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1

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

Griffin, M.J. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Harris, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-10-01

2

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

3

Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container  

Microsoft Academic Search

The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to

Richins

1996-01-01

4

Interior Corrosion of Steel Five-Gallon Military Water Cans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the occurrence of interior corrosion in the steel five-gallon military water can. The study covered used as well as new cans. It was found that much of the rusting is attributable to excessively sharp edges at lap seams, creating a con...

J. P. Urbanek

1966-01-01

5

Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container  

SciTech Connect

The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

Richins, W.D.

1996-07-01

6

Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-07-01

7

CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP  

SciTech Connect

This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

DOBBIN, K.D.

2000-05-24

8

Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

1981-01-01

9

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2012-01-01

10

Fuel performance in water storage  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

1993-11-01

11

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P. J.

1996-01-01

12

Impact of bottled water storage duration and location on bacteriological quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation studying the effects of storage duration and location on the persistence of heterotrophic microorganisms in oligotrophic bottled water environments has been completed. One-gallon high-density polyethylene water containers stored for up to 16 weeks at temperatures ranging from 2°C to >49°C in a refrigerator, indoor cabinet, covered porch, and car trunk were evaluated for microbiological quality. Heterotrophic plate counts

Steven J. Duranceau; Hilary P. Emerson; Rebecca J. Wilder

2012-01-01

13

Predicting Product Water Quality from the 600-Gallon-Per-Hour Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit. Field Water Supply on the Winter Battlefield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary equation for predicting the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the product water from the 600-gph ROWPU is presented. The equation requires the raw water temperature and TDS concentration as input data. Both of these variables can...

J. R. Bouzoun

1988-01-01

14

Predicting wetland water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual wetland model was developed to describe the interactions between a wetland, the surrounding catchment, and the local groundwater. Numerical evaluation of the wetland water balance was achieved by applying a bucket model. The model required little calibration and used physically based catchment properties and recorded climatic data sets. Model flexibility lends itself to application across a broad range

A. L. Krasnostein; C. E. Oldham

2004-01-01

15

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long...

D. P. Chambers, J. S. Famiglietti, M. Rodell

2011-01-01

16

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

17

Fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report: 27 year-old dies inside of a six million gallon storage tank, June 7, 1985  

SciTech Connect

On June 7, 1985, a father and son inspection team, under contract to a petroleum company, were inspecting the seals between the internal panels of a floating roof and the sides of 150,000 barrel storage tank containing regular gasoline (8006619). The victim entered the tank through the access hatch at the top of the tank and proceeded down the access ladder to the floating panel inside the tank. The victim then walked around the tank on top of the floating panel inspecting the rubber seals between the walls of the tank and the floating panel. The father remained on the outside, on top of the tank. He called the rescue squad when his son was 7 minutes overdue. Two hours after the father reported the victim was overdue, the body was located on the opposite side of the tank, approximately 150 feet from the ladder. An additional two hours were needed to retrieve the victim. The victim was wearing an open circuit, self contained breathing apparatus in the demand mode, but the face mask was found on top of his head, not over his face. The only system of communication between the two men was tapping on the wall of the tank with a small rock. A tape recorder was being used by the victim to record the condition of the tank walls. The victims voice on the tape suggested that the respirator face piece was not in place. Recommendations included developing written procedures for working in confined spaces, constant communication should be maintained between the worker and the standby person, and the use of pressure demand self contained breathing apparatus in dangerous environments.

Not Available

1985-06-14

18

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of each month of the year) excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The two figures show that 2010 was the driest year since 2003. The drought in the Amazon was largely responsible, but an excess of water in 2009 seems to have buffered that drought to some extent. The drying trend in the 25-55 deg S zone is a combination of Patagonian glacier melt and drought in parts of Australia.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2011-01-01

19

Residential Hot Water Solar Energy Storage Subsystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-cost, efficient, and practical hot water solar energy storage subsystems for heating and cooling of residences are discussed. Both new and innovative vessel materials and configurations are investigated, together with insulation materials. Storage sub...

E. E. Pickering

1976-01-01

20

ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

21

Integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH) developed from early systems comprised simply of a simple black tank placed in the sun. The ICSSWH, by its combined collection and storage function suffers substantial heat losses to ambient, especially at night-time and non-collection periods. To be viable economically, the system has evolved to incorporate new and novel methods of maximising

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; Brian Norton

2006-01-01

22

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

23

Impact of water withdrawals from groundwater and surface water on continental water storage variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to

P. Döll; H. Hoffmann-Dobrev; F. T. Portmann; S. Siebert; A. Eicker; M. Rodell; G. Strassberg; B. R. Scanlon

24

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA\\/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from

J. Boy; C. C. Carabajal; S. B. Luthcke; D. D. Rowlands; F. G. Lemoine; T. J. Sabaka

2009-01-01

25

Methane storage in dry water gas hydrates.  

PubMed

Dry water stores 175 v(STP)/v methane at 2.7 MPa and 273.2 K in a hydrate form which is close to the Department of Energy volumetric target for methane storage. Dry water is a silica-stabilized free-flowing powder (95% wt water), and fast methane uptakes were observed (90% saturation uptake in 160 min with no mixing) as a result of the relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of this material. PMID:18683923

Wang, Weixing; Bray, Christopher L; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

2008-09-01

26

Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryTo predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of a given vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions on nine Mediterranean shrubs of varying anatomic and morphological features to determine water storage capacity, stemflow and the funneling ratio. After assessing correlations between these hydrological variables and the biometric characteristics of the shrubs, we compared two methods of determining storage capacity: rainfall simulation and immersion. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35-3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8-26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30-260). Per unit biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.66 ml g -1 and ranged from 0.23 ml g -1 for Cistus ladanifer to 2.26 ml g -1 for Lavandula latifolia. Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses to the atmosphere when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. When considered the whole shrubs in absolute terms (ml per plant), water storage capacity and stemflow were correlated to biomass and the dendrometric characteristics of the shrubs, yet in relative terms (expressed per surface area unit or as %), anatomic features such as pubescence, branch rigidity or leaf insertion angle emerged as determining factors. The use of a simple procedure to assess storage capacity was inefficient. The immersion method underestimated storage capacity to a different extent for each species. Some shrubs returned high stemflow values typical of their adaptation to the semiarid climate. In contrast, other shrubs seem to have structures that promote stemflow yet have developed other drought-adaptation mechanisms. In this report, we discuss the ecological and hydrological significance of stemflow and the funneling ratio.

Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blázquez, N.; Alegre, J.

2010-08-01

27

Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use mod...

A. Eicker F. T. Portmann G. Strassberg H. Hoffmann-Dobrev M. Rodell P. Doell S. Siebert

2011-01-01

28

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from only KBRR (K-band range rate) data using a mascon approach. We compare our solutions to classical spherical harmonic solutions and also to different global hydrology models, and regional models in the

Jean-Paul Boy; Claudia Carabajal; Scott Luthcke; David Rowlands; Frank Lemoine; Terence Sabaka

2010-01-01

29

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as meteorological stations, using water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from different atmospheric models. As a result, our runoff estimates are compared to river fluxes measurements. We compare mass estimates of major African lakes to volume estimated from space Laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. As our forward modeling includes the continental water storage variations (using GLDAS/Noah model), leaking effects are significantly reduced. We also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.

2009-12-01

30

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from only KBRR (K-band range rate) data using a mascon approach. We compare our solutions to classical spherical harmonic solutions and also to different global hydrology models, and regional models in the African monsoon area (thanks to the ALMIP project). We compare mass estimates of major Africa lakes and reservoirs to volume estimates from laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. We investigate the improvement of our mass retrievals when hydrology (GLDAS/Noah model) is forward modeled, compared to the more classical approach when continental water storages variations are not taken into when processing GRACE data. We solve the water mass balance equations using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as ground rain gauge stations, using fresh water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from various atmospheric models (reanalysis and operational). As a result, our runoff are compared to river flux measurements. In addition to the comparison with the ALMIP models, we also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

Boy, Jean-Paul; Carabajal, Claudia; Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Sabaka, Terence

2010-05-01

31

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO WEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

32

An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage and melting characteristics of slurry-ice mixtures in several tanks were investigated exprimentally. For ice storage processes, three different kinds ofice-feeding methods were tested in connection with the fluidizable water-ice two-phase mixture produced in the system. It was confirmed that the achievable bulk IPF in any tank and using any of these methods was 30-40% under stable operational conditions. For ice melting processes, two different kinds of methods were considered and tested. Both were advantageous in that almost all ice stored in a tank could be consumed, thereby maintaining high system performance. By a modeling analysis of ice melting processes in the tank, it was possible to predict accurately the time history of tank outlet water temperatures.

Moriya, Mitsuru; Tanino, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Sakae; Hayashi, Toshio; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

33

Beyond peak water storage? A global estimate of declining water storage in reservoirs and snow packs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage is one of the primary mechanisms for coping with increasing variability of water supply and demand that can be expected with growing population and a changing climate. Man-made reservoirs can currently store about 15% of the global annual runoff. A similar amount of water is stored in one of the most important natural storage components - seasonal snow packs. The amount of water stored in each of those man-made and natural systems is roughly equivalent to the total annual anthropogenic water withdrawals. Storage in seasonal snow packs is declining as a result of climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt. At the same time, reservoir storage is declining as a result of sedimentation and limited construction of new reservoirs. We use a global hydrological model, combined with a global data set of ~6000 large reservoirs to simulate changes in reservoir and snow pack water storage and analyze impacts of those changes on seasonal water availability using a set of scenarios for changing climate conditions. Reservoir sedimentation is simulated using global erosion and sedimentation data sets and validated with observed reservoir storage loss. Results indicate annual loss rates between 0.5 and 1.0% of the installed capacity for most reservoirs, outpacing the storage increases through the construction of new reservoirs for the last decades so that reservoir storage is declining globally. With most reservoirs being about 50 years old, these losses threaten the sustainability of reservoir operation and can pose significant challenges to water resources management. Similarly, seasonal snow storage is declining at about 0.5% per year for the last 20 years. Even without changes in the magnitude of total precipitation, there can be significant changes in basin hydrology if there are climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt, potentially away from the period (summer) when demand for irrigation, water supply, or hydropower production is high. These shifts in the timing can therefore result in significant socio-economic impacts through effects on food production or hydropower. Regions must vulnerable to dwindling total storage capacity include the southern slopes of the Himalaya, the east slopes of the Tibetan Plateau, and the basins in the Western US.

Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

2012-12-01

34

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

35

WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

36

Estimation of water withdrawal and distribution, water use, and wastewater collection and return flow in Cumberland, Rhode Island, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data collected in Rhode Island by different State agencies or maintained by different public suppliers and wastewater- treatment facilities need to be integrated if these data are to be used in making water- resource management decisions. Water-use data for the town of Cumberland, a small area in northeastern Rhode Island, were compiled and integrated to provide an example of how the procedure could be applied. Integration and reliability assessment of water-use data could be facilitated if public suppliers, wastewater- treatment facilities, and State agencies used a number of standardized procedures for data collection and computer storage. The total surface water and ground water withdrawn in the town of Cumberland during 1988 is estimated to be 15.39 million gallons per day, of which 11.20 million gallons per day was exported to other towns. Water use in Cumberland included 2.51 million gallons per day for domestic use, 0.68 million gallons per day for industrial use, 0.27 million gallons per day for commercial use, and 0.73 million gallons per day for other use, most of which were unmetered use. Disposal of waste- water in Cumberland included 2.03 million gallons per day returned to the hydrologic system and 1.73 million gallons per day exported from Cumberland for wastewater treatment. Consumptive use during 1988 is estimated to be 0.43 million gallons per day.

Horn, M. A.; Craft, P. A.; Bratton, Lisa

1994-01-01

37

Hot Water Management of DHW Storage Tank: Supply Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is directed to analyze the mixing nature of cold and hot water inside storage tank, and the corresponding effects on the total usable and delivered energy to consumers. The analyses are done for two different supply features bottom and side supply of cold water. An experimental rig consisting of hot water reservoir, cold water reservoir, water pump,

N. Beithou; Abu Hilal

38

Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens....

E. A. Jenne S. H. Hall

1993-01-01

39

Case studies of chilled water storage  

SciTech Connect

Centralized chilled water systems are commonly used to meet the air conditioning needs of colleges, universities, medical complexes, and other large campuses or district cooling facilities. Data from the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) indicate that over half its members operate central cooling plants. Various configurations are in use, including single and multiple central chilling plants serving single distribution systems, nonconnected miniature central systems, and combinations of one central and one or more satellite plants on a single distribution loop. Central plant chillers may be electric motor-driven centrifugal compressors, gas engine-driven centrifugal compressors, steam turbine-driven centrifugal compressors, heat-driven absorption chillers, or combinations of these types. The usual refrigerants are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); but alternatives such as HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia (NH[sub 3]), and absorption solutions may also be employed. Free cooling via cooling towers is sometimes used, directly or indirectly, during periods of relatively low ambient air temperatures. During any central plant capacity expansion, O and M, capital, and life cycle costs are among the major concerns, as are the increasingly critical issues of reliability, flexibility, safety, and the environment. Specifically, atmospheric ozone depletion and the CFC refrigerant issue are now impacting everyone involved in the air conditioning field. Anyone selecting or planning for new chiller capacity is faced with choosing from such options as CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia, and absorption refrigeration. These choices have unique and serious drawbacks. Because of this chilled water storage is now experiencing increased application.

Andrepont, J.S. (Chicago Bridge and Iron Co., Oak Brook, IL (United States))

1993-01-01

40

Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

2011-01-01

41

Impact of water withdrawals from groundwater and surface water on continental water storage variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 km3/year during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 km3/year during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 km3/year of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/year of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

Döll, P.; Hoffmann-Dobrev, H.; Portmann, F. T.; Siebert, S.; Eicker, A.; Rodell, M.; Strassberg, G.; Scanlon, B. R.

2012-09-01

42

Multisensor analysis of water storage variations of the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a multi-sensor analysis of water storage and surface height variations of the Caspian Sea, from mid-2002 through 2006. Data from three satellite missions (GRACE, Jason-1, and Aqua) are used to examine the relationship between changes in spatially averaged sea surface height (SSH) and water storage in and around the Caspian Sea. Two composite time series are constructed to

Sean Swenson; John Wahr

2007-01-01

43

General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

44

General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

45

Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

46

Storability Investigations of Water, Long-Term Storage Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to gather data that will permit the Air Force to assess the long term storage characteristics of water particularly with regard to formation of particulate matter, so that the feasibility of long-term storage of water for ...

E. M. Vander Wall G. R. Janser

1975-01-01

47

Storability Investigations of Water, Long-Term Storage Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to gather data that will permit the Air Force to assess the long term storage characteristics of water, particularly with regard to formation of particulate matter, so that the feasibility of long-term storage of water for...

E. M. V. Wall G. R. Janser

1976-01-01

48

Storability Investigations of Water Long-Term Storage Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to gather data that will permit the Air Force to assess the long term storage characteristics of water, particularly with regard to formation of particulate matter, so that the feasibility of long-term storage of water for...

E. M. Vander Wall G. R. Janser

1977-01-01

49

Storability Investigations of Water, Storage Evaluation after Seven Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to gather data that will permit the Air Force to assess the long-term storage characteristics of water, particularly with regard to formation of particulate matter, so that the feasibility of long-term storage of water for...

E. M. V. Wall G. R. Janser

1980-01-01

50

General view looking eastsoutheast, water storage tank on right, receiver ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view looking east-southeast, water storage tank on right, receiver building in center, antenna array in rear - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Columbia Falls Radar Site Receive Sector Three Water Storage Tank, At the end of Shadagee Ridge Road, Columbia Falls, Washington County, ME

51

Alternatives for Water Basin Spent Fuel Storage Using Racked and Unracked Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spent fuel storage alternatives to conventional racking were: core plate storage, horizontal racks, stacked racks, and unracked storage. (1) The parameter that controls storage density in water basin spent fuel storage is the spacing between fuel assembli...

J. M. Viebrock P. E. Eggers

1979-01-01

52

Impact of bottled water storage duration and location on bacteriological quality.  

PubMed

An investigation studying the effects of storage duration and location on the persistence of heterotrophic microorganisms in oligotrophic bottled water environments has been completed. One-gallon high-density polyethylene water containers stored for up to 16 weeks at temperatures ranging from 2°C to >49°C in a refrigerator, indoor cabinet, covered porch, and car trunk were evaluated for microbiological quality. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) of up to 4 × 10(3) cfu/mL were detected in containers stored on a porch and car trunk; whereas, HPCs were found not to exceed 400 cfu/mL and 100 cfu/mL for bottles stored in indoor cabinets and refrigerators, respectively. Containers stored on an enclosed porch for up to seven years contained HPC of up to 4 × 10(4) cfu/mL. Logistic and Gompertz growth models predicted microbial growth rates for bottled water stored on a protected porch environment for long (R(2) 0.99) and short-term (R(2) 0.86) durations. PMID:22612550

Duranceau, Steven J; Emerson, Hilary P; Wilder, Rebecca J

2012-01-01

53

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of...weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of...number of wine gallons (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) or proof gallons of spirits...

2009-04-01

54

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of...weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of...number of wine gallons (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) or proof gallons of spirits...

2010-04-01

55

Ammonia-water low-temperature thermal storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of a low-temperature thermal storage system using an ammonia-water solution both as a refrigerant and as a low-temperature thermal storage material is considered. The thermal storage is usable at a temperature of -27 C and higher. The proposed system is designed to shift electric demand from high to low-demand periods. The system utilizes a heat-operated absorption refrigeration system;

J. J. Rizza

1998-01-01

56

Research of the heat storage time on solar water energy storage floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the base of the getting best action of the phase change material (PCM) properties, a new radiant heating structure of the energy storage floor by solar hot water is designed, which was to put heat pipes in PCM layer, without concrete in it. The PCM thermal storage time is mainly studied when the floor surface temperature is admired under

Lin Qiu; Yue Zou; Li Huang

2010-01-01

57

Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

2008-01-01

58

29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 104, mess hall in lower left, building 101, administration, recreation, and storage building in center, and building 103, non-commissioned officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far right, looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

59

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24

60

Experimental study of thermally stratified hot water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is determined experimentally for removing hot water from a storage tank and adding cold water to the tank while maintaining steep thermoclines. Results of experiments performed with two vertical plexiglass cylinders are reported which show that thermal stratification can be maintained in cylindrical water tanks even at very large flow rates; that stratification improves with increasing tank height\\/diameter

Z. Lavan; J. Thompson

1977-01-01

61

Cyclic Storage of Fresh Water in Saline Aquifers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The storage of fresh water in horizontal, confined saline aquifers is technically feasible. Experimental results with physical aquifer models involving single and multiple injection/production wells were used to verify computer programs for: Prediction of...

O. K. Kimbler R. G. Kazmann W. R. Whitehead

1975-01-01

62

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

63

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

64

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK (BUILDING 2824), WITH EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) AT LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

65

Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant

R. H. Ferris; B. P. Hildebrand; R. L. Hockey; D. M. Riechers; J. C. Spanner; D. R. Duncan

1993-01-01

66

Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-06-01

67

Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

2009-01-01

68

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE  

PubMed Central

[1]?A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world’s largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54???Ef???0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation.

Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

2013-01-01

69

Rethinking Water Scarcity: The Role of Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity, in its simplest sense, can be defined as a shortage in the availability of freshwater relative to demand. Freshwater shortages directly affect food security, access to safe drinking water, hygiene and public health, and environmental well-being. Water scarcity can also retard economic development and promote civil strife. Robust measures of water scarcity are therefore required to inform water policy and help allocate resources to mitigate these effects.

Taylor, Richard

2009-07-01

70

Survey for Water Content of Fuel Oil in Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey has been made of the water content of Navy Special Fuel Oil in various fuel storage tanks in the United States and Pacific Areas as part of a study to determine the contribution of sea water to the slagging problem. The results of this survey sho...

R. M. Roe E. E. Russ

1966-01-01

71

Legal Aspects of Water Storage for Flow Augmentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enabling legislation for storage of water in Federal reservoirs for supply purposes and quality control through low-flow augmentation includes the Water Supply Act of 1958, the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act, and the 1961 Amendment to the F...

W. E. Cox W. R. Walker

1970-01-01

72

Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect

The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

Not Available

2011-04-01

73

Performance of a hotel chilled water plant with cool storage  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive monitoring suite was installed at a large convention hotel located in San Francisco, CA. The instrumentation was used for a research project to evaluate the effectiveness of electricity price based controls that automate response to real time pricing and to characterize the operation and performance of the hotel's chilled water plant that included a newly installed ice cool storage system. The hotel operates under real-time electricity rates. To date, over four years of data have been collected. Data included electricity use for all chillers, secondary coolant, chilled water, condenser pumps, and the cooling tower fans. Thermal flow data were also collected for the storage system, ice chiller, direct cooling chillers, and chilled water load loops. This paper (1) describes the chilled water plant, (2) defines the performance measurement objectives for the project, (3) discusses operational experience with the plant, focusing on the cool storage system, (4) analyzes chilled water plant and cool storage system operation by examining the charge/discharge heat flow data, and (5) evaluates how well the plant as a whole and the cool storage system specifically met cooling loads of the facility, and how this affected their use.

Gillespie, K.L.; Blanc, S.L.; Parker, S.

1999-07-01

74

Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) involves injection and withdrawal of temperature-conditioned water into and from a permeable water-bearing formation. The purpose of this study was to assess ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics as they may affect the feasibility of ATES system development in any hydrologic region. It was determined that seven physical and chemical mechanisms may decrease system efficiency:

R. D. Allen; J. R. Raymond

1983-01-01

75

Water, gravity and trees: Relationship of tree-ring widths and total water storage dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water stored in the subsurface as groundwater or soil moisture is the main fresh water source not only for drinking water and food production but also for the natural vegetation. In a changing environment water availability becomes a critical issue in many different regions. Long-term observations of the past are needed to improve the understanding of the hydrological system and the prediction of future developments. Tree ring data have repeatedly proved to be valuable sources for reconstructing long-term climate dynamics, e.g. temperature, precipitation and different hydrological variables. In water-limited environments, tree growth is primarily influenced by total water stored in the subsurface and hence, tree-ring records usually contain information about subsurface water storage. The challenge is to retrieve the information on total water storage from tree rings, because a training dataset of water stored in the sub-surface is required for calibration against the tree-ring series. However, measuring water stored in the subsurface is notoriously difficult. We here present high-precision temporal gravimeter measurements which allow for the depth-integrated quantification of total water storage dynamics at the field scale. In this study, we evaluate the relationship of total water storage change and tree ring growth also in the context of the complex interactions of other meteorological forcing factors. A tree-ring chronology was derived from a Norway spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. Total water storage dynamics were measured directly by the superconducting gravimeter of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell for a 9-years period. Time series were extended to 63-years period by a hydrological model using gravity data as the only calibration constrain. Finally, water storage changes were reconstructed based on the relationship between the hydrological model and the tree-ring chronology. Measurement results indicate that tree-ring growth is primarily controlled by total water storage in the subsurface. But high uncertainties intervals of the correlation coefficient urges for the extension of the measurement period. This multi-disciplinary study, combining hydrology, dendrochronology and geodesy shows that temporal gravimeter measurements may give us the unique opportunity to retrieve the information of total water storage contained in tree-ring records to reconstruct total water storage dynamics. Knowing the relationship of water storage and tree-ring growth can also support the reconstruction of other climate records based on tree-ring series, help with hydrological model testing and can improve our knowledge of long-term variations of water storage in the past.

Creutzfeldt, B.; Heinrich, I.; Merz, B.; Blume, T.; Güntner, A.

2012-04-01

76

Arctic hillslope hydrologic response to changing water storage conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solute transport from terrestrial to aquatic environments depends on dynamics of water storage and flux. In the arctic, these dynamics are related to changes in permafrost and hydrological conditions that vary with climate across multiple scales. In order to predict the continued trajectory of arctic landscape and ecosystem evolution, observed changes to the hydrologic regime and riverine nutrient fluxes require properly scaled, mechanistic explanations. We address this issue at the hillslope scale by quantifying hydrologic response to changing storage as part of a collaborative effort to understand the coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic hillslopes. Hillslopes underlain by continuous permafrost experience gradual, summer-season increases in potential water storage through active layer thaw, as well as stochastic changes in available water storage as soil moisture conditions change due to storm events, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow. Preferential flowpaths called water tracks are ubiquitous features draining arctic hillslopes and are the focus of our study. We predict that water track hydrologic response to precipitation is a function of snowmelt or storm characteristics and available storage. We hypothesize that ¬the ratio of runoff to precipitation will decrease as available storage increases, whether due to the seasonal increase in active layer thaw, or an extended dry period. Intensive snow and thaw depth surveys on a water track on the hillslopes of the Upper Kuparuk River watershed in northern Alaska during May to June 2013 reveal that snow persisted one week longer in a water track than the adjacent hillslope, and thus active layer thaw initiated earlier on the adjacent hillslope. Despite this earlier thaw timing, thaw depth in the water track exceeded that on the non-track hillslope within five days of being uncovered. Thaw, and thus subsurface storage, in water tracks remained greater than the rest of the hillslope for at least the subsequent two months. Deeper thaw coupled with a slight topographic depression in the water tracks relative to the adjacent hillslopes generates a hydraulic gradient that directed water not only downslope, but also across slope into the water tracks. We expected that steeper hydraulic gradients across slope and into water tracks would increase hillslope soil water contributions and increase the specific conductivity of water flowing through the water track. We also expect hillslope contributions to scale with water track catchment characteristics such as drainage area and slope. We test these hypotheses by monitoring water table fluctuations in gridded wells on the hillslope and in our six intensive study sites throughout the summer. Our results provide direct evidence that active layer thaw and the timing and amount of precipitation are important controls on water and solute flux from arctic hillslopes. Depending on the magnitude of climate-induced changes to these controls, there will likely be important consequences for downslope ecosystems.

Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

2013-12-01

77

Nocturnal water storage in plants having Crassulacean acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of water uptake and transpiration, during the dark period of plants having Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) allow calculation of leaf-volume changes (?V). Nocturnal leaf-volume changes of CAM plants have also been reported in the literature on the basis of waterdisplacement measurements. A third way of estimation is from measurements of turgor changes and cellular water-storage capacity using the pressure

U. Lfittge

1986-01-01

78

Storage response of cactus pear fruit following hot water brushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage response of cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] following hot water brushing was investigated. Fruit were simultaneously brushed for spine removal and sprayed with water. Ranges of temperature (60–70°C) and treatment time intervals (10–30s) were evaluated. All tested treatments were found not to significantly affect respiration rate, total soluble solids or acid concentrations. Treatments at 60 and 65°C

Lydakis Dimitris; N. Pompodakis; E. Markellou; S. M. Lionakis

2005-01-01

79

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

80

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

81

Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hydrological studies of forested ecosystems focus on the study of the forest canopy and have partitioned gross precipitation into throughfall and stemflow. However, the presence of forest litter can alter the quantities of water available for soil infiltration and runoff. Little information exists regarding the value of storage and drainage parameters for litter layers. Vegetation parameters of this kind

A. Guevara-Escobar; E. Gonzalez-Sosa; M. Ramos-Salinas; G. D. Hernandez-Delgado

2007-01-01

82

EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

83

View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at left of image to Launch Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

84

32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building in center, and building 161, fallout shelter in lower right corner, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

85

Seismic response and fragility analysis of a water storage structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress analysis of a water storage structure has been carried out for static and seismic loading. Based on the stress analyses results, assessment of most likely failure modes for the structure caused by seismic event has been carried out. An attempt has been made to quantify the initial leakage rate and average emptying time for the structure during seismic event

Kapilesh Bhargava; A. K. Ghosh; S. Ramanujam

2005-01-01

86

Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

Compiled by Showen, C. R.

1978-01-01

87

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259...

2013-10-01

88

Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

Thomas, H. E.

1957-01-01

89

Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

1993-03-01

90

Experimental investigation on the use of water-phase change material storage in conventional solar water heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of water-phase change material (PCM) storage for use with conventional solar water heating systems. Paraffin wax contained in small cylindrical aluminum containers is used as the PCM. The containers are packed in a commercially available, cylindrical hot water storage tank on two levels. The PCM storage advantage is firstly demonstrated under

I. Al-Hinti; A. Al-Ghandoor; A. Maaly; Z. Al-Khateeb

2009-01-01

91

Experimental investigation on the use of water-phase change material storage in conventional solar water heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of water-phase change material (PCM) storage for use with conventional solar water heating systems. Paraffin wax contained in small cylindrical aluminum containers is used as the PCM. The containers are packed in a commercially available, cylindrical hot water storage tank on two levels. The PCM storage advantage is firstly demonstrated under

I. Al-Hinti; A. Al-Ghandoor; A. Maaly; I. Abu Naqeera; Z. Al-Khateeb; O. Al-Sheikh

2010-01-01

92

Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. PMID:23262407

Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

2013-01-30

93

Solar water-heating performance evaluation-San Diego, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes energy saved by replacing domestic, conventional natural gas heater with solar-energy subsystem in single-family residence near San Diego, California. Energy savings for 6 month test period averaged 1.089 million Btu. Collector array covered 65 square feet and supplied hot water to both 66-gallon solar storage tank and 40-gallon tank for domestic use. Natural gas supplied house's auxiliary energy.

1981-01-01

94

SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

95

Arctic terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE satellite estimates and a land surface hydrology model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental water storage plays a key role in the global hydrological cycle. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has provided a basis for estimating spatial and temporal variations of terrestrial water storage over areas order of 105 km2. These estimates show strong interseasonal and interannual variations in terrestrial water storage at high latitudes, which are

F. Su; D. Alsdorf; C. Shumb; D. Lettenmaier

2008-01-01

96

Improved methodologies for modeling storage and water level behavior in wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands are important elements of watersheds that influence water storage, surface water runoff, groundwater recharge\\/discharge processes, and evapotranspiration. To understand the cumulative effect wetlands have on a watershed, one must have a good understanding of the water-level fluctuations and the storage characteristics associated with multiple wetlands across a region. An improved analytical method is presented to describe the storage characteristics

Kenneth Allan Nilsson

2010-01-01

97

Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

French, James J.

1978-01-01

98

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the tox...

J. B. Pickett H. L. Martin G. A. Diener

1992-01-01

99

Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of five homosporeous species of ferns and compared with properties of pollen, seeds, and fern

Daniel Ballesteros; Christina Walters

2007-01-01

100

Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs: biotic and abiotic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lands of the Mediterranean basin of European Union have been abandoned in the last decades and consequently vegetation type changes too. This modifies hydrologic processes, changing the volume and the way in which the rainfall reaches the soil. To predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be

Pablo Garcia-Estringana; Jesús Alegre

2010-01-01

101

Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239  

SciTech Connect

The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

Chou, P

2011-12-14

102

Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite–water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption cold storage has lately attracted attention for its large storage capacity and zero cold energy loss during the storing process. Thermodynamic and experimental studies on the cold storage capacity and the cold discharging process, in which the adsorber is either air cooled or adiabatic, have been presented. An adsorption cold storage system with zeolite–water working pair has been developed,

Y. Z. Lu; R. Z. Wang; M. Zhang; S. Jiangzhou

2003-01-01

103

Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

Milly, P. C. D.

1994-01-01

104

History of Prototype High Level Waste Canister SS-9 While in Air and Water Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Canister SS-9 was filled with high-level phosphate ceramic waste material in March 1969. Following 1.2 years water storage at 50 exp 0 C, 3.5 years hot air storage at 400 to 500 exp 0 C, and 10 months water storage at 50 exp 0 C, the canister failed. The ...

D. J. Bradley

1977-01-01

105

Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is understood about how storage of water on forest canopies varies during rainfall, even though storage changes intensity of throughfall and thus affects a variety of hydrological processes. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments using varying intensities yielded a better understanding of dynamics of rainfall storage on woody vegetation. Branches of eight species generally retained more water at

R. F. Keim; A. E. Skaugset; M. Weiler

2006-01-01

106

Effect of domestic storage tanks on the quality of drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation covering 12 districts of Baghdad city was conducted over 2 yr to monitor the effect of domestic storage practice on the quality of drinking water. Water storage tanks are widely used in Iraq as an additional water source. Tap and stored waters were tested for their chemical constituents i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd,

I. M. Jawad; M. R. Al-Ghazali; M. S. H. Khorshid

1988-01-01

107

Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms in GIS, potential water storage sites are identified for constructing regional reservoirs. Subsequently, sites are prioritized based on runoff generation potential (m3 per unit area), and geographical suitability for constructing storage structures. The results from the spatial analysis are used as input for the optimization model. Allocation of resources and appropriate dimension for dams and associated structures are identified using the optimization model. The model evaluates the capability of alternative reservoirs for cost-efficient water management. The Geographic Information System is used to store, analyze, and integrate spatially explicit and non-spatial attribute information whereas the algebraic modeling platform is used to develop the dynamic optimization model. The results of this methodology are validated over space against satellite remote sensing data and existing data on reservoir capacities and runoff. The method is suitable for application of on-farm water storage structures, water distribution networks, and moisture conservation structures in a global context.

Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

2010-05-01

108

Following the Water: A Controlled Study of Drinking Water Storage in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. Objectives We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. Methods We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. Results We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Conclusions Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important.

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

2008-01-01

109

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOEpatents

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07

110

Behaviour of metals during reclaimed water aquifer storage and recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a valuable resource management tool, storing available water, such as surface water or wastewater, for reuse when required. A full-scale ASR trial at Bolivar, South Australia, investigates the feasibility of harvesting and storing treated wastewater for irrigation in the neighbouring horticultural region, thus relieving pressure on groundwater resources and reducing the discharge of nutrient rich effluent to coastal waters. This paper investigates the impact of this reclaimed water ASR trial on the behaviour of iron, manganese, arsenic, aluminium, zinc, nickel and strontium, and the resultant recovered water quality. Subsurface transport can offer water quality improvements through attenuation of injected contaminants but can also release or mobilise metals, thus degrading water quality. At Bolivar, the ASR well is open over the entire depth of the target tertiary, confined limestone aquifer, approximately 100 to 170 metres below ground surface. Water quality changes are observed at 4 m and 50 m observation wells and in recovered water from the ASR well. The reclaimed water injectant has undergone conventional secondary treatment, dissolved air flotation and filtration and chlorination, and has variable composition throughout the 250 ML injection period. Iron, manganese, zinc and aluminium are injected in concentrations exceeding that of the native groundwater and removal is evident within 4 m of aquifer passage. Injected strontium is considerably lower than the native signature and mixing results in a marginal increase in the recovered level of strontium. Arsenic and nickel are injected at concentrations comparable to the native groundwater and while nickel shows little change with aquifer passage, arsenic increases slightly (0.0002 mmol/L) within 4 m aquifer passage. There is evidence of increased aluminium (0.05 mmol/L) in the most permeable zone of the aquifer (134-139 m) during both injection and recovery, but this is not seen in water recovered over the entire aquifer depth from the ASR well (<0.005 mmol/L). Peak concentrations of iron (0.18 mmol/L), manganese (0.011 mmol/L) and arsenic (0.0010 mmol/L) are evident in a strongly reducing environment surrounding the ASR well during the storage period but decline rapidly upon the commencement of recovery. Arsenic in the recovered water remains around 0.0002 mmol/L higher than injected, consistent with the concentrations at 4 m from the ASR well. Overall, the recovered water quality indicates that the ASR cycle is effective in decreasing the concentration of iron, manganese, zinc and aluminium in the reclaimed water injectant, with marginal increases in strontium and arsenic. Injected concentrations, with the exception of iron, meet the Australian irrigation water guidelines and remain within these guidelines in the recovered water (including iron), following the first 3 ML of recovery. Recovered concentrations predominantly meet the Australian drinking water guidelines for manganese, aluminium, zinc and nickel.

Vanderzalm, J.; Le Gal La Salle, C.; Hutson, J.; Dillon, P.

2003-04-01

111

Modelling the operation of a solar hot water installation with a storage tank containing two thermal energy storage media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a solar hot water installation may be dramatically improved by placing elements with substances which undergo phase changes accompanied by significant heat effects in the water tank. In this article the authors provide a mathematical description of a hot water installation with two storage media. The authors experimentally verified a mathematical model of a tank for a

Zbyslaw Pluta; Ryszard Wnuk; Maciej Jaworski

1993-01-01

112

Simulation of Streamflow and Wetland Storage, Starkweather Coulee Subbasin, North Dakota, Water Years 1981-1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to simulate streamflow and wetland storage within a part of the Starkweather Coulee subbasin. Information on streamflow and wetland storage in Starkweather Coulee subbasin may help with the management of water issues in the Devils La...

K. C. Vining

2002-01-01

113

Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.  

PubMed

"Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system. PMID:19938804

Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

2010-03-01

114

Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

1982-01-01

115

Storage Study Team Technical Information and Hydrologic Analysis for Plan Formulation (A Component of Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study, Washington).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation's Yakima River Basin Water Storage Study Team has prepared this 'Technical Information and Hydrologic Analysis' to document the studies conducted for the Plan Formulation Phase (Phase 3) of the Yakima River Basin Water Storage Fe...

2006-01-01

116

Perspectives on reservoir storage and the global water cycle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage of water in man-made reservoirs is an important term in the global hydrological cycle. The total capacity of reservoirs globally has been estimated at 6000-8000 km3, or slightly less than 20% of annual river runoff to the oceans. The dynamics of reservoir storage at global, or even continental, scales is not well known, but rough estimates suggest that its interseasonal and interannual variability could be very roughly ¼ - 1/2 that of soil moisture. Yet aside from the very largest global reservoirs (which account for about 15% of total global capacity), and a few countries (e.g., USA) from which at least some reservoir storage data are publically available, information about global reservoir dynamics is surprisingly scarce. This is the case even though over the second half of the 20th Century, filling of reservoirs globally is estimated to have had a negative effect on sea level rise of as much as 0.5 mm/yr, reducing the amount of sea level rise that otherwise would have occurred by about 20%. Yet, as reservoir construction rates have slowed globally, and reservoir infilling by sedimentation has occurred, there no longer is consensus even as to the sign of the reservoir effect on sea level rise. In this overview talk, I review the potential for remote sensing, current and future, to provide better information about the role of reservoirs in the global water cycle, as well as the potential for modeling to provide and/or augment in situ and remote sensing data.

Lettenmaier, D. P.

2013-12-01

117

A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

present a quantitative approach for measuring hydrological drought occurrence and severity based on terrestrial water storage observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied by calculating the magnitude of the deviation of regional, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies from the time series' monthly climatology, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Monthly deficits explicitly quantify the volume of water required to return to normal water storage conditions. We combine storage deficits with event duration to calculate drought severity. Drought databases are referenced to identify meteorological drought events in the Amazon and Zambezi River basins and the southeastern United States and Texas regions. This storage deficit method clearly identifies hydrological drought onset, end, and duration; quantifies instantaneous severity and peak drought magnitude; and compares well with the meteorological drought databases. It also reveals information about the hydrological effects of meteorological drought on regional water storage.

Thomas, Alys C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew

2014-03-01

118

Dynamic of Water Teansport in Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) Plant - Relationship between Water Transport Regulation and Water Storage Capacity in the Diurnal Water Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of economical water transport in napiergrass were investigated with respect to water transport regulation by the nodal stem and a water storage capacity (WSC), partly compensation for transpiration wlth water in the plant. Changes in leaf photosynthesis after plant excisions suggested that water transport to the leaves was mainly regulated by the nodal stem in the morning and

Kiyoshi NAGASUGA

119

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

120

Fresh water generation from aquifer-pressured carbon storage: Feasibility of treating saline formation waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brines up to 85,000 ppm total dissolved solids produced during Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations may be used as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies via reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the injection of carbon dioxide can provide all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine from

Roger D. Aines; Thomas J. Wolery; William L. Bourcier; Thomas Wolfe; Chris Hausmann

2011-01-01

121

Impact of Reservoirs on GRACE Water Storage Estimates, Implications for Tigris-Euphrates and other regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes in basins globally, the impact of spatial distribution of mass storage within a basin is generally ignored. In this study, we evaluate the effects of concentrated masses from surface water reservoirs on basin scale estimates of water storage changes using numerical experiments and applications to different basins. While the spatial extent of reservoirs is much less than GRACE resolution, reservoir storage may represent a large fraction of storage changes in some basins. Results show that assuming uniform mass distribution for reservoirs may lead to underestimation or overestimation of basin water storage by up to a factor of two depending on reservoir location and extent within a basin. Several basins were examined including the Tigris-Euphrates and the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) basins, where availability of reservoir volume variations from satellite altimetry allows computation of their impact on GRACE water storage changes. Reservoirs are concentrated towards the basin center in the Tigris Euphrates basin, resulting in underestimation of seasonal variations and trends in water storage by a factor of 1.9 when reservoir storage is assumed to be uniformly distributed. Accurate representation of location and spatial extent of reservoirs indicates that changes in reservoir storage account for ~50% of total water storage decline during the drought from 2007 to 2010. Lake Nasser located near the edge of the Lower Nile Basin results in overestimation of water storage changes by a factor of two when a uniform mass distribution is assumed. In this desert region, volume variations in Lake Nasser account for ~ 95% of the seasonal water storage variations observed by GRACE. Accurate estimation of the impact of surface water on water storage changes is important, especially when extracting groundwater contribution from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of irregular water storage distributions is significant, GRACE based estimates of water storage changes will be improved when independent a priori information on reservoir water storages from other satellites (for e.g. upcoming SWOT satellite) can be used during GRACE processing.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Cretaux, J.

2012-12-01

122

Ground-water recharge to and storage in the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Guilford County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground- water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Guilford County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground- water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 15 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an anlytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quantity of ground water in storage also are described. Guilford County covers approximately 658 square miles in the central part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 347,420; approximately 21 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies all of the county. Under natural conditions, recharge to the ground-water system in the county is derived from infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 19 gaging stations that measure streamflow within or from Guilford County were analyzed to produce daily estimates of ground-water recharge in 15 drainage basins and subbasins in the county. The recharge estimates were further analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term recharge rates, as well as recharge duration statistics. Mean annual recharge in the 15 basins and subbasins ranges from 4.03 to 9.69 inches per year, with a mean value of 6.28 inches per year for all basins. In general, recharge rates are highest for basins in the northern and northwestern parts of the county and lowest in the southern and southeastern parts of the county. Median recharge rates in the 15 basins range from 2.47 inches per year (184 gallons per day per acre) to 9.15 inches per year (681 gallons per day per acre), with a median value of 4.65 inches per year (346 gallons per day per acre) for all basins. The distribution of recharge rates in the county suggests a correlation between recharge rates and hydrogeologic units (and derived regolith). The highest recharge estimates occur in the northwestern part of Guilford County in basins unlain by felsic igneous intrusive rocks and lesser areas of metasedimentary rocks. Recharge estimates in this area range from 6.37 to 9.33 inches per year. Basins in the southwestern, central, and northeastern parts of the county are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, and recharge estimates range from 5.32 to 5.51 inches per year. In the extreme southern and southeastern parts of the county, the lower Deep River subbasin and the lower Haw River subbasins have the lowest estimated recharges at 4.15 and 4.03 inches per year, respectively. Although the areas of these subbasins that lie within Guilford County are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, the larger part of these subbasins lies south and southeast of Guilford County in areas underlain by hydrogeologic units of metavolcanic origin. The distribution of recharge rates in the study area is almost the reverse of the distributio

Daniel, C. C., III; Harned, D. A.

1998-01-01

123

Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water

Hyung-Joon Ahn; Jae-Hun Lee; Young-Seok Bang; Hho-Jung Kim

2002-01-01

124

Ground-Water Storage in the Johnson Valley Area, San Bernardino County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area was evaluated to find (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality...

J. J. French

1978-01-01

125

Influence of fallowing practices on soil water and precipitation storage efficiency in semiarid Aragon (NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of long fallowing (16–18 months) for soil water conservation has been questioned in semiarid drylands of Central Aragon. We quantify the soil water loss, soil water storage (SWS) and precipitation storage efficiency (PSE) of long fallow under three management systems (conventional tillage; reduced tillage; no-tillage). The precipitation storage efficiency of long fallow relative to short fallow (5–6 months)

D. Moret; J. L. Arrúe; M. V. López; R. Gracia

2006-01-01

126

GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not a major factor. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO observations.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

2012-10-01

127

How Much becomes CO² From a Gallon of Gas?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, students calculate precisely how much carbon dioxide is in a gallon of gasoline. A student worksheet provides step-by-step instructions as students calculate the production of carbon dioxide. The investigation is supported the textbook "Climate Change," part of "Global System Science," an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

128

Experimentally determined water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace amounts of hydrogen dissolved as defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) in the mantle are believed to play a key role in physical and chemical processes in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hence, the estimation of water storage in mantle phases and solubility mechanisms are important in order to better understand the effect of water. Experimental data on water solubility in NAMs are available for upper mantle minerals such as olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. However, the majority of studies are based on the study of single phases, and at temperatures or pressures that are too low for the Earth’s upper mantle. The aim of this study is to constrain the combined effects of pressure, temperature and composition on water solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene under upper mantle conditions. The solubility of water in coexisting orthopyroxene and olivine was investigated by simultaneously synthesizing the two phases at high pressure and high temperature in a multi-anvil press. Experiments were performed under water-saturated conditions in the MSH systems with Fe and Al at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 9 GPa and temperatures between 1175 and 1400°C. Integrated OH absorbances were determined using polarized infrared spectroscopy on doubly polished thin sections of randomly oriented crystals. Water solubility in olivine increases with pressure and decreases with temperature as has been described previously (Bali et al., 2008). The aluminum content strongly decreases in olivine with pressure from 0.09 wt% at 2.5 GPa and 1250°C to 0.04 wt% at 9 GPa and 1175°C. The incorporation of this trivalent cation in the system enhances water solubility in olivine even if present in trace amounts, however this behavior appears to reverse at high pressure. The effect of temperature on water solubility follows a bell-shaped curve with a maximum solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene at 1250°C. Aluminum is incorporated in orthopyroxene following the Tschermak substitution and strongly decreases as pressure increases. Water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine is always lower than 1 except at low pressure. However, it increases with the incorporation of aluminum wich results in water contents in olivine 5 times greater that in orthopyroxene at 7.5 GPa, despite aluminum preferentially entering into orthopyroxene. Finally, water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine decreases with pressure in the Al-free and -bearing system. The effect of temperature is more variable with pressure. The present data allows constructing a model of water solubility in olivine at all pressures and temperatures in the MFASH system. Combining this model with the presently measured partitioning of water between olivine and orthopyroxene, as well as previous data on solubility in clinopyroxene and garnet we are able to build a model of water saturation curve in the upper mantle. References Bali, E., Bolfan-Casanova, N., Koga, K.T., 2008. Pressure and temperature dependence of H solubility in forsterite : an implication to water activity in the Earth interior. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 268, 354-363.

Ferot, A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.

2010-12-01

129

Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

2012-04-01

130

Criticality evaluations of scrambled fuel in water basin storage  

SciTech Connect

Fuel stored underwater in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant basins has been subjected to the usual criticality safety evaluations to assure safe storage configurations. Certain accident or emergency conditions, caused by corrosion or a seismic event, could change the fuel configuration and environment to invalidate previous calculations. Consideration is given here to such contingencies for fuel stored in three storage basins. One basin has fuel stored in racks, on a generally flat floor. In the other two basins, the fuel is stored on yokes and in baskets suspended from a monorail system. The floor is ribbed with 30.48-cm-thick and 80-cm-high concrete barriers across the basin width and spaced 30.48 cm apart. The suspended fuel is typically down to 15 cm above the floor of the channel between the concrete barriers. These basins each have 29 channels of 18 positions maximum per channel for a total of 522 possible positions, which are presently 77 and 49% occupied. The three basins are hydraulically interconnected. Several scenarios indicate possible changes in the fuel configuration. An earthquake could rupture a basin wall or floor, allowing the water to drain from all basins. All levels of water would fall to the completely drained condition. Suspended fuel could drop and fall over within the channel. Corrosion might weaken the support systems or cause leaks in sealed fuel canisters. Calculations were made with the KENO-IV criticality program and the library of mostly Hansen-Roach 16-energy-group neutron cross sections.

Fast, E.

1989-01-01

131

Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

1980-01-01

132

Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

1980-03-01

133

Comparison of Seasonal Water Storage Variations with Terrestrial Water Storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Over the High Plains Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Plains aquifer provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate water-storage changes provided by the GRACE satellite because of its large areal extent (450,000 km2), dense well network (~ 2,700 wells with seasonal groundwater-level observations), and large changes in water storage caused by irrigation pumpage. Much of the High Plains is internally drained into ephemeral lakes or playas (~ 58,000

G. Strassberg; B. Scanlon; G. Niu; Z. Yang; M. Rodell

2006-01-01

134

Final Planning Report/Environmental Impact Statement Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study Benton, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Yakima River Basin Water Storage Fesibility Study (Storage Study), as authorized by the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2003, Public Law 108-7, examines the feasibility and acceptability of storage augmentation for the benefit of fish, irrigation, and f...

D. Kaumheimer D. Sandison

2008-01-01

135

Characterization of surface water storage changes in Arctic lakes using simulated SWOT measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will measure freshwater storage changes in global lakes. Herein, the anticipated SWOT storage change accuracy is evaluated for the lakes in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Northern Alaska and Western Siberia. Because of the significant lack of Arctic lake measurements, we simulated realistic daily to seasonal changes in water elevations in the

Hyongki Lee; Michael Durand; Hahn Chul Jung; Doug Alsdorf; C. K. Shum; Yongwei Sheng

2010-01-01

136

Evaluating the Relative Variability of Lake and Wetland Storage in the Global Water Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic investigations commonly stem from the analysis of observed or simulated river discharge which integrates processes upstream including snowpack and soil moisture storage. An understanding of the global water cycle, and in particular the land surface branch; however, requires consideration of all terms in the water budget, including storage in lakes, reservoirs and wetlands, which often is not represented in

E. A. Clark; V. R. Sridhar; D. P. Lettenmaier; C. M. Birkett; K. C. McDonald; L. C. Bowling

2004-01-01

137

Microhardness of resin cements in the intraradicular environment: Effects of water storage and softening treament  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo analyze the microhardness of four dual-cure resin cements used for cementing fiber-reinforced posts under the following conditions: after 7 days of storage in water, after additional 24h of immersion in 75% ethanol, and after 3 months of storage in water. Hardness measurements were taken at the cervical, middle and apical thirds along the cement line.

Ana Paula R. V. Pedreira; Luiz Fernando Pegoraro; Mario Fernando de Góes; Thiago Amadei Pegoraro; Ricardo Marins Carvalho

2009-01-01

138

Experimental investigation of the behavior of a solar still coupled with hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the solar still-storage tank system, designed and installed in Solar & other Energy Laboratory of NCSR “Demokritos”, is investigated through its operation under real conditions by keeping tank water temperature constant in different levels. The solar still is of greenhouse asymmetric type, the basin of which is in direct contact with a hot water storage tank as

K. Voropoulos; E. Mathioulakis; V. Belessiotis

2003-01-01

139

Solar water heaters with phase change material thermal energy storage medium: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent heat thermal energy storage is one of the most efficient ways to store thermal energy for heating water by energy received from sun. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of thermal energy storage incorporating with and without PCM for use in solar water heaters. The relative studies are classified on the basis of type of collector and the

Anant Shukla; D. Buddhi; R. L. Sawhney

2009-01-01

140

Techno-economic appraisal of an integrated collector\\/storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated collector\\/storage solar water heaters, due to their simple compact structure and inherent freeze protection, offer a promising approach for solar water heating in colder climates. Such a system, designed specifically for application at a Northern latitude, has been developed incorporating a heat retaining storage vessel mounted within a concentrating cusp reflector supported by a novel exo-skeleton framework. The performance

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2004-01-01

141

Solar Heating and Hot Water System Installed at Arlington Racquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar energy system consists of 2520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced-closed loop is a non-toxic antifreeze solution (50% water, 50% propylene glycol). The service hot water...

1981-01-01

142

Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs: biotic and abiotic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many lands of the Mediterranean basin of European Union have been abandoned in the last decades and consequently vegetation type changes too. This modifies hydrologic processes, changing the volume and the way in which the rainfall reaches the soil. To predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. Only 11% of publications have addressed this issue in shrubs. A technique for measuring in countryside interception loss, throughfall and stemflow in shrubs is reported. It allows expressing the results in relation to rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions for low intensity events. Simulated rainfall tests were also conducted in controlled conditions on 9 Mediterranean shrubs in order to assess the influence of varying anatomic and morphological features. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35 mm to 3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8 % to 26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30 to 260). Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. In this report, we discuss the ecological and hydrological significance of stemflow and the funneling ratio.

Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Alegre, Jesús

2010-05-01

143

Effect of the storage tank thermal insulation on the thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using CFD simulations. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data from literature, we propose a geometrical change allowing limiting the main disadvantage of this solar system which is its high night losses due to the non-insulated storage tank surface. A second 3D CFD model of an ICSSWH in which the storage tank is partially insulated is developed and three values of this tank thermal insulated fraction are studied. Numerical results show that the partially insulated tank based ICSSWH presents lower thermal losses during the night and this night thermal losses coefficient is reduced from 14.6 to 11.64 W K-1 for the tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/4. Similarly, the modified system presents the advantage of its lower thermal losses even during the day. Regarding the thermal production, it is seen that the modified system presents higher water temperature at night and that for all the tank thermal insulation fractions. Concerning the operation of this modified system during the day, the water temperature is lower during the day and that up to 16 h but the water temperature which achieves 324 K for the storage tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/8 still sufficiently high to satisfy a family hot water needs.

Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

2014-04-01

144

Trends in River Basin, Groundwater and Global Water Storage from GRACE (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its launch in 2002, the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission has provided new information on water storage variations on the continents, as well as in the ocean and on the ice sheets. As the mission approaches its eighth year of operation, interannual variations in water storage are becoming more clear, and important trends are beginning to emerge. Here we discuss the latest trends in river basin, continental and global water storage from the available GRACE data. We also discuss implications for water cycle acceleration and for surface and groundwater availability on land.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Chambers, D. P.; Nerem, R.; Rodell, M.; Swenson, S. C.; Velicogna, I.; Wahr, J. M.

2009-12-01

145

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06

146

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06

147

Estimating canopy water storage capacity: What do we really know?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The canopy water storage capacity - the amount of water which is retained in the canopy - is an important parameter of many interception models. Furthermore, recent research indicates that even continental-scale hydrological models can be sensitive to this parameter. Surprisingly, however, there is no standard method to estimate the canopy capacity. Instead, several methods coexist and the multitude of individual decisions involved in their application suggests that the calculation of the canopy capacity might be associated with substantial uncertainty. This problem motivated us to systematically assess several methods for the estimation of the canopy capacity for two forest stands: a 5-year old and a more than 130-year old secondary forest. Both forests differ greatly with respect to canopy structure and we can expect that these differences are reflected in the estimates of canopy capacities. In our analyses we compare the results of four different canopy capacity estimation methods and explore the consequences of several common decisions involved in calculating canopy capacities. We base our calculations on event-based throughfall and rainfall data. For each rain event and at each forest site we use data from 200 throughfall sampling points which were distributed randomly over a 1 ha area. Our preliminary results seem to corroborate the supposition that canopy capacities vary widely depending on the applied method. Given the application of high-quality throughfall datasets, the tested methods permitted the detection of differences in canopy capacities between the two contrasting forest stands. Yet, results of individual methods varied so widely that comparisons of canopy capacity estimates obtained with different methods seem to be problematic. Our results further indicate that some methods cannot cope with data containing drip points, which points at their limited physical basis.

Wietzke, Luzie M.; Zimmermann, Alexander

2014-05-01

148

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

1980-01-01

149

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

1980-08-01

150

Surface water storage independent equation for predicting furrow irrigation advance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple equation is developed to predict the advance rate of flow in furrows. The proposed equation does not use as inputs\\u000a the data required for estimating the surface storage. In previous surface storage independent models it is generally assumed\\u000a that the surface storage volume is negligible (compared with infiltrated volume). The proposed equation is derived by eliminating\\u000a the surface

John D. Valiantzas

2000-01-01

151

The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea  

PubMed Central

A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate of FLA and Acanthamoeba in domestic tap water was investigated in order to examine the role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination of contact lens storage cases. FLA and Acanthamoeba were identified in 97 (46.8%) and 16 (7.7%) of the 207 domestic tap water samples, respectively. There were no significant differences between the contamination rates of FLA in tap water according to the filtration plant of origin. No FLA was detected in the tap water directly supplied by the water purification plants. Water storage tanks appear to promote FLA colonization, including Acanthamoeba, in domestic tap water. This increases the risk of Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases as well as increasing the risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

Jeong, Hae Jin

2005-01-01

152

Collector cum storage solar water heaters with and without transparent insulation material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated collector–storage solar water heaters are less expensive and can offer the best alternative for domestic applications particularly to small families to meet hot water requirements. The top heat losses of such solar water heaters are quite high during the night and the temperature of stored hot water is considerably reduced unless covered with extra insulating cover in the

P. B. L. Chaurasia; John Twidell

2001-01-01

153

Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation potential in the presence of excess chlorine was measured. The role of mixing between injection water and ground water and the conservative or non-conservative behavior of trihalomethanes was studied by adding a conservative tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, to the injection water and monitoring its concentration in the extraction water. The potential for biodegradation of trihalomethanes by aquifer bacteria was assessed in laboratory experiments: Microcosms containing ground water or extraction water and sediment or concentrated bacteria were spiked with trihalomethanes, and the amount of trihalomethanes was monitored during an incubation period. The potential for sorption of trihalomethanes to aquifer sediments was assessed in laboratory experiments: Mixtures of sediment and water were spiked with trihalomethanes, and then the trihalomethane concentrations were measured after an equilibration period.

Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

2002-01-01

154

Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-03-01

155

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by

R. E. Beighley; Y. He; R. L. Ray; J. Guo; C. Shum

2009-01-01

156

Numerical simulation of experimental carbonated water injection (CWI) for improved oil recovery and CO 2 storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonated water injection (CWI) is a CO2-augmented waterflooding technique for improving oil recovery and CO2 storage. The oil recovery and CO2 storage benefits of CWI as compared to plain (conventional) waterflood in secondary and tertiary recovery modes were investigated experimentally and numerically through a series of coreflood experiments and detailed compositional simulation. A reservoir core, stock tank crude oil and

Nor Idah Kechut; Mahmoud Jamiolahmady; Mehran Sohrabi

2011-01-01

157

MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

158

Suboptimal on–off switching control strategies for chilled water cooling systems with storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of vapour compression refrigeration system is developed. The overall model consists of the following basic components: a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, an evaporative cooler and a cool storage. The integrated system is referred to as chilled water cooling system with storage (CWCS). The mathematical modelling of the CWC system undertaken in this study

Wei-Ling Jian; M. Zaheeruddin

1998-01-01

159

Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P) in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry) is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage, contamination, interference and analytical errors. Key issues identified include: The need to tailor analytical

Helen P. Jarvie; J. A. Withers; Colin Neal

2002-01-01

160

Performance of a collector-cum-storage type of solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper evaluates the performance of an inexpensive collector-cum-storage type of solar water heater which eliminates the extra cost of providing an insulated overhead tank for storage, does not use pipes, and is completely free from welded joints. The heater was tested in four different modes of operation over a wide range of climatic conditions. The energy loss from the

R. S. Chauhan; V. Kadambi

1976-01-01

161

Evaluating the Relative Variability of Lake and Wetland Storage in the Global Water Balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic investigations commonly stem from the analysis of observed or simulated river discharge which integrates processes upstream including snowpack and soil moisture storage. An understanding of the global water cycle, and in particular the land surface branch; however, requires consideration of all terms in the water budget, including storage in lakes, reservoirs and wetlands, which often is not represented in hydrologic models. Furthermore, direct observations of changes in these storage terms are scarce, especially at the global scale. Satellite observations provide an opportunity to incorporate information about fresh water surface storage into analyses of the water cycle at continental to global scales. We use a combination of direct measurements and modeling to evaluate the mean seasonal and interannual variability in fresh water surface storage over Africa. Satellite radar altimetry from Topex/POSEIDON for five major lakes in Africa (Nyasa, Tana, Tanganyika, Turkana and Victoria) over the period 1992-1999 is used to estimate the mean seasonal and interannual variability of large lake storage. We extend these observations to smaller water bodies using a lakes and wetland algorithm designed for use in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, and perform a 21-year simulation (1979-1999) over Africa. JERS synthetic aperture radar observations over western Africa, in combination with a global data set of reservoirs, wetlands and lakes, provide a basis for the generation of lake geometry profiles. As a point of comparison, we evaluate the mean seasonal and interannual variability for other major terms in the surface water balance as represented by a 21-year VIC global simulation at one-half degree spatial resolution. In particular, we calculate the variability of precipitation, evaporation, runoff, and storage change in the subsurface and in snow and glaciers across a variety of spatial scales from continental to grid cell. The analysis suggests that surface water storage plays an important role in the water cycle in comparison with other terms, such as soil moisture and snow that have received considerably more attention.

Clark, E. A.; Sridhar, V. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Birkett, C. M.; McDonald, K. C.; Bowling, L. C.

2004-05-01

162

Integrated Modeling Approach for Verifying Water Storage Services for a Payment for Environmental Service Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic models have been used for improved understanding of how an ecosystem's hydrologic response to human intervention and may provide substantial insight into the viability of payment for environmental services (PES) programs. Little is currently known about how hydrologic models can contribute to the design and evaluation of PES programs. Increased water storage is a desired environmental service (ES) for the Florida Everglades' watershed to reduce nutrient loads and excessive flows to lakes and estuaries in the region. We present monitoring and modeling results to verify the water storage PES for two ranch sites (wetland and watershed scales) located in the Northern Everglades region located north of the Lake Okeechobee (LO). Verification of the water storage PES using at least 3 years of hydrologic data was inconclusive due to variable rainfall during pre- and post-PES periods. An integrated surface and groundwater model, MIKE-SHE/MIKE11, was used to help verify the water storage service as well as predict ecological responses for different water storage scenarios (different levels of storage). The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using field measurements and was able to effectively simulate the surface and groundwater levels for the watershed (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency, NSE = 0.54 to 0.82) and for surface water levels within wetlands (NSE = 0.54 to 0.84). Scenario analyses for storage levels showed an inverse relationship between board heights for water control structures and flows at the watershed outlet. Changes in flow were marginal when board heights approached a maximum indicating movement of water into subsurface storage. Combining simulation results with field measurements showed reduced flows and increased subsurface storage (2 cm/yr.), a desired outcome for protecting LO and estuarine systems from excessive flows. Simulated wetland water levels were combined with LIDAR-based topography to predict inundation for wetlands at the two PES sites for exploring the addition of biodiversity related ES. Simulations showed that effects of increased storage on enhanced hydro-periods and biodiversity was limited to the wetlands close to the drainage ditches. Results for a variety of water management scenarios showed that modeling can be used as an effective tool for optimizing the ES for a desired PES scheme. Measured and predicted surface flows from watershed and wetland water levels for different scenarios are currently being combined with ecological measurements to develop hydro-ecological models that predict the effects of enhanced water storage on ecological diversity.

Hendricks, G.; Shukla, S.; Guzha, A. C.

2013-12-01

163

DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

164

DIARRHEA PREVENTION THROUGH HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL WATER DISINFECTION AND SAFE STORAGE IN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water quality intervention that consists of water treatment, safe storage, and community education was field tested in Kitwe, Zambia. A total of 166 intervention households were randomly selected from one community and 94 control households from another. Baseline surveys were conducted and the intervention was distributed. Weekly active diarrhea surveillance, biweekly water testing, and a follow-up survey were conducted.

ROBERT E. QUICK; AKIKO KIMURA; ANGELICA THEVOS; MATHIAS TEMBO; ISIDORE SHAMPUTA; LORI HUTWAGNER; ERIC MINTZ

2002-01-01

165

Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D 20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. The trees used in

F. C. MEINZER; J. R. BROOKS; J.-C. DOMEC; B. L. GARTNER; J. M. WARREN; D. R. WOODRUFF; K. BIBLE; D. C. SHAW

2006-01-01

166

SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

167

EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

168

Results of tests on a solar water heater with phase-change storage  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data are reported on a solar water heater with phase-change storage, which uses the solid-to-liquid phase transition. Crystalline salt hydrates were studied and efficiencies were determined. 2 references.

Trushevskii, S.N.; Trokhinin, N.N.; Chistyakov, V.D.

1981-01-01

169

43. ARAIII Water storage tank ARA709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. ARA-III Water storage tank ARA-709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow of ARA-611 at lower right corner of view. Ineel photo no. 3-18. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

170

Water storage capacitance and xylem tension in isolated branches of temperate and tropical trees.  

PubMed

Trees of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem-succulent species with low-density wood (< 0.5 g cm(-3)), which maintain high stem water potentials (psi(STEM) > -0.7 MPa) throughout the year, to "drought-tolerant" deciduous hardwood species (wood density > 0.75 g cm(-3)), which dehydrate strongly during seasonal drought (psi(STEM) < -6 MPa). In stem-succulent and other drought-avoiding species, xylem vessels are surrounded by extensive parenchyma providing intracellular water storage, whereas in deciduous species stem water storage is mainly extracellular. Thirteen tropical and two temperate tree species, representing different functional types, were studied. The contribution of stem water storage to these species' water use during water stress was determined by time-series analysis of dehydration and rehydration of excised leaf-bearing branches of these trees. During dehydration, stem water potential slowly declined 1-2 MPa in drought-avoiding species, but in deciduous species it rapidly fell 4-5 MPa, suggesting that water storage capacitance was related to xylem anatomy. After immersion of dehydrated, leafless branches in water, the decline in xylem tension and rate of water uptake during rehydration were linearly related, as predicted by application of Ohm's law to water flux. The decline of xylem tension during rehydration was biphasic, with a phase of rapid water uptake into extracellular spaces being followed by a prolonged phase of slow water uptake into living cells. The rate of water uptake during rehydration and the minima of leaf water potential observed in the field during the dry season were highly correlated with water storage capacitance, indicating that wood anatomy is a major determinant of drought adaptation. PMID:15687094

Borchert, Rolf; Pockman, William T

2005-04-01

171

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

172

Changes in water?soluble Mn due to soil sample preparation and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sample preparation and storage on levels of water?soluble Mn in 5 Mississippi soils were determined. Steam sterilization has the most pronounced effect followed by methyl bromide and various degrees of air?drying. In general, storage of soils in the moist or frozen condition will result in minimum changes in water?soluble Mn. However, expected changes are not predictable and

Lyle E. Nelson

1977-01-01

173

Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage volume changes. Ground-based data can, in some cases, test the remote sensing accuracy and precision. Data accuracy requirements vary for different applications: reservoir management for flood control, agriculture, or power generation may need more accurate and timely information than (for example) regional assessments of water and food security issues. Thus, the long-term goal for the hydrological sciences community should be to efficiently mesh both types of information and with as extensive geographic coverage as possible.

Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

2013-12-01

174

Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in examining scaling properties of the spatial patterns of soil water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the scaling properties of soil water storage is crucial in transferring locally measured fluctuations to larger scales and vice-versa. Studies based on remotely sensed data have shown that the variability in surface soil water has clear scaling properties (i.e., statistically self similar) over a wider range of spatial scales. However, the scaling property of soil water storage to a certain depth at a field scale is not well understood. The major challenges in scaling analysis for soil water are the presence of localized trends and nonstationarities in the spatial series. The objective of this study was to characterize scaling properties of soil water storage variability through multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). A field experiment was conducted in a sub-humid climate at Alvena, Saskatchewan, Canada. A north-south transect of 624-m long was established on a rolling landscape. Soil water storage was monitored weekly between 2002 and 2005 at 104 locations along the transect. The spatial scaling property of the surface 0 to 40 cm depth was characterized using the MFDFA technique for six of the soil water content series (all gravimetrically determined) representing soil water storage after snowmelt, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. For the studied transect, scaling properties of soil water storage are different between drier periods and wet periods. It also appears that local controls such as site topography and texture (that dominantly control the pattern during wet states) results in multiscaling property. The nonlocal controls such as evapotranspiration results in the reduction of the degree of multiscaling and improvement in the simple scaling. Therefore, the scaling property of soil water storage is a function of both soil moisture status and the spatial extent considered.

Biswas, A.; Zeleke, T. B.; Si, B. C.

2012-03-01

175

Final Boise/Payette Water Storage Assessment Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the arid west and southwestern Idaho, rapid urbanization of land previously used for agricultural purposes (including cropland, pasture, and dairies) has created water management challenges. Comprehensive water supply and water management incor...

2006-01-01

176

Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

Yager, R. M.; Fountain, J. C.

2001-01-01

177

Study of Disinfection By-Products and Long Term Storage of Drinking Water.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenges facing many of Alaska's communities is providing safe and reliable drinking water from sources containing high concentrations of natural organic material (NOM). These highly colored waters, locally referred to as "tundra tea," often result in the formation of disinfectant byproducts during treatment. Since surface water sources in the Arctic are often frozen for 6-9 months per year, communities are often forced to either store raw water for treatment during the winter or treat and store enough drinking water during the summer to last through the winter. Because long-term storage practices are somewhat unique to water treatment in the rural Northern communities, the practice has not been thoroughly studied and there is limited published information on how water quality is affected by extended storage. Anecdotal evidence and data collected by field engineers indicate that significant changes are occurring and that the quality of the treated water can be adversely impacted. The University of Alaska Small Drinking Water System Technical Assistance Center (ATTAC) is conducting fundamental and applied research to help Alaska's small communities provide safe and reliable drinking water. One research focus area is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in small drinking water systems. Studies to characterize the NOM present in Alaskan surface waters and demonstrations of NOM removal technologies have been have been conducted over the past several years. The study presented here examined the formation of disinfection by-products during long-term storage of water from five small Alaskan water systems. Results from this research suggest that long-term storage has a significant impact on DBP formation. The results suggest that the NOM escaping treatment is likely to react in the storage tank resulting in DBP concentrations that are well above the estimated DBP formation potential.

McGee, G.; White, D.; Garland, S.

2002-12-01

178

Solar assist for the lifting, purification and storage of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention utilizes distillation to purify water but instead of the usual application of heat to boil the water and then condense it, heat is applied to a relatively small quantity of water which is confined until it is superheated. When the pressure reaches a pre-set level the water is released allowing sudden expansion to a vapor to create a

1983-01-01

179

Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system’s performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland

Laura E. Kanagy; Brenda M. Johnson; James W. Castle; John H. Rodgers

2008-01-01

180

Solar Heating and Hot Water System Installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (5...

1981-01-01

181

Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (? = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets.

Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

2014-01-01

182

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

183

Understanding Surface Water Flow and Storage Changes Using Satellites: Emerging Opportunities for Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper overviews the monitoring of surface water flow and storage using satellites. The overview is cast in the context\\u000a of surface water-related problems of Bangladesh and South Asia. The paper then provides a basic introduction of a planned\\u000a space-borne mission for surface water called SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) mission suggested for launch in 2015.\\u000a The opportunities offered

Faisal Hossain; Douglas Alsdorf

184

Drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir during a period of extreme drawdown.  

PubMed

This study examined the drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir (Lake Hume) during a period of extreme drawdown (to less than 3% of capacity). During the period of extreme drawdown, the reservoir can be thought of as consisting of three separate but inter-related parcels of water. The warm surface mixed layer was about 6m deep. Cold water inflows from the Mitta Mitta River undershot the surface mixed layer in the Mitta Mitta arm of the reservoir and flowed along the bottom of the reservoir to the Dam Wall without substantial interaction with the surface mixed layer. When inflows from the Murray River occurred, the temperature of these inflows was similar to that of the surface mixed layer within the dam and the flows appeared to move within the surface mixed layer towards the Dam Wall. These Murray River inflows were insufficient to promote total mixing of the surface and bottom waters. The Murray River arm of the reservoir became a 'hot spot' for nutrient production. Stratification and subsequent anoxic conditions promoted the release of nutrients - ammonium, organic N and total P - from the sediments into the overlying hypolimnion. Because the depth of the lake was relatively shallow due to the extreme drawdown, wind driven events lead to a substantial deepening (turnover) of the thermocline allowing periodic pulses of nutrients into the warm surface layer. These nutrient pulses appeared to stimulate cyanobacterial growth. Warm inflows from the Murray River then served to push the blooms formed in the Murray arm into the main body of the lake. PMID:18804256

Baldwin, Darren S; Gigney, Helen; Wilson, Jessica S; Watson, Garth; Boulding, Amy N

2008-12-01

185

Estimating Water Storage in Prairie Wetlands from a LiDAR DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America contains millions of wetlands in shallow depressions that have potential to store a significant volume of surface water. Assessing and modeling the effect of wetland storage on streamflow requires accurate methods to quantify wetland water volume. Currently, many methods rely on utilizing the strong statistical relationships between area (A), volume (V), and

C. J. Westbrook; A. G. Minke; J. W. Pomeroy; X. Guo

2010-01-01

186

Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and

F. Grings; M. Salvia; H. Karszenbaum; P. Ferrazzoli; P. Kandus; P. Perna

2009-01-01

187

Storage of Fresh Water in Saline Aquifers Using a Well Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computational procedure presented should enable the practicing engineer to design well fields for storage of fresh water in horizontal saline aquifers in which there is no pre-existing ground-water movement. The recovery efficiency of the injection/st...

W. R. Whitehead

1974-01-01

188

Reliability assessment of water supply systems with storage and distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water supply system studied in this paper consists of a water treatment plant, a ground-level storage, a pumping station, and a distribution network in series. Expected served demand is employed to measure reliability taking into account both insufficient heads and flows at individual nodes in the network since it is the most important service level index provided to individual

Okitsugu Fujiwara; Tharmarajah Ganesharajah

1993-01-01

189

A Tool for Optimizing Unit Configuration of Heat Pump Water Heater System with a Storage Battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are one of the key technologies for reducing CO2 emissions from the household sector and must be downsized to expand their use in high density urban areas. Though the reduction of tank capacity is vital for downsizing HPWH, this often increases operation costs because it means heat pumps must boil water with expensive electricity during the day in order to avoid running out of hot water. Consequently, the development of a heat pump water heater with a storage battery (HPWH-SB) was investigated. In this paper, we develop an optimizing unit configuration tool that finds the optimal combination of heat pump, storage tank, and storage battery and estimate battery break-even point.

Tokoro, Ken-Ichi; Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuuichi

190

Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

2012-12-01

191

Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Swenson, S. C.; Milly, P. C. D.

2006-01-01

192

Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

Narayanan, M.

2009-12-01

193

Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

Brennan, Donna

2010-08-01

194

Review of issues on water storage in international development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is essential for all life is and occurs in various natural stores of the Earth’s hydrological cycle, including lakes, wetlands, rivers and aquifers. However, natural spatial and temporal variability in climate means that water of sufficient quantity and adequate quality is not always available for human needs (drinking, growing crops, generating power, supporting industry or maintaining ecosystem services, such

Michael C Acreman; Richard Harding; Caroline A Sullivan; Charles Stratford; Francis Farquharson; Gwyn Rees; Helen Houghton-Carr; Ian Gale; Roger Calow; Alan MacDonald; John Chilton

2009-01-01

195

GRACE-observed water storage deficits for hydrologic drought characterization, including recent U.S. droughts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a new quantitative framework for measuring the severity of hydrologic drought based on observations of terrestrial water storage deficits from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied for drought characterization by calculating the deviation of monthly-average terrestrial water storage anomalies from the regional climatological reference, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Each deficit conveys the volume of water that would be required to recover from a drought. Moreover, this finite deficit observation allows for the calculation of a likely time for recovery based on statistical percentiles of storage change distributions, for every month through the end of the event. To quantify event severity, we combine storage deficits with event duration. Substantial drought events are investigated for four study regions during the GRACE record: the Amazon and Zambezi basins, the Southern Plains, and the Southeastern United States A. Amazon, B. Zambezi, C. Southern Great Plains, and D. Southeastern United States: Regional, spatial average storage anomalies and deficits (km^3). Blue-shaded confidence bounds represent one standard deviation of the residual time series. Maps of study locations and area (km^2) are shown along the left panel.

Thomas, A. C.; Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rodell, M.

2013-12-01

196

A theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel built-in-storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel built-in-storage type solar water heater of about 87 l capacity has been investigated theoretically and experimentally for the case of no draw-off. The solar water heater which performs the dual function of absorbing and storing hot water is made of 5 pipes, each of length 1.8 m and diameter 12 cm. A baffle plate is

I. N. Kaptan; A. Kilic

1996-01-01

197

Measured performance and modeling of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage water heater was conducted in an indoor solar simulator. Useful collected energy, radiation-induced stratification and draw-induced mixing are characterized in eight trials in which test duration, initial tank water temperature, flow rate during withdrawal of heated water from the collector, withdrawal pattern and reflectance of the backplane were varied. All tests were performed

A. A. Mason; J. H. Davidson

1995-01-01

198

Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might partly explain the competitive position of babassu palms on pastures or secondary forests.

Germer, Sonja

2013-04-01

199

Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.  

PubMed

Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic ?-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) ?-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of ?-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

2011-12-01

200

Historical and Hypothetical Future Sedimentation and Water Storage in Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUMMARY Sedimentation has reduced water storage in Kajakai Reservoir. If current sedimentation rates continue, hypothetical future reservoir water volumes at the spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters could be reduced about 22 percent from 2006 to 2057. Even if the spillway elevation is raised to 1,045 meters, a severe drought could result in large multiyear irrigation-supply deficits in which reservoir water levels remain below 1,022 meters for more than 4 years. Hypothetical climate change and sedimentation could result in greater water-supply deficits. The chance of having sufficient water supplies in Kajakai Reservoir during the worst month is about 47 percent.

Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2008-01-01

201

Temporal changes in continental water storage from GRACE observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results on land hydrology based on the inversion of monthly GRACE geoids spanning over a 2-year period (mid-2002 to mid-2004).The method of separation we have developed is based on generalized least-squares inversion (Ramillien et al., 2004). It consists of solving for `water height equivalent' spherical harmonic coefficients of four separate fluid reservoirs (atmosphere, ocean, soil waters and snow)

A. Cazenave; G. Ramillien

2004-01-01

202

Economic analysis of air-conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or Styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

McMullen, B.J.; Papaprokopiou, N.D.

1981-09-01

203

The influence of ENSO on global surface water storage using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly time variable gravity data for the period January 2003 to December 2010 were used to study the influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on global water storage variations. The datasets were detrended and seasonal variations removed. We corrected for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment [Paulson, 2007] and used the Swenson and Wahr [2006] method to destripe the dataset before the monthly gravity map is smoothed using a 500km half-width. We then studied the relationship between GRACE land water storage and ENSO by correlating with the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). Our results indicate that the tropical regions show a strong negative correlation (Borneo: -0.78, Amazon Basin: -0.69) and, arid regions show a strong positive correlation (Patagonia: 0.63). Remote regions such as the south coast of Alaska (0.57) and the Southeast coast of Greenland (0.56) also show a positive correlation. The Amazon Basin shows an increase of 50cm water equivalent per 1 MEI per year, which Please complete the information below correlation. The Amazon Basin shows an increase of 50cm water equivalent per 1 MEI per year, which explains ~15% of its variability. The lower basin of the Indus River experiences an increase of 30cm (water equivalent) per 1 unit MEI per year, which corresponds to ~26% of its variability. ENSO effects the precipitation and water storage in Central and northern South America as well as in Southeast Asia simultaneously. Regions such as the Congo Basin and Greenland show a lag of up to 3 months. Our results demonstrate the strong capability of GRACE to detect ENSO teleconnections in global water storage that has the potential for contributing to projections of short term water storage for resource planning and management.

Phillips, T. P.; Nerem, R.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rajagopalan, B.

2011-12-01

204

Spatial variability of the subsurface water storage revealed by relative gravity measurements in Southwest Niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in water resources research is to document the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrological processes over short time and space scales. Indeed, the quality of model predictions for resource assessment is dependent on reliable datasets, representative of the hydrological regime and its variations. This issue is particularly sensitive in Sahelian Africa, where available hydrological datasets are scarce. In this study, the variability of the water storage was investigated at the subcatchment scale (< 1km) by an intensive microgravity field campaign. Weekly microgravity surveys were carried out in a small endoreic catchment in Southwest Niger, during three months of the rainy season in 2009. Gravity measurements were performed at 16 stations located near a temporary pond, where rapid infiltration towards the aquifer occurs. The highest (63 ?Gal) gravity signal was measured on a station located above the pond and is well explained by the direct effect of the pond water volume changes throughout the wet season. Gravity signals of smaller amplitude (? 22 ?Gal) were measured in the pond surroundings and coupled to hydrodynamic data (pond level, soil moisture and water table level) to evaluate the intraseasonal variability of the water storage in the vicinity of the pond. The gravity signals related to the water storage in the subsurface exhibits a significant spatial variability. The heterogeneity of the water storage in the vadose zone appears as the main reason for the dispersion of the gravity values at local scale. This experiment evidences the ability of time lapse microgravity survey to detect the spatial variations of the water storage at intraseasonal scale in Sahelian Africa. Combined with hydrodynamic data, such a spatially distributed dataset may be a useful tool to calibrate or validate hydrological models and should be taken into account for scaling issue such as satellite gravimetry validation.

Pfeffer, J.; Champollion, C.; Favreau, G.; Hinderer, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Mouyen, M.; Boucher, M.; Nazoumou, Y.; Oi, M.; Robert, O.; Le Moigne, N.; Deroussi, S.; Demarty, J.; Benarrosh, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.

2011-12-01

205

Studying unsaturated epikarst water storage properties by time lapse surface to depth gravity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of water storage in the unsaturated zone in karstic areas is particularly challenging. Indeed, water flow path and water storage occur in quite heterogeneous ways through small scale porosity, fractures, joints and large voids. Due to this large heterogeneity, it is therefore difficult to estimate the amount of water circulating in the vadose zone by hydrological means. One indirect method consists to measure the gravity variation associated to water storage and withdrawal. Here, we apply a gravimetric method in which the gravity is measured at the surface and at depth on different sites. Then the time variations of the surface to depth (STD) gravity differences are compared for each site. In this study we attempt to evaluate the magnitude of epikarstic water storage variation in various karst settings using a CG5 portable gravimeter. Surface to depth gravity measurements are performed two times a year since 2009 at the surface an inside caves at different depths on three karst aquifers in southern France : 1. A limestone site on the Larzac plateau with a vadose zone thickness of 300m On this site measurements are done on five locations at different depths going from 0 to 50 m; 2. A dolomitic site on the Larzac plateau (Durzon karst aquifer) with a vadose zone thickness of 200m; Measurements are taken at the surface and at 60m depth 3. A limestone site on the Hortus karst aquifer and "Larzac Septentrional karst aquifer") with a vadose zone thickness of only 35m. Measurements are taken at the surface and at 30m depth Therefore, our measurements are used in two ways : First, the STD differences between dry and wet seasons are used to estimate the capacity of differential storage of each aquifer. Surprisingly, the differential storage capacity of all the sites is relatively invariant despite their variable geological of hydrological contexts. Moreover, the STD gravity variations on site 1 show that no water storage variation occurs beneath 10m depth, suggesting that most of the differential storage is taken by the epikarst. Second, we use STD gravity differences to determine the effective density values for each site. These integrative density values are compared to measured grain densities from core samples in order to obtain the apparent porosity and saturation representative to the investigated volume. We then discuss the relation between the physical characteristic of each non-saturated zone and its water storage capacity. It seems that epikarst water storage variation is only weakly related to lithology. We also discuss the reasons for specific water storage in the epikarst. Because epikarst water storage has been claimed to be a general characteristic of karst system, a gravimetric approach appears to be a promising method to verify quantitatively this hypothesis.

Deville, S.; Champollion, C.; chery, J.; Doerflinger, E.; Le Moigne, N.; Bayer, R.; Vernant, P.

2011-12-01

206

How to choose capacity of storage tank to utilize water on windless days  

SciTech Connect

As wind flow is not constant throughout the month or year and varies from season to season and from time to time in a day, a storage tank (or reservoir) is essential to supplement water to the field on calm days. In this paper the storage capacity required at two places, namely, Veeraval and Jamnagar in Gujarat State is discussed. The first prerequisite to know the suitability of the windmill size at particular place is the diameter of the windmill which should match the monthly required energy for lifting water.

Jugadeesh, A.

1983-12-01

207

Solid-water interaction in liquid storage tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with ground-supported cylindrical storage tanks vibrating in an axisymmetric manner. A study has been made of the significance of horizontal excitations on the dynamic pressure distributions associated with the sloshing and bulging modes. These pressures have been calculated by using a previously obtained functional. Steel, aluminium and concrete tanks are included to study the effect of these typical tank materials. Only linear, elastic behaviour of the tank materials has been considered. The principal conclusions of the study are that reinforced concrete tanks are more susceptible to higher dynamic pressures than steel or aluminium tanks, and that the maximum dynamic pressure developed in partially filled tanks may be more critical than those for the same tank at maximum capacity.

Gupta, R. K.; Hutchinson, G. L.

1989-12-01

208

Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with the Great Lakes. The objective of this study is to examine the detectability of the groundwater storage change within the GLB using the monthly models from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, auxiliary soil moisture, snow and lake (SMSL) data, and predictions from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. A two-step filtering method is developed to optimize the extraction of GRACE signal. A two dimensional basin window weight function is also introduced to reduce ringing artifacts caused by the band-limited GRACE models in estimating the water storage change within the GLB. The groundwater storage (GWS) as deviation from a reference mean storage is estimated for the period of 2002 to 2009. The average GWS of the GLB clearly show an annual cycle with an amplitude range from 27 to 91 mm in water thickness equivalent (WTE), and a phase range of about two months. The estimated phases of GWS variations have a half year shift with respect to the phase of SMSL water storage variations which show peaks in March and April. The least squares estimation gives a GWS loss trend of from 2.3 to 9.3 km3/yr within the GLB for the period of study. This wide range of the GRACE GWS results is caused largely by the differences of soil moisture and snow storage from different land surface models (LSMs), and to a lesser extent by the GRACE commission and omission errors, and the GIA model error.

Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T. S.; Rivera, A.

209

Environmental Conditions in Water Storage Drums and Influences on Aedes aegypti inTrinidad, West Indies  

PubMed Central

Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Continuous surface water temperatures were also recorded. Nutrient concentrations were considerably lower than those reported for other container breeding mosquitoes. No nutrient measured differed in concentration between drums positive compared to those that were negative for the presence of Aedes aegypti larvae. Levels of SRP and ammonium in steel drums were significantly lower than in plastic water drums. Both maximum and minimum surface temperatures were significantly lower in drums positive for the presence of larvae than in drums without larvae. Water temperatures in March and May were warmer than during October sampling periods. Larval presence is likely dependent upon the interaction among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Despite appearance, not all water storage drums are equally suitable for Aedes aegypti development. Exposing water storage drums to direct sunlight or increased heat may be used in conjunction with sealing containers to reduce production of Aedes aegypti when draining and chemical treatment are impractical.

Hemme, Ryan R.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Chadee, Dave D.; Severson, David W.

2014-01-01

210

Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.  

PubMed

Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. PMID:24629940

Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

2014-08-01

211

Total water storage in Washington, Oregon, and California inferred from GPS observation of surface mass loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal vertical oscillations in the Pacific mountain system are observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study we invert such GPS measurements of surface mass loading for equivalent water thickness at a resolution of one-quarter degree latitude and longitude. Standard Green's functions based on PREM are used to specify the relationship between equivalent water thickness and the elastic response of solid Earth to the load. A Laplacian is used to limit the change in the value of equivalent water thickness from one pixel to the next. The resulting GPS determination of the seasonal oscillation in the total water thickness has been compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics California's physiographic provinces. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April 1 to October 1 is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. We conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system. Water storage inferred from GPS exceeds that in hydrology model NLDAS-Noah by up to 50%. This difference is likely due to more snow and reservoir water than in the hydrology model. Comparison between GPS inversed seasonal water storage and hydrology model (NLDAS) result for Washington and Oregon.

Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.

2013-12-01

212

Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

213

Motel solar-hot-water system--Dallas, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes system which meets 64 percent of hot water requirements of 120 room motel. Key system components include 1,000 square foot, roof-mounted collector array, 1,000 gallon storage tank, tube-in-shell heat exchanger, and three domestic hot-water tanks. Report contains calibration instructions for differential temperature controllers, shutdown procedures, and operation guidelines, performance analysis, and manufacturers' maintenance literature.

1981-01-01

214

Solar-Heated Water at a Motel--Mobile, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-assisted hot-water system for a new 122-unit motor inn in Mobile, Alabama, generates more than half the energy needed for hot-water heating at motel each year. System consists of 93 flat-plate collectors, 2,500 gallon (9,500 1) insulated storage tank located outdoors, heat exchangers and controls. Electronic thermometers, measuring the temperatures at 22 locations monitor system performance.

1982-01-01

215

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

1981-01-01

216

Leaf Area and Water Content Changes after Permanent and Temporary Storage  

PubMed Central

Accurate measurements of leaf morphology must be taken to develop models of ecosystem productivity and climate change projections. Once leaves are removed from a plant they begin to lose water and degrade. If specimens cannot be measured immediately after harvest, it is important to store the leaves in a manner that reduces morphological changes. If preserved specimens are used, estimates that closely match fresh measurements need to be calculated. This study examined the change in leaf area after storage treatments and developed models that can be used to more accurately estimate initial leaf area. Fresh leaf area was measured from ten plant species then stored in one of two common storage treatments. After storage, leaf area was re-measured and comparisons were made between species and growth forms. Leaf area decreased the most after permanent storage treatments and the least after temporary storage. Pressed leaves shrunk over 18% while cold storage leaves shrunk under 4%. The woody dicot growth form shrunk the least in all treatments. Shrinkage was positively correlated with initial water content and dissection index, a measure of leaf shape and complexity.

Juneau, Kevyn J.; Tarasoff, Catherine S.

2012-01-01

217

Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

Lata

1996-09-26

218

Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 106 spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5?C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at ?195?C, thawed at 30? to 70?C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 106 spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30?C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1?cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage.

Mollineau, W. M.; Adogwa, A. O.; Garcia, G. W.

2011-01-01

219

Storage Tanks-Marble Point  

NSF Publications Database

Background An Environmental Action Memorandum (EAM) for Placement of Steel Fuel Storage Tanks at Marble Point, Antarctica, was originally issued on January 28, 1991 by the Environmental Officer, NSF. Sidney Draggan Attachments 10 Percent Basis of Design Site Map Attachment 1 Marble Point Fuel Tank Design Marble Point, Antarctica 10% BASIS OF DESIGN I. Project Description and General Goals: Four, double-wall 25,000-gallon fuel tanks and three, single-wall 15,000-gallon tanks are to be ...

220

Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

1997-01-01

221

Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  

PubMed

When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

2013-09-01

222

Effects of storage conditions and pH on chlorine loss in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water.  

PubMed

The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light. Under closed conditions, the chlorine loss did not follow first-order kinetics, because the primary mechanism of chlorine loss may be self-decomposition of chlorine species rather than chlorine evaporation. The effect of diffused light was more significant compared to agitation after two months of storage under closed conditions. The chlorine loss of EO water and commercial chlorinated water decreased dramatically with the increase of pH from the acidic (pH 2.5) to the alkaline (pH 9.0) region. PMID:11754569

Len, Soo-Voon; Hung, Yen-Con; Chung, Donghwan; Anderson, James L; Erickson, Marilyn C; Morita, Kazuo

2002-01-01

223

Stirring system for radioactive waste water storage tank  

SciTech Connect

A stirring system for 100-m[sup 3] radioactive liquid waste tanks was constructed to unify radioactive concentrations in the tank. The stirring system is effective in certifying that the radioactive concentrations in the tanks are less than the legal limits before they are drained away as waste liquid. This system is composed of discharge units, pipe lines, and a controller. The performance of the system was assessed by comparing the calculated red ink and [sup 32]P concentrations with those monitored at six locations in the tanks. The concentration reached equilibrium after stirring 60 o 120 min with discharge units equipped with six fixed openings configured in differing directions. Residual chlorine in city water used for dilution occasionally bleached the red ink and reduced its concentration. The adsorption of [sup 32]P by slime on the walls of the tanks storing actual waste water lowered the equilibrium concentration.

Ogata, Yoshimune; Nishizawa, Kunihide (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center)

1999-07-01

224

Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

225

Effects of Storage Conditions and pH on Chlorine Loss in Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light.

Soo-Voon Len; Yen-Con Hung; Donghwan Chung; James L. Anderson; Marilyn C. Erickson; Kazuo Morita

2002-01-01

226

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...water storage facility to the distribution system to achieve inactivation and/or removal of at least 4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lamblia, and 2-log Cryptosporidium using a protocol approved by the State. (d) Failure to comply with the...

2010-07-01

227

Seasonal Heat Storage in Underground Warm Water Stores. Dimensioning and Planning of a Full Size Store.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the work has been to use the experience gained in prior work to complete the design of a full size (about 50,000 m exp 3 ) underground warm water storage. Based on geotechnical investigations a location for the pond was chosen in the vicinity o...

K. Kielsgaard Hansen P. Nordgaard Hansen V. Ussing

1984-01-01

228

Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by

L. C Shirvill

2004-01-01

229

Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h

A. G. Minke; C. J. Westbrook; G. van der Kamp

2009-01-01

230

SPERTI Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER602) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER-602) under construction to its right. Control Building (PER-601) in background to right of tank. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: December 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-3575 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

231

USING COMPUTER MODELS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have indicated that water quality is degraded as a result of long residence times in storage tanks, highlighting the importance of tank design, location, and operation. Computer models, developed to explain some of the mixing and distrribution issues associated with tank...

232

DESIGN FEATURES OF A CONSTRUCTED MINI WET POND FOR WATER QUALITY CONTROL AND RUNOFF STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In stormwater management, controlling water quantity and stormwater generated pollution at the source needs to be practised towards achieving ecologically sustainable development in urban areas in Malaysia. Constructed mini wet ponds can be used for small scale runoff\\/flow attenuation which provide temporary runoff storage to reduce downstream flow peaks; stormwater quality management and control through removing of nutrients and pollutants

Mohamed Roseli; Bin Zainal Abidin; Jalil Bin Hassan

233

Assimilation of GRACE derived terrestrial water storage into a hydrological land surface model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides highly accurate satellite observations of Earth's gravity field, from which will be inferred changes in terrestrial water storage at regional scales on a monthly basis. Thus satellite gravimetry may prove to be extremely beneficial for hydrological, meteorological, and climatological research and applications. However, the nature of the derived hydrological fields, in particular

M. Rodell; I. Velicogna; J. Walker; R. Reichle

2003-01-01

234

Presence of Paratracheal Water Storage Tissue does not Alter Vessel Characters in Cactus Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested hypotheses that the presence of water storage tissues immediately adjacent to vessels would protect vessels from cavitation and would result in evolution of broader vessels that occur in fewer, smaller clusters relative to vessels surrounded by a matrix of fibers. We examined 21 species that have dimorphic wood, that is, at one stage in their life they

James D. Mauseth; Brandon J. Plemons-Rodriguez

1997-01-01

235

Dry storage of spent light-water-reactor fuel: demonstrations and designs  

SciTech Connect

Interim dry storage of commercially produced light water reactor (LWR) fuel is addressed in this document. Existing and proposed demonstrations and conceptual designs are presented. Design, operation, and cost of vaults (canyons), casks, concrete silos, and drywells (caissons) are discussed. In addition, descriptions of completed and proposed fuel integrity studies on dry-stored LWR fuel are included. 29 figures, 3 tables.

Moredock, K.K.

1981-12-01

236

Long Term Solar Heat Storage through Water Tanks for the Heating of Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerning a research on solar plants fitted with buried water tanks for the interseasonal storage of solar heat. Computer codes for the design of such plants are described, as well as the design and the construction of a prototype solar plant ...

M. Cucumo, V. Marinelli, V. Marinelli, G. Oliveti, A. Sabato

1985-01-01

237

Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

238

Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

239

The combination of satellite and in-situ gravimetric and hydrogeophysical measurements constrains water storage capacity in South West Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of water storage variations is a critical concern for resource assessment in semi-arid areas. This issue is particularly acute in South-west Niger, where both population growth (+ 3 %\\/yr) and climatic changes impinge on groundwater resources. For the first time, absolute ground gravity measurements were performed in West Africa. These observations allowed the detection of seasonal water storage

J. Pfeffer; M. Boucher; J. Hinderer; G. Favreau; J. Boy; C. de Linage; B. Luck; M. Oï; N. Le Moigne

2010-01-01

240

Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest  

PubMed Central

Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20?cm) than in the deep layers (20~40?cm and 40~60?cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity.

Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

2014-01-01

241

Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a chinese pine-oak mixed forest.  

PubMed

Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20?cm) than in the deep layers (20~40?cm and 40~60?cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

2014-01-01

242

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

243

On leakage and seepage of CO2 from geologic storage sites into surface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and its storage in deep geologic formations. The processes of CO2 seepage into surface water after migration through water-saturated sediments are reviewed. Natural CO2 and CH4 fluxes are pervasive in surface-water environments and are good analogues to potential leakage and seepage of CO2. Buoyancy-driven bubble rise in surface water reaches a maximum velocity of approximately 30 cm s-1. CO2 rise in saturated porous media tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. A comparison of ebullition versus dispersive gas transport for CO2 and CH4 shows that bubble flow will dominate over dispersion in surface water. Gaseous CO2 solubility in variable-salinity waters decreases as pressure decreases leading to greater likelihood of ebullition and bubble flow in surface water as CO2 migrates upward.

Oldenburg, C. M.; Lewicki, J. L.

2006-07-01

244

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V. L.

2009-01-01

245

GRACE monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the measurements of gravity changes by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission can be used to monitor the terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States. The equivalent water thickness inferred from the GRACE data shows consistency with two hydrological models, Mosaic land surface model (LSM) and Noah LSM, in Rocky Mountain States (including CO, ID, MT, NV, UT, WY) and in periods of 2003 to 2012 except 2005 and 2010, when the simulated annual hydrological cycle amplitudes of soil moisture from the two models exhibit small difference. The equivalent water thickness inferred from the GRACE data, however, show large differences from the hydrological models in MN, NY, PA and in the year of 2004, in CT, MA, MN, NH, NJ, NY, VT and in the year of 2010, etc., and two hydrological models also differ from each other in those regions and time. Our results indicate that the GRACE data can be used as a strong constraint on, hydrological models and to identify where the improvements are needed in those models. We show that GRACE data can also be used to infer changes of Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI). We test the relationship between the water storage change and PHDI change in the continental United States. We find that the converting factor from the water storage change to PHDI change varies from region to region, but is empirically a function of soil moisture of the region. We derive an empirical fitting function between the change of water thickness and soil moisture in the continental United States. We then infer the PHDI changes based on the GRACE data and the inferred relationship between the water storage and PHDI changes. The inferred PHDI changes show strong similarity with the observations, indicating the feasibility of using GRACE data to monitor drought in the continental United States.

Yi, H.; Wen, L.

2013-12-01

246

Leaf anatomy, water relations and crassulacean acid metabolism in the chlorenchyma and colourless internal water-storage tissue of Carpobrotus edulis and Senecio ?mandraliscae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Carpobrotus edulis and Senecio ?mandraliscae possess leaves with a peripheral chlorenchyma and colourless internal water-storage tissue. Water stress in C. edulis growing under semi-natural conditions resulted in the induction of weak Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) whereas well-watered plants of S. ?mandraliscae exhibited a similar degree of CAM. Titratable acidity in the separated water-storage tissue was substantially lower than in

M. J. Earnshaw; K. A. Carver; W. A. Charlton

1987-01-01

247

Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1gallon paint can ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1-gallon paint can labeling machine (Standard-Knapp of Portland). Note spiral attachment on floor. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

248

NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and thi...

D. P. Wells

2011-01-01

249

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

250

Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

Snavely, Deborah S.

1980-01-01

251

Assimilation of GRACE derived terrestrial water storage into a hydrological land surface model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides highly accurate satellite observations of Earth's gravity field, from which will be inferred changes in terrestrial water storage at regional scales on a monthly basis. Thus satellite gravimetry may prove to be extremely beneficial for hydrological, meteorological, and climatological research and applications. However, the nature of the derived hydrological fields, in particular their low spatial and temporal resolutions and lack of information on the vertical distribution of water, will necessitate their disaggregation in space and time, using auxiliary knowledge, in order to maximize their value. One potential downscaling approach is to constrain a land surface model (LSM) with data derived from GRACE. LSMs embody our current state of knowledge of hydrological processes, observations provide a basis in reality, and data assimilation can be used to synthesize the two. In this study we used an ensemble Kalman filter to assimilate simulated GRACE derived terrestrial water storage data into the Mosaic LSM. To simplify this initial experiment we limited the region to a 3x3 model grid with all water stored in three soil layers. Errors due to uncertainty in the GRACE data, atmospheric mass, and "leakage" across the boundaries of the study region were considered, but temporal "aliasing" due water storage variations at frequencies higher than the GRACE overpass rate and certain other complicating factors were ignored, to be revisited in future research.

Rodell, M.; Velicogna, I.; Walker, J.; Reichle, R.

2003-04-01

252

Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

2012-06-01

253

Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified.

Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-15

254

Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

Ludden, A. P.; Frink, D. L.; Johnson, D. H.

1983-01-01

255

Differential peat deformation, compressibility, and water storage between peatland microforms: Implications for ecosystem function and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because peat is elastic, the daily to seasonal swelling and shrinking of the peat surface not only affects water storage but also alters peatland hydraulics and the biogeochemical and thermal properties of peat. Due to different botanical origins and degrees of decomposition, we hypothesized that different peatland microforms (ridges and lawns) display a large variation in peat deformation and compressibility. Here we examined the spatial variation of peat surface movement, peat strength, and volumetric water content at a low lawn (LL), upper lawn (UL), and ridge (R) along a 5 m transect in a peatland in Quebec, Canada. The average seasonal amplitude in peat surface level was 9, 6, and 2 cm at the LL, UL, and R sites, respectively. The surface layers in each of these sites were fairly rigid with the largest changes in peat thickness occurring between 20 and 60 cm depth in the peat profile. Compressibility varied among microforms but was not correlated to other properties within the layer in individual soil layers. However, when average profile compressibility was considered, it was significantly correlated to peat depth, von Post humification, distance to hollow, and peat strength. The total water storage by dilation below the water table was about the same as the water deficit (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) for LL, while the storage deficit for UL and especially R was lower. Including changes in entrapped gas content over the season reduced estimates of changes in water storage at all sites. Because microform type and position were significant predictors of hydrophysical properties, we argue that this suggests that peatland microtopography is self-reinforcing through ecohydrological feedbacks. Including the variability in these properties in peatland ecohydrological models will be key for predicting the response of peatland ecosystems to disturbance.

Waddington, J. M.; Kellner, E.; Strack, M.; Price, J. S.

2010-07-01

256

Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.  

PubMed

Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time. PMID:23064864

Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2012-11-01

257

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to (approximately)2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first releas...

J. B. Pickett

1992-01-01

258

Monitoring Water Storage Changes using Satellite and Ground-based Data in Texas in Response to the 2011 Drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 drought was the most severe one year drought on record since 1895 with large scale impacts on water resources in the state. It is important to quantify the various components of the water budget to optimize water management during droughts. This study focuses on monitoring water storage changes in Texas using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites and comparison with other components of the water budget. Total water storage (TWS) anomalies from GRACE show large interannual variability of about 100 km3. High TWS anomalies were recorded in spring 2005 (+100 km3) and summer 2007 (~ +70 km3) in response to increased precipitation. Low TWS anomalies (-40 to -60 km3) were found in response to droughts in 2006 and 2009. The lowest TWS anomaly (-100 km3) was recorded in September 2011 in response to the extreme drought when precipitation was reduced to 270 mm, equal to 40% of the long-term mean. Surface water reservoir storage decreased by ~ 10 km3 during the 2011 drought. Soil moisture storage anomalies from land surface models track GRACE TWS anomalies during wet periods but deviate at other times, representing ~ 50% of the TWS reduction during the 2011 drought. The residual after subtraction of surface water and soil moisture storages from TWS in 2011 is ~ 40 km3 and is attributed to changes in groundwater storage. The various components of the water budget will be compared with other satellite and ground-based storage estimates to constrain uncertainties. GRACE satellites provide a valuable tool for monitoring state-wide water storage changes that can be used to managing water storage changes, particularly in response to droughts.

Long, D.; Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Save, H.; Scanlon, B. R.; Maidment, D. R.; Neely, W.; Sullivan, J.

2012-12-01

259

Water storage under changing climates: A case study of small farm dams in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many regions of the world, climate change scenarios predict a trend towards drier conditions. In agricultural areas, less rainfall during planting and growing periods will exacerbate existing water supply issues, with communities striving to find alternative water storage options. In New Zealand, both government and agricultural interest groups are promoting the construction of storage ponds (both small-scale ponds for farm use and larger reservoirs for community use) to tackle this issue. This paper investigates the use of small farm dams as a means of providing secure water storage while also considering downstream environmental impacts. New Zealand has thousands of small stock water and irrigation dams that interrupt streamflow, primarily located on first-order streams. With climate change scenarios predicting a 3-4% decrease in annual precipitation in some regions, it is expected that dam numbers will increase in the future. However, little is known about the impact of these dams on the downstream environment in terms of water quantity, quality, sediment transfer, and stream morphology at either the local or regional scale. A combination of field-based methods and modelling is used to quantify the overall impact of farm dams on the downstream system in an agricultural catchment in the Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Results show that farm dams reduce overall discharge and flood peaks, but sustain winter flows for a longer duration between rainfall events. The dams also create a lowering of water quality and a decrease in the transfer of sediment, with aggradation occurring in downstream channel reaches. Implications at the wider catchment scale are discussed, along with improved management practices which could allow for both water security and the protection of the environment. Results have implications for regions of the world which face drier conditions under changing climate regimes and need environmentally and socio-economically sustainable water security options.

Thompson, J.; Preston, N.; Jackson, B. M.

2009-12-01

260

Spatial and temporal variations of Terrestrial Water Storage in five major Africa river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal distributions of continental hydrologic water balances are poorly understood despite recent advances in remote sensing and modeling techniques applicable to continental river basins. The African continent has particularly interesting surface water dynamics due to strong precipitation gradients, and it’s a large number of lakes and wetlands. However, it lacks hydrologic measurements that would help to understand its terrestrial water balance. We use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements and the Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model to characterize terrestrial water dynamics over five major African river basins (Nile , Congo, Zambezi, Niger and Oranje). Temporal variations in the gravitational field obtained from GRACE are used to reveal the total terrestrial water storage changes over the selected river basins. Recent advances in filtering and leakage error corrections near the coasts enable us to obtain total water storage changes at finer spatial resolution than has previously been possible. These satellite measurements are then used to constrain the hydrologic- modeling results over river basins where in situ data are sparse. Comparison of the GRACE observations for the period April 2002 to Jan 2010, i.e., the mass variability extracted from temporal gravity variations, with the VIC water balance components suggests that, when filtered with an averaging radius of 750 km, the hydrological signals generated at the selected river basin scale are clearly recovered by GRACE. Keywords: Remote sensing; gravity field; GRACE; hydrology; VIC; spatio-temporal

Beyene, T.; Kabat, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Ludwig, F.

2010-12-01

261

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01

262

Multivariate forecasting of total water storage anomalies over West Africa from multi-satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For West Africa, large-scale weather-related extreme hydrological conditions such as droughts or floods may persist over several months and usually have devastating environmental, social and economic impacts. Assessing and forecasting these conditions is therefore an important activity, in which data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has been shown to be very useful. In this study, we describe a new statistical, data-driven approach to predict total water storage anomalies over West Africa from gravity data obtained from of GRACE, rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and sea surface temperature data products over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified by independent component analysis, and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework for forecasting total water storage, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for agricultural and water resource management. After a learning phase of 80 months, our approach predicts water storage from rainfall and sea surface temperature data alone that fits to observed GRACE data at 79% after one year and 62% after two years. This means, our approach should be able to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of one month about each 162 days as well as a - hopefully - limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE-FO mission for West Africa. Keywords: Forecasting GRACE-TWS, West-Africa, ICA; AR model

Kusche, Jürgen; Forootan, Ehsan; Krasbutter, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, Ck

2013-04-01

263

Developmental changes and water status in tulip bulbs during storage: visualization by NMR imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. 'Apeldoorn') during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 degrees C (non-chilled) or 4 degrees C (chilled) and after planting. MR images reflecting the water content, the relaxation times T1 and T2 (or their reciprocal values, the relaxation rates R1 and R2), and the apparent self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules (ADC), were obtained for intact bulbs. After planting, scape elongation and flowering occurred only in chilled bulbs, while elongation in non-chilled bulbs was retarded. Microscopic observations showed different structural components and high heterogeneity of the bulb tissues. MRI revealed the elongation of the flower bud during storage, which was significantly faster in the chilled bulbs. In addition, MRI demonstrated a redistribution of water between different bulb organs, as well as significant differences in the pattern of this redistribution between the chilled and non-chilled bulbs. Generally, R2 relaxation rates became faster in all bulb organs during storage. At the same time, ADC values remained constant in the chilled bulbs, while exhibiting a significant increase in the non-chilled bulbs. PMID:10937704

Van der Toorn, A; Zemah, H; Van As, H; Bendel, P; Kamenetsky, R

2000-07-01

264

Annual and seasonal water storage changes detected from GRACE data in the La Plata Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravity does not remain constant, but changes over time depending on the redistribution of the masses. Aquatic environments, like a river basin, perform important functions in nature such as control of climate, floods and nutrients; and they also provide goods and services for humanity. To monitor these environments at large spatial scales, the satellite gravity mission GRACE provides time-variable gravity field models that reflect the Earth's gravity field variations due to mass transport processes, like continental water storage variations. The La Plata Basin is the second largest in South America and is a sample of the abundance, variety and quality of natural resources and possibilities offered in connection with the production of goods and services. The objective of this work is to analyze GRACE capability to monitor the water storage variations in the La Plata Basin. Firstly, GRACE solutions from four different processing centers are used to estimate the gravity trend and gravity amplitude over this basin. Afterwards, the calculated hydrological signal is used to obtain mass change models over this hydrographic system's area, using two different methods and for the period from 2002 to 2009. Next, the annual and seasonal water storage changes from GRACE solutions are validated in Argentina by rainfall data over the time periods where extreme weather conditions took place. The results indicate that GRACE detected the variations of the continental water storage in the La Plata Basin, and particularly, it detected the important decrease in the South of the basin. Moreover, a coherency between the estimates of water mass changes and rainfall data was found, which shows that GRACE also detected extreme weather events (such as drought and intense rain episodes) that occurred in the 2004-2009 period in Argentina.

Pereira, Ayelen; Pacino, María Cristina

2012-12-01

265

Hydrologic effects of withdrawal of ground water on the West Fargo aquifer system, eastern Cass County, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Fargo area, an area of 230 sq mi in eastern Cass County , is underlain by glaciofluvial sand and gravel deposits that form the West Fargo aquifer system. The aquifer system contains about 131,300 million gallons of available groundwater in storage. Recharge to the aquifer system is estimated to be about 600 to 650 million gallons per year. Discharge in 1980 is estimated to have been 683 million gallons. Pumping from the West fargo aquifer system began in the latter part of the 19th century. No records of pumpage were kept in the early years, but pumpage has averaged 613 million gallons/year near West Fargo at least since 1968. Water levels, which were near or above land surface at West Fargo in 1869, have declined to as much as 121.7 ft below land surface in 1981. In areas of little or no pumpage, water levels have declined much less. The rate of water-level decline in an observation well in the West Fargo South aquifer was as low as 0.2 ft/year, but increased to a rate of 2.1 ft/yr from 1976 through 1981 due to an increase of the average annual pumping rate of about 59.9 million gallons at a well field about 5 miles north. Water in the aquifer system contains from 332 to 2,960 mgs/L of dissolved solids and 25 to 975 mgs/L of chloride ions. (USGS)

Armstrong, C. A.

1986-01-01

266

Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

2014-06-01

267

Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents.  

PubMed

The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage. PMID:24815520

Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R

2014-06-01

268

Critical Zone Soil Properties effects on Soil Water Storage and Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil properties control a wide range of hydrologic processes including recharge to regional aquifers. Soil water must pass through the critical zone to contribute to ground water recharge. Deep percolation (DP) from catchments is considered to be an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. DP is also an important term in water mass balance studies, which attempt to estimate hydrologic states and fluxes in watersheds with fractured or transmissive bedrock. Few studies estimate the magnitude of this water balance term and it is often considered negligible. The objective of this study is to estimate the timing and magnitude of DP in the 0.015 km2 Tree Line experimental catchment (TL) from the 2011 water year. The catchment, which is located within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, Boise, ID, contains thin sandy soil over fractured granitic bedrock. We introduce modeling methods that focus on achieving a high degree of agreement between measured and modeled catchment storage. A distributed physically-based snow energy balance model is loosely coupled to a capacitance-based soil moisture model to estimate soil storage. Measured and calculated soil model parameters, including field capacity, saturated soil moisture content, and plant extraction limits, control the flux of water through the critical zone. Variability in soil storage and soil water fluxes through the critical zone is driven by soil properties. Parameters describing a leaf area index time series are calibrated to minimize the difference between measured and modeled soil dry down in the spring. DP is estimated to be 126 mm from Dec. 13, 2010 to June 30, 2011, which is 18% of the precipitation measured during that time. Rain-on-snow events are estimated to contribute 79 mm, which is 11% of precipitation or 63% of the calculated DP.

Kormos, P. R.; McNamara, J. P.; Seyfried, M. S.; Marks, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H.; Williams, C. J.

2012-12-01

269

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

270

Water Storage in the Mantle and Effect of Water on Mantle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is transported into the deep mantle by hydrous minerals in the descending slabs. In the peridotite layer of the cold slabs with local water enrichment, hydrous wadsleyite and hydrous ringwoodite are the main water reservoirs in the transition zone, and water is mainly stored in superhydrous phase B in the uppermost lower mantle. We observed decomposition of superhydrous phase

E. Ohtani; K. Litasov

2002-01-01

271

Solar vacuum alcohol still. Final report. [50 gallons per day  

SciTech Connect

This project constructed a six-inch diameter solar vacuum alcohol still. The column was constructed with steel pipe and commercial packing was used to increase condensation surface area. A used automobile air compressor and a small electric motor were used to fabricate a vacuum pump capable of 25 inches of mercury. Flat plate commercial type solar collectors were used to heat the wine before it entered the distillation column. This resulted in a considerable reduction in fuel required. Additional heat was still needed from a propane fueled reboiler which utilized a closed loop copper coil to circulate water into the base of the column. Future research should focus on using solar panels to provide this heat source and reduce energy needs even further. The unit is capable of producing 135 proof alcohol in one pass. This unit or one of similar design could be utilized by a farm operation for supplemental fuels needs. 12 references, 7 figures.

Not Available

1983-02-04

272

Seasonal carbon storage and growth in Mediterranean tree seedlings under different water conditions.  

PubMed

In all Mediterranean-type ecosystems, evergreen and deciduous trees differing in wood anatomy, growth pattern and leaf habit coexist, suggesting distinct adaptative responses to environmental constraints. This study examined the effects of summer water stress on carbon (C) storage and growth in seedlings of three coexisting Mediterranean trees that differed in phenology and wood anatomy characteristics: Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp., Quercus faginea Lam. and Pinus halepensis L. Seedlings were subjected to two levels of watering during two consecutive summers and achieved a minimum of -0.5 and -2.5 MPa of predawn water potential in the control and water stress treatment, respectively. Both Quercus species concentrated their growth in the early growing season, demanding higher C in early spring but replenishing C-stores in autumn. These species allocated more biomass to roots, having larger belowground starch and lipid reserves. Quercus species differed in seasonal storage dynamics from P. halepensis. This species allocated most of its C to aboveground growth, which occurred gradually during the growing season, leading to fewer C-reserves. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations sharply declined in August in P. halepensis, probably because reserves support respiration demands as this species closed stomata earlier under water stress. Drought reduced growth of the three species, mainly in Q. faginea and P. halepensis, but not C-reserves, suggesting that growth under water stress conditions is not limited by C-availability. PMID:19574258

Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Joffre, Richard

2009-09-01

273

Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

1981-06-01

274

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION  

SciTech Connect

The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

Hathcock, D

2007-10-30

275

Foliar Nitrogen Uptake from Wet Deposition and the Relation with Leaf Wettability and Water Storage Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the foliar uptake of 15N-labelled nitrogen (N) originating from wet deposition along with leaf surface conditions, measured by wettability and water\\u000a storage capacity. Foliar 15N uptake was measured on saplings of silver birch, European beech, pedunculate oak and Scots pine and the effect of nitrogen\\u000a form (NH4+ or NO3?), NH4+ to NO3? ratio and leaf phenology on

Sandy Adriaenssens; Jeroen Staelens; Karen Wuyts; An de Schrijver; Shari Van Wittenberghe; Tatiana Wuytack; Fatemeh Kardel; Kris Verheyen; Roeland Samson; Pascal Boeckx

2011-01-01

276

Dynamic model of a solar thermochemical water-splitting reactor with integrated energy collection and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-splitting solar thermochemical cycles are important in meeting the challenges of global climate change and limited fossil fuels. However, solar radiation varies in availability, leading to unsteady state operation. We propose a solar receiver-reactor with integrated energy collection and storage. The reactor consists of a double-pipe heat exchanger placed at the focal line of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. Molten

Rong Xu; Theodore F. Wiesner

277

Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the storage properties of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n (n=1-4) in an improved biplanar ion trap. The design is based on our recently reported realization of a biplanar multipole radiofrequency (rf) ion trap (Debatin et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 033422). The new experimental setup is composed of the ion trap in tandem time-of-flight configuration for mass-selective ion

C. Greve; M. Kröner; S. Trippel; P. Woias; R. Wester; M. Weidemüller

2010-01-01

278

Simulated water-level responses, ground-water fluxes, and storage changes for recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which derives boundary conditions from a basin-scale model, spans the 12-mile reach of Rillito Creek and extends 9 miles south into the Central Well Field. Recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek range from 5,000 to 60,000 acre-feet per year and are simulated to begin in 2005 and extend through 2225 to estimate long-term changes in ground-water level, ground-water storage, ground-water flux, and evapotranspiration. The base case for comparison of simulated water levels and flows, referred to as scenario A, uses a long-term recharge rate of 5,000 acre-feet per year to 2225. Scenario B, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 9,500 acre-feet per year, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 53 feet to 86 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 60 feet to 80 feet. More than half of these rises occur by 2050, and more than 95 percent occur by 2188. Scenario C, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 16,700 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 71 feet to 102 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 80 feet to 95 feet. More than half of the rises occur by 2036, and more than 95 percent occur by 2100. Scenario D, which initially increases the recharge rate by about 55,000 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, resulted in simulated water levels that rise to land surface along Rillito Creek. This rise in water level resulted in rejected recharge. As the water table continued to rise, the area of stream-channel surface intersected by the water table increased causing continual decline in the recharge rate until a long-term recharge rate of about 34,000 acre-feet per year was sustained. The long-term recharge rate for scenario D is about 29,000 acre-feet per year greater than the long-term recharge rate for scenario A. Simulated long-term water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek range from about 97 feet to 131 feet, resulting in water levels near or at the land surface. Shallow depths to water associated with this scenario have implications for contamination owing to the presence of landfills within or adjacent to Rillito Creek. Water-level rises for cells within the Central Well Field range from about 96 feet to 109 feet. More than half of the water-level rises occur by 2018 and more than 95 percent occur by 2041. Almost all the increased water added to the ground-water system in the recharge scenarios can be accounted for by a combination of increased storage near Rillito Creek, ground-water flux to the south, ground-water flux to the northwest, and increased discharge as evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek. The percentage of newly added water accounted for by storage changes is large relative to the percentage accounted for by changes in flux and evapotranspiration at the onset of each scenario; however, the changes in storage become smaller throughout the simulation, and the long-term component accounted for by storage is minimal. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the south increase by about 3,300, 4,840, and 7,500 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The percentage of increased recharge that flows south toward the Central Well Field, therefore, is 35, 29, and 26 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the northwest increase by about 3,100, 3,900, and 6,980 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The long-term percentage of increased recharge flowing northwestward is about 31, 25, and 21 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Shallow ground-water evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek incr

Hoffmann, John P.; Leake, Stanley A.

2005-01-01

279

Evaluation of storage and filtration protocols for alpine/subalpine lake water quality samples.  

PubMed

Many government agencies and other organizations sample natural alpine and subalpine surface waters using varying protocols for sample storage and filtration. Simplification of protocols would be beneficial if it could be shown that sample quality is unaffected. In this study, samples collected from low ionic strength waters in alpine and subalpine lake inlets and outlets in the western United States were used to evaluate (1) effects of refrigerated storage time on the chemistry of unfiltered samples, and (2) differences in sample filtration protocols. No analytes exhibited significant changes when stored less than 48 h. Six analytes (pH, sodium, ammonium, potassium, chloride, sulfate) exhibited statistically significant (but small) changes when storage time exceeded 48 h. Two analytes (calcium, nitrate) were significantly higher when samples were field filtered than when filtered in the laboratory, but the differences were also small. For waters similar to those in this test, unfiltered refrigerated samples may be stored up to 48 h without compromising sample quality. The small differences between field and lab filtration do not justify the expense, training, and contamination risk of field filtration. PMID:17106772

Korfmacher, John L; Musselman, Robert C

2007-08-01

280

Monitoring and modeling of water storage in karstic area (Larzac, France) with a continuous supraconducting gravimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative knowledge of the groundwater storage and transfer in karstic area is crucial for water resources management and protection. As the karst hydro-geological properties are highly heterogeneous and scale dependent, geophysical observations such as time dependant gravity could be helpful to fill the gap between local (based on boreholes, moisture sensors, …) and global (based on chemistry, river flow, …) studies. Since more than 2 years, the iGrav #002 supraconducting gravimeter is continuously operating in the French GEK observatory(Géodésie de l'Environnement Karstique, OSU OREME, SNO H+) in the Larzac karstic plateau (south of France). The observatory is surrounding more than 250m karstified dolomite, with an unsaturated zone of ~150m thickness. First, the evaluation of the iGrav data (calibration, steps and drift) will be presented. Then a careful analysis of the global, topographic and building effects will be done to evaluate the local water storage only. The gravity data will be integrated with the water level data in nearby boreholes and petrophysical data from core samples. Finally, simple hydrological models will be presented to help the interpretation on the karst groundwater storage and transfer and to merge the whole dataset.

Benjamin, Fores; Cédric, Champollion; Nicolas, Lemoigne; Jean, Chéry

2014-05-01

281

Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

1986-01-01

282

COST ESTIMATING MANUAL--COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW STORAGE AND TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements are presented for combined sewer overflow treatment plants ranging from 5 to 200 million gallons per day in capacity, and storage facilities ranging in size from 1 to 240 million gallons. Es...

283

Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions. PMID:17566728

Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

2008-04-01

284

Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles  

SciTech Connect

Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

2013-09-01

285

The evaluation of water storage in Death Valley using GRACE satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As drought conditions spread across the United States, concerns over water supplies, water use, and water management policies are growing and possible contributing environmental factors are continually being scrutinized. This thesis examines Death Valley as an analog for Southern Nevada and utilizes NASA EOS data, combined with ancillary climate data, to assess the effect of decadal climate variability on groundwater storage in the Death Valley area. Historical climate data, combined with satellite imagery observations, were compiled and calculated for analyses. Conclusions derived from statistical analyses infer trends between GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data and fluctuating levels of recharge and groundwater storage, as well as climatic changes in temperature and rainfall. The observations show seasonal variations in ground water thickness of up to 10 cm from the mean, correlated directly to seasonal temperature variability. Connections were also observed between temperature and precipitation with a correlation factor of -0.5. The relationship between precipitation and groundwater thickness change is also evident, with a correlation factor of 0.4 where evaporation and delayed aquifer response are likely impacting direct correlation. The research illustrates how and which environmental factors are impacting the groundwater storage in Death Valley. Due to the similarity of climates between Death Valley and Southern Nevada, this research may be used as an analogy illustrating the impact of climate variability in Southern Nevada. The research, combining GRACE satellite observations and downscaled historical climate data will show any adverse effects that climate variability may be having on the area, including the impact it has on aquifers, and the impact it has on Death Valley's water supply in general.

Sweigart, Maile J.

286

Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

2005-03-01

287

Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

2005-05-01

288

Importance of shrinkage and compression in determining water storage changes in peat: the case of a mined peatland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines changes in peat volume in a mined peatland near Lac St Jean, Quebec, during the spring and summer of 1995 and 1996, and the implication for water storage changes. Lowering of the water table caused drainage above the water table, but the specific yield (Sy) of the peat was relatively small (0.48), and did not adequately describe

Jonathan S. Price; Susanne M. Schlotzhauer

1999-01-01

289

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

290

Faecal contamination of drinking water in a Brazilian shanty town: Importance of household storage and new human faecal marker testing  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, contaminated drinking water poses a major health threat, particularly to child development. Diarrhoea represents a large part of the water-related disease burden and enteric infections have been linked to nutritional and growth shortfalls as well as long-term physical and cognitive impairment in children. Previous studies detailed the frequency of infection and the consequences for child health in a shanty town in north-east Brazil. To determine the frequency of contaminated water, we measured faecal contamination in primary drinking water samples from 231 randomly selected households. Risk for contamination was compared across source and storage types. Nearly a third of the study households (70/231: 30.3%) had contaminated drinking water; the source with the highest frequency of contamination was well water (23/24: 95.8%). For tap water, the type of storage had a significant effect on the susceptibility to contamination (?2 = 12.090; p = 0.007). The observed pattern of contamination demonstrated the relative potential contributions of both source and storage. With evidence that supports the inclusion of source and storage in water quality surveys, this study, like others, suggests that contaminated drinking water in storage vessels may be an important factor for the documented diarrhoea disease burden in the Brazilian shanty town.

Copeland, Curtis; Beers, Benjamin; Thompson, Meghan; Pinkerton, Relana; Barrett, Leah; Sevilleja, Jesus Emmanuel; Alencar, Sayonara; Lima, Aldo

2010-01-01

291

Balancing Storage - some very different management approaches in a water scarce Developing Country.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing storage may be found in many different forms in South Africa. The first feature is often a large reservoir fairly high up the catchment, where losses are less, or even in a neighbouring catchment. The objective is to catch surplus water for later use. Alternatives include both within basin and interbasin transfers, either pumped over a catchment divide, or fed under gravity through a tunnel. Again there may be a reservoir at the start of the transfer scheme. This may be a large reservoir or may be a balancing storage reservoir. Transfers are required to make up for a deficiency of water in the demand area of the receiving catchment. The deficiency may be intermittent or continuous. Nevertheless, whatever the nature of the deficiency, it is important not to incur losses. The water will be more expensive than if it were possible to obtain it locally from within the demand area. When undertaking river regulation, one major concern is seeing expensive water flowing out to sea. Several different schemes are contrasted. One has been developed to run almost completely by gravity, others use the topography where possible with the aid of canals, gravity tunnels and pipelines. However, in some circumstances expensive electricity is required to pump the water to be transferred. Nowadays with the ever increasing cost of electricity some way is required of reducing the cost. The usual approach is to use "off peak" electricity but river release flows do not always cooperate so there is a further risk of loss, due to the induced "peaks and troughs" in the river hydrograph as the pumps are switched on and off. Balancing storage becomes even more important in this case to act as a smoothing mechanism. Sometimes the storage may take the form of an on stream reservoir, at others a suitable site besides the river may be developed. This latter has another advantage in allowing the system to avoid abstracting the inevitably poor quality of water at the start of the first seasonal flood, or the heavily silt laden water during major floods, or polluted water from upstream pollution incidents. Other forms of balancing storage may take the form of exploiting the natural contours of the river valley so that river control barrages may be built. These may be single purpose such as irrigation transfers or multi purpose where domestic supplies are abstracted. In addition the river may be made navigable and be developed for recreation. Some form of control is required. This may have started off as a manual system operating on very simple ‘control rules' but as either the worth of the water is increased or its scarcity develops, due to increasing demand, more sophisticated computer systems are needed. In South Africa half the water resources were originally allocated to agriculture, mainly irrigation. Now some of this water is required for industrial, environmental and domestic use. Innovative ways of making the resource go further are suggested. In addition some control concepts are developed using the "control band" approach.

Tollow, Anthony John

2010-05-01

292

Calculating the Ecosystem Service of Water Storage in Isolated Wetlands using LiDAR in North Central Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated\\u000a wetlands in north central Florida. Data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as\\u000a isolated wetlands. We found that isolated wetlands in this area stored 1619 m3\\/ha on average, with a median measure of 876 m3\\/ha. Significant differences in average

Ellen D’Amico

2010-01-01

293

Simulating floodplain extent and inland water storage in the Amazon basin from a multi LSM perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modeling attempts have been conducted trying to improve the simulation of floods at several temporal and spatial scales worldwide. These attempts consider different modeling approaches and forcings, which can have a non-negligible impact on streamflows, inland water storage and floodplain extent. In the framework of the Global Land Water Cycle Benchmarking (GLWCB), the capability of simulating water and energy budgets by state-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs) and their impacts on predicting floods are evaluated. Fifteen LSMs were run for the 1980-2008 period using Princeton's meteorological forcings on a 3-hourly time step and at a 1° resolution. Three experiments are performed using Princeton's precipitation dataset rescaled to match monthly global GPCC and GPCP datasets and a daily dataset (HOP) specially developed for the basin. Surface and sub-surface runoffs derived from LSMs are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme (RRS) and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 146 gauges in the Amazon basin. Simulated floodplain extent and surface water storage are also compared against satellite-based products. Results show that simulated streamflows vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used. It is also noted that floodplain extent is highly dependent on RRS parameters and further calibration must be performed.

Getirana, A.; Dutra, E. N.; Decharme, B.; Guimberteau, M.; Li, H.; Beaudoing, H.; Kam, J.; Toure, A. M.; Zhang, Z.; Drapeau, G.; Papa, F.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Balsamo, G.; Rodell, M.; Ronchail, J.; Sheffield, J.; Xue, Y.; Arsenault, K. R.

2013-12-01

294

Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during storm events. Depression storages are based on additional runoff obtained from CN calculation. Strategies mentioned in this study can be provided as references of climate change adaptions for related authorities.

Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

2014-05-01

295

Simulated Effects of the 2003 Permitted Withdrawals and Water-Management Alternatives on Reservoir Storage and Firm Yields of Three Surface-Water Supplies, Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model of the Ipswich River Basin previously developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was modified to evaluate the effects of the 2003 withdrawal permits and water-management alternatives on reservoir storage...

P. J. Zarriello

2004-01-01

296

Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

Colwell, R. N.

1973-01-01

297

Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with a storage tank equipped with radial fins of rectangular profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using the package Fluent 6.3. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data of Chaouachi and Gabsi (Renew Energy Revue 9(2):75-82, 2006), an attempt to improve this solar system operating was made by equipping the storage tank with radial fins of rectangular profile. A second 3D CFD model was developed and a series of numerical simulations were conducted for various SWH designs which differ in the depth of this extended surface for heat exchange. As the modified surface presents a higher characteristic length for convective heat transfer from the storage tank to the water, the fins equipped storage tank based SWH is determined to have a higher water temperature and a reduced thermal losses coefficient during the day-time period. Regarding the night operating of this water heater, the results suggest that the modified system presents higher thermal losses.

Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

2013-01-01

298

Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

None

2010-09-01

299

Modeling the effects of surface storage, macropore flow and water repellency on infiltration after wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can reduce infiltration capacity of hillslopes by causing (i) extreme soil drying, (ii) increased water repellency and (iii) reduced soil structure. High severity wildfire often results in a non-repellent layer of loose ash and burned soil overlying a water repellent soil matrix. In these conditions the hydraulic parameters vary across discrete layers in the soil profile, making the infiltration process difficult to measure and model. The difficulty is often exacerbated by the discrepancy between actual infiltration processes and the assumptions that underlie commonly used infiltration models, most of which stem from controlled laboratory experiments or agricultural environments, where soils are homogeneous and less variable in space and time than forest soils. This study uses a simple two-layered infiltration model consisting of surface storage (H), macropore flow (Kmac) and matrix flow (Kmat) in order to identify and analyze spatial-temporal infiltration patterns in forest soils recovering from the 2009 Black Saturday wildfires in Victoria, southeast Australia. Infiltration experiments on intact soil cores showed that the soil profile contained a region of strong water repellency that was slow to take on water and inactive in the infiltration process, thus restricting flow through the matrix. The flow resistance due to water repellent soil was represented by the minimum critical surface tension (CSTmin) within the top 10 cm of the soil profile. Under field conditions in small headwaters, the CSTmin remained in a water repellent domain throughout a 3-year recovery period, but the strength of water repellency diminished exponentially during wet conditions, resulting in some weather induced temporal variation in steady-state infiltration capacity (Kp). An increasing trend in macropore availability during recovery was the main source of temporal variability in Kp during the study period, indicating (in accordance with previous studies) that macropore flow dominates infiltration processes in these forest soils. Storage in ash and burned surface soil after wildfire was initially high (?4 mm), then declined exponentially with time since fire. Overall the study showed that the two layered soil can be represented and parameterized by partitioning the infiltration process into surface storage and flow through a partially saturated and restrictive soil layer. Ash, water repellency and macropore flow are key characteristics of burned forest soils in general, and the proposed model may therefore be a useful tool for characterizing fire impact and recovery in other systems.

Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Smith, Hugh G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

2014-05-01

300

Simulation of streamflow and wetland storage, Starkweather Coulee subbasin, North Dakota, water years 1981-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to simulate streamflow and wetland storage within a part of the Starkweather Coulee subbasin. Information on streamflow and wetland storage in Starkweather Coulee subbasin may help with the management of water issues in the Devils Lake Basin. Information from a digital elevation model and geographic-information-system analyses of the study area was used to develop the Devils Lake Basin wetlands model. Digital elevation model data and other climatic and topographic data were used as inputs to the model. Within the study area, the average wetland depth was about 2.21 feet, the total maximum wetland area was about 30,890 acres at the overflow elevation, and the total maximum wetland volume was about 68,270 acre-feet.Model runs were made for water years 1981-98 to calibrate the model to observed streamflows that were obtained from the Starkweather Coulee gaging station. Observed annual peak streamflows were greater than simulated annual peak streamflows for all water years except 1983. The differences probably were caused mostly by the lack of a subroutine in the model to account for frozen soil. The largest amount of simulated daily wetlands area occurred in April 1997 when about 40,500 acres of the study area was covered with water. Also during April 1997, the simulated daily water volume in the open and closed wetlands combined attained a maximum of about 116,000 acre-feet. By increasing the spillage thresholds from 0.2 to 1.0, simulated streamflow was reduced by 8.77 inches (from about 17.88 to 9.11 inches; 49 percent) for the 18-year period. During water years 1994-98, simulated annual streamflows for open-wetland spillage thresholds of 1.0 remained less than for thresholds of 0.2 even though the open wetlands probably were near maximum volume. The greatly increased size of the closed wetlands during water years 1994-98 probably allowed for increased water storage and decreased simulated streamflow from the study area.

Vining, Kevin C.

2002-01-01

301

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

302

Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

2012-12-01

303

Comparison of four-hour and twenty-four-hour refrigerated storage of nonpotable water for fecal coliform analysis.  

PubMed Central

The problem of extending the storage time of water samples for fecal coliform analysis was addressed. Included in this report is a literature review of the storage problem. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed in replicate to determine the effect of 24-h storage of water samples at 4 degrees C. A new statistical approach to data analysis, coupled with the concept of practical acceptability, is presented. According to our results, many samples can successfully be stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h.

Standridge, J H; Lesar, D J

1977-01-01

304

Preliminary Study Of The Permeability Of Cement-Resin Admixture For Water Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Admixtures of cement and polymer resin were prepared for water storage in an aquifer layer. Water to cement (w/c) ratio was in the range of 6/7 to 10/7 and the resin added was between 10 and 60 ml. Samples were formed in two ways: by injecting the admixture into a box of 80×60×60 cm3 with a pressure of 6 bar and by molding to fit a certain dimension based on the requirements of the standard measurement. It was found that the increase of water to cement ratio enhances the coefficient of permeability. In addition, the coefficient of permeability decreases with increasing the volume of resin. An attempt to make a relationship between the permeability and the porosity showed that a power law would hold. However, more data are required for confirming the power law.

Putra, Ardian; Handayani, Gunawan; Satira, Suparno; Viridi, Sparisoma; Nugraha, Nirwan

2010-12-01

305

Spatial and temporal patterns of water storage in hydropedological units in northern headwaters: integrating isotopic and hydrometric approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water storage and release are controlled by the complex interaction of soil properties and vegetation. Here, we present new insights into water storage dynamics in six hydropedological units - encompassing the main ecohydrological assemblages in headwater catchments in the Scottish Highlands - investigated under contrasting hydro-climatological conditions. Soil moisture changes and stable isotope dynamics from multiple depths within soil profiles were examined to determine the relative influence of soil hydraulic properties and vegetation characteristics on storage dynamics. The study was based in the 3.6 km2 Bruntland catchment which is characterised by high annual precipitation (~1000 mm) which is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year and greatly exceeds evapotranspiration (~400 mm). Soils investigated encompassed both freely draining (podsols) and water-logged responsive (histosols and gleysols) soils. For each soil forest and non-forest vegetation were compared. In contrast to the permanently saturated histosols and gleysols, the freely draining podsols exhibited pronounced wetting and drying cycles. These were particularly accentuated at the forested site. Variability of soil water stable isotope signatures reflected variability in precipitation inputs for the podzolic soils, consistent with their freely draining nature and relatively low storage capacity, especially for the upper horizons. In contrast, the signals of soil water in the wet histosols were strongly damped, indicating significant mixing of precipitation inputs with the much greater storage. Evaporative fractionation showed little variation between the different vegetation communities suggesting that greater forest water use largely reflected interception losses. Thus at this site, intrinsic soil hydraulic properties exert a much stronger influence on water storage and transmission than vegetation. This is consistent with the overall energy-limited climate in conjunction with the high storage capacity of the wetter catchment soils. The integration of hydrometric data and soil water stable isotopes across soil profiles has been invaluable for differentiating the functional soil water dynamics of the different hydropedological-vegetation assemblages.

Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.; McDonnell, J. J.; Soulsby, C.

2013-12-01

306

Influence of hot water dip on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during storage.  

PubMed

The influence of hot water dips (50, 52 and 54? for 3?min) on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during 60 days' storage at 10? was investigated. Hot water dips did not affect fruit quality attributes as well as ascorbic acid content, and 50? treatment significantly reduced fruit weight loss. Significant increases of flavonoids were found in all hot water treated fruit from after treatments till 15 days of storage, whereas phenolic acids were not greatly affected. Hot water dipping at 50? significantly increased total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin immediately after treatment and maintained similar levels with control during storage, while 52 and 54? treatments showed relatively lower levels. The results suggested that hot water dipping at 50? for 3?min can be a promising way to retain functional quality of storing Satsuma mandarin. PMID:23733808

Shen, Yan; Zhong, Liezhou; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

2013-12-01

307

Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.  

PubMed

The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

2010-06-01

308

Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

Apperson, Jason W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clemmons, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sur, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

309

A 500 gallons per day hybrid desalination plant using wind\\/solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of a modular wind\\/solar distillation plant is presented. The design is based on a constant year-round demand of 500 gallons per day. In arid areas where wind power is available, cost analysis shows that the hybrid system is economically feasible compared with electricity which could only be generated from a conventional source such as a diesel engine. Solar

E. Lumsdaine; I. Tag

1979-01-01

310

Measuring local water storage variations with a superconducting gravimeter at the Geodetic Observatory TIGO, Concepción, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting gravimeters (SGs) measure temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field with very high precision. A superconducting spherical test mass is kept in a constant position in a very stable magnetic field of a superconducting coil. The electrical current that has to be applied to keep this constant position is continuously measured and is an expression of variations in the gravity field. SGs have traditionally been used in geodetic applications, such as the acquisition of Earth tides for deriving elastic parameters, the assessment of gravity variations due to polar motion, the detection of seismically induced oscillations of the earth. Oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological mass displacements in the surroundings of an SG have often been considered as disturbing components of the measurements that have to be reduced for geodetic applications. Some studies in recent years, however, have shown that the disturbing signal component in SG time series can inversely be used as the signal of interest, turning a SG into a hydrological monitoring device. Being sensitive to water mass changes in their surroundings, SGs provide unique measurements of total water storage variations (sum of storage variations in the snow cover, the unsaturated soil, and the groundwater) at local scales of several hundreds of meters, not accessible by other observation techniques. In this study, we investigate the relationship between local hydrology and gravity for the SG located in a highly seasonal climate at the Geodetic Observatory TIGO in Concepción, Chile. SG time series are compared to the gravimetric response calculated by a geodetic model using soil moisture measurements to a depth of 2.6 meters and a Digital Elevation Model for an area of 2 km around the SG. The results show that variations in moisture and gravimetric response are related to the topography and the depth of analysis. A large residual SG signal gives indication of important water storage variations in the deeper unsaturated zone and the groundwater.

Rossel, G.; Güntner, A.; Creutzfeldt, B.; Blume, T.; Hase, H.; Wziontek, H.; Klügel, T.; Villagran, M.; Tume, P.

2012-04-01

311

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

2010-01-01

312

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01

313

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-08-01

314

Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

1979-01-01

315

Hotel in the Bahamas profits from solar hot water system  

SciTech Connect

On Paradise Island, located in the Bahamas, American Energy Technologies Inc. (AET) recently designed and supplied a domestic solar water heating system for the new Comfort Suites Hotel. AET is a Florida manufacturer of solar thermal collectors. The hotel has 150 rooms. Hot water usage entails the laundry facilities and the limited kitchen facilities. Access to hot showers is more of a luxury in some places, but guests at the Comfort Suites Hotel need not be concerned. During the development of the hotel, it was noted that the high heating costs of the propane-fueled hotel boiler were somewhat prohibitive. Propane cost approximately $1.67/gallon, causing the cost of heating water for the hotel to be estimated at over $1,000 per month. To offset the high heating costs, a 49-collector system on a 3200 gallon storage tank was designed into the plans for the new facility. The 49 roof mounted collectors were placed on a direct solar link to the 3200 gallon storage tank. The water is preheated before it gets to the boiler, cutting costs tremendously.

Not Available

1993-01-01

316

Estimating Water Storage Capacity of Existing and Potentially Restorable Wetland Depressions in a Subbasin of the Red River of the North.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this study were to (1) develop and improve methodologies for estimating and spatially depicting wetland storage volumes and interceptions areas and (2) develop models and approaches for estimating/simulating the water storage capacity of pote...

B. A. Tangen K. E. Kermes M. K. Laubhan N. H. Euliss R. A. Gleason

2007-01-01

317

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001?2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

318

The possibility of fitting a pumped storage plant within the complex water development on upper Barzava, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to explore the possibility of developing a Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant (PSHPP) within an existing complex hydro system on upper Barzava, by employing the given hydro potential of the accomplished water development. The present study analyses the hydropower parameters of a proposed Gozna-Semenic PSHPP, the power station looking to employ the existing Gozna water reservoir of a

A. T. Constantin; I. David; A. Chebutiu; S. V. Nicoara; M. Visescu

2010-01-01

319

Annual water storage variability in Southwest Niger: confrontation of absolute gravimetric measurements and magnetic resonance soundings surveys with hydrological observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in methods of observation are essential to ensure a better understanding of the evolution of water resources considering climate changes and human activities. The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims to combine geodetic and gravimetric measurements with dense hydrological surveys to better characterize the annual water storage variability in tropical West Africa. In Southwest Niger periodic absolute

J. Pfeffer; M. Boucher; J. Hinderer; G. Favreau; J. Boy; C. de Linage; B. Luck; M. Oi

2009-01-01

320

Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

SciTech Connect

Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

2008-04-15

321

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

322

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01

323

The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

Landeen, D.S.

1994-09-01

324

Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.  

PubMed Central

Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue.

Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

1997-01-01

325

Potential Impact of Earthen Waste Storage Structures on Water Resources in Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen waste storage structures (EWSS) associated with large confined (concentrated) animal feeding operations (CAFOs) were evaluated for their potential to impact water resources in Iowa. A representative sample of 34 EWSS from a digital database of 439 lagoons and basins permitted between 1987 and 1994 was analyzed. Eighteen percent (6 of 34) directly overlie alluvial aquifers that are used widely for potable water supply. Ninetyfour percent (29 of 31) were constructed below the water table based on EWSS depth data. At 65 percent of EWSS (22 of 34), 50 percent or more of the manure-spreading area (MSA) has a water-table depth less than 1.6 m. At 74 percent of EWSS (25 of 34), 90 percent or more of the MSA contains soil with vertical K exceeding 25.4 mm/hr. Seventy-one percent (24 of 34) occur where 10 percent or less of the MSA is frequently flooded. No significant differences were found among leakage rates due to aquifer vulnerability class or surficial material. However, at least 50 percent of EWSS (14 of 28) leaked at rates significantly greater than 1.6 mm/d under the new construction standard. The estimated 5,000 unregulated CAFOs may have a greater potential to impact water resources in Iowa.

Simpkins, William W.; Burkhart, Michael R.; Helmke, Martin F.; Twedt, Trenton N.; James, David E.; Jaquis, Robert J.; Cole, Kevin J.

2002-06-01

326

Lake abundance, potential water storage, and habitat distribution in the Mackenzie River Delta, western Canadian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete landscape surface of the active Mackenzie River Delta (13,135 km2) was manually partitioned into discrete lakes (3331 km2), channels (1744 km2), wetlands (1614 km2), and dry floodplain area (6446 km2) via GIS analysis of digital topographic maps recently available for the system. The census total of lakes (49,046) is almost twice as large as prior estimates. Using this new information, total lake volume in the delta during the post river flooding period is estimated as 5.4 km3. Total floodwater storage in the delta lakes and floodplain at peak water levels is estimated at 25.8 km3 and thus is equivalent to about 47% of Mackenzie River flow (55.4 km3 yr-1) during the high-discharge period of delta breakup. During this period the stored river water can be envisioned in the form of a thin layer of water (2.3 m thick on average) spread out over 11,200 km2 of lakes and flooded vegetation and exposed to 24 h d-1 solar irradiance. Consequently, this temporarily stored water has significant potential to affect the composition of river water flowing to the Beaufort Shelf as it recedes to the river channels after the flood peak.

Emmerton, Craig A.; Lesack, Lance F. W.; Marsh, Philip

2007-05-01

327

Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages  

SciTech Connect

This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

1997-03-01

328

Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4?·?2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O with no FeSO4?·?2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions. PMID:24682481

Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

2014-06-01

329

Assimilation of terrestrial water storage from GRACE in a snow-dominated basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root-mean-square difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of postglacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, B. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2012-01-01

330

Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

2014-03-01

331

Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

332

How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research project was to determine the water transport behaviour of earlywood versus latewood in the trunk of 21-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Specific conductivity (ks) and the vulnerability of xylem to embolism were measured on a single growth ring and in a subset of earlywood and late- wood samples within the same ring. Earlywood\\/late-

Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara L. Gartner

2002-01-01

333

Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage in subsurface geologic formations, principally saline aquifers, is currently under development as a major approach to counter anthropogenic CO2 emissions. To ensure the stability and long-term viability of geologic carbon storage, injected CO2 must be kept in place by an overlying cap rock of very low permeability. Capillary forces in the cap rock act to prevent upward migration and escape of the stored supercritical fluid, with interfacial tension (IFT) between the aqueous brine phase and the CO2 phase being the primary control. However, published experimental CO2-water IFT data vary widely, mainly because of inadequate experimental protocols or inappropriate use of bulk-fluid properties in computing IFT from experimental observations. Only two published data sets were found to meet all criteria of merit for an accurate measurement of IFT over the entire range of pressure (5-45 MPa) and temperature (298-383 K) pertinent to geologic carbon storage. In such circumstances, molecular simulations can enhance the utility of limited data when used to validate assumptions made in their interpretation, resolve discrepancies among data, and fill gaps where data are lacking. Simulations may also be used to provide insight into the relationship between IFT and fundamental properties, such as the strength of the CO2-H2O interaction. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we compared the quality of three CO2 models and two H2O models (SPC/E and TIP4P2005) in predicting IFT under the pressure and temperature conditions relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration. Interfacial tension at fixed temperature simulated via molecular dynamics decreased strongly with increasing pressure below the critical CO2 pressure of 7 MPa, then leveled off, in agreement with experiment, whereas increasing temperature from 300 to 383 K at fixed pressure had little effect on IFT, which is also consistent with experimental data. Our results demonstrated that the strength of the short-range portion of the CO2-H2O interaction exerts a major influence on IFT. The CO2 model that best represented the attractive part of this interaction for randomly-oriented water molecules also best captures the experimental pressure dependence of IFT when combined with either water model. When combined with the SPC/E water model, this CO2 model underestimated IFT by ˜10 mN/m, which approximately equals the amount by which the SPC/E water model underestimates the surface tension of pure water. When combined with the TIP4P2005 water model, this model accurately captured the pressure dependence of the CO2-H2O IFT at 383 K over the entire pressure range examined. These pressure variations will have the dominant effect on IFT—especially at pressures lower than the CO2 critical pressure (˜7 MPa)—and, therefore, on the CO2 storage capacity and sealing integrity of a subsurface reservoir.

Nielsen, Laura C.; Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison

2012-03-01

334

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1981-01-01

335

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1981-05-01

336

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

Not Available

1980-11-01

337

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

338

Water-induced Morphology Changes in BaO/g-Al2O3 Nox Storage Materials  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of NO{sub 2}-saturated BaO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NO{sub x} storage materials to H{sub 2}O vapor results in the conversion of surface nitrates to Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystallites, causing dramatic morphological changes in the Ba-containing phase, demonstrating a role for water in affecting the NO{sub x} storage/reduction properties of these materials.

Szanyi,J.; Kwak, J.; Kim, D.; Wang, X.; Hanson, J.; Chimentao, R.; Peden, C.

2007-01-01

339

Water Supply and Water Quality Control Study, Poteau River Basin, Oklahoma and Arkansas. Study of Needs and Value of Storage for Municipal and Industrial Water Supply and Water Quality Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey has been made which discloses a present and future need for storage in the Poteau River basin for municipal and industrial water supplies and for the control of water quality. These conclusions are based on results of economic and demographic stu...

1966-01-01

340

Water Supply and Water Quality Control Study Wapsipinicon River Basin, Iowa. Study of the Needs and Value of Storage for Municipal and Industrial Water Supply and Water Quality Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the present and future needs and value of municipal and industrial water supply and storage for water quality control on the Wapsipinicon River in the reaches affected by the proposed Central City Reservoir. This ...

1966-01-01

341

40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

2013-07-01

342

40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow...

2013-07-01

344

CO2 Releases from Deep Storage Formations into Drinking Water Aquifers - Assessment of Impacts on Drinking Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological storage of supercritical CO2 is envisioned as a means of mitigating the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, the potential exists for CO2 to migrate from the deep geologic formations to overlying aquifers that serve as sources of drinking water, which could lead to geochemical alterations that have detrimental effects on drinking water quality. For example, elevated CO2 levels in drinking water aquifers can enhance the solubility and decrease the sorbed fraction of trace metals and radionuclides to an extent that concentrations may reach undesirable levels at the local scale. Therefore, an assessment of these effects is necessary to determine the risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO2. In this study, the effects of CO2 intrusion into a sandstone aquifer (with and without calcite cement present) on the water chemistry and on the mobility of trace metals and radionuclides were investigated. The aquifer was assumed to be unpolluted such that sorption, not solubility, was likely to be the predominant process controlling heavy metal and radionuclide mobility. Four elements with very different geochemical behaviors were selected for the study - lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium - and sorption was assumed to occur on ferric oxyhydroxides coating the sandstone matrix. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted using the coupled reactive-transport code MULTIFLO to determine the changes in aquifer water chemistry - spatially and temporally - as a function of CO2 flux from a leaking CO2 sequestration aquifer. Lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium Kd values as a function of pH and pCO2 were derived using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations and used to assess the impact of CO2 leakage on heavy metal and radionuclide mobility based on the MULTIFLO results. This work was funded by the Southwest Research Institute Internal Research and Development Project 20- R9826.

Pabalan, R. T.; Painter, S. L.; Walter, G. R.; Bertetti, F. P.

2008-12-01

345

Developments in Climate and Soil Water Storage in the Locality of Poiplie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is one of the largest threats to the modern world. It is primarily experienced via changes and extreme weather events, including air temperature changes, the uneven distribution of precipitation and an increase in the alteration of torrential short-term precipitation and longer non-precipitation periods. However climate change is not only a change in the weather; it also has a much larger impact on an ecosystem. As a result of expected climate change, a lack of either surface water or groundwater could occur within wetlands; thus, the existence of wetlands and their flora and fauna could be threatened. This submitted work analyses the impact of climate change on the wetland ecosystems of Poiplie, which is situated in the south of Slovakia in the Ipe? river basin. The area is an important wetland biotope with rare plant and animal species, which mainly live in open water areas, marshes, wet meadows and alluvial forests. To evaluate any climate change, the CGCM 3.1 model, two emission scenarios, the A2 emission scenario (pessimistic) and the B1 emission scenario (optimistic), were used within the regionalization. For simulating the soil water storage, which is one of the components of a soil water regime, the GLOBAL mathematical model was used.

Pásztorová, Mária

2013-03-01

346

Theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel built-in-storage solar water heater  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a novel built-in-storage type solar water heater of about 871 capacity has been investigated theoretically and experimentally for the case of no draw-off. The solar water heater which performs the dual function of absorbing and storing hot water is made of 5 pipes, each of length 1.8 m and diameter 12 cm. A baffle plate is placed inside each pipe. The experiments have been performed inside the laboratory using an artificial Sun consisting of 27 lamps. The water temperatures have been measured at various locations in the system. In the theoretical study, transient performance of the system is predicted by solving the mathematical model consisting of energy balance equations written for each control volume comprising one length of pipe. These equations are converted to finite difference form and then solved by a personal computer. The experimental results have been compared with the numerical model and a good agreement has been found between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Kaptan, I.N.; Kilic, A. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)] [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1996-11-01

347

Evaluation of the Viability of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi after Prolonged Storage in Sterile Water and Review of Recent Published Studies on Storage Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the survival and potential morphological alterations of 45 species of pathogenic filamentous fungi that\\u000a had been stored in sterile water following Castellani’s method in the National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (NCPF). Storage\\u000a duration varied from 2 months to over 21 years. Ninety percent of stored organisms were shown to be viable. Viability was\\u000a largely independent of the duration of

Andrew M. Borman; Adrien Szekely; Colin K. Campbell; Elizabeth M. Johnson

2006-01-01

348

Leaf anatomy, water relations and crassulacean acid metabolism in the chlorenchyma and colourless internal water-storage tissue of Carpobrotus edulis and Senecio ?mandraliscae.  

PubMed

Both Carpobrotus edulis and Senecio ?mandraliscae possess leaves with a peripheral chlorenchyma and colourless internal water-storage tissue. Water stress in C. edulis growing under semi-natural conditions resulted in the induction of weak Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) whereas well-watered plants of S. ?mandraliscae exhibited a similar degree of CAM. Titratable acidity in the separated water-storage tissue was substantially lower than in the chlorenchyma in both species but, nevertheless, increased during the night and decreased during the day either when sampled from the intact plant or from incubated tissue slices. Indeed, the increase in nocturnal titratable acidity produced by the water-storage tissue in situ accounted for approx. 30% of total acidification on a per-leaf basis. It appears that during the night the water-storage tissue in these species is able to fix CO2 which is subsequently released during the day to enter the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle of the chlorenchyma. Diurnal rhythms of water potential (?) and osmotic potential (?s) were measured in separated chlorenchyma and water-storage tissue by thermocouple psychrometry. Both parameters increased during the latter part of the daytime and initial nocturnal period and decreased during the rest of the night and into the post-dawn period. The chlorenchyma of water-stressed plants of C. edulis appeared to possess a marked negative turgor pressure (as determined from ?-?s) but this was caused by a severe underestimation in the measurement of the chlorenchyma ?. It is suggested that this artefact arose from release of colloidal polysaccharide mucilage, or possibly tannins, from broken tannin cells producing a lowering of water activity when measured using thermocouple psychrometry. PMID:24232974

Earnshaw, M J; Carver, K A; Charlton, W A

1987-03-01

349

Characterization of produced waters from underground natural gas storage reservoir operations. Volume 2. Appendix D. Analytical data report. Topical report, July 1986June 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a nationwide characterization program for produced waters from underground natural gas storage operations. In all, seven produced water samples from seven different sites were collected and analyzed. The analytical methods used and parameters tested in the program paralleled those used in EPA's EandP Waste Study. In general, the produced waters from storage facilities sampled

L. H. Keith; S. K. Mertens; F. L. Shore; M. C. Shepherd; P. J. Schrynemeeckers

1988-01-01

350

NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

Wells, Douglas P.

2011-01-01

351

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

1979-01-01

352

Businaro-Gallone transition as observed in complete charge distributions from compound nucleus decay  

SciTech Connect

The compound nucleus emission of fragments covering the entire mass range has been observed in reactions exploiting both ordinary and reverse kinematics. The compound nucleus mechanism has been inferred from full momentum transfer, angular independence of the fragment center of mass kinetic energies and excitation functions. The drastic change in the observed charge distributions as one crosses A approx. = 100 illustrates the effect of the Businaro-Gallone point.

Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

1984-08-01

353

South Point Ethanol 60-million gallon per year fuel-ethanol plant: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, construction, and operation of a 63-million gallon per year fuel-ethanol plant built by South Point Ethanol on a 600-acre site of a decommissioned ammonia fertilizer facility in South Point, Ohio. The existing coal-fired boiler complex, rail system, utilities, large and small tanks, distillation columns, and other equipment, and several process and office buildings were refurbished

L. Hill; H. Hicks; W. Hopkins; B. Jordan; R. Andersen

1986-01-01

354

Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute VolgNIIGiM situated at a left bank of Volga River of Saratov Region of Russia (N51.384650°, E46.0558

Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

2014-05-01

355

Terrestrial Water Storage Variations in the Heihe River Basin Recovered by GRACE Time-Variable Earth Gravity Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heihe River is a larger inland river in the Northwestern China across the three provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Inner Mongolia, located in the Hexi Corridor and the middle of the Qilian Mountains, from eastern longitude of 97Ë? 37' to 102Ë? 06' and from northern latitude 37Ë? 44' to 42Ë? 40'. The terrain there is complex and the water storage variation display strongly seasonal and regional features due to the precipitation difference of time and spatial distribution. It is of important significance for the ecological environment and economic construction by investigating the terrestrial water storage variations in the Heihe River basin. 48 monthly GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) Earth's gravity field models for the period from January 2004 until December 2007 are used in the paper, from which the tidal effects, including oceanic tide, solid Earth tide and solid Earth pole tides are removed, as well as the non-tidal effects of atmospheric and oceanic contributions. During data processing, the GRACE Earth's gravity field models are truncated to complete degree and order 60, and the time series C20 are replaced by those obtained from analyzing SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) data. Using the Gaussian filtering method with smoothing radius 700km, the terrestrial water storage variations in the Heihe River basin are recovered from the spherical harmonic coefficients of the monthly GRACE Earth's gravity field models, and then the characteristics of the terrestrial water storage changes are analyzed. The results show that the seasonal and annual feature of the terrestrial water storage variations is revealed in the Heihe River basin. The annual variations amplitude is approximately 1.6cm in terms of equivalent water height, and achieves the maximum in April and August each year. The similarities are shown well by comparing the terrestrial water storage variations recovered from GRACE temporal gravity field to those from CPC (Climate Prediction Center) hydrological model. Both of them reveal the obviously seasonal characteristics of the terrestrial water storage variations, and the amplitude difference is less than 0.5cm. The groundwater storage variation are obtained by combining the terrestrial water storage variation recovered from GRACE with the changes in solid moister and snow water equivalent calculated from GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) hydrological model. It is concluded that GRACE time variable gravity field can reveal the variations of the terrestrial water storage more or less in Heihe River basin in the spatial scale, and the seasonal and annual changes obviously in the time scale. The terrestrial water storage variations recovered from GRACE temporal gravity field still have valuable applications in smaller river basin. Key words: Heihe River basin; GRACE; time-variable Earth's gravity field; terrestrial water Acknowledgements: This research was jointly supported by the National 973 Program of China (Project No.2007CB714405), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.40874002), and the New Century Excellent Talents Plan of Ministry of Education, China (NCET-07-0635).

Luo, Z. C.; Li, Q.; Wang, H. H.; Liao, M. S.

2009-04-01

356

Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge. Observed land-subsidence during the monitoring period was less than 1 inch except in the central part of Tucson Basin where land subsidence was about 2-3 inches. Correlations of gravity-based storage and water-level change at 37 wells were variable and illustrate the complex nature of the aquifer system. Storage and water-level variations were insufficient to estimate specific yield at many wells. Correlations at several wells were poor, inverse, or resulted in unreasonably large values of specific yield. Causes of anomalously correlated gravity and water levels include significant storage change in thick unsaturated zones, especially near major ephemeral channels, and multiple aquifers that are poorly connected hydraulically. Good correlation of storage and water-level change at 10 wells that were not near major streams where significant changes in unsaturated zone storage occur resulted in an average specific-yield value of 0.27.

Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

2008-01-01

357

Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

Moore, P.H. (Department of Agriculture, Aiea, Hawaii (United States)); Cosgrove, D.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1991-07-01

358

Simulation of ground-water flow in aquifers in Cretaceous rocks in the central Coastal Plain, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principal sources of water-supply in Cretaceous rocks in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are the Peedee, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers. Ground-water withdrawals from these aquifers have increased from about 0.25 million gallons per day in 1910 to over 29 million gallons per day in 1986, causing water-level declines as much as 160 feet. The maximum rate of water-level decline in 1986 is about 11 feet per year in the Black Creek aquifer. A quasi-three dimensional ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated for the period 1900 to 1986 to simulate past water-level declines and to estimate the effects of future pumpage. Comparisons of 1,867 observed and model-computed heads were made at 323 well sites. The average difference between computed and observed water levels is -1 foot. About 68 percent of all the differences between computed and observed water levels falls in the range from -21.0 to 21.0 feet. Simulation indicates that the 29 million gallons per day of pumpage in 1986 was supplied by (1) increased recharge (net discharge of 2 million gallons per day in 1900 changed to net recharge of 18 million gallons per day in 1986), (2) increased lateral inflow to the aquifers of about 8 million gallons per day, and (3) depletion of ground-water storage of about 1 million gallons per day. Two pumping scenarios simulated head changes through 1991 and were based on (1) constant pumpage at the 1986 rates in each aquifer, and (2) continuing increases in pumping rates from 1986 through 1991 and rates varying from 10 to 19 percent per year for the three pumped aquifers. For scenario 1, water-level declines exceeded 5 feet locally; however, water-level rises of about 1 foot occurred in two areas. For scenario 2, water-level declines ranged from 1 foot to 30 feet in some pumping centers.

Eimers, J. L.; Lyke, W. L.; Brockman, A. R.

1990-01-01

359

The 2009 exceptional Amazon flood and interannual terrestrial water storage change observed by GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission provides a new capability for measuring extreme climate events, such as floods and droughts associated with large-scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. GRACE gravity measurements show significant TWS increases in the lower Amazon basin in the first half of 2009, clearly associated with the exceptional flood season in that region. The extended record of GRACE monthly gravity solutions reveals the temporal and spatial evolution of both nonseasonal and interannual TWS change in the Amazon basin over the 7 year mission period from April 2002 to August 2009. GRACE observes a very dry season in 2002-2003 and an extremely wet season in 2009. In March 2009 (approximately the peak of the recent Amazon flood), total TWS surplus in the entire Amazon basin is ˜624 ± 32 Gt, roughly equal to U.S. water consumption for a year. GRACE measurements are consistent with precipitation data. Interannual TWS changes in the Amazon basin are closely connected to ENSO events in the tropical Pacific. The 2002-2003 dry season is clearly tied to the 2002-2003 El Niño and the 2009 flood to the recent La Niña event. The most significant contribution of this study in the area of water resources is to confront the hydrological community with the latest results of the GRACE satellite mission and further demonstrates the unique strength of GRACE and follow-up satellite gravity observations for measuring large-scale extreme climate events.

Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.

2010-12-01

360

Groundwater component of land water storage in Asia from GRACE and hydrological modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total water storage (TWS) variations from GRACE have been analyzed since mid-2002 over 6 large river basins in Asia (Indus, Ganges, Brahmapoutra, Irrawady, Mekong and Yangtze). Over the 6-year time span of analysis, a negative trend in TWS is reported for several basins. As proposed by two recent studies (Rodell et al., Nature, 2009 and Tiwari et al., GRL, 2009), over the river basins of North India, ground water depletion for domestic needs and irrigation may be mostly responsible for the large negative trend reported by GRACE. Here we develop a similar approach (although with different hydrological modeling to separate the ground water component from TWS) and extend the area of investigation to additional river basins of Asia. In addition to specific regions of the Ganges basin, negative trends in TWS are found along the northern portion of the Indus basin and Mekong. We next discuss groundwater change and the respective contributions in TWS of climate variability and anthropogenic forcing for each of the 6 basins considered in this study.

Vergnes, J.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Tiwari, V. M.; Güntner, A.

2009-12-01

361

Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across the landscape.

Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

2008-02-01

362

Recovery of several volatile organic compounds from simulated water samples: Effect of transport and storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solutions containing volatile organic compounds were prepared in organic-free water and 2% methanol and submitted to two U.S. Geological Survey laboratories. Data from the determination of volatile compounds in these samples were compared to analytical data for the same volatile compounds that had been kept in solutions 100 times more concentrated until immediately before analysis; there was no statistically significant difference in the analytical recoveries. Addition of 2% methanol to the storage containers hindered the recovery of bromomethane and vinyl chloride. Methanol addition did not enhance sample stability. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in results from the two laboratories, and the recovery efficiency was more than 80% in more than half of the determinations made. In a subsequent study, six of eight volatile compounds showed no significant loss of recovery after 34 days.

Friedman, L. C.; Schroder, L. J.; Brooks, M. G.

1986-01-01

363

Cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage systems for residential domestic hot water  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed in FY 1984 at the Solar Energy Research Institute as part of the continuing effort to lower the delivered energy cost of solar domestic hot water and space heating systems. In this work, a cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage (ICS) systems was conducted. Cost data for installed system costs were developed for both systems. Performance for the systems was generated using either accepted design tools (FCHART for drainback systems) or new methodologies (for the ICS systems). The cost and performance data were used to calculate discounted payback as a means for comparing the two systems and for assessing their market potential. The results of this economic analysis show that ICS systems have lower discounted paybacks than commercially available drainback systems. Low-cost drainback systems using new, low-cost components have about the same discounted payback as ICS systems.

Lewandowski, A.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Kutscher, C.F.

1985-11-01

364

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by integrating vertical water balance, lateral surface and subsurface kinematic wave routing, and channel plus floodplain diffusion wave routing models. The period of study is 2003 through 2008. The model forcing data are TRMM precipitation and MODIS air temperature, albedo, cloud cover and leaf area index. The HRR model parameters accounting for the thickness of the rooting zone layer, timing of the subsurface response to the channel network and speed of the flood wave are calibrated using the GRACE estimates of water storage change. The resulting model predictions are compared to corresponding streamflow data in the Amazon Basin and historical flow data in the Congo Basin. The results of this study quantify the predictive capabilities of a large scale hydrologic model driven primarily with Satellite data and without calibrating to in-situ streamflow data.

Beighley, R. E.; He, Y.; Ray, R. L.; Guo, J.; Shum, C.

2009-12-01

365

Annual water storage variability in Southwest Niger: confrontation of absolute gravimetric measurements and magnetic resonance soundings surveys with hydrological observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in methods of observation are essential to ensure a better understanding of the evolution of water resources considering climate changes and human activities. The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims to combine geodetic and gravimetric measurements with dense hydrological surveys to better characterize the annual water storage variability in tropical West Africa. In Southwest Niger periodic absolute gravimetric measurements are performed near a temporary pond where rapid infiltration to the unconfined aquifer occurs. In parallel, pond water level, piezometry, and soil water content are regularly measured. As gravity is sensitive both to local and global variations of water mass distribution, the large scale contribution is first removed using either GRACE satellite data or global hydrology models like GLDAS or ECMWF. The comparison of local water storage variations estimated by gravimetric and hydrological in-situ measurements allows estimating the specific yield of the aquifer to a value ranging between 5 and 7 %. This value is consistent with the 5 to 13 % porosity estimated by Magnetic Resonance Sounding survey. The good agreement between these two independent methods proves the interest in using gravimetric measurements to constrain parameterization of local hydrological modeling. Additional measurements with relative spring gravimeters are scheduled to better characterize spatial heterogeneity in water storage variability.

Pfeffer, J.; Boucher, M.; Hinderer, J.; Favreau, G.; Boy, J.; de Linage, C.; Luck, B.; Oi, M.

2009-12-01

366

Forecasting Total Water Storage Changes in the Amazon basin using Atlantic and Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting the transportation, river navigation, agriculture, economy and the carbon balance and biodiversity of several South American countries. The present study aims to find the main variables controlling the natural interannual variability of terrestrial water storage in the Amazon region and to propose a modeling framework for flood and drought forecasting. We propose three simple empirical models using a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) sea surface temperatures (SST) to predict a decade-long record of 3°, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA) observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. In addition to a SST forcing term, the models included a relaxation term to simulate the memory of water storage anomalies in response to external variability in forcing. Model parameters were spatially-variable and individually optimized for each 3° grid cell. We also investigated the evolution of the predictive capability of our models with increasing minimum lead times for TWSA forecasts. TNAI was the primary external forcing for the central and western regions of the southern Amazon (35% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast), whereas Niño 4 was dominant in the northeastern part of the basin (61% of variance explained with a 3-month forecast). Forcing the model with a combination of the two indices improved the fit significantly (p<0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model was able to explain 43% of the variance in the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3-month lead time. While 66% of the observed variance was explained in the northeastern Amazon, only 39% of the variance was captured by the combined model in the central and western regions, suggesting that other, more local, forcing sources were important in these regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was monotonically degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using a 8-month lead time versus 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the western and central regions of southern Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months versus 43% at 1 month). Our model may provide early warning information about flooding in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin, where floodplain areas are extensive and the sensitivity of floods to external SST forcing was shown to be high. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as TWSA deficits may subsequently lead to atmospheric water vapor deficits and reduced cloudiness via water-limited evapotranspiration. Finally, this work helps to bridge the gap between the current GRACE mission and the follow-on gravity mission.

De Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-12-01

367

COST ESTIMATING MANUAL COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW STORAGE AND TREATMENT (EPA/600/2-76/286)  

EPA Science Inventory

Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenancerequirements are presented for combined sewer overflow treatment plants ranging from about 5 to 200 million gallons per day in capacity, and storage facilities ranging in size from I to 240 million gallon...

368

Recovery of Interannual Terrestrial Water Storage Variations over the Indochina Peninsula and the Relationship with Decadal-Scale Climate Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indochina peninsula is located in an area affected by the Southeast Asian monsoon system, and substantial seasonal variation in terrestrial water storage is observed in this area. In addition to the seasonal effect of the monsoon system, the Indochina peninsula is also affected by the changes from interannual climate system over the Pacific and Indian Oceans, which causes precipitation and temperature anomalies over this area directly, or coupling with a monsoon event. As a result, terrestrial water storage variations over the Indochina peninsula are closely related to such global-scale events. In this study, using GRACE temporal mass variation data, we investigated the inteannual components of the terrestrial water storage variations over the Indochina peninsula. Currently, the GRACE mission offers nearly 10-year datasets for research since its launch. Thus, it has become possible to discuss interannual mass changes on the scale of several years to decades. We firstly recovered mass variations over the Indochina peninsula using version 2 of the CNES/GRGS GRACE every 10-day satellite gravity field solutions from 2002 to 2009, and extracted interannual terrestrial water storage mass variation components. Next, the dominant water mass variation modes over a large area including the Indochina peninsula were investigated by applying EOF analysis to the obtained interannual components. For the analysis, we included the Indian Ocean in addition to the surrounding land region for the analyzed areas because meteorological terrestrial water storage variations generally are closely related to ocean variations. The obtained each EOF modes were compared with the climate oscillation indices and with the typical spatial patterns to specify the dominant climate system that causes the variation. The result showed that the Indian Ocean Dipole, which is the dipole oscillation mode of the sea surface temperature anomalies between the east and west Indian Ocean, gives the most dominant effect on the interannual terrestrial water storage over the Indochina peninsula during the data time span used in this study. The Effect is about 20 % of the total interannual terrestrial water storage mass variation. The result also showed that El Nino/Southern Oscillation events gives some effects as well, but the effect is about 4 % of the total interannual components, which is smaller than the effect of Indian Ocean Dipole.

Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Hasegawa, T.

2012-04-01

369

How does rapidly changing discharge during storm events affect transient storage and channel water balance in a headwater mountain stream?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of transient storage in coupled surface-water and groundwater systems are widely made during base flow periods and rarely made during storm flow periods. We completed 24 sets of slug injections in three contiguous study reaches during a 1.25 year return interval storm event (discharge ranging from 21.5 to 434 L s-1) in a net gaining headwater stream within a steep, constrained valley. Repeated studies over a 9 day period characterize transient storage and channel water from prestorm conditions through storm discharge recession. Although the valley floor was always gaining from the hillslopes based on hydraulic gradients, we observed exchange of water from the stream to the valley floor throughout the study and flow conditions. Interpretations of transient storage and channel water balance are complicated by dynamic in-stream and near-stream processes. Metrics of transient storage and channel water balance were significantly different (95% confidence level) between the three study reaches and could be identified independently of stream discharge via analysis of normalized breakthrough curves. These differences suggest that the morphology of each study reach was the primary control on solute tracer transport. Unlike discharge, metrics of transient storage and channel water balance did not return to the prestorm values. We conclude that discharge alone is a poor predictor of tracer transport in stream networks during storm events. Finally, we propose a perceptual model for our study site that links hydrologic dynamics in 3-D along the hillslope-riparian-hyporheic-stream continuum, including down-valley subsurface transport.

Ward, Adam S.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Voltz, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Singha, Kamini; Zarnetske, Jay P.

2013-09-01

370

Geophysical investigation and interpretation of the magnetic properties and signature of 55-gallon cold-rolled carbon-steel hazardous-waste drums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research project was designed to apply magnetic mapping geophysical investigative techniques to the determination of the magnetic properties of 55-gallon cold-rolled carbon steel hazardous waste drums and to utilize these magnetic properties to locate buried drums. Cold rolled carbon steel exhibits ferromagnetism; so two experimental designs were completed to investigate the ferromagnetic properties of the 55-gallon drums that are commonly used in the collection, transportation, storage, and final disposal of hazardous waste. These ferromagnetic properties are the magnetic pole strength, magnetic moment, induction, permeability, and magnetic susceptibility. For purposes of this study, a new geophysical detection device has been developed that integrates handheld fluxgate magnetometers with a two-directional inclinometer and an automatic datalogger. This new measurement and data collection system allowed the collection of the three-dimensional vector magnetic field simultaneously with magnetometer sensing head inclination. This combined data allows for the resolution of the three dimensional vector data to a consistent horizontal and vertical plane. This new and mobile system has been tested in several experiments to determine the ferromagnetic properties of a typical drum for the first time and also to measure the magnetic field in a typical geophysical site investigation.

Freed, Chad Hamlin

371

Modelling of Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth at various storage temperatures on beef treated with electrolyzed oxidizing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of storage temperature (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30°C) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef untreated (control) and treated by acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AcEOW) or slightly acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (SAcEOW) was examined. A Baranyi model was employed to describe growth parameters such as specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) as

Tian Ding; S. M. E. Rahman; U. Purev; Deog-Hwan Oh

2010-01-01

372

SOLAR CONVERSION AND ENERGY STORAGE BY THE CHLOROPHYLL A DIHYDRATE PHOTOCATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF WATER AND REDUCTION OF CARBON-DIOXIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the photoconversion and storage of visible light energy based on the half-cell reactions of water photolysis by crystalline chlorophyll a dihydrate is described. The role of water on the photochemical activity of chlorophyll a is examined by a study of a photogalvanic cell consisting of a Pt\\/Chl a photocathode and a Chl a-free anode. The production of

DANIEL RAY FRUGE

1980-01-01

373

A preliminary cost and engineering estimate for desalinating produced formation water associated with carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk associated with storage of carbon dioxide in the subsurface can be reduced by removal of a comparable volume of existing brines (e.g. Buscheck et al., 2011). In order to avoid high costs for disposal, the brines should be processed into useful forms such as fresh and low-hardness water. We have carried out a cost analysis of treatment of

W. L. Bourcier; T. J. Wolery; T. Wolfe; C. Haussmann; T. A. Buscheck; R. D. Aines

2011-01-01

374

Seasonal Heat Storage in Underground Warm Water Stores: Construction and Testing of a 500 m3 Store.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the work has been to show that warm water pits, uninsulated towards the soil are well suited for seasonal heat storage. Limiting the insulation to the top surface will contribute to a construction price reduction, which is so important, if seas...

K. K. Hansen P. N. Hansen V. Ussing

1983-01-01

375

Seasonal Heat Storage in Underground Warm Water Stores. Construction and Testing of a 500 M exp 3 Store.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the work has been to show that warm water pits, uninsulated towards the soil are well suited for seasonal heat storage. Limiting the insulation to the top surface will contribute to a construction price reduction, which is so important, if seas...

K. Kielsgaard Hansen P. Nordgaard Hansen V. Ussing

1983-01-01

376

Determination of the water regime and state of the geologic environment in the territory of a slime storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under current conditions of elevated ecological requirements imposed on objects of industry, business conditions, and development of scientific, engineering, computational, and computer technologies, problems of the efficient use of natural resources have good reasons for positive solutions and development. A balance of economic, ecological, and technological interests of large industrial enterprises in the location, construction, and operation of water storages

A. V. Timokhin

1997-01-01

377

Comparison of coal IGCC with and without CO 2 capture and storage: Shell gasification with standard vs. partial water quench  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides a techno-economic assessment of Shell coal gasification -based IGCC, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS), focusing on the comparison between the standard Shell configuration with dry gas quench and syngas coolers versus partial water quench cooling.

Emanuele Martelli; Thomas Kreutz; Stefano Consonni

2009-01-01

378

Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-10-01

379

Quantifying spatio-temporal variability of soil water storage and their controls at multiple scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water is the primary limiting factor in semiarid ecosystems and determinant of environmental health. The distribution of soil water in space and time has important hydrologic applications. However, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water is a major challenge in hydrology as their distribution in the landscape is controlled many factors and processes acting in different intensities over a variety of scales. Quantification of these variability and their dominant controls at multiple scales can only lead to a better understanding on the soil water dynamics in space and time and on the underlying processes causing the variability. In order to quantify spatio-temporal variability, soil water content (later converted to soil water storage, SWS) was measured down to 1.4 m (0.2 m depth interval) at 128 regularly spaced locations along a transect of 576 m over a five-year period from the Hummocky landscape of central Canada. The spatial pattern of SWS was very similar (large values of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) over the entire study period and was almost a mirror image of the spatial pattern of the relative elevation. The similarity was stronger within a season (intra-season) than the same season from different years (inter-annual) and between seasons (inter-season). The variability at multiple scales was quantified using the wavelet transform. The strongest large scale (>72 m) variability contributed from the macro-topography and a moderate medium scale (18-72 m) variability contributed from the landform elements were persistent over the entire measurement period (time stability). The locations and the scales of the most persistent spatial patterns over time and depth were quantified using the wavelet coherency. The changes in the persistent patterns indicated the changes in the scales and locations of underlying hydrological processes, which can be used to identify change in sampling domain. The similarities/dissimilarities in the spatial pattern between the surface and sub-surface measurements at different scales and locations were used to infer the whole profile hydrological dynamics (depth persistence). The variability in SWS spatial patterns was controlled by different factors at different scales. Scale specific dominant controls were identified after separating the variance contribution of each scale towards the overall variance using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The large scale macro-topographical control and medium scale landform control were much stronger than very large scale soil textural control on SWS. The scale-specific relationship with controlling factors improved the prediction of SWS.

Biswas, Asim

2014-05-01

380

Heat transfer enhancement in water when used as PCM in thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and reliable storage systems for thermal energy are an important requirement in many applications where heat demand and supply or availability do not coincide. Heat and cold stores can basically be divided in two groups. In sensible heat stores the temperature of the storage material is increased significantly. Latent heat stores, on the contrary, use a storage material that

L. F. Cabeza; H. Mehling; S. Hiebler; F. Ziegler

2002-01-01

381

The combination of satellite and in-situ gravimetric and hydrogeophysical measurements constrains water storage capacity in South West Niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of water storage variations is a critical concern for resource assessment in semi-arid areas. This issue is particularly acute in South-west Niger, where both population growth (+ 3 %/yr) and climatic changes impinge on groundwater resources. For the first time, absolute ground gravity measurements were performed in West Africa. These observations allowed the detection of seasonal water storage changes both at local and continental scales. GRACE satellite data and global hydrological model simulations enabled to assess the long wavelength (several 100 km) gravity variations induced by water mass redistribution and elastic loading. The effect of the local water storage changes was modeled using in-situ measurements of the water table fluctuations and soil moisture content. The adjustment of these simulations to residual ground gravity observations constrained the aquifer porosity (equivalent here to the specific yield) to a value ranging between 1.8 and 6.2 %. This range of value is consistent, but on the lower side, with the 6.7 ± 1% aquifer water content estimated by magnetic resonance soundings. The in-situ comparison of these two independent geophysical methods shows their potential to constrain local hydrogeological parameters. Besides, this study evidences the ability to recover separately the large scale and the local hydrological contributions from the gravity signal.

Pfeffer, J.; Boucher, M.; Hinderer, J.; Favreau, G.; Boy, J.; de Linage, C.; Luck, B.; Oï, M.; Le Moigne, N.

2010-12-01

382

The terrestrial water storage changes in the continental United States inferred from GRACE data and simulations from land surface models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gravity changes by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are used to infer the terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations in the continental United States (US) between 2003 and 2010. The inferred TWS variations from 2003 to 2006 show, significant, continued loss of terrestrial water spreading across the southeastern region of the US and increase of terrestrial water storage in most western region and some northwestern region. Such geographical pattern of the inferred change of terrestrial water storage correlates well with Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) changes in the same time periods. The TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data since 2004 to 2010 show water loss in south central region and western region of the US, respectively in 2005-2006 (mainly in the summer and autumn of 2005 and in the summer and winter of 2006) and through all seasons of 2007, and water gain in southwestern region, south central region, central and north central region, eastern region and southwestern region of the US, respectively in 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data exhibit similar geographic patterns to those simulated from Mosaic land surface model (LSM) and Noah LSM, but differences exist in some regions and the amplitudes of the TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data are smaller than those simulated from LSMs. We will discuss these differences and possible means the GRACE data can be used to improve the monitoring of TWS variations.

Yi, H.; Wen, L.

2012-12-01

383

Storage stability of hen egg white powders in three protein/water dough model systems.  

PubMed

In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in the intermediate-moisture food (IMF) market, such as high protein nutrition bars (HPNB), has significantly increased. Currently, no reported study is related to the storage stability of dried hen egg white (DEW) and its hydrolysates (HEW) in an IMF matrix. Therefore, three DEW/HEW dough model systems (100%HEW+0%DEW, 75%HEW+25%DEW and 50%HEW+50%DEW) were established using two commercial spray-dried egg white powders to study the effect of temperature and fraction of HEW on these IMF models (water activity (a(w)): ?0.8). During storage at three different temperatures (23, 35 and 45°C) for 70 days, the selected physicochemical properties of the dough systems were compared. Overall, kinetic analysis showed an apparent zero-order model fit for the change in the colour (L(?)), fluorescence intensity (FI) and hardness, as a function of time, for different dough model systems. As expected, the L(?), FI and hardness increased as a function of time mainly due to the Maillard reaction. The amount of free amino groups decreased, with an increase in rate of loss, as temperature increased in the 100%HEW+0%DEW model. When DEW was substituted for some HEW, the regeneration of the free amino groups after loss was observed as a function of time. Furthermore, when the percentage of HEW was decreased, the incidence of mouldy samples occurred sooner, which indicates that HEW has some antimicrobial ability, especially in the 100%HEW+0%DEW system where mould growth did not occur. PMID:23411218

Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Labuza, Theodore P

2013-06-01

384

Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.  

PubMed

The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. PMID:22608116

Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

2012-10-26

385

Statistical separation and forecast of water storage patterns over West Asia using GRACE data and climate indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that large parts of West Asia, specifically the arid Middle East region, exhibited a rapid loss of freshwater reserves during the past decade. A reliable estimation of large scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) changes and the ability of forecasting them, with respect to climate variability and change, are therefore essential for West Asia. This study first implemented a least squares inversion approach to separate the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived total water storage products over West Asia. Time series of separated terrestrial water and groundwater storage changes were then generated over the region, covering the period of 2003 to 2013. Forecasting scenarios were generated to predict TWS and GWS changes by applying low-degree autoregressive models which relate basin averaged TWS and GWS changes to input values of precipitation and evaporation as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation index as the remote controller of the region's climate. Dry, normal, and wet scenarios were designed to forecast West Asia's TWS and GWS variations over the period of 2013 to 2015. Our separated results over 2003 to 2013 indicated a decline in TWS and GW over the Middle East. A strong correlation was found between the NAO index and variability of water storage over West Asia, specifically during the period of 2005 to 2008. Dry forecasting scenarios indicated continuous GWS decline over the northwest part of Iran, entire Iraq and Syria, which have been already facing challenges of limited water resources. Key words: Forecsting GRACE-TWS; Groundwater; Signal Separation; Middle East

Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Schumacher, Maike; Anyah, Richard; Awange, Joseph; Mostafaie, Abdorrahman

2014-05-01

386

Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

387

GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought in Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Texas experienced the most extreme one-year drought on record in 2011 with precipitation at 40% of long-term mean and agricultural losses of $7.6 billion. We assess the value of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-derived total water storage (TWS) change as an alternative remote sensing-based drought indicator, independent of traditional drought indicators based on in situ monitoring. GRACE shows depletion in TWS of 62.3 ± 17.7 km3 during the 2011 drought. Large uncertainties in simulated soil moisture storage depletion (14-83 km3) from six land surface models indicate that GRACE TWS is a more reliable drought indicator than disaggregated soil moisture or groundwater storage. Groundwater use and groundwater level data indicate that depletion is dominated by changes in soil moisture storage, consistent with high correlation between GRACE TWS and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. GRACE provides a valuable tool for monitoring statewide water storage depletion, linking meteorological and hydrological droughts.

Long, Di; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Sun, Alexander Y.; Fernando, D. Nelun; Save, Himanshu

2013-07-01

388

Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the San Gorgonio Pass area. The water-bearing deposits were divided into three aquifers: (1) the perched aquifer, (2) the upper aquifer, and (3) the lower aquifer based on lithologic and downhole geophysical logs. Natural recharge in the San Gorgonio Pass area was estimated using INFILv3, a deterministic distributed- parameter precipitation-runoff model. The INFILv3 model simulated that the potential recharge of precipitation and runoff in the Beaumont and Banning storage units was about 3,710 acre-feet per year and that the potential recharge in 28 sub-drainage basins upstream of the storage units was about 6,180 acre-feet per year. The water supply for the Beaumont and Banning storage units is supplied by pumping ground water from wells in the Canyon (Edgar and Banning Canyons), Banning Bench, Beaumont, and Banning storage units. Total annual pumpage from the Beaumont and Banning storage units ranged from about 1,630 acre-feet in 1936 to about 20,000 acre-feet in 2003. Ground-water levels declined by as much as 100 feet in the Beaumont storage unit from 1926-2003 in response to ground-water pumping of about 450,160 acre-feet during this period. Since ground-water development began in the San Gorgonio Pass area, there have been several sources of artificial recharge to the basin including return flow from applied water on crops, golf courses, and landscape; septic-tank seepage; and infiltration of storm runoff diversions and imported water into recharge ponds. Return flow from applied water and septic-tank seepage was estimated to reach a maximum of about 8,100 acre-feet per year in 2003. Owing to the great depth of water in much of study area (in excess of 150 feet), the return flow and septic-tank seepage takes years to decades to reach the water table. Stable-isotope data indicate that the source of ground-water recharge was precipitation from storms passing through the San Gorgonio Pass as opposed to runoff from the higher altitudes of the San Bernar

Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

2006-01-01

389

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

390

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni in bottled purified drinking water under different storage conditions.  

PubMed

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni that were separately inoculated into bottled purified drinking water was investigated during storage at 22, 4, and -18 °C for 5, 7, and 2 days, respectively. Two inoculation levels were used, 1 and 10 CFU/ml (10(2) and 10(3) CFU/100 ml). In samples inoculated with 10(2) CFU/100 ml, C. jejuni was not detectable (>2-log reduction) after storage under the conditions specified above. E. coli O157:H7 was detected on nonselective and selective media at log reductions of 1.08 to 1.25 after storage at 22 °C, 1.19 to 1.56 after storage at 4 °C, and 1.54 to 1.98 after storage at -18 °C. When the higher inoculation level of 10(3) CFU/100 ml was used, C. jejuni was able to survive at 22 and 4 °C, with 2.25- and 2.17-log reductions, respectively, observed on nonselective media. At these higher inoculation levels, E. coli O157:H7 was detectable at 22, 4, and -18 °C, with log reductions of 0.76, 0.97, and 1.21, respectively, achieved on nonselective media. Additionally, E. coli O157:H7 showed significant differences in culturability (P<0.05) on the nonselective and selective culture media under the different storage conditions, with storage at -18 °C for 2 days being the treatment most inhibiting. The percentage of sublethal injury of E. coli O157:H7 ranged from ?33 to 75%, indicating that microbial examination of bottled water must be done carefully, otherwise false-negative results or underestimation of bacterial numbers could pose a health risk when low levels of pathogens are present. PMID:21333145

Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Lu, Xiaonan; Al-Alami, Nivin I; Rasco, Barbara A

2011-02-01

391

Multivariate forecasting of water storage change for West-Africa using sea surface temperature and GRACE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several West-African countries are located besides the Atlantic Ocean, exposed to coastal and Sahel-type regimes. To these countries, global warming may pose multiple threats including sea level rise and reduced freshwater availability. Changes in the terrestrial water cycle may be accompanied by an increasing frequency, duration and magnitude of droughts and floods. Understanding patterns of water storage change from remote sensing and linking them to climate variability is thus essential. However, being able to forecast water storage changes will improve the ability of West African countries to planning and adapting to climate change. In this study, we develop a data-driven method for seasonal forecast of water storage changes that capitalizes on the teleconnections between water storage and sea surface temperature (SST) and on the ability of GRACE to measure total water storage (TWS) change directly. In the first step, we identify statistically independent patterns of TWS from monthly GRACE data over West-Africa, and of SST over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. We apply Independent Component Analysis rather than Principle Component Analysis to reveal teleconnections more pronounced. Our results show that annual variability of TWS over West-Africa is controlled by the Atlantic Ocean, while inter-annual and long-term variability is correlated with ENSO. Different auto-regressive models were then derived from these multivariate time-series and applied to predict TWS variations over West-Africa from Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean-SST. The performance of the forecast models is compared to other statistical methods as Canonical Correlation Analysis, as well as to the output of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), which is forced by climate data. Forecast errors were also evaluated using a Monte Carlo error propagation. We find that forecasting TWS using SST as indicator shows a reliable performance for periods of up to two years. Future studies include additional exploitation of other space geodetic and hydrography data including satellite altimetry and Argo. Keywords: West Africa, GRACE, ICA, AR model, multivariate water storage forecast

Forootan, E.; Kusche, J.; Eicker, A.; Krasbutter, I.; Schuh, W.; Diekkrüger, B.; Schmidt, M. G.; Guo, J.; Shum, C.

2012-12-01

392

Effect of Endodontic Irrigants on Microtensile Bond Strength to Dentin After Thermocycling and Long-Term Water Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective: The bond strength of adhesives in irrigated dentin behaves differently over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of long-term water storage and thermocycling on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin irrigated with endodontic solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human molars were used after removal of the occlusal portion and exposure of the dentin by grinding. The specimens were irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl for 30 minutes and then 17% EDTA for 5 minutes and assigned to six groups according to the adhesive system (n=10): G1 and G2–Clearfil SE Bond; G3 and G4–Single Bond 2; and G5 and G6–XP Bond. The teeth were restored with composite and were subjected to water storage for different time periods. G1, G3 and G5 were stored for 24 h; G2, G4 and G6 were stored for 6 months and were subjected to thermocycling (12,000 cycles, 5°C to 55°C, 500 cycles per week for 6 months). After storage, the tooth/restoration assembly was sectioned to obtain four sticks of approximately 1 mm2, for microtensile bond strength testing. The results were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Significant differences were observed among the adhesives (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the microtensile bond strength between samples after 24 hours of storage without thermocycling and after 6-month storage with 12,000 cycles (p<0.05). Conclusion: The bond strengths of G5 and G6 after irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were significantly different from those of other groups. Long-term water storage/thermocycling had no effect on bond strength to dentin.

Galafassi, Daniel; Colucci, Vivian; Cecchin, Doglas; Scatena, Camila; Nascimento, Telma N.; Corona, Silmara A. M.

2013-01-01

393

The Changing Nature of Water Storage in the Great Lakes Basin and its Implications for Future Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Home to approximately 40 million people in the United States and Canada, the Great Lakes drainage basin is a tremendous freshwater resource. It is, however, undergoing significant changes both in land use and climate. It has suffered from substantial deforestation in the last century and the continued drainage of wetlands. Reforestation, urbanization and increased demand for agricultural production on less land are all changing the face of the region. Climate is also changing with warmer, wetter winters changing the accumulation of snow and the formation of lake and soil ice. When land use and climate are relatively consistent between years, the storage of water in and on the land surface can be neglected for inter-annual analysis of the regional water balance, however, given the observed and projected future changes to the region it is clear that representing changes in storage will be critical for understanding how hydrology in the region will respond. As nearly half of the freshwater supply to the Great Lakes is in the form of land surface runoff, changes in the volume and timing of water storage within the drainage basin is a critical factor in the future health and sustainability of their ecosystem. Unlike air temperature and precipitation which are fairly well known in the region, many of these storage variables are known at only a handful of locations if they are monitored at all. Therefore, hydrology model become indispensable tools when trying to quantify changes in storage. For this presentation, observed and simulated datasets are used to identify and quantify changes in the timing and quantity of storage within the Great Lakes region due to changes in land use and climate. Storage terms that will be evaluated include soil moisture and ice, snow cover, groundwater, and inland lake and wetland storage. Warmer winters are reducing snow cover, which can lead to the formation of more soil ice and wetter spring soils for a time, though increasing temperatures will get warm enough to reduce the formation of soil ice as well. Wetter and warmer conditions in the winter and spring can lead to earlier spring runoff, though the presence of lake and wetland storage can mitigate this effect. Wetlands and lakes increase infiltration and the potential for groundwater recharge, while the expansion of urban impervious area reduces infiltration and recharge.

Cherkauer, K. A.

2012-12-01

394

Effects of air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit on storage of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

To determine the optimum air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for the storage of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, 3-day-old mated females were stored at air temperatures of 0, 5, 10, or 15 °C and VPDs of 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 kPa for 10, 20, or 30 days. At 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, 83 % of females survived after 30 days of storage; this percentage was the highest among all conditions. VPDs of 0.3 and 0.5 kPa regardless of air temperature, and an air temperature of 0 °C regardless of VPD were detrimental to the survival of the females during storage. Since the highest survival was observed at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, the effect of the storage duration on the post-storage quality of the stored females and their progeny was investigated at 25 °C to evaluate the effectiveness of the storage condition. The oviposition ability of the stored females, hatchability, and sex ratio of their progeny were not affected even when the storage duration was extended to 30 days. Although a slight decrease in the survival during the immature stages of progeny was observed when the storage duration was ?20 days, the population growth of N. californicus may not be affected when individuals stored in these conditions are applied to greenhouses and agricultural fields. The results indicate that mated N. californicus females can be stored at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa VPD for at least 30 days. PMID:22527835

Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

2012-10-01

395

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

1978-01-01

396

Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

397

Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from a Global Land Surface Model Simulation with the Anthropogenic Impacts on Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among global water cycle components, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) is one of the most difficult to estimate. In this study, basin-scale regional TWS variations simulated by a global-scale land surface model, after validating with GRACE data and observed streamflow, are used to investigate the dominant TWS components as well as the interactions among TWS components over some largest river basins. The analysis is based on an integrated water resources assessment modelling framework developed by incorporating human impact schemes (i.e., reservoir operation, irrigation, withdrawal, groundwater pumping, and environmental flow requirements) into a land surface model - the Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO). MATSIRO simulates the majority of land hydrologic processes on a physical basis at the global 1° × 1° resolution. The terrestrial water storage (TWS) simulated consists of soil moisture, groundwater, river water, snow and ice, and the human impact components such as reservoir storage. The effects of irrigation and groundwater pumping on TWS variations are also considered in certain regions where their impacts are known to be significant (e.g. The High Plains Aquifer, US). Moreover, a comparison on the TWS components is made with the MATSIRO simulation without considering human impact. The difference between them is a direct measure on the extent to which human anthropogenic impacts affect regional hydrology.

Yeh, P. J.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.

2013-12-01

398

Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.  

PubMed

The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation. PMID:21284300

Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

2010-01-01

399

Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

400

Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2000. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power fresh water use. Two additional categories also were considered: power generation instream use and public wastewater treatment return-flows. Fresh water withdrawals for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 617 million gallons per day. The largest amount of fresh water withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 540 million gallons per day. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users was estimated at 2 million gallons per day and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.5 million gallons per day. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 64 million gallons per day, or approximately 10 percent of all offstream fresh water withdrawals. Saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric power facilities was estimated at 2,191 million gallons per day, and instream fresh water withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities at 171 million gallons per day. Total discharge from public wastewater treatment facilities was estimated at 211 million gallons per day.

Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

2005-01-01

401

The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

2012-12-01

402

Linkage between canopy water storage and drop size distributions of leaf drips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in drop size distribution (DSD) of leaf drips among tree species have been estimated and physically interpreted to clarify the leaf drip generation process. Leaf drip generation experiments for nine species were conducted in an indoor location without foliage vibration using an automatic mist spray. Broad-leaved species produced a similar DSD among species whose leaves had a matte surface and a second similar DSD among species whose leaves had a coated surface. The matte broad leaves produced a larger and wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves. Coated coniferous needles had a wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves and different DSDs were observed for different species. The species with shorter dense needles generated a larger DSD. The leaf drip diameter was calculated through the estimation of a state of equilibrium of a hanging drop on the leaves based on physical theory. The calculations indicated that the maximum diameter of leaf drips was determined by the contact angle, and the range of DSDs was determined by the variation in contact length and the contact diameter at the hanging points. The results revealed that leaf drip DSD changed due to variations in leaf hydrophobicity, leaf roughness, leaf geometry and leaf inclination among the different tree species. This study allows the modelization of throughfall DSD. Furthermore, it indicates the possibility of interpreting canopy water processes from canopy water storage to drainage through the contact angle and leaf drip DSD. The part of this study is published in Nanko et al. (2013, Agric. Forest. Meteorol. 169, 74-84).

Nanko, Kazuki; Watanabe, Ai; Hotta, Norifumi; Suzuki, Masakazu

2013-04-01

403

Predicting Agricultural Drought using NOAH Land Surface Model, MODIS Evapotranspiration and GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a major natural hazard in the world which costs 6-8 billion per year in the United States. Drought monitoring and prediction are difficult because it usually develops slowly and it is hard to be recognized until it becomes severe. The severity of agricultural drought was estimated by using Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI) based on soil moisture simulated by Noah land surface model. Based on general water balance and delayed response of soil moisture to the forcing of climate variables, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model for agricultural drought prediction was developed, the inputs of which included data at the previous one and two months of precipitation from Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), evapotranspiration from MODIS MOD 16 product and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). The stability of the MLR model is tested using different training datasets from 2003 to 2009 with time spans of one year to six years and the results indicated that the model is stable, with very limited changes in estimated parameters between different datasets. A sensitivity analysis shows that evapotranspiration is the most significant variable affecting soil moisture change compared to precipitation and TWS. The predicted SMDI was compared with U.S. drought monitor products to evaluate its performance for the period of 2010-2012 when a severe drought occurred in the U.S. (Fig.1). The predicted SMDI successfully forecasted the severe drought in the southern U.S. in early 2012 and its expansion in the following summer. The MLR model has a high predictive skill with short-term forecast (1-2 months), while less accuracy is observed for the long-term forecast (3-6 months) (Fig.2).

wu, J.; Zhang, X.

2013-12-01

404

Estimation of canopy water storage capacity from sap flow measurements in a Bornean tropical rainforest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryCanopy water storage capacity (Sc) is a key parameter for estimations of rainfall interception using a big-leaf model (BLM). This study proposes a simple method for estimating Sc. The crucial factor in this method is the canopy drying time (or wet canopy duration) after rainfall. The time can be estimated from sap flow measurements in accordance with an earlier study of ours in a Bornean tropical rainforest. By using the estimated canopy drying time to calibrate a BLM for rainfall interception, we derived Sc. This method could also provide aerodynamic resistance (Ra). To validate our estimations, the derived parameters Sc and Ra were compared to Sc and Ra determined independently by a method based on net rainfall measurements on an event basis and on wind profile measurements, respectively. The parameters in our method (Sc = 0.7 mm, Ra = 14 s m -1) were shown to correspond well to the values determined by independent methods. Furthermore, the method proposed in this study is applicable to tropical forests where short canopy drying times can be expected after rainfall; that is, if the cloudy weather after rainfall becomes sunny within 250 min.

Kume, Tomonori; Manfroi, Odair J.; Kuraji, Koichiro; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Horiuchi, Toshinobu; Suzuki, Masakazu; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

2008-05-01

405