluation were translated into a data processing technique that is applied to strain data from 2 sample storms (1 each for the hard- and softwood trees). Processed strain data showed clear synchronicities between rainfall and canopy loading, and periods of maximized canopy water loading (capacity). Our results indicate the evaluated arrangement/installation procedure for mechanical displacement sensors may provide scientists with simple, direct canopy water storage estimates at high temporal resolution and sensitivity.

Friesen, Jan; Van Stan, John; Martin, Kael; Jarvis, Matthew; Lundquist, Jessica; Levia, Delphis

2013-04-01

278

Effects of water storage in the stele on measurements of the hydraulics of young roots of corn and barley.  

PubMed

In standard techniques (root pressure probe or high-pressure flowmeter), the hydraulic conductivity of roots is calculated from transients of root pressure using responses following step changes in volume or pressure, which may be affected by a storage of water in the stele. Storage effects were examined using both experimental data of root pressure relaxations and clamps and a physical capacity model. Young roots of corn and barley were treated as a three-compartment system, comprising a serial arrangement of xylem/probe, stele and outside medium/cortex. The hydraulic conductivities of the endodermis and of xylem vessels were derived from experimental data. The lower limit of the storage capacity of stelar tissue was caused by the compressibility of water. This was subsequently increased to account for realistic storage capacities of the stele. When root water storage was varied over up to five orders of magnitude, the results of simulations showed that storage effects could not explain the experimental data, suggesting a major contribution of effects other than water storage. It is concluded that initial water flows may be used to measure root hydraulic conductivity provided that the volumes of water used are much larger than the volumes stored. PMID:19709372

Joshi, Ankur; Knipfer, Thorsten; Steudle, Ernst

2009-08-26

279

Householder perspectives and preferences on water storage and use, with reference to dengue, in the Mekong Delta, southern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Community-based perceptions and behaviour around water source preference, household water storage patterns and water use, and householders' knowledge and behaviour with respect to dengue etiology and transmission, were examined in three communes located in the Mekong Delta area in southern Vietnam. Through focus group discussions, most participants identified poorly screened or uncovered water containers (including household water storage containers and other types of artificial containers) as habitats for mosquitoes that transmit dengue viruses, and thereby demonstrated a clear understanding of the links between household water storage practices and the threat of dengue. Our qualitative analyses also revealed broader community-based concerns about the limited availability of water and strong preferences for storage of rainwater based upon perceptions of cost, quality and security of supply. These perceptions are central to shaping householders' responses to water infrastructure projects. The limited availability of water during the dry season and insufficient numbers of water storage containers are over-riding community concerns which provide an important context to understanding community behaviours and responses to public health interventions against dengue. Such concerns are important precursors to selecting the type of intervention. PMID:24037472

Tran, Hau P; Adams, Jon; Jeffery, Jason A L; Nguyen, Yen T; Vu, Nam S; Kutcher, Simon C; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

2010-06-01

280

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4

Erik Kellner; Sven Halldin

2002-01-01

281

Quantification of ebullitive and diffusive methane release to atmosphere from a water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately quantifying total freshwater storage methane release to atmosphere requires the spatial-temporal measurement of both diffusive and ebullitive emissions. Existing floating chamber techniques provide localised assessment of methane flux, however, significant errors can arise when weighting and extrapolation to the entire storage, particularly when ebullition is significant. An improved technique has been developed that compliments traditional chamber based experiments to quantify the storage-scale release of methane gas to atmosphere through ebullition using the measurements from an Optical Methane Detector (OMD) and a robotic boat. This provides a conservative estimate of the methane emission rate from ebullition along with the bubble volume distribution. It also georeferences the area of ebullition activity across entire storages at short temporal scales. An assessment on Little Nerang Dam in Queensland, Australia, demonstrated whole storage methane release significantly differed spatially and throughout the day. Total methane emission estimates showed a potential 32-fold variation in whole-of-dam rates depending on the measurement and extrapolation method and time of day used. The combined chamber and OMD technique showed that 1.8-7.0% of the surface area of Little Nerang Dam is accounting for up to 97% of total methane release to atmosphere throughout the day. Additionally, over 95% of detectable ebullition occurred in depths less than 12 m during the day and 6 m at night. This difference in spatial and temporal methane release rate distribution highlights the need to monitor significant regions of, if not the entire, water storage in order to provide an accurate estimate of ebullition rates and their contribution to annual methane emissions.

Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew; Gale, Deborah; Udy, James

2011-12-01

282

Aqueous foams for control of gas migration and water coning in aquifer gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Two causes of poor recoverability are migration of stored gas far from the injection well and upward coning of water into withdrawal wells. The authors conducted laboratory and numerical simulation investigation of the use of aqueous foams to block the flow of gas or liquid to ameliorate these problems. Experiments in sandstone cores showed that foam reduces the permeability to gas and liquid by approximately three orders of magnitude. A numerical simulation study showed that water coning could be significantly delayed by placing a horizontal foam lens just above the gas-water interface. Also discussed are the conditions for forming foam in situ, the feasibility of emplacing a foam bank, and the durability of permeability reduction. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulation indicate potential for significantly improving the efficiency of aquifer gas storage with aqueous foams. A field trial of foam to prevent water coning is recommended.

Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.; Benson, S.M.; Wu, Y.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Earth Sciences Div.); Radke, C.J.; Witherspoon, P.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Shikari, Y.A. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-01-01

283

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, January 1March 31, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being taken on critical configurations of fuel rod clusters mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. The results will serve to benchmark the computer codes used in designing nuclear power reactor fuel storage racks. Measurements on Cores XIII through XXI are reported in this document.

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler

1979-01-01

284

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1December 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being taken on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. The results will serve to benchmark the computer codes used in designing nuclear power reactor fuel storage racks.

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler; R. L. Eng; F. G. Welfare

1979-01-01

285

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, July 1, 1978September 30, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being taken on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. The results will serve to benchmark the computer codes used in designing nuclear power reactor fuel storage racks. KENO calculations of Cores I to VI are within two standard deviations of the measured k\\/sub eff\\/ values.

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler; R. L. Eng; F. G. Welfare

1978-01-01

286

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, January 1, 1978March 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being conducted on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. Results will serve to benchmark the computer codes used in the design of nuclear power reactor fuel storage racks.

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler

1978-01-01

287

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, April 1, 1978June 30, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being taken on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. The results will serve to benchmark the computer codes used in designing nuclear power reactor fuel storage racks.

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler; R. L. Eng; F. G. Welfare

1978-01-01

288

Heat Storage in a Groundwater Reservoir Through Induced Infiltration of Surface Water. A Case Study in Hoegsby.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project has been to investigate the feasibility of utilising the Hoegsby ridge and the Emaa river to produce a heat storage system in a groundwater reservoir. The principle involves storage during the summer of warm surface water in ...

P. Olsson

1987-01-01

289

Modelling transient temperature distribution for injecting hot water through a well to an aquifer thermal energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat storage systems are usually used to store waste heat and solar energy. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to predict both the steady-state and transient temperature distributions of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system after hot water is injected through a well into a confined aquifer. The ATES has a confined aquifer bounded by aquicludes with

Shaw-Yang Yang; Hund-Der Yeh; Kuang-Yi Li

2010-01-01

290

Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage.  

PubMed

Antimony concentrations were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. Two of the brands were at or above the maximum allowable Sb concentration for drinking water in Japan (2 microg/L). Elevated concentrations of Sb in bottled waters are due mainly to the Sb2O3 used as the catalyst in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate (PET(E)). The leaching of Sb from PET(E) bottles shows variable reactivity. In 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. A mineral water from France in PET(E), purchased in Germany, yielded 725 ng/L when first tested, but 1510 ng/L when it was stored for 6 months at room temperature; the same brand of water, purchased in Hong Kong, yielded 1990 ng/L Sb. Pristine groundwater containing 1.7+/-0.4 ng/L Sb (n = 6) yielded 26.6+/-2.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) after storage in PET(E) bottles from Canada for 6 months versus 281+/-38 ng/L Sb (n = 3) in PET(E) bottles from Germany. Tap water bottled commercially in PET(E) in December 2005 contained 450+/-56 ng/L Sb (n = 3) versus 70.3+/-0.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) when sampled from a household faucet in the same village (Bammental, Germany), and 25.7+/-1.5 ng/L Sb (n = 3) from a local artesian flow. PMID:17396641

Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael

2007-03-01

291

Changes in water storage in Australia as resolved using GRACE gravity field solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GRACE gravity field solutions have been used in several studies to provide some constraint on how terrestrial water storage in Australia is changing, especially given the recent drought that has afflicted much of the country for most of the past decade. In this study we look at four regions of Australia, and compare/contrast how GRACE describes the behaviour of the terrestrial water storage. These areas are the Murray-Darling River Basin (MDRB) in the southeast corner of Australia, one of the primary agricultural regions that have been seriously afflicted by the drought, monsoonal Northern Australia, which has seen an increase in terrestrial water storage, the southwest corner of Western Australia (SWWA), another area of regional agricultural importance and the Lake Eyre district, an area that is usually extremely dry, but experiences occasional flooding. We make use of the mascon solutions from the Goddard Space Science Laboratory, and apply principle component analysis to identify the most important spatial and temporal trend variability in the GRACE solutions. These are in turn compared to other datasets, namely ground truth data such as groundwater levels and river gauges from various government agencies (e.g. the Western Australian Department of Water), as well as precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. Loss of mass, interpreted as a decrease in stored terrestrial water, is identified from the GRACE time series for the MRDB and SWWA, while an increase is seen in the monsoonal north, with significant mass fluctuations noted around Lake Eyre which are correlated with flooding events in other parts of Australia, e.g. Queensland.

Fleming, Kevin; Awange, Joseph; Anjasmara, Ira; Kuhn, Michael; Featherstone, Will; Sarukkalige, Priyantha

2010-05-01

292

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

293

Microbial reduction and storage quality of fresh-cut cilantro washed with acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy of decontamination treatments in reducing microbial populations on cilantro and in improving its storage quality was investigated. Fresh-cut cilantro samples were washed with one of the five treatments: tap water, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), aqueous ozone, chlorinated water, and aqueous ozone followed by AEW (sequential wash). Treated cilantro was packaged in polyethylene bags prepared with films of selected oxygen

Hua Wang; Hao Feng; Yaguang Luo

2004-01-01

294

Importance of shrinkage and compression in determining water storage changes in peat: the case of a mined peatland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines changes in peat volume in a mined peatland near Lac St Jean, Quebec, during the spring and summer of 1995 and 1996, and the implication for water storage changes. Lowering of the water table caused drainage above the water table, but the specific yield (Sy) of the peat was relatively small (0.48), and did not adequately describe

Jonathan S. Price; Susanne M. Schlotzhauer

1999-01-01

295

An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities: Part II--The water battery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water battery (reversible water electrolyser) as envisaged by Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) is a single energy storage device for use on an electric utility system at dispersed locations such as substations. Available off-peak electric energy can be used to electrolyse water, thus producing hydrogen and oxygen, which can be stored externally to the device. These gases can be recycled,

J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman; V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry

1977-01-01

296

Modeling the effect of water activity and storage temperature on chemical stability of coffee brews.  

PubMed

This work was addressed to study the chemical stability of coffee brew derivatives as a function of water activity (aw) and storage temperature. To this purpose, coffee brew was freeze-dried, equilibrated at increasing aw values, and stored for up to 10 months at different temperatures from -30 to 60 degrees C. The chemical stability of the samples was assessed by measuring H3O+ formation during storage. Independently of storage temperature, the rate of H3O+ formation was considerably low only when aw was reduced below 0.5 (94% w/w). Beyond this critical boundary, the rate increased, reaching a maximum value at ca. 0.8 aw (78% w/w). Further hydration up to the aw of the freshly prepared beverage significantly increased chemical stability. It was suggested that mechanisms other than lactones' hydrolysis, probably related to nonenzymatic browning pathways, could contribute to the observed increase in acidity during coffee staling. The temperature dependence of H3O+ formation was well-described by the Arrhenius equation in the entire aw range considered. However, aw affected the apparent activation energy and frequency factor. These effects were described by simple equations that were used to set up a modified Arrhenius equation. This model was validated by comparing experimental values, not used to generate the model, with those estimated by the model itself. The model allowed efficient prediction of the chemical stability of coffee derivatives on the basis of only the aw value and storage temperature. PMID:17658750

Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

2007-07-20

297

Hollow ceramic block: containment of water for thermal storage in passive solar design. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The project activity has been the development of designs, material compositions and production procedures to manufacture hollow ceramic blocks which contain water (or other heat absorptive liquids). The blocks are designed to serve, in plurality, a dual purpose: as an unobtrusive and efficient thermal storage element, and as a durable and aesthetically appealing surface for floors and walls of passive solar building interiors. Throughout the grant period, numerous ceramic formulas have been tested for their workabilty, thermal properties, maturing temperatures and color. Blocks have been designed to have structural integrity, and textured surfaces. Methods of slip-casting and extrusion have been developed for manufacturing of the blocks. The thermal storage capacity of the water-loaded block has been demonstrated to be 2.25 times greater than that of brick and 2.03 times greater than that of concrete (taking an average of commonly used materials). Although this represents a technical advance in thermal storage, the decorative effects provided by application of the blocks lend them a more significant advantage by reducing constraints on interior design in passive solar architecture.

Winship, C.T.

1983-12-27

298

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Thermal energy storage tests  

SciTech Connect

The solar-powered water desalination pilot plant at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a unique project in terms of its size, purpose, objectives, and scope. The plant uses a combination of solar thermal energy and fossil-fuel energy to provide the shaft horsepower necessary to operate the indirect heat-transfer freeze desalination process developed and patented by Chicago Bridge and Iron Inc. (CBandI) to produce potable water. The thermal storage acts as a buffer between the energy collection subsystem and the energy delivery subsystem. This report describes the thermal storage subsystem. One of the objectives of the desalination research project is to publish a series of reports on the performance of its various subsystems. The authors of this report do not claim that it is exhaustive and complete in all respects, for more than one reason. Any research activity is like an open-ended problem and during the tenure of its investigation it raises more problems than can be solved. However, the authors believe that the storage system behavior has posed no serious problem and that the report adequately covers all the facets of the investigation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01

299

Quantifying the contribution of land water storage changes to sea level variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effect of water storage changes in the major hydrological catchment basins on seasonal and long-term global sea level change. We perform a joint inversion with GRACE and Jason-1 data and compare our results with those obtained with other methods. As the fresh water mass exchange between oceans and land is one of the contributors to sea level variability, it is important to quantify its influence. In this study, we employ a fingerprint method to determine the time-dependent magnitudes corresponding to dedicated spatial patterns of sea level change. In a joint inversion using GRACE and Jason-1 data we estimate the temporal components for ~100 fingerprints considering glacier and ice-sheet melting, thermal expansion, changes in the hydrological cycle and glacial isostatic adjustment. In particular, for the hydrological changes we use fingerprints of the 33 largest catchment basins, instead of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) from the WaterGap Global Hydrological Model (WGHM) as we did in previous studies. For comparison, we calculate the contributions to sea level change of the individual catchment basins from GRACE observations directly using a standard basin averaging method. A third estimation for the water storage changes is given from the WGHM. We compare the results for the individual catchment basins obtained from the three methods.

Jensen, L.; Rietbroek, R.; Kusche, J.

2012-04-01

300

Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise  

PubMed Central

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981–1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981–1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993–1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

Milly, P. C. D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, C.

2003-01-01

301

Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

Milly, P. C. D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M. C.

2003-01-01

302

Infiltration and water storage in forest soils at the plot and the micro- catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree roots generate and conserve hydrologically active macropores. We explored the influence of root density on infiltration and water storage at six 1-m2 plots along an 8-m transect between two mature trees (spruce). The soil is a Flysch-based stagnic Cambisol with a flow-impeding horizon at a depth of about 60 cm. At a plot the experimental set up consisted of a 1m x 1m sprinkler and five Decagon HS-10 soil-moisture probes that were horizontally mounted from a trench into the centre of each horizon. We irrigated each plot three times at 24-hour intervals during one hour with a rate of 70 mm h-1. Data logging was at 60-seconds intervals that produced time series of water contents due to irrigation and drainage. After irrigation, soil cores of 10 cm diameter were sampled. Roots were extracted from the cores and their densities were optically analysed with the program "whinRIZO". The application of a rivulet approach to the time series of water contents produced the thickness F (?m) and the specific contact length L (m m-2) per cross-sectional area of the water films that represent Stokes-flow. The procedure leads to estimates of storage capacity and hydraulic connectivity in the vertical and lateral directions along the transect. Extrapolation from the transect to the micro-catchment scale is based on maps showing the spatial arrangements of trees, shrubs and soil properties like thickness and hydrological parameters of horizons.

Stimm, Eva-Maria; Lange, Benjamin; Lüscher, Peter; Germann, Peter; Weingartner, Rolf

2010-05-01

303

Anthropogenic Effects on Total Water Storage from GRACE on Large South American Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over continents, GRACE total water storage (TWS) solutions are expected to represent main surface, soil and groundwater stocks variability. Recent studies have showed that intensive groundwater resources withdrawal in India can be “captured” by GRACE. Another important anthropogenic impact on the natural water cycle is the building and operation of large dams. Even though they impact primarily the local water stock variations, one can expect subsequent changes on the water cycle and some evidence of this from GRACE. This would be particularly evident where the volume of stored water behind dams represents a significant proportion of the total TWS. In this study, we analyzed the effect on the water cycle of large dams over South American large watersheds. Most of Brazilians large dams are located in the Upper Paraná watershed, upstream the Itaipu dam. By performing a correlation analysis between the upstream integrated rainfall and the GRACE TWS series, we found a noticeable phase difference between the two quantities. The phase difference is larger over the utmost upstream region of Upper Parana watershed. We assumed that this pattern could be due to an effect of man-made reservoirs. We took into account the reservoirs storage and found that they induce an additional phase-lag of about 1 month in the TWS response to precipitation forcing. We also investigated dams’ impact on the simulations of the Water Gap Hydrological Model. The results also show a similar time delay similar, suggesting that the model correctly accounts for the dam effect. Finally we see similar lags, though smaller, over other South American river basins.

Xavier, L.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Güntner, A.; Rotunno, O.

2009-12-01

304

The influence of return loop flow rate on stratification in a vertical hot water storage tank connected to a heat pump water heater  

SciTech Connect

A temperature-controlled hot water heat pump was simulated using heating in a vertical, domestic hot water storage tank. The influence of the return loop flow rate on stratification was investigated experimentally. The return loop is the water line that supplies a long line of consumers with hot water, and returns colder water to the middle of the hot water storage tank. The return temperature is a function of the length of the loop, insulation, and ambient conditions. Temperatures were measured as a function of time at different vertical locations on the centerline of the storage tank. The temperature distributions in the tank were compared for different return flow rates. A return flow rate of three tank volumes per day was identified as preferable, although good results were also obtained for less than three tank volumes per day.

Meyer, J.P.; Raubenheimer, P.J.A.; Krueger, E.

2000-04-01

305

Reduced long-term sealing ability of adhesive root fillings after water-storage stress.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare in vitro the short-term and long-term ability to prevent through-and-through fluid movement along Resilon/Epiphany root fillings. A sample of 40 human upper incisors were prepared and assigned to experimental groups of 20 teeth each, designated as G1, Resilon/Epiphany, and G2, gutta-percha/AH Plus. Additional 10 teeth were used as controls. Each tooth was assembled in a hermetic cell to allow the evaluation of fluid filtration. After the root filling procedures, the filled roots were stored at 37 degrees C and 100% humidity for 7 days to allow setting of the sealer. Forthwith, the teeth were submitted to the first fluid flow measurement. Leakage was measured by the movement of an air bubble traveling within a pipette connected to the teeth. Shortly after the measurements, the teeth were detached from the hermetic cell and then stored in water for 14 months at 37 degrees C. At this moment, fluid filtration was re-measured. Both Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were applied to detect differences between the experimental groups. No differences were found between the experimental groups during the immediate measure (P > .05), whereas Resilon/Epiphany group displayed significantly more fluid movement than the gutta-percha/AH Plus group after 14 months of water storage (P < .05). The water-storage stress had no significant effect on the sealing ability of the gutta-percha/AH Plus root fillings (P > .05). The main point of our study is the fact that long-term sealing was compromised in the Resilon/Epiphany samples, when exposed to long-term water storage. PMID:18291286

De-Deus, Gustavo; Namen, Fátima; Galan, João

2008-03-01

306

Simulation of streamflow and wetland storage, Starkweather Coulee subbasin, North Dakota, water years 1981-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to simulate streamflow and wetland storage within a part of the Starkweather Coulee subbasin. Information on streamflow and wetland storage in Starkweather Coulee subbasin may help with the management of water issues in the Devils Lake Basin. Information from a digital elevation model and geographic-information-system analyses of the study area was used to develop the Devils Lake Basin wetlands model. Digital elevation model data and other climatic and topographic data were used as inputs to the model. Within the study area, the average wetland depth was about 2.21 feet, the total maximum wetland area was about 30,890 acres at the overflow elevation, and the total maximum wetland volume was about 68,270 acre-feet.Model runs were made for water years 1981-98 to calibrate the model to observed streamflows that were obtained from the Starkweather Coulee gaging station. Observed annual peak streamflows were greater than simulated annual peak streamflows for all water years except 1983. The differences probably were caused mostly by the lack of a subroutine in the model to account for frozen soil. The largest amount of simulated daily wetlands area occurred in April 1997 when about 40,500 acres of the study area was covered with water. Also during April 1997, the simulated daily water volume in the open and closed wetlands combined attained a maximum of about 116,000 acre-feet. By increasing the spillage thresholds from 0.2 to 1.0, simulated streamflow was reduced by 8.77 inches (from about 17.88 to 9.11 inches; 49 percent) for the 18-year period. During water years 1994-98, simulated annual streamflows for open-wetland spillage thresholds of 1.0 remained less than for thresholds of 0.2 even though the open wetlands probably were near maximum volume. The greatly increased size of the closed wetlands during water years 1994-98 probably allowed for increased water storage and decreased simulated streamflow from the study area.

Vining, Kevin C.

2002-01-01

307

Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

2004-12-01

308

Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1987-11-01

309

Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

None

2010-09-01

310

Comparison of four-hour and twenty-four-hour refrigerated storage of nonpotable water for fecal coliform analysis.  

PubMed Central

The problem of extending the storage time of water samples for fecal coliform analysis was addressed. Included in this report is a literature review of the storage problem. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed in replicate to determine the effect of 24-h storage of water samples at 4 degrees C. A new statistical approach to data analysis, coupled with the concept of practical acceptability, is presented. According to our results, many samples can successfully be stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h.

Standridge, J H; Lesar, D J

1977-01-01

311

Formation of water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles derived from iron storage protein.  

PubMed

This paper reports novel findings of an investigation of the formation of water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles from iron-storage protein ferritin. The strategy couples thermal removal of the protein shell on a planar substrate and subsequent sonication in aqueous solution under controlled temperature. Advantages of using ferritin as a precursor include well-defined core size, core composition, water-solubility and processibility. The formation of the nanoparticles was characterized using TEM, UV-Vis and FTIR techniques. Iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range of 5-20 nm diameters were produced. In addition to thermal treatment conditions, the sonication temperature of the nanoparticles in water was found to play an important role in determining the resulting particle size. This simple and effective route has important implications to the design of composite nanoparticles for potential magnetic, catalytic, biomedical sensing and other nanotechnological applications. PMID:15570948

Tominaga, Masato; Han, Li; Wang, Lingyan; Maye, Mathew M; Luo, Jin; Kariuki, Nancy; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2004-09-01

312

Simple transient thermal model for solar collector/storage water heaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple transient model predicting the thermal performance of novel solar water heaters combining both collection and storage of solar energy is presented. These heaters consist of either an insulated rectangular tank whose top surface is suitably blackened and glazed or an insulated open shallow tank with black bottom/inner sides and a top glass cover (shallow solar pond). Heat losses are reduced by adequately covering the heaters with insulation during the night. The proposed model is based on different characteristic equations during sunshine and off-sunshine hours. It is seen that the model predicts the water temperature in close agreement with the experimental observations and earlier theoretical investigations. An extension of the model can include the demand pattern of hot water.

Sodha, M. S.; Bansal, P. K.; Kaushik, S. C.

1981-03-01

313

Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water  

PubMed Central

Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria culture.

2011-01-01

314

Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

Apperson, Jason W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clemmons, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sur, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

315

The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

2013-05-01

316

Estimating Water Storage in Prairie Wetlands from a LiDAR DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America contains millions of wetlands in shallow depressions that have potential to store a significant volume of surface water. Assessing and modeling the effect of wetland storage on streamflow requires accurate methods to quantify wetland water volume. Currently, many methods rely on utilizing the strong statistical relationships between area (A), volume (V), and depth (h) to estimate wetland storage. While V-A equations are commonly used throughout the PPR, equations that utilize the V-A-h relationship are not used extensively because detailed topographic data are required. This paper suggests a new approach for implementing V-A-h relationships to determine wetland volume from wetland characteristics extracted from a high resolution LiDAR digital elevation model. GIS analysis was used to generate elevation contours that represent potential surface areas measurements, as well as provide a measure of the change in area with depth. This data collection process was also automated to generate the necessary input for estimating volume through the V-A-h equations. These volumes were compared to estimates from two V-A equations commonly used in the PPR. Results demonstrate that the automated LiDAR V-A-h method provided a better estimate of wetland volume than the V-A equations. This new method could be useful in quantifying the capacity of prairie pothole wetlands to store water and modeling their role in attenuating streamflows at a variety of spatial scales.

Westbrook, C. J.; Minke, A. G.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Guo, X.

2010-12-01

317

Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.  

PubMed

The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

2010-06-01

318

Hotel in the Bahamas profits from solar hot water system  

SciTech Connect

On Paradise Island, located in the Bahamas, American Energy Technologies Inc. (AET) recently designed and supplied a domestic solar water heating system for the new Comfort Suites Hotel. AET is a Florida manufacturer of solar thermal collectors. The hotel has 150 rooms. Hot water usage entails the laundry facilities and the limited kitchen facilities. Access to hot showers is more of a luxury in some places, but guests at the Comfort Suites Hotel need not be concerned. During the development of the hotel, it was noted that the high heating costs of the propane-fueled hotel boiler were somewhat prohibitive. Propane cost approximately $1.67/gallon, causing the cost of heating water for the hotel to be estimated at over $1,000 per month. To offset the high heating costs, a 49-collector system on a 3200 gallon storage tank was designed into the plans for the new facility. The 49 roof mounted collectors were placed on a direct solar link to the 3200 gallon storage tank. The water is preheated before it gets to the boiler, cutting costs tremendously.

Not Available

1993-01-01

319

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

2010-01-01

320

Thickness of Soil Solum as a Parameter of PlantAVAILABLE Water Storage Capacity in Soils Underlain by Carbonate Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Available water storage capacities were determined by field measurement in limestone-derived soils with a range in depths to carbonate rock of 15 cm to more than 300 cm. Neutron probe access wells were installed and amounts of water were determined throug...

C. L. Scrivner D. A. Ruppert

1970-01-01

321

Annual water storage variability in Southwest Niger: confrontation of absolute gravimetric measurements and magnetic resonance soundings surveys with hydrological observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in methods of observation are essential to ensure a better understanding of the evolution of water resources considering climate changes and human activities. The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims to combine geodetic and gravimetric measurements with dense hydrological surveys to better characterize the annual water storage variability in tropical West Africa. In Southwest Niger periodic absolute

J. Pfeffer; M. Boucher; J. Hinderer; G. Favreau; J. Boy; C. de Linage; B. Luck; M. Oi

2009-01-01

322

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001â??2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

323

Multisensor snow data assimilation at the continental scale: The value of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment terrestrial water storage information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation establishes a multisensor snow data assimilation system over North America (from January 2002 to June 2007), toward the goal of better estimation of snowpack (in particular, snow water equivalent and snow depth) via incorporating both Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage (TWS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction (SCF) information into the

Hua Su; Zong-Liang Yang; Robert E. Dickinson; Clark R. Wilson; Guo-Yue Niu

2010-01-01

324

Determination of root-zone water storage in a desert woodland using a two-layer moisture balance model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root-zone water storage (RWS) is a fundamental component of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. In the lower reaches of arid river basins in inland China, low water recharge and hence low RWS have been associated with a series of ecological and environmental problems. Developing an improved unders...

325

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

326

Evaluation of water resources in the Reedsport area, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water supply for the Reedsport area is obtained from Clear Lake, a 310-acre coastal lake that contains 16, 600 acre-feet of water at full-pool. The lake receives about 6,000 acre-feet of water annually from runoff and direct precipitation, and it loses about 600 acre-feet by evaporation. The 2,100 acre-feet diverted annually for public supply is about two-thirds of the ' usable storage capacity ' of the lake volume above the water-supply outlet pipe. Clear Lake is classified as a warm monomictic lake; that is, it is thermally stratified except during winter. The water of Clear Lake is of the sodium chloride type and is low in dissolved solids and nutrients. The water is considered to be of good quality for public supply, on the basis of biological and chemical constituents analyzed, which include trace elements pesticides, and organic material. The only ground-water source with potential to supply the needs of the Reedsport area is the dune sand-marine aquifer between U.S. Highway 101 and the coast. That aquifer consists largely of medium- to fine-grained sand with a variable saturated thickness of at least 90 feet. The aquifer is estimated to contain at least 12 billion gallons of water and to receive annual recharge from precipitation equivalent to 10 million gallons per day. Wells in the most productive part of the aquifer could be expected to yield a few hundred gallons per minute. The only identified water-quality problem is excessive iron reported in water from some wells. Either Clear Lake or the major aquifer could supply the Reedsport area 's aticipated year 2000 need of about 2.4 million gallons per day. (USGS)

Rinella, J. F.; Frank, F. J.; Leonard, A. R.

1980-01-01

327

Potential Impact of Earthen Waste Storage Structures on Water Resources in Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen waste storage structures (EWSS) associated with large confined (concentrated) animal feeding operations (CAFOs) were evaluated for their potential to impact water resources in Iowa. A representative sample of 34 EWSS from a digital database of 439 lagoons and basins permitted between 1987 and 1994 was analyzed. Eighteen percent (6 of 34) directly overlie alluvial aquifers that are used widely for potable water supply. Ninetyfour percent (29 of 31) were constructed below the water table based on EWSS depth data. At 65 percent of EWSS (22 of 34), 50 percent or more of the manure-spreading area (MSA) has a water-table depth less than 1.6 m. At 74 percent of EWSS (25 of 34), 90 percent or more of the MSA contains soil with vertical K exceeding 25.4 mm/hr. Seventy-one percent (24 of 34) occur where 10 percent or less of the MSA is frequently flooded. No significant differences were found among leakage rates due to aquifer vulnerability class or surficial material. However, at least 50 percent of EWSS (14 of 28) leaked at rates significantly greater than 1.6 mm/d under the new construction standard. The estimated 5,000 unregulated CAFOs may have a greater potential to impact water resources in Iowa.

Simpkins, William W.; Burkhart, Michael R.; Helmke, Martin F.; Twedt, Trenton N.; James, David E.; Jaquis, Robert J.; Cole, Kevin J.

2002-06-01

328

Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.  

PubMed

Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue. PMID:12223860

Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

1997-11-01

329

Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages  

SciTech Connect

This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

1997-03-01

330

Hydrogen generation from the chlorophyll water splitting reaction Photochemical conversion and solar energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the developments leading to the production of hydrogen and organic fuels from water and carbon dioxide using sunlight and the chlorophyll extracted from green plants. Product analyses were made by a variety of physical measurements. The conversion of light into electrochemical potential is depicted in terms of the photoactivation overpotential derived from the photooxidation of hydrated chlorophyll aggregates. The chlorophyll functions as the photocatalyst, reducing and oxidizing the water to yield hydrogen and oxygen through a one-electron cyclic pathway that is readily observed by electron spin resonance measurements. The significance of the in vitro solar energy storage experiments relative to the long-term solution of the energy crisis is discussed.

Fong, F. K.

331

[Effect of water storage and intrapulpal pressure on microleakage of three restorative materials].  

PubMed

Three different restorative materials, Z100 composite, F2000 compomer and Vitremer glass ionomer cement are currently proposed for Class V restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of water storage and the simulated intrapulpal pressure (sIP) on the quality of the margins of class V restorations located both in enamel and dentin. The water resorption of restorative materials containing hydrophilic groups (compomers and glass ionomer cements) can favourably modify the marginal sealing ability by hydroscopic expansion. The influence of the sIP was specific to the material. While F2000 compomer and Vitremer glass ionomer cement were un-influenced by sIP, with Z100 composite a significant difference could be observed. It was concluded that F2000 compomer and Vitremer glass ionomer cement showed significantly less microleakage, which means a better marginal sealing ability than Z100 composite. PMID:11057023

Balogh, A E; Bouter, D; Fazekas, A; Degrange, M

2000-09-01

332

Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns  

SciTech Connect

There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system`s costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies.

Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

1997-10-01

333

Measured performance and modeling of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage solar water heater  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage water heater was conducted in an indoor solar simulator. Useful collected energy, radiation-induced stratification and draw-induced mixing are characterized in eight trials in which test duration, initial tank water temperature, flow rate during withdrawal of heated water from the collector, withdrawal pattern and reflectance of the backplane were varied. All tests were performed at nominal irradiance of 900 W/m{sup 2}, normal incidence, and collector slope of 45 degrees. The capability of the TRNSYS integral collector storage model to predict performance for operating conditions for which data are assumed to be unavailable was assessed. Using data from one experimental trial, optical efficiency ({tau}{alpha}) of the collector was determined by matching predicted useful energy gain to measured gain. Effectiveness of the calibrated model was based on a comparison of predicted gains to measured values obtained in the remaining seven trials. For five of seven trials, predicted performance is within 9% of measured performance and less than experimental error. For the other two trials, predicted performance is within 15% of measured performance. The higher discrepancies may be partially due to experimental conditions not modeled such as heating of the piping connecting the collector to the test facility and inadequate characterization of back-plane reflectivity. The model does not predict radiation-induced stratification. Although the effect of mixing during draws can be approximated by specifying the number of fully mixed volume segments in the tanks, selection of number of nodes requires knowledge of the behavior of the system. The number of nodes selected has minimal impact on total energy gain, but does affect the temperature of water delivered to the load.

Mason, A.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Solar Energy Applications Lab.; Davidson, J.H. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-08-01

334

Assimilation of terrestrial water storage from GRACE in a snow-dominated basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root-mean-square difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of postglacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, B. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2012-01-01

335

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-11-01

336

Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several previous studies have shown the significance of representing shallow groundwater in land surface model (LSM) simulations. However, optimal methods for parameter estimation in order to realistically simulate water table depth have received little attention. The recent availability of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage data provides a unique opportunity to constrain LSM simulations of terrestrial hydrology. In

Min-Hui Lo; James S. Famiglietti; P. J.-F. Yeh; T. H. Syed

2010-01-01

337

Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic investigations of the Latin America cholera epidemic have repeatedly implicated untreated drinking water and water touched by hands during storage as important vehicles for disease transmission. To prevent such transmission, we provided a new narrow-mouthed, plastic, water storage vessel and 5% calcium hypochlorite solution for home disinfection of stored water to a Bolivian Aymara Indian community at risk for cholera. We evaluated acceptance of this intervention and its effect on water quality. Each of 42 families in the study obtained water from a household well; fecal coliform bacteria were found in water from 39 (93%) of 42 wells and 33 (79%) of 42 usual water storage vessels. One group of families received the special vessels and chlorine (group A), a second received only the special vessels (group B), and a third served as a control group (group C). Water samples collected every three weeks from group A special vessels had lower geometric mean fecal coliform colony counts (P < 0.0001) and lower geometric mean Escherichia coli colony counts (P < 0.0001) than water from group B or C vessels. Adequate levels of free chlorine persisted in these vessels for at least 5 hr. The special vessels and chlorine solution were well accepted and continued to be used for at least six months. Use of the vessel and chlorine solution produced drinking water from nonpotable sources that met World Health Organization standards for microbiologic quality. PMID:8644907

Quick, R E; Venczel, L V; González, O; Mintz, E D; Highsmith, A K; Espada, A; Damiani, E; Bean, N H; De Hannover, E H; Tauxe, R V

1996-05-01

338

How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research project was to determine the water transport behaviour of earlywood versus latewood in the trunk of 21-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Specific conductivity (ks) and the vulnerability of xylem to embolism were measured on a single growth ring and in a subset of earlywood and late- wood samples within the same ring. Earlywood\\/late-

Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara L. Gartner

2002-01-01

339

Estimated water use in Florida, 1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

1980-01-01

340

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1, 1978December 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being taken on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. The results will serve to benchmark the computer codes used in designing nuclear power reactor fuel storage racks. KENO calculations of k\\/sub eff\\/ are in close agreement with experimental values for nine cores, with differences being 0.0059

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler; R. L. Eng; F. G. Welfare

1979-01-01

341

Comparison of seasonal terrestrial water storage variations from GRACE with groundwater-level measurements from the High Plains Aquifer (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the first comparison of seasonal groundwater storage (GWS) variations derived from GRACE satellite data with groundwater-level measurements in the High Plains Aquifer, USA (450,000 km2). Correlation between seasonal GRACE terrestrial water storage (TWS) and the sum of GWS estimated from field measurements (2,700 wells) and soil moisture (SM) simulated by a land surface model is high (R

Gil Strassberg; Bridget R. Scanlon; Matthew Rodell

2007-01-01

342

CO2 Releases from Deep Storage Formations into Drinking Water Aquifers - Assessment of Impacts on Drinking Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological storage of supercritical CO2 is envisioned as a means of mitigating the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, the potential exists for CO2 to migrate from the deep geologic formations to overlying aquifers that serve as sources of drinking water, which could lead to geochemical alterations that have detrimental effects on drinking water quality. For example, elevated CO2 levels in drinking water aquifers can enhance the solubility and decrease the sorbed fraction of trace metals and radionuclides to an extent that concentrations may reach undesirable levels at the local scale. Therefore, an assessment of these effects is necessary to determine the risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO2. In this study, the effects of CO2 intrusion into a sandstone aquifer (with and without calcite cement present) on the water chemistry and on the mobility of trace metals and radionuclides were investigated. The aquifer was assumed to be unpolluted such that sorption, not solubility, was likely to be the predominant process controlling heavy metal and radionuclide mobility. Four elements with very different geochemical behaviors were selected for the study - lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium - and sorption was assumed to occur on ferric oxyhydroxides coating the sandstone matrix. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted using the coupled reactive-transport code MULTIFLO to determine the changes in aquifer water chemistry - spatially and temporally - as a function of CO2 flux from a leaking CO2 sequestration aquifer. Lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium Kd values as a function of pH and pCO2 were derived using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations and used to assess the impact of CO2 leakage on heavy metal and radionuclide mobility based on the MULTIFLO results. This work was funded by the Southwest Research Institute Internal Research and Development Project 20- R9826.

Pabalan, R. T.; Painter, S. L.; Walter, G. R.; Bertetti, F. P.

2008-12-01

343

Developments in Climate and Soil Water Storage in the Locality of Poiplie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is one of the largest threats to the modern world. It is primarily experienced via changes and extreme weather events, including air temperature changes, the uneven distribution of precipitation and an increase in the alteration of torrential short-term precipitation and longer non-precipitation periods. However climate change is not only a change in the weather; it also has a much larger impact on an ecosystem. As a result of expected climate change, a lack of either surface water or groundwater could occur within wetlands; thus, the existence of wetlands and their flora and fauna could be threatened. This submitted work analyses the impact of climate change on the wetland ecosystems of Poiplie, which is situated in the south of Slovakia in the Ipe? river basin. The area is an important wetland biotope with rare plant and animal species, which mainly live in open water areas, marshes, wet meadows and alluvial forests. To evaluate any climate change, the CGCM 3.1 model, two emission scenarios, the A2 emission scenario (pessimistic) and the B1 emission scenario (optimistic), were used within the regionalization. For simulating the soil water storage, which is one of the components of a soil water regime, the GLOBAL mathematical model was used.

Pásztorová, Mária

2013-03-01

344

Characterization of produced waters from underground natural gas storage reservoir operations. Volume 2. Appendix D. Analytical data report. Topical report, July 1986June 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a nationwide characterization program for produced waters from underground natural gas storage operations. In all, seven produced water samples from seven different sites were collected and analyzed. The analytical methods used and parameters tested in the program paralleled those used in EPA's EandP Waste Study. In general, the produced waters from storage facilities sampled

L. H. Keith; S. K. Mertens; F. L. Shore; M. C. Shepherd; P. J. Schrynemeeckers

1988-01-01

345

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STORAGE TIME OF WARM AND COLD WATER FISH IN VIEW OF THE CURRENT MARKET DEMANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fillets from warm and cold water fish were purchased from respective processing plants and stored at 0°C and 5°C in commercial styrofoam boxes for as long as acceptable. During storage, sensory, microbiological and chemical tests were carried out. The warm water Nile perch Lates niloticus and the cold water Ocean perch Sebastes marinus stored at 0°C remained acceptable for 2-3

Margaret Masette

346

Evaluation of the Viability of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi after Prolonged Storage in Sterile Water and Review of Recent Published Studies on Storage Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the survival and potential morphological alterations of 45 species of pathogenic filamentous fungi that\\u000a had been stored in sterile water following Castellani’s method in the National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (NCPF). Storage\\u000a duration varied from 2 months to over 21 years. Ninety percent of stored organisms were shown to be viable. Viability was\\u000a largely independent of the duration of

Andrew M. Borman; Adrien Szekely; Colin K. Campbell; Elizabeth M. Johnson

2006-01-01

347

Calculation of the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon liquid-helium dewar  

SciTech Connect

The writing of a computer program to calculate the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon dewar was motivated by the writing of a Fermilab engineering note on the safety of the dewar which is presently being installed at the Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier. The calculation is intended to verify that the pressure in the inner vessel will not rise above a safe level in a catastrophic venting situation.

Walker, R.

1983-01-04

348

The pros and cons of retained gallons payout in the sale of fueloil business  

SciTech Connect

Historically many fueloil businesses have been sold with at least a portion of the payout tied to the future delivery of gallons to the customers of the seller. This concept is usually not present in the sales of most retail businesses because future purchases by transferred customers is dependent on pricing, promotion, location, reputation, branding and other factors. In the case of fueloil, the customer is known to have a loyalty to the fueloil dealer, which in part is due to the need for service rendered to the heating equipment in the home. Periodic studies indicate customer loyalty is in the range of 8 to 10 years with the same dealer. In many markets, growth in the percentage of consumer price buyers who pay cash may be changing these loyalties. For example, in New Hampshire a recent study by the state energy office indicates that the percentage of fuel buyers who buy for cash has increased from 27.5% during the 1982-1983 heating season to 41.5% this past year. No one knows how this trend will impact on the sales of fueloil businesses via retained gallons. This article discusses the following: why customer lists should not be considered good will; underlying assumptions in sale; options of the seller; why misunderstandings occur; defining the account; definition of gallons to be counted; compatibility of policies; how much will be retained; and how to protect yourself and retention.

Hall, W.H. (Acorn Consultants, Edgecomb, ME (USA))

1990-01-01

349

Water Storage in Thin Films Maintaining the Total Film Thickness as Probed with in situ Neutron Reflectivity.  

PubMed

We investigate a new type of thin film material which allows for water storage without an increase in film thickness, whereas typically water storage in polymers and polymer films is accompanied with a strong swelling of the film, i.e., a strong increase in the film thickness. So these films will avoid problems related to strains which are caused by swelling. The basic key for the preparation of such thin films is the installation of a glassy network by the use of an asymmetric diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [P(S-b-NIPAM)] with a long PS and short PNIPAM block in combination with a solvent which is more equal in interaction with both the blocks as compared to water. With in situ neutron reflectivity the water storage and removal are probed. The total film thickness increases only by 2.5% by allowing for a total water storage of 17.4%. Thus the material can be used for coatings to reduce humidity in nano-applications, which might suffer from changes in the water content of the surrounding environment. PMID:21706585

Wang, Weinan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Perlich, Jan; Troll, Kordelia; Papadakis, Christine M; Cubitt, Robert; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

2008-12-16

350

Satellite observations of terrestrial water storage provide early warning information about drought and fire season severity in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

risk in the Amazon can be predicted several months before the onset of the dry season using sea surface temperatures in the tropical north Atlantic and tropical Pacific. The lead times between ocean state and the period of maximum burning (4-11 months) may enable the development of forecasts with benefits for forest conservation, yet the underlying physical and biological mechanisms responsible for these temporal offsets are not well known. Here, we examined the hypothesis that year-to-year variations in soil water recharge during the wet season modify atmospheric water vapor and fire behavior during the following dry season. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing terrestrial water storage observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), active fires from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and several other satellite and atmospheric reanalysis datasets during 2002-2011. We found that terrestrial water storage deficits preceded severe fire seasons across the southern Amazon. The most significant relationships between monthly terrestrial water storage and the sum of active fires during the dry season occurred during April-August (p < 0.02), corresponding to 1-5 month lead times before the peak month of burning (September). Analysis of other datasets provided evidence for a cascade of processes during drought events, with lower cumulative precipitation (and higher cumulative evapotranspiration) in the wet season substantially reducing terrestrial water storage, and subsequently, surface and column atmospheric water vapor. Our results suggest that terrestrial water storage observations from GRACE have the potential to improve fire season forecasts for the southern Amazon.

Chen, Yang; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, James S.; Randerson, James T.

2013-06-01

351

Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge. Observed land-subsidence during the monitoring period was less than 1 inch except in the central part of Tucson Basin where land subsidence was about 2-3 inches. Correlations of gravity-based storage and water-level change at 37 wells were variable and illustrate the complex nature of the aquifer system. Storage and water-level variations were insufficient to estimate specific yield at many wells. Correlations at several wells were poor, inverse, or resulted in unreasonably large values of specific yield. Causes of anomalously correlated gravity and water levels include significant storage change in thick unsaturated zones, especially near major ephemeral channels, and multiple aquifers that are poorly connected hydraulically. Good correlation of storage and water-level change at 10 wells that were not near major streams where significant changes in unsaturated zone storage occur resulted in an average specific-yield value of 0.27.

Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

2008-01-01

352

Validation of the land water storage simulated by Organising Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides measurements of spatiotemporal change in land water storage that may improve simulation results of land surface models (LSMs). We show that a transfer scheme recently developed within the Organising Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) LSM significantly improves the simulated land water storage. Over large tropical rivers basins, model results without the transfer scheme provide significantly smaller amplitudes of water storage than observed by GRACE. Including the transfer scheme that accounts for water stored in the river systems and aquifers during its transfer to the oceans leads to predicted land water storage that are comparable to GRACE observations. Water stored in aquifers contributes about half the seasonal variation of water storage over large basins such as the Amazon, Congo, Yangtze, Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Mekong.

Ngo-Duc, T.; Laval, K.; Ramillien, G.; Polcher, J.; Cazenave, A.

2007-04-01

353

Developmental Changes in Cell and Tissue Water Relations Parameters in Storage Parenchyma of Sugarcane 1  

PubMed Central

The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation or have an ability to regulate turgor. We tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 × 10?7 centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 × 10?7 centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell wall and membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

Moore, Paul H.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

1991-01-01

354

Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

Moore, P.H. (Department of Agriculture, Aiea, Hawaii (United States)); Cosgrove, D.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1991-07-01

355

Scaling and Parametric Studies of Condensation Oscillation in an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a multihole sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The thickness of the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Three key scaling parameters were identified and correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation: flow restriction coefficient, area ratio of discharge hole to steam cavity, and density ratio of water to steam. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multihole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger. The results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the in-containment refueling water storage tank for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400.

Lee, Jun Hyung [Korea Power Engineering Company (Korea, Republic of); No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2003-05-15

356

Performance evaluation of point-of-use water heaters. Final report 1 sep 79-15 oct 80  

SciTech Connect

Point-of-use water heaters are designed to be installed at the location where hot or warm water is used. Thus, such water heaters may be connected to a water faucet, dishwasher, clothes washer, shower or the like. Two types of heaters are available. One is referred to as instantaneous and it has no storage capacity. The second is a very small 1/2 to 6 gallon storage tank type of heater which has nearly negligible standby losses. Point-of-use water heaters offer the greatest potential for energy conservation on Army facilities when used as boosters for domestic dishwashers and to replace large storage heaters in buildings where the only requirement for hot or cold tepid water is in lavatories. A method has been developed to calculate the energy conservation potential of water heaters. The results of this method may be used for life-cycle cost analysis.

Shepherd, P.B.

1980-10-15

357

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

2009-07-22

358

Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

1980-12-01

359

Investigation of water-logged spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to determine the amount of moisture contained in breached, water-logged spent fuel rods and the rate of release. Two well-characterized BWR fuel rods with reactor-induced breaches were tested in a hot cell. These rods contained approximately 6 to 10 g of moisture, most of which was released during heating tests simulating normal cask drying operations. Additional testing with two intentionally defected fuel rods (BWR and PWR) was performed to evaluate the effect of the cladding breach on migration of moisture along the length of the fuel rod. The results showed that the moisture released from reactor-breached spent fuel rods was insufficient to cause degradation of fuel or dry storage system components.

Kohli, R.; Pasupathi, V.

1986-09-01

360

Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

1982-01-01

361

Evaluating surface and subsurface water storage variations at small time and space scales from relative gravity measurements in semiarid Niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acquisition of reliable data sets representative of hydrological regimes and their variations is a critical concern for water resource assessment. For the subsurface, traditional approaches based on probe measurements, core analysis, and well data can be laborious, expensive, and highly intrusive, while only yielding sparse data sets. For this study, an innovative field survey, merging relative microgravimetry, magnetic resonance soundings, and hydrological measurements, was conducted to evaluate both surface and subsurface water storage variations in a semiarid Sahelian area. The instrumental setup was implemented in the lower part of a typical hillslope feeding to a temporary pond. Weekly measurements were carried out using relative spring gravimeters during 3 months of the rainy season in 2009 over a 350 × 500 m2 network of 12 microgravity stations. Gravity variations of small to medium amplitude (?220 nm s-2) were measured with accuracies better than 50 nm s-2, revealing significant variations of the water storage at small time (from 1 week up to 3 months) and space (from a couple of meters up to a few hundred meters) scales. Consistent spatial organization of the water storage variations were detected, suggesting high infiltration at the outlet of a small gully. The comparison with hydrological measurements and magnetic resonance soundings involved that most of the microgravity variations came from the heterogeneity in the vadose zone. The results highlight the potential of time lapse microgravity surveys for detecting intraseasonal water storage variations and providing rich space-time data sets for process investigation or hydrological model calibration/evaluation.

Pfeffer, Julia; Champollion, CéDric; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Hinderer, Jacques; Boucher, Marie; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Oï, Monique; Mouyen, Maxime; Henri, Christopher; Moigne, Nicolas; Deroussi, SéBastien; Demarty, JéRôMe; Boulain, Nicolas; Benarrosh, Nathalie; Robert, Olivier

2013-06-01

362

Integrated Engineering and Service Test of Container, Water, Plastic, 5-Gallon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated engineering and service test of the container was conducted to determine technical performance and safety characteristics of the container and to determine the suitability of the container for use by the army. (Author)

C. M. Coomer F. H. Baggs H. A. Parkhurst J. F. Brugh M. L. Silber

1968-01-01

363

Changes in Continental Water Storage Caused by Groundwater Depletion Since 1900  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of groundwater resources for agricultural, industrial, and municipal purposes greatly expanded in the last century, and economic gains from groundwater use have been dramatic. In many places, however, groundwater reserves have been depleted to the extent that water levels have declined tens to hundreds of meters, well yields have decreased, and pumping costs have increased. These impacts tend to reduce the efficiency and sustainability of groundwater development. Much groundwater pumped from confined aquifers is derived from storage losses in adjacent low-permeability confining layers. Depletion in confining layers is difficult to estimate and rarely monitored, but it can greatly exceed the depletion from the confined aquifer itself and groundwater drainage from confining layers is partly irreversible. For example, in the confined Dakota Aquifer, about 98 percent of the water removed from storage was derived from depletion in adjacent confining units. If cumulative long-term regional and global groundwater depletion is large, it will represent a substantial net transfer of water mass from land to the oceans, thereby contributing to sea-level rise. A U.S. national groundwater depletion census was made primarily using direct volumetric approaches; results indicate that about 800 km3 of water was depleted from groundwater systems in the U.S. during the 20th century-equivalent to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.2 mm-and 1,000 km3 through 2008. Cumulative global groundwater depletion since 1900 totals about 3,400 km3 through 2000 and 4,500 km3 through 2008 (equivalent to a sea-level rise of 12.6 mm). The rate of annual depletion has increased markedly since about 1950, with maximum rates occurring during the most recent period (2000-2008), when they averaged about 145 km3/yr (equivalent to 0.40 mm/yr of sea-level rise, or 13% of the reported rate of 3.1 mm/yr during this recent period). Overall, the volume and rate of estimated long-term global groundwater depletion balances 6 to 7 percent of the observed sea-level rise since 1900. The recent acceleration in groundwater depletion is greater outside the U.S. Although groundwater depletion rates will ultimately be self-limiting, data show that we have not yet reached that point either nationally or globally.

Konikow, L. F.

2011-12-01

364

Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the saltwater in the Floridan aquifer system probably is connate or unflushed seawater from high stands of sea level. The principal use of the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida is for subsurface storage of liquid waste. The Boulder Zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer is extensively used as a receptacle for injected treated municipal wastewater, oil field brine, and, to a lesser extent, industrial wastewater. Pilot studies indicate a potential for cyclic storage of freshwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer in southern Florida.

Meyer, Frederick W.

1989-01-01

365

Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The area described is confined largely to the valley-floor and foothill lands of Solano County, which lies directly between Sacramento, the State capital, and San Francisco. The area is considered in two subareas: The Putah area, which extends from Putah Creek southward to the Montezuma Hills and from the foothills of the Coast Ranges eastward to the west edge of the Yolo Bypass; and the Suisun-Fairfield area, which is to the southwest in the notch in the Coast Ranges through which the waters of the Great Central Valley of California reach San Francisco Bay. There are no known hydrologic interconnections between the two subareas, through either surface streams or underground aquifers. The climate of the area is characterized by warm, rainless summers and by cool winters in which temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. The rainfall ranges from about 17 inches per year along the east side to perhaps 24 inches in the foothills to the west, and irrigation is necessary for all crops except dry-farmed grains, pastures, and some orchards. PUTAH AREA The Putah area occupies the southwestern corner of the Sacramento Valley, a topographic and structural basin underlain by a thick accumulation of sediments eroded from the surrounding hills and mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The eastern Coast Ranges and foothills lying west of the Sacramento Valley are a generally northward-trending belt of eastward-dipping sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Successively younger strata are exposed eastward, and the essentially undeformed deposits of late Pleistocene and Recent age that immediately underlie the valley lap onto the tilted sediments of the foothills. Most of the streams of the Putah area rise east of the high ridge of Cretaceous rocks marking the western boundaries of Solano and Yolo Counties, but Putah Creek, the largest stream in the area, rises far west of that ridge and flows across it in a deep, narrow canyon. Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

Thomasson, H. G., Jr.; Olmsted, F. H.; LeRoux, E. F.

1960-01-01

366

A Study on a Performance of Water-Spray-Type Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel with Vertical Heat Exchanger Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system with a water-embedded-trpe ice storage vessel is widely used because of its simple structure and compactness. However, the water-embedded-type ice storage vessel has a disadvantage, that is, the solidification rate is very small. The use of falling water film seems to be one of promising ways for solving this disadvantage. We have found in a previous study that the use of the falling water film is very effective, especially for high initial water temperatures. In the present study, we eexamined the performance of a faling-water-film-type ice thermal energy storage vessel with pratical size, having vertical heat exchanger plates. The ice making performance coefficient, ?, increases with time, and it becomes am aximum value of 2.5, after that, it decreases gradually. In order to make ice efficiently, it is necessary to set a flow rate of refrigerant properly and to adjust a difference between the evaporating temperature of refrigerant and the freezing point of water so that the refrigerant evaporates in the heat exchanger plates overall.

Yoshimura, Kenji; Sasaguchi, Kengo; Fukuda, Toshihito; Koyama, Shigeru

367

Annual water storage variability in Southwest Niger: confrontation of absolute gravimetric measurements and magnetic resonance soundings surveys with hydrological observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in methods of observation are essential to ensure a better understanding of the evolution of water resources considering climate changes and human activities. The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims to combine geodetic and gravimetric measurements with dense hydrological surveys to better characterize the annual water storage variability in tropical West Africa. In Southwest Niger periodic absolute gravimetric measurements are performed near a temporary pond where rapid infiltration to the unconfined aquifer occurs. In parallel, pond water level, piezometry, and soil water content are regularly measured. As gravity is sensitive both to local and global variations of water mass distribution, the large scale contribution is first removed using either GRACE satellite data or global hydrology models like GLDAS or ECMWF. The comparison of local water storage variations estimated by gravimetric and hydrological in-situ measurements allows estimating the specific yield of the aquifer to a value ranging between 5 and 7 %. This value is consistent with the 5 to 13 % porosity estimated by Magnetic Resonance Sounding survey. The good agreement between these two independent methods proves the interest in using gravimetric measurements to constrain parameterization of local hydrological modeling. Additional measurements with relative spring gravimeters are scheduled to better characterize spatial heterogeneity in water storage variability.

Pfeffer, J.; Boucher, M.; Hinderer, J.; Favreau, G.; Boy, J.; de Linage, C.; Luck, B.; Oi, M.

2009-12-01

368

Installation-restoration program field-investigation report, hazardous-waste storage area, Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base, Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base is located 12 miles southeast of Columbus, Ohio. Engineering Science was contracted to perform an environmental field investigation at the hazardous waste storage area (HWSA) located on the base. Portions of the HWSA have been used over the past 42 years for the storage of waste oils, waste fuels, deicing fluid and various solvents and cleaners. The materials stored at the HWSA were contained in either storage drums, or in the four 25,000 gallon underground storage tanks. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the soil or ground water beneath the site have been contaminated due to spills or leak from the on-site storage. Contamination was confirmed at the site and additional investigations were recommended to define the lateral and vertical extent and magnitude of contamination.

Not Available

1990-10-01

369

Linking chemostatic behaviour of streams to storage dynamics and long tails in water age distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water storage and release dynamics at the catchment scale are still incompletely understood. This is in particular true when considering actual particle transport rather than only the hydraulic response. Environmental tracers are frequently instrumental in inferring transport process dynamics. Several recent research papers for example highlight the importance of difference time scales in transport dynamics. While on the short term, particle transport patterns can exhibit considerable variability, many catchments are characterized by near-chemostatic behaviour on the long term. In other words although the tracer response can show considerable fluctuations on the intra-annual scale, it remains surprisingly stable at the inter-annual scale. This suggests (1) that at the long term the composition of water can be largely independent of flow volumes and (2) that water as well as tracers/contaminants, once stored in a catchment can remain in the system for a very long time. Here we use long term (< 20 years) precipitation, flow and tracer (chloride) data of three contrasting upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands to inform integrated conceptual models investigating different mixing assumptions. Using the models as diagnostic tools in a functional comparison, water and tracer fluxes were then tracked with the objective of exploring the origin and pattern of near-chemostatic behaviour which manifests itself in long, power-law tails of water age distributions. The results highlight the potential importance of partial mixing processes in the generation of long tails in water age distributions. However, the degree to which partial mixing influences the generation of long tails is dependent on the hydrological functioning of a catchment. As second influential factor controlling the tailing behaviour of water age distributions was identified to be the interplay of flow path connectivity with the relative importance and timing of different flow paths. This understanding will allow classification of catchments according to their vulnerability to and the persistence of contamination, allowing for the development of more adequate, tailor-made contamination protection and mitigation strategies. In general this study highlights the potential of customized integrated conceptual models, based on multiple mixing assumptions, to infer system internal transport dynamics and their sensitivity to catchment wetness states.

Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

2013-04-01

370

Recovery of Interannual Terrestrial Water Storage Variations over the Indochina Peninsula and the Relationship with Decadal-Scale Climate Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indochina peninsula is located in an area affected by the Southeast Asian monsoon system, and substantial seasonal variation in terrestrial water storage is observed in this area. In addition to the seasonal effect of the monsoon system, the Indochina peninsula is also affected by the changes from interannual climate system over the Pacific and Indian Oceans, which causes precipitation and temperature anomalies over this area directly, or coupling with a monsoon event. As a result, terrestrial water storage variations over the Indochina peninsula are closely related to such global-scale events. In this study, using GRACE temporal mass variation data, we investigated the inteannual components of the terrestrial water storage variations over the Indochina peninsula. Currently, the GRACE mission offers nearly 10-year datasets for research since its launch. Thus, it has become possible to discuss interannual mass changes on the scale of several years to decades. We firstly recovered mass variations over the Indochina peninsula using version 2 of the CNES/GRGS GRACE every 10-day satellite gravity field solutions from 2002 to 2009, and extracted interannual terrestrial water storage mass variation components. Next, the dominant water mass variation modes over a large area including the Indochina peninsula were investigated by applying EOF analysis to the obtained interannual components. For the analysis, we included the Indian Ocean in addition to the surrounding land region for the analyzed areas because meteorological terrestrial water storage variations generally are closely related to ocean variations. The obtained each EOF modes were compared with the climate oscillation indices and with the typical spatial patterns to specify the dominant climate system that causes the variation. The result showed that the Indian Ocean Dipole, which is the dipole oscillation mode of the sea surface temperature anomalies between the east and west Indian Ocean, gives the most dominant effect on the interannual terrestrial water storage over the Indochina peninsula during the data time span used in this study. The Effect is about 20 % of the total interannual terrestrial water storage mass variation. The result also showed that El Nino/Southern Oscillation events gives some effects as well, but the effect is about 4 % of the total interannual components, which is smaller than the effect of Indian Ocean Dipole.

Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Hasegawa, T.

2012-04-01

371

Effect of water storage on fluoride release and mechanical properties of a polyacid-modified composite resin (compomer)  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effect of water storage on fluoride release and mechanical properties of compomer restorative material. Fluoride release was recorded using a specific fluoride electrode. Flexural properties and fracture toughness were measured using a universal testing machine. Vickers hardness was measured using a micro-hardness tester. There was initial burst of fluoride release up to 1 w, which was diminished to a low level in 1 mon and remained relatively constant over 6 mon. Flexural strength and hardness were increased up to 1 mon followed by a gradual decrease up to 6 mon. Flexural modulus was decreased gradually up to 6 mon. Fracture toughness was increased during the first week and gradually decreased over the storage period. We concluded that flexural properties, fracture toughness, Vickers hardness and fluoride release of compomer were sensitive to water as well as storage time. There was a significant effect of fluoride release on the studied mechanical properties.

Hammouda, Ibrahimm M.; Al-Wakeel, Essam E.

2011-01-01

372

SOLAR CONVERSION AND ENERGY STORAGE BY THE CHLOROPHYLL A DIHYDRATE PHOTOCATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF WATER AND REDUCTION OF CARBON-DIOXIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the photoconversion and storage of visible light energy based on the half-cell reactions of water photolysis by crystalline chlorophyll a dihydrate is described. The role of water on the photochemical activity of chlorophyll a is examined by a study of a photogalvanic cell consisting of a Pt\\/Chl a photocathode and a Chl a-free anode. The production of

DANIEL RAY FRUGE

1980-01-01

373

Stability of dense hydrous magnesium silicate phases and water storage capacity in the transition zone and lower mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the water storage capacity in the mantle based on the phase relations of silicate systems containing water. We conducted high pressure and temperature synthesis experiments on some silicate systems, such as the superhydrous phase B (=phase C) and phase G (=phase D and F) compositions in the MgO–SiO2–H2O system and the CMAS pyrolite–2wt.% H2O system up to the

E. Ohtani; M. Toma; K. Litasov; T. Kubo; A. Suzuki

2001-01-01

374

Axisymmetric simulation of aquifer storage and recovery with SEAWAT and the Sea Water Intrusion (SWI) Package for MODFLOW  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEAWAT and the Sea Water Intrusion (SWI) Package for MODFLOW were used to simulate hypothetical aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) scenarios under constant- and variable-density conditions. To test the codes, both models were used to represent two-dimensional axisymmetric groundwater flow near an ASR well. The models were \\

Christian Langevin; Michael Zygnerski

375

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1, 1977December 31, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are being conducted on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods, mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. Spacings between fuel clusters and the intervening material are being varied to provide a variety of benchmark loadings. (DLC)

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler

1978-01-01

376

Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1December 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are being conducted on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. The square clusters with 14 rods on each side are arranged in 3 x 3 arrays. Both the spacing between the fuel clusters and the intervening material are being varied to provide a variety of benchmark loadings.

M. N. Baldwin; G. S. Hoovler

1978-01-01

377

THE FLOW AND STORAGE OF WATER IN THE WETLAND-DOMINATED CENTRAL MACKENZIE RIVER BASIN: RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were initiated in 1999 at Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada in order to improve the understanding and model-representation of the major water flux and storage processes within a wetland-dominated region of the discontinuous permafrost zone. This paper contributes to this end by presenting selected results on: 1) the physical and hydraulic properties of the active layer soils in

W. L. Quinton; M. Hayashi

378

Monitoring and control of a hydrogen production and storage system consisting of water electrolysis and metal hydrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic are energy sources that cannot generate continuous electric power. The seasonal storage of solar or wind energy in the form of hydrogen can provide the basis for a completely renewable energy system. In this way, water electrolysis is a convenient method for converting electrical energy into a chemical form. The

V. Pérez-Herranz; M. Pérez-Page; R. Beneito

2010-01-01

379

Comparison of coal IGCC with and without CO 2 capture and storage: Shell gasification with standard vs. partial water quench  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides a techno-economic assessment of Shell coal gasification -based IGCC, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS), focusing on the comparison between the standard Shell configuration with dry gas quench and syngas coolers versus partial water quench cooling.

Emanuele Martelli; Thomas Kreutz; Stefano Consonni

2009-01-01

380

Experimental study of temperature stratification in an integrated collector–storage solar water heater with two horizontal tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tank-interconnection geometry on temperature stratification in an integrated collector–storage solar water (ICSSW) heater with two horizontal cylindrical tanks has been studied. The tanks were parallel to each other, and separated horizontally and vertically, with the lower tank fitted directly below a glass cover, and half of the upper tank insulated. In addition, a truncated parabolic concentrator was

A. Madhlopa; R. Mgawi; J. Taulo

2006-01-01

381

Searching the Social Science Literature on Water: A Guide to Selected Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. Preliminary Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide was prepared in connection with a state-of-the-art survey and literature review on 'Institutions for urban-metropolitan water planning, development and management.' The guide has three objectives: to review developments in information storage and retrieval; to indicate progress being made in developing systems; and to describe available…

Hogge, Fred; And Others

382

Distribution of macroinvertebrates in the shallow part of ‘De Gijster’, a water storage lake in the Biesbosch (The Netherlands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and distribution of the macroinvertebrate fauna of the shallow part of De Gijster, a medium sized water storage lake in The Netherlands, has been studied during 1984. The numerous individuals collected belong mainly to the Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae larvae) and Mollusca. Amongst them are elements of both the former polder fauna and the river fauna. A quantitative analysis

Jolanda Huisman; L. W. C. A. van Breemen

1985-01-01

383

Effect of thermocycling and water storage on bond longevity of two self-etch adhesives.  

PubMed

Despite recent improvements in adhesive systems and their bond strength to enamel and dentin, the resin-tooth interface appears to be the weakest part of tooth-colored restorations; in addition, there are concerns regarding bond durability of self-etch adhesives (SEAs). This in vitro study investigated the bond durability of 2 such adhesives following thermocycling and water storage. Forty-eight intact human third molars were sectioned mesiodistally and mounted in acrylic resin so that buccal and lingual surfaces were positioned horizontally. All enamel and dentin surfaces were ground flat and polished on silicon carbide papers. Samples were separated into 2 groups (n = 24). A 1-step SEA was applied to one group, while a 2-step SEA was applied to the other, according to manufacturers' instructions. Half of the specimens in each group underwent shear bond strength (SBS) testing after 24 hours of incubation, while the other half were tested after 3000 thermal cycles and 6 months of water incubation. SBS data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, 1-way ANOVA, and a post hoc Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. Under the limitations of the present study, the 2-step SEA demonstrated higher baselines and aged bond strength to dental tissues compared to the 1-step SEA; in addition, the enamel bond strength of the 2-step SEA improved after aging. PMID:23649573

Khoroushi, Maryana; Rafiei, Elahe

384

Microorganism viability influences internal phase droplet size changes during storage in water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

Water-in-oil emulsions provide an alternative for long-term stabilization of microorganisms. Maintaining physical stability of the emulsion and cell viability is critical for large-scale application. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions were prepared with the biolarvacide Lagenidium giganteum and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Physical stability was measured via light scattering measurements of the internal phase droplets and cell viability was measured by plating and enumerating colony forming units. Emulsions were demonstrated to stabilize L. giganteum and C. vulgaris for more than 4 months without refrigeration. Introducing nutrients into the internal phase of W/O emulsions without cells had no significant effect on changes in aqueous phase droplet size dynamics. Internal phase droplet size changes that occurred over time were greater in the presence of cells. Increases in droplet size were correlated with cell death indicating measurement of internal phase droplet size changes may be an approach for monitoring declines in cell viability during storage. PMID:23338002

Vandergheynst, Jean S; Guo, Hong-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert

2013-01-22

385

A mass conservative and water storage consistent variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge (MC) flood routing approach, together with several variants proposed in the literature, does not fully preserve the mass balance, particularly when dealing with very mild slopes (<10-3). This paper revisits the derivation of the MC and demonstrates (i) that the loss of mass balance in MC is caused by the use of time variant parameters which violate the implicit assumption embedded in the original derivation of the Muskingum scheme, which implies constant parameters and at the same time (ii) that the parameters estimated by means of the Cunge approach violate the two basic equations of the Muskingum formulation. The paper also derives the modifications needed to allow the MC to fully preserve the mass balance and, at the same time, to comply with the original Muskingum formulation in terms of water storage. The properties of the proposed algorithm have been assessed by varying the cross section, the slope, the roughness, the space and the time integration steps. The results of all the tests also show that the new algorithm is always mass conservative. Finally, it is also shown that the proposed approach closely approaches the full de Saint Venant equation solution, both in terms of water levels and discharge, when the parabolic approximation holds.

Todini, E.

2007-10-01

386

A mass conservative and water storage consistent variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge (MC) flood routing approach, together with several variants proposed in the literature, does not fully preserve the mass balance, particularly when dealing with very mild slopes (<10-3). This paper revisits the derivation of the MC and demonstrates (i) that the loss of mass balance in MC is caused by the use of time variant parameters which violate the implicit assumption embedded in the original derivation of the Muskingum scheme, which implies constant parameters and at the same time (ii) that the parameters estimated by means of the Cunge approach violate the two basic equations of the Muskingum formulation. The paper also derives the modifications needed to allow the MC to fully preserve the mass balance and, at the same time, to comply with the original Muskingum formulation in terms of water storage. The properties of the proposed algorithm have been assessed by varying the cross section, the slope, the roughness, the space and the time integration steps. The results of all the tests also show that the new algorithm is always mass conservative. Finally, it is also shown that the proposed approach closely approaches the full de Saint Venant equation solution, both in terms of water levels and discharge, when the parabolic approximation holds.

Todini, E.

2007-06-01

387

Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-10-01

388

Fallow soil evaporation and water storage as affected by stubble in sub-humid (Argentina) and semi-arid (Australia) environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of stubble mulch on soil water storage during fallow is highly variable. In environments with low rainfall and coarse-textured soil, contribution of stubble to gains in water storage is often smaller than in wetter environments with heavier soil. While this pattern is recognised, the effect of rainfall, evaporative demand and soil remains confounded.This paper investigates the effect of

J. P. Monzon; V. O. Sadras; F. H. Andrade

2006-01-01

389

Heat transfer enhancement in water when used as PCM in thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and reliable storage systems for thermal energy are an important requirement in many applications where heat demand and supply or availability do not coincide. Heat and cold stores can basically be divided in two groups. In sensible heat stores the temperature of the storage material is increased significantly. Latent heat stores, on the contrary, use a storage material that

L. F. Cabeza; H. Mehling; S. Hiebler; F. Ziegler

2002-01-01

390

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

391

Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the San Gorgonio Pass area. The water-bearing deposits were divided into three aquifers: (1) the perched aquifer, (2) the upper aquifer, and (3) the lower aquifer based on lithologic and downhole geophysical logs. Natural recharge in the San Gorgonio Pass area was estimated using INFILv3, a deterministic distributed- parameter precipitation-runoff model. The INFILv3 model simulated that the potential recharge of precipitation and runoff in the Beaumont and Banning storage units was about 3,710 acre-feet per year and that the potential recharge in 28 sub-drainage basins upstream of the storage units was about 6,180 acre-feet per year. The water supply for the Beaumont and Banning storage units is supplied by pumping ground water from wells in the Canyon (Edgar and Banning Canyons), Banning Bench, Beaumont, and Banning storage units. Total annual pumpage from the Beaumont and Banning storage units ranged from about 1,630 acre-feet in 1936 to about 20,000 acre-feet in 2003. Ground-water levels declined by as much as 100 feet in the Beaumont storage unit from 1926-2003 in response to ground-water pumping of about 450,160 acre-feet during this period. Since ground-water development began in the San Gorgonio Pass area, there have been several sources of artificial recharge to the basin including return flow from applied water on crops, golf courses, and landscape; septic-tank seepage; and infiltration of storm runoff diversions and imported water into recharge ponds. Return flow from applied water and septic-tank seepage was estimated to reach a maximum of about 8,100 acre-feet per year in 2003. Owing to the great depth of water in much of study area (in excess of 150 feet), the return flow and septic-tank seepage takes years to decades to reach the water table. Stable-isotope data indicate that the source of ground-water recharge was precipitation from storms passing through the San Gorgonio Pass as opposed to runoff from the higher altitudes of the San Bernar

Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

2006-01-01

392

Cesium removal from the fuel storage water at the Savannah River Site R-Building Disassembly Basin using 3M Empore{reg_sign}-membrane filter technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results from a seven-day demonstration of the use of 3M Empore membrane filter loaded with ion exchange material (potassium cobalt hexacynoferrate (CoHex)) for cesium uptake from the R-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site. The goal of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of the Process Absorber Development unit (PADU), a water pre-filtration /CoHex configuration on a skid, to remove cesium from R-Disassembly Basin at a linear processing flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (1,195.8 liters/minute/m{sup 2} or 29.35 gallons/minute/ft{sup 2}). Over 210,000 liters (> 55,500 gallons) of R-Disassembly Basin water was processed through the PADU without a cesium breakthrough, that is, the effluent after treatment with CoHex, contained less than detectable amounts of radioactive cesium. Some of the observed advantages of the Empore membrane filter technology over conventional packed column ion exchange systems includes rapid flow rates without channeling effects, low volume secondary waste and fast extraction or rapid kinetics per unit of flow.

Oji, L.N.; Thompson, M.C.; Peterson, K.; May, C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site; Kafka, T.M. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States). 3M Center

1998-12-31

393

Untapped Reservoirs: a Storage-Based Approach for Assessing Urban Water Availability & Vulnerability across the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage mitigates the natural variability of supply, and therefore plays a crucial role in the sustainable management of water in urban areas. Typical assessments of water availability (WA) and vulnerability (WV) are often localized, private, incomparable, or based solely on "renewable" mean annual runoff (P-ET). Long-term change in storage has always been assumed negligible. The consequences of global climate change have challenged this assumption of stationarity, and water managers across the U.S. have expressed acute concern for future urban WA. Although neglected in many assessments of urban WA and WV, storage is a fundamental variable that is critical to the functionality of many urban areas and is particularly vulnerable to changing hydrologic conditions. Here we present a national assessment of urban WA and WV that also accounts for the role of storage. This work demonstrates the feasibility, necessity, and value of this type of approach. All urban areas throughout the coterminous U.S. with populations greater than 100,000 (n=255) were included in this study. Data characterizing the local hydrology (including storages) and water usage were collected from publicly available databases. Urban annual hydrologic budgets were then calculated at each site, and used to quantify WA and WV. The implications of future change in storage were evaluated for a range of increasingly variable conditions, and urban areas were ranked (low, medium, and high) based on the probability of failure to meet annual demand. Finally, for a subset of sample sites from each category, a media content analysis (MCA) based on WV-related terms in recent news sources was conducted as an independent qualitative proxy for the level of vulnerability. An order of magnitude increase in urban WA was observed when storage was included in the analysis. Compared with WA calculated using only mean annual runoff, addition of a storage term reduced the number of urban areas considered "vulnerable" from 80% to 40%. Increases in WA due to storage also mitigated WV. This relationship remained consistent when WV was evaluated under varying degrees of drought severity. The number of urban areas with sources that failed to meet demands at an exceedance frequency of 5, 10 and 25% was 24, 16, and 7 out of 255, respectively. The MCA supported these results; the average frequency of occurrence for each category was 0.8±0.8 (low), 10.8±2.4 (med), and 33.8±9.7 (high). Together, these findings demonstrate that a storage-based approach can be successfully applied to identify and measure urban WA and WV. While quality data exist for many components of the urban hydrologic budget, storage data remain poorly quantified and difficult to obtain. Despite the substantial limitations, we have shown that it is possible (although laborious) to account for storage when assessing availability and vulnerability. If the assumption that "stationarity is dead" is indeed true, then so too is the validity of neglecting storage when assessing water availability and vulnerability.

Padowski, J. C.; Jawitz, J. W.

2011-12-01

394

Preliminary screening of thermal storage concepts for water/steam and organic fluid solar thermal receiver systems  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary comparison of thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications was done generically for large and small solar systems with sensible and latent heat and two-stage storage concepts. Concepts were ranked based on the cost of delivered energy. A +- 20% uncertainty in subsystem cost was included in the analysis. Water/steam and organic fluid collector/receivers were studied separately. For the water/steam concept, Barstow technology (100 MW/sub e/) was examined. A nitrite/nitrate salt with a low-cost solid medium was best for buffer storage; for diurnal storage, the two-stage draw salt/low-cost media and oil/rock concept was best. Phase change concepts require improvements on the concept analyzed to be attractive. For the organic fluid system, a Shenandoah total energy system was examined. The Syltherm trickle charge taconite concept was the most favorable and may be improved by replacing the taconite with a lower-cost oil-compatible medium. Salt concepts can be competitive with this system only if there is a low-cost solid medium that is compatible with the salt and the end use requires a large amount of storage. The phase change concept examined was found to be quite poor for this total energy application.

Copeland, R.J.; Karpuk, M.E.; Ullman, J.L.

1980-04-01

395

Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-12-01

396

Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to the inaccurate water storage data, including both topologic parameters and operational rules. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using the satellite-based dataset Landsat, an empirical storage classification method, and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various levels of flow regulation facilities. The improved SWAT2005 is characterised by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the water surface area and volume of each type of water storage, ranging from small-sized ponds for water flow regulation to large-sized and medium-sized reservoirs for water supply and hydropower generation; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for the physical parameters and the human interference parameters. Both the original and improved SWAT2005 are applied to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin, and the results of these applications are compared. The improved SWAT2005 accurately models small- and medium-sized storages, indicating a significantly improved performance from that of the original model in reproducing streamflows.

Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.

2012-03-01

397

Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to inaccurate water storage data. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using Landsat, a satellite-based dataset, an empirical storage classification method and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various sizes of flow detention and regulation facilities. The SWAT2005 is enhanced by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the surface area and volume of each type of water storages, ranging from small-sized flow detention ponds to medium- and large-sized reservoirs with the various flow regulation functions; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for both physical and human interference parameters. Through a real-world watershed case study, it is found that the improved SWAT2005 more accurately models small- and medium-sized storages than the original model in reproducing streamflows in the watershed. The improved SWAT2005 can be an effective tool to assess the impact of water storage on hydrologic processes, which has not been well addressed in the current modelling exercises.

Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Zhang, A.

2012-11-01

398

Bias investigation of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses a series of studies undertaken while fulfilling the measurement requirements for certification of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner to be used at the plutonium facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos. These studies were initiated to investigate anomalies seen in the data as well as gain a quantifiable understanding of effects caused by using standards of considerably different geometric proportions than the assay items, oftentimes necessitated due to lack of adequate standards. The first investigation concerned effects caused by items not being exactly centered on the measurement table. The remaining studies involved establishing the magnitude of the bias induced by so-called ``end effects`` as well as by size differences between calibration standards and assay items. In order to unravel the above effects, can and drum parameter files were interchangeably employed in conjunction with comparisons of the instrument calibrations obtained with can-sized standards and 55-gallon drum standards. The paper will discuss the results and the magnitude of the observed effects.

Hurd, J.R.; Long, S.M.; Sampson, T.E.

1993-08-01

399

Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.  

PubMed

The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation. PMID:21284300

Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

400

SAR interferometry, water balance measurements, and clay shrinkage to estimate soil water storage change from the field to the catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar interferometry (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique capable of measuring subtle surface elevation changes of large areas, with high spatial resolution. The technique is well established for applications like tectonic and volcanic induced deformation monitoring. Apart from a few studies using InSAR to quantify aquifer storage coefficients and hydraulic heads from land subsidence and some attempts to monitor open water level changes, applications in hydrology are virtually absent. Satellite radar (SAR) data of a study area, as used for InSAR, are generally acquired weekly to monthly, with a high spatial resolution (several tens of meters). The relatively high resolution (compared to many other remote sensing data) and the spatial extent, allow for detailed monitoring of hydrological variables. Using combinations of acquisitions of these data interferometrically may potentially be capable of measuring temporary surface elevation changes brought about by the swelling or shrinkage of clay. In unsaturated zone hydrology it has long been recognized that the soil shrinkage curve links elevation changes from clay dynamics to soil water storage changes. Therefore, satellite based radar interferometry can potentially offer an alternative methodology to estimate soil water storage change at field or regional scales. This study aims at investigating the possibilities and limitations of InSAR for soil water storage change estimations in clay areas. To do so, a novel combination of traditional and modern field measurements of water balance terms and TerraSAR-X data has been exploited. Measurements of soil water storage change and surface elevation change revealed in situ shrinkage curves with slopes close to 1, indicating normal shrinkage where soil water storage change approximates soil volume change. InSAR measurements revealed differences between different soil and land use types. Therefore care has to be taken in selecting areas subjected to InSAR analysis. We show that if this is done adequately, the InSAR observations correlate well with in situ measured soil surface elevation changes from clay shrinkage in a period of soil water depletion. Based on these results, the potential of the combination of high resolution SAR data and clay soil characterization in terms of the shrinkage curve for up-scaling from point scale in situ measurements to field and catchments scale remote sensing observations is evident. The values of SAR data for this application is expected to increase further with the upcoming Sentinel-1 SAR data which will provide SAR data every 6 days.

te Brake, Bram; van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit; Hanssen, Ramon

2013-04-01

401

Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2000. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power fresh water use. Two additional categories also were considered: power generation instream use and public wastewater treatment return-flows. Fresh water withdrawals for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 617 million gallons per day. The largest amount of fresh water withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 540 million gallons per day. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users was estimated at 2 million gallons per day and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.5 million gallons per day. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 64 million gallons per day, or approximately 10 percent of all offstream fresh water withdrawals. Saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric power facilities was estimated at 2,191 million gallons per day, and instream fresh water withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities at 171 million gallons per day. Total discharge from public wastewater treatment facilities was estimated at 211 million gallons per day.

Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

2005-01-01

402

Evaluating soil water storage distribution in a tempo-spatial domain with a new statistical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time stability of soil water storage (SWS) was usually used to infer overall SWS distribution, assuming the spatial pattern of SWS was the same at different time. However, temporal change of SWS usually varies spatially, resulting in the changes of spatial pattern of SWS. In addition, controlling factors of SWS has been extensively explored. However, most of controlling factors are identified by their correlations to the spatial distribution of SWS, and few focused on the spatial distribution of temporal changes in SWS. The objective of this study was to develop a statistical model which considers both time-invariant spatial pattern of SWS and spatial variability of temporal change in SWS. Specific attentions were given to (1) the controlling factors of the spatial structure of temporal change in SWS and (2) estimation and prediction of SWS distribution with the new model. The model divides spatial SWS series into time-invariant spatial pattern, space-invariant temporal change, and space- and time-dependent redistribution term. The redistribution term is responsible for the temporal change in spatial pattern of SWS. Empirical orthogonal function was used to separate the total variations of redistribution term into the sum of product of spatial structures (EOFs) and temporally-varying coefficients (ECs). Model performance was evaluated using SWS data of 0-1.0 m layer from St. Denis National Wildlife Area at the Canadian Prairie (SDNWA) and LaoYeManQu watershed on the Chinese Loess Plateau (LYMQ). Two significant EOFs (EOF1 and EOF2) were found in both areas, which explained 70.8% and 78.4%, respectively, of the total variations of redistribution terms. EOF1 resulted in more changes (recharge or discharge) of SWS at wetter locations, while the role of EOF2 varied with time irrespective of soil water conditions in both areas. The EOF1 of redistribution term was mainly controlled by depth to CaCO3 layer, organic carbon content, and curvature in SDNWA and by silt content, total biomass yield, and organic carbon content in LYMQ. The weight of EOF1 was greater at more extreme soil water conditions, and EC1 was significantly linearly correlated with the spatial mean SWS. The roles of EOF1 resulted in more change (recharge or discharge) of SWS at wetter locations in both areas. The measured soil water storage distribution can be simulated very well by the model. If only EOF1 was considered, reasonable SWS distribution estimation with high NSCE values (from 0.77 to 0.98 in SDNWA, and from 0.95 to 0.99 in LYMQ) was obtained. With SWS measurement at the most time-stable location, mean SWS at unobserved date can be well predicted, with NSCE values from 0.69 to 0.79 in SDNWA and from 0.60 to 0.82 in LYMQ. This model combined with time stability analysis showed a great potential in downscaling of soil moisture distribution in the landscape. The two study areas have drastically different soil, vegetation, climate, topography, and cultivation history. The good performance of this model in both areas may indicate its general applicability to most climatic regions, which need to be verified.

hu, wei; si, bing

2013-04-01

403

Environmental factors influencing the distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in six water storage reservoirs in the Pearl River Delta Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is one of the most developed and densely populated regions in China. Quantifying the amount of pathogens in the source of drinking water is important for improving water quality. We collected water samples from six major water storage reservoirs in the PRD region in both wet and dry seasons in 2006. Results showed that external

Huachang Hong; Jianwen Qiu; Yan Liang

2010-01-01

404

Influence of annealing temperature of WO3 in photoelectrochemical conversion and energy storage for water splitting.  

PubMed

The current work demonstrates the importance of WO3 crystallinity in governing both photoenergy conversion efficiency and storage capacity of the flower structured WO3 electrode. The degree of crystallinity of the WO3 electrodes was varied by altering the calcination temperature from 200 to 600 °C. For the self-photochargeability phenomenon, the prevailing flexibility of the short-range order structure at low calcination temperature of 200 °C favors the intercalation of the positive cations, enabling more photoexcited electrons to be stored within WO3 framework. This leads to a larger amount of stored charges that can be discharged in an on-demand manner under the absence of irradiation for H2 generation. The stability of the electrodes calcined at 200 °C, however, is compromised because of the structural instability caused by the abundance insertion of cations. On the other hand, films that were calcined at 400 °C displayed the highest stability toward both intercalation of the cations and photoelectrochemical water splitting performance. Although crystallinty of WO3 was furthered improved at 600 °C heat treatment, the worsened contact between the WO3 platelets and the conducting substrate as induced by the significant sintering has been more detrimental toward the charge transport. PMID:23731030

Ng, Charlene; Ng, Yun Hau; Iwase, Akihide; Amal, Rose

2013-06-03

405

Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

Not Available

1980-04-01

406

Surface water storage variations in Anatolia and Surrounding Territories observed by GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA/GFZ's joint satellite-to-satellite tracking mission GRACE has the primary science objective of measuring climate-sensitive signals generated by mass redistributions on Earth including the oceans and land at spatial scales greater than several hundred km and temporal scales longer than 30 days. Its main science data include the monthly time series of global geopotential models in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients (SHC) which is one of the so-called L2 data products. As the well-known effects on the orbital perturbations such as the planetary bodies, ocean tides, solid Earth tides and other high-frequency variations in ocean and atmosphere are forward modeled prior to the estimation of monthly SHC, the difference between the SHC mainly represents the changes of climate sensitive signals such as hydrology, ice sheet mass balance and ocean mass change. Although the SHC still include the residual effects of tides and atmosphere due to imperfect models and temporal aliasing, recent studies have shown that the hydrology signal can be estimated with an accuracy of several cm in equivalent water tickness and a resolution of several hundred km. One other way to estimate the hydrology signal is the regional inversion method where we use the in situ intersatellite potential difference observations computed based on the energy conservation principle (Jekeli, 1999). To this end, we use the GRACE L1B data products such as range rate, accelerometer and star camera data for the energy integral of the satellites. The well known effects, N-body tides, ocean and solid Earth tides, the high frequency atmospheric mass variations and barotropic ocean response due to atmospheric forcing are forward modeled based on best current models and ancillary data and removed from the in-situ potential differences. The remaining in-situ potential differences are then used as observations based on Newton's law of gravitation to estimate the surface water mass changes with respect to a reference geopotential field, e.g., GGM01C. In this study, the surface water mass changes over Anatolia and the surrounding region located between 20-47 degree East longitudes and 30-48 degree North latitudes are computed based on the monthly SHC model and the regional inversion of the in situ potential difference observations. Two distinct solutions have different temporal and spatial resolutions even though the estimated accuracies are similar. The former is computed with a temporal resolution of one month and a spatial resolution of 300 km. The regional solution has computed with monthly and sub-monthly intervals with a spatial resolution as fine as 165 km. Both solutions have accuracies of 2-3 cm in terms of water column height. In addition, the results have been compared with the water level heights observed by Envisat tracks at the Ataturk dam reservoir between the years 2003-2009. Even though the GRACE monthly water storage estimates and the observed water level heights have different amplitudes, both follow a similar seasonal pattern.

Akyilmaz, O.; Mercan, H.

2012-04-01

407

An Investigation of the Effect of Open Storage of Treated Drinking Water on Quality Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two open reservoirs storing treated drinking water were investigated with primary focus upon definition of water quality and development of alternative water quality control measures. Water quality of each reservoir was defined by a comprehensive water sa...

1977-01-01

408

Land Water Storage Changes from Ground and Space Geodesy: First Results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to the first results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) experiment conducted since 2008 in West Africa and is aimed at investigating the changes in water storage in different regions sampling a strong rainfall gradient from the Sahara to the monsoon zone. The analysis of GPS vertical displacement in Niamey (Niger) and Djougou (Benin) shows that there is a clear annual signature of the hydrological load in agreement with global hydrology models like GLDAS. The comparison of GRACE solutions in West Africa, and more specifically in the Niger and Lake Chad basins, reveals a good agreement for the large scale annual water storage changes between global hydrology models and space gravity observations. Ground gravity observations done with an FG5 absolute gravimeter also show signals which can be well related to measured changes in soil and ground water. We present the first results for two sites in the Sahelian band (Wankama and Diffa in Niger) and one (Djougou in Benin) in the Sudanian monsoon region related to the recharge-discharge processes due to the monsoonal event in summer 2008 and the following dry season. It is confirmed that ground gravimetry is a useful tool to constrain local water storage changes when associated to hydrological and subsurface geophysical in situ measurements.

Hinderer, J.; Pfeffer, J.; Boucher, M.; Nahmani, S.; De Linage, C.; Boy, J.-P.; Genthon, P.; Seguis, L.; Favreau, G.; Bock, O.; Descloitres, M.

2012-08-01

409

Measurements of Water and B4C Content of Rackable Can Storage Boxes for HEU Storage at the HEUMF at the Y-12 National Security Complex  

SciTech Connect

Extensive measurements at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with BoroBond{trademark} blocks of varying thickness, natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) content, and water content, and with a simplified mockup of the Rackable Can Storage Box (RCSB) of fixed natural B{sub 4}C and water content, have led to a method of quantifying the water content of RCSBs by fast neutron time-of-flight transmission measurements (NMIS)* and quantifying the B{sub 4}C content with gamma ray spectrometry assuming the water content is known. The time-of-flight transmission measurements results can also be used to assess the uniformity of the BoroBond{trademark} in the RCSB. The data from both measurements will be stored for future comparisons to initial measurements. These methods can also be implemented at the RCSB production site, or subsequently at the Y-12 National Security Complex during the operating lifetime of the RCSBs at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility.

Neal, JS

2003-03-24

410

Mechanical properties and microstructure of frozen carrots during storage as affected by blanching in water and sugar solutions.  

PubMed

Raw carrots and carrots blanched in water and in 4% trehalose and maltose solutions at 75°C for 3 (A) and 10min (C) and at 90°C for 3 (B) and 10min (D) were frozen and stored at -18°C for eight months. The effects of heating conditions and exogenous added sugars on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the vegetable after blanching and during frozen storage were studied. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis no significant differences were observed among samples A and B water-blanched and raw carrot while a thermo-protective effect due to the sugars addition was evidenced in sample D, undergone to the most severe thermal treatment. Freezing and frozen storage determined several fractures on both raw and blanched carrots due to ice crystals formation and re-crystallisation. The cryo-protective effect of the sugars on the vegetable microstructure was observed only in the 'over-blanched' sample D. The mechanical properties of carrots were affected by blanching which caused a hardness decrease but after freezing and one month of frozen storage, all samples showed a further dramatic reduction of hardness. Only samples characterised by a pectinesterase residual activity showed a softening also after one month of frozen storage likely for a competitive effect of the thermo-protective ability of trehalose on this enzyme. The exogenous trehalose was able to limit the hardness loss of carrots undergone to B, C and D blanching pre-treatments. PMID:24099543

Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

2013-08-03

411

Coupling Power Generation, Geologic CO2 Storage and Saline Groundwater Desalination to Address Growing Energy Needs in Water Constrained Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As humanity works to both minimize climate change and adapt to its early impacts, co-management of energy and water resources will become increasingly important. In some parts of the US, power plants have been denied permits, in part because of the significant burden placed on local water supplies by assigning new water rights for the facility’s entire design life. Water resources may be allocated 30 to 50 years into a future where water availability and quality are uncertain due to supply impacts associated with climate change and increased demand from growing populations, agriculture and industry. In many areas, particularly those with access to seawater, desalination is being employed with increasing frequency to augment conventional sources of fresh water. At the same time, many of the world’s developed nations are moving to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One key technological option for addressing emissions from the power generation sector is CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS). This process is both water and energy intensive for many power and industrial facilities, compounding the impact of declining water availability for plants faced with deploying CCS in a CO2-constrained future. However, a unique opportunity may exist to couple power generation and CCS by extracting and desalinating brine from the CO2 storage formation to produce fresh water. While this coupled approach is unlikely to be attractive for most CCS projects, it may represent a viable option in areas where there is demand for additional electricity but conventional water supplies are unable to meet the needs of the power generation and CO2 capture systems, or in areas where brine produced from CCS projects can be desalinated to supplement strained municipal supplies. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the factors impacting the feasibility of coupled CCS-desalination projects. Several injection / extraction scenarios have been examined via the STOMP geochemical flow model resulting in key outputs including extraction wellhead conditions, in situ CO2 plume behavior and reservoir pressure. Economic modeling for the water extraction and desalination portion of these coupled CCS / desalination scenarios suggests that -- while some scenarios yield costs far in excess of most existing desalination projects -- depending on the specific storage formation characteristics and desalination technology employed, fresh water could be produced at costs competitive with seawater desalination facilities, bolstering local water supplies and enabling deployment of industrial projects that might otherwise have been infeasible.

Davidson, C. L.; Wurstner, S. K.; Fortson, L. A.

2010-12-01

412

Kentucky Agricultural Energy Corporation 21-million gallon per year fuel-ethanol plant: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, construction, start-up, and operation of the 21-million gallon per year ethanol facility built by KAEC in Franklin, Kentucky. Built from the ground up, the plant construction began at the 180-acre plant site on November 3, 1980. The first alcohol was produced on December 20, 1982. The plant is a dry milling fermentation facility. The plant also manufactures as co-products distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) at approximately 70,000 tons per year, and carbon dioxide at approximately 70,000 tons per year. The plant consumes 8 million bushels per year of yellow shelled corn. The actual operating data in this report are based on the four-month operating period of July, August, September, and October 1986. During this production period the plant averaged 103%, 88%, 105%, and 105% of design capacity for each month, respectively. This report will compare the design operation and economics with actual performance.

Not Available

1987-11-01

413

JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

MARUSICH, R.M.

2007-01-04

414

Effect of water and nitrogen impurities on CO 2 pipeline transport for geological storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is regarded as one of the most promising emission reduction options for the mitigation of climate change and global warming. The technology of CCS involves a process of capturing CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources (such as a power plant), transporting it from its sources to the storage sites, and storing it in

Cheol Huh; Seong-Gil Kang; Mang-Ik Cho; Jong-Hwa Baek

2011-01-01

415

Storage and release of solutes from a subalpine seasonal snowpack: soil and stream water response, Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research on the chemistry of snow and surface waters of the western US, Europe, and Asia has been conducted in\\u000a high-elevation catchments above treeline. Here we provide information on the solute content of the seasonal snowpack at the\\u000a Soddie site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado, a subalpine site near treeline. We focus on the storage and release of

Mark W. Williams; Christine Seibold; Kurt Chowanski

2009-01-01

416

Effect of heat treatment, water activity and storage temperature on the oxidative stability of whole milk powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative status of high-heat, medium-heat and low-heat whole milk powder was investigated at moderately accelerated storage conditions, with exposure to atmospheric air at 25 or 45 °C and at three water activities (0.11, 0.23 and 0.33 at 25 °C, and 0.11, 0.17 and 0.31 at 45 °C) for 2 months using: (i) electron spin resonance spectrometry for measurement of

Henrik Stapelfeldt; Bo R. Nielsen; Leif H. Skibsted

1997-01-01

417

Selection of heat storage materials for ammonia–water and lithium bromide solar-powered absorption heat pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for incorporating phase-change thermal storage materials in ammonia–water and lithium bromide absorption heat pumps systems is explored. Performance evaluation of the systems is presented and results are used as a guide in selecting appropriate phase-change materials (PCMs) for the absorption heat systems. Evaluation of the system indicates that there is a minimum generator temperature for each configuration of

S. N. Mumah

2008-01-01

418

Stem dimensional fluctuation in Jeffrey pine from variation in water storage as influenced by thinning and prescribed fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest thinning utilizing cut-to-length and whole-tree harvesting systems with subsequent underburning were assessed for their\\u000a impacts on water storage in the extensible tissues of dominant and codominant trees in an uneven-aged Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) stand on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada. Prior to the onset of the third growing season following thinning\\u000a and the

Robert M. Fecko; Roger F. Walker; Wesley B. Frederick; Watkins W. Miller; Dale W. Johnson

2008-01-01

419

Drought indicators based on model-assimilated Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellites observe time variations in Earth's gravity field which yield valuable information about changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS). GRACE is characterized by low spatial (>150,000 km2) and temporal (>10 days) resolution but has the unique ability to sense water stored at all levels (including groundwater) systematically and continuously. The GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS), based on the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM), enhances the value of the GRACE water storage data by enabling spatial and temporal downscaling and vertical decomposition into moisture components (i.e., groundwater, soil moisture, and snow), which individually are more useful for scientific applications. In this study, GRACE DAS was applied to North America, and GRACE-based drought indicators were developed as part of a larger effort to investigate the possibility of more comprehensive and objective identification of drought conditions by integrating spatially, temporally, and vertically disaggregated GRACE data into the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors. Previously, the drought monitors lacked objective information on deep soil moisture and groundwater conditions, which are useful indicators of drought. Extensive data sets of groundwater storage from U.S. Geological Survey monitoring wells and soil moisture from the Soil Climate Analysis Network were used to assess improvements in the hydrological modeling skill resulting from the assimilation of GRACE TWS data. The results point toward modest, but statistically significant, improvements in the hydrological modeling skill across major parts of the United States, highlighting the potential value of a GRACE-assimilated water storage field for improving drought detection.

Houborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew; Li, Bailing; Reichle, Rolf; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.

2012-07-01

420

Cavitation and water storage capacity in bole xylem segments of mature and young Douglas-fir trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic specific conductivity, vulnerability to cavitation and water storage capacity of Douglas-fir sapwood was determined for samples from six young (1.0-1.5 m tall) and six mature trees (41-45 m tall). Measurements on samples from young trees showedthere were no effects of two contrasting sample types (entire stem segments vs sectors chiseled out of entire stems) on any of the calculated

Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara L. Gartner

2001-01-01

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