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1

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

Griffin, M.J. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Harris, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-10-01

2

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

3

Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container  

Microsoft Academic Search

The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to

Richins

1996-01-01

4

CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

Watson, W.T.

1997-01-20

5

40 Gallon Challenge issues a call to reduce residential water use  

E-print Network

due to population growth, has elevated the importance of such conservation programs. #29;e program challenges participants to save #22;#30; gallons of water a day by implementing water-conserving practices, said Dr. Diane Boellstor#17;, Texas...

Heinrich, Katie

2013-01-01

6

CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP  

SciTech Connect

This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

DOBBIN, K.D.

2000-05-24

7

Pumped water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history, current state of development and future developments of electrical energy storage through the pumping of water to a higher elevation are reviewed. Developments in the turbine and pump units of pumped water energy storage plants since their introduction in the 1890s are surveyed, and it is pointed out that the advantages of reversible pump-generator machines have led to

V. G. Newman

1979-01-01

8

Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage  

E-print Network

This paper examines the 5.2 million gallon chilled water storage system installed at TI's Expressway manufacturing complex in Dallas, Texas. During the peak cooling season ending September 30, 1994, it provided 3,750 tons of additional peak cooling...

Fiorino, D. P.

9

Chiller Start/Stop Optimization for a Campus-wide Chilled Water System with a Thermal Storage Tank Under a Four-Period Electricity Rate Schedule  

E-print Network

The existence of a 1.4-million-gallon chilled water thermal storage tank greatly increases the operational flexibility of a campuswide chilled water system under a four-part electricity rate structure. While significant operational savings can...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.; Contreras, O.

2002-01-01

10

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2012-01-01

11

Fuel performance in water storage  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

1993-11-01

12

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P.J.

1996-01-01

13

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

14

Impact of bottled water storage duration and location on bacteriological quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation studying the effects of storage duration and location on the persistence of heterotrophic microorganisms in oligotrophic bottled water environments has been completed. One-gallon high-density polyethylene water containers stored for up to 16 weeks at temperatures ranging from 2°C to >49°C in a refrigerator, indoor cabinet, covered porch, and car trunk were evaluated for microbiological quality. Heterotrophic plate counts

Steven J. Duranceau; Hilary P. Emerson; Rebecca J. Wilder

2012-01-01

15

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

16

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey W.

2010-08-12

17

Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of each month of the year) excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The two figures show that 2010 was the driest year since 2003. The drought in the Amazon was largely responsible, but an excess of water in 2009 seems to have buffered that drought to some extent. The drying trend in the 25-55 deg S zone is a combination of Patagonian glacier melt and drought in parts of Australia.

Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

2011-01-01

18

ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

19

Role of aquifer storage in water reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two case studies are described that explain the role, value, limitations and policy requirements for storing reclaimed water in aquifers for indirect reuse. The first case involves aquifer storage and recovery of water, the product of tertiary treated municipal sewage effluent, via a single injection and recovery well at Bolivar, South Australia. The recovered water, like the source water for

Peter Dillon; Paul Pavelic; Simon Toze; Stephanie Rinck-Pfeiffer; Russell Martin; Anthony Knapton; Don Pidsley

2006-01-01

20

Water treatment considerations for thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Traditional closed loop corrosion, fouling, and microbial control treatments are not always capable of providing effective treatment to Thermal Energy Storage systems. Typically, these systems experience a higher incidence of corrosion, corrosion related fouling and microbial problems than traditional closed loop applications. Customary corrosion control treatments like nitrite have yielded poor results due to microbial degradation. Microbial control is often harder due to the sheer volume of water needing treatment and inadequate distribution in the system. This paper will review the various water treatment needs for Thermal Energy Storage Systems and present data on a successfully operating Thermal Energy Storage system.

Meier, D.A. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

21

A Thermally Stratified Solar Water Storage Tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stratification and fluid motion in solar water storage tanks have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Transparent glass test sections were used in the experiment to permit visual observation of the flow fields. An electric water heater was used to simulate solar collectors. Experiments were conducted under different conditions in which a solar system is likely to operate. Altogether, about

M. N. A. HAWLADER; T. Y. BONG; T. S. LEE

1988-01-01

22

Tunnels and dikes of the Koolau Range, Oahu, Hawaii, and their effect on storage depletion and movement of ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water impounded by dikes in the Koolau Range is a major source of water for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, and many tunnels have been bored into the range to develop it. All water-development tunnels, except Waihee tunnel, have depleted storage in the rocks they penetrate and are now discharging at rates that are but fractions of the rates possible at full storage. Rocks above the floor of the water-development part of Waihee tunnel have never been completely dewatered, and storage can be manipulated by regulating outflow. Thus, storage for this tunnel can be increased during periods of low demand and discharged at high rates during periods of high demand. A measure of the rate of drainage or depletion of storage is the recession constant b in the recession-curve equation Qt=Q0e-b t. The higher the value of b, the faster water can be drawn from storage or returned to storage through artificial recharge. Mathematical analysis of the flow-recession curve of Waihee tunnel shows that (1) its recession constant is 0.00401, (2) net storage (exclusive of recharge) is 2,200 million gallons (6,800 acre-feet), and (8) initial discharge from full storage would be about 19 million gallons per day. Analysis of flow-recession curves for Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and Haiku tunnel shows that these tunnels have drainage characteristics that are similar to those of Waihee tunnel. The composite recession constant computed for the four tunnels north of Waiahole is about one-third as large as that computed for the Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and the tunnels to the south. The difference is due to an abrupt change in spacing of dikes north of Waiahole. At and south of Waiahole Stream, dikes are spaced tens or hundreds of feet apart; north of Waiahole, they are spaced inches or a few feet apart. Storage could be restored by bulkheading at the controlling dike or dikes after an analysis is made of the flow-recession curve for each tunnel. Such analyses will show which tunnels are best for storage restoration. The reciprocal of the recession constant is the time, in days, it would take to drain about two-thirds of the storage. The shorter this time is the better storage may be manipulated to meet seasonal peak demands for water.

Hirashima, George Tokusuke

1971-01-01

23

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as meteorological stations, using water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from different atmospheric models. As a result, our runoff estimates are compared to river fluxes measurements. We compare mass estimates of major African lakes to volume estimated from space Laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. As our forward modeling includes the continental water storage variations (using GLDAS/Noah model), leaking effects are significantly reduced. We also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.

2009-12-01

24

Continental water storage variations in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from only KBRR (K-band range rate) data using a mascon approach. We compare our solutions to classical spherical harmonic solutions and also to different global hydrology models, and regional models in the African monsoon area (thanks to the ALMIP project). We compare mass estimates of major Africa lakes and reservoirs to volume estimates from laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. We investigate the improvement of our mass retrievals when hydrology (GLDAS/Noah model) is forward modeled, compared to the more classical approach when continental water storages variations are not taken into when processing GRACE data. We solve the water mass balance equations using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as ground rain gauge stations, using fresh water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from various atmospheric models (reanalysis and operational). As a result, our runoff are compared to river flux measurements. In addition to the comparison with the ALMIP models, we also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

Boy, Jean-Paul; Carabajal, Claudia; Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Sabaka, Terence

2010-05-01

25

More Jobs per Gallon: How Vehicle Efficiency  

E-print Network

More Jobs per Gallon: How Vehicle Efficiency Fuels Growth in California David RolandHolst April://are.berkeley.edu/~dwrh/CERES_Web/index.html #12;Roland-Holst | More Jobs per Gallon ii Research Papers on Energy, Resources, and Economic. For this project on Jobs and Vehicle Fuel Efficiency, we express gratitude to the Energy Foundation for financial

California at Davis, University of

26

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

27

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

28

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

29

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2010-10-01

30

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2011-10-01

31

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2012-10-01

32

49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. 538.8 Section 538.8 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of...

2013-10-01

33

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

34

WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

35

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

36

Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

2011-01-01

37

Ground-based measurements of soil water storage in Texas  

E-print Network

Ground-based measurements of soil water storage in Texas Todd Caldwell Bridget Scanlon Di Long Landslides EROSION Dust Weak SOIL STRENGTH Hard Latent heat SOLAR ENERGY Sensible heat Energy-limited TRANSPIRATION Water-limited Carbon storage ECOHYDROLOGY Stress, mortality, fire Oxygen limitations MICROBIAL

Yang, Zong-Liang

38

Multisensor analysis of water storage variations of the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a multi-sensor analysis of water storage and surface height variations of the Caspian Sea, from mid-2002 through 2006. Data from three satellite missions (GRACE, Jason-1, and Aqua) are used to examine the relationship between changes in spatially averaged sea surface height (SSH) and water storage in and around the Caspian Sea. Two composite time series are constructed to

Sean Swenson; John Wahr

2007-01-01

39

International Conference on Water Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC-2009)  

E-print Network

International Conference on Water ­ Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC-2009) 23rd ­ 25th International Conference on Water ­ Harvesting, Storage and Conservation (WHSC- 2009) was the first of the series of conferences organized as part of the Golden Jubilee celebrations of IIT Kanpur. WHSC-2009

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

40

Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-01-01

41

Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

2013-03-01

42

Rooftop air conditioning vs. ice and water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Florida Power and Light Company's sponsored analysis in which the economics of ice and water storage were pitted against a standard packaged rooftop direct expansion system. The utility concluded that thermal storage is not yet attractive on its own merits in an area where the electric demand charge has yet to reach $7.00 per KW per month.

Tamblyn

1985-01-01

43

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24

44

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27?, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

45

VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27?, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

46

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

47

Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

2009-01-01

48

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE.  

PubMed

[1]?A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km(2)), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54???Ef ???0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation. PMID:24563556

Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

2013-06-01

49

Aquifer storage and recharge: Innovation in water resources management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater and treated sewerage effluent, previously regarded as waste, are now being reused in South Australia through the innovative aquifer storage and recharge technique. After pretreatment in wetlands, this water is stored in otherwise unused brackish aquifers for summer irrigation of parklands. Trials are underway using recycled water from the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant for irrigation of market gardens. This

S. R. Barnett; S. R. Howles; R. R. Martin; N. Z. Gerges

2000-01-01

50

Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-06-01

51

Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums  

SciTech Connect

When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ``an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.`` It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research.

Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

1995-06-01

52

Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities  

SciTech Connect

In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

1997-10-30

53

Predicting fire activity using terrestrial water storage data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High fire activity periods in the Amazon region can be predicted months in advance on the basis of water storage data, a new study shows. Chen et al. analyzed satellite observations of terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, along with satellite observations of fire activity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) mission. GRACE measures the Earth's gravity field by calculating the changes in the distance between two satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other. The gravity measurements provide information about the amount of groundwater or surface water in a given region.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-05-01

54

REGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available  

E-print Network

variability in soil properties by roots foraging for water. Keywords Karst . Soil water storage capacity. RootREGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available water in shallow in water storage and plant access to water in the rocky soils of a karst savanna dominated by Ashe juniper

Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

55

Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison of different global data sources  

E-print Network

of the spatio-temporal variations of total terrestrial water storage (the sum of ground water, soil water1 Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison-satellite-derived surface water extent with other independent global data sets related to land water dynamics, such as water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Laminar flow efficiency of stratified chilled-water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results for the efficiency of a stratified chilled-water storage tank with one inlet and one outlet. Numerical solutions for the two-dimensional, unsteady, laminar flow during stably stratified tank filling are compared with a one-dimensional model involving only conductive heat transfer across the thermocline separating the entering cold water and the exiting warm water. This one-dimensional model represents

K. O. Homan; S. L. Soo

1998-01-01

57

Microbiological assessment of well water at different durations of storage.  

PubMed

Water is the most universally used single necessity of life. To attain a safe water quality to various communities, an understanding of water microbiology and chemistry is therefore imperative. In this study, well water at different storage durations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks were assessed for bacteriological quality using standard microbiological techniques. Black barrel-shaped plastic containers (300 liter capacity) were used for different storage durations. Water samples at the different storage durations were collected from each corresponding containers. Sterile swabs were used to sample the sides and bottom of the storage containers to determine the prevalence of specific bacteria present in the samples. The results obtained showed that 0 week storage had the highest (100.00 CFU mL(-1)) coliform counts while the lowest (28 CFU mL(-1)) was obtained for 8 weeks of storage. Escherichia coli were not found in 4, 6 and 8 weeks old water. 0 and 2 weeks old water contained E. coli and the mean values were 1.80 x 10(4) +/- 0.03 and 1.43 x 10(4) +/- 0.01 CFU mL(-1), respectively (p < 0.05). Salmonella organisms were found in the 0 week old water but absent in the 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks old water. Shigella count (62.33 x 10(2) +/- 45.30 CFU mL(-1)) was highest in 4 week old water while the lowest (11.0 x 10(3) +/- 1.00 CFU mL(-1)) was found in 6 week old water (p < 0.05). Zero week old water had the lowest significant (p < 0.05) value of 0.35 x 10(4) +/- 0.05 CFU mL(-1) for mesophilic bacteria and the highest value of 50.00 x 10(4) +/- 10.0 CFU mL(-1) was recorded in the 8 weeks old water. Sides and bottom samples were contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella organisms. It was concluded that the variously stored well water samples were contaminated with bacteria and the values obtained were above the recommended standards by the World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:24783802

Folorunso, O R; Adetuyi, F I; Laseinde, E A O; Onibi, G E

2014-01-15

58

Water, gravity and trees: Relationship of tree-ring widths and total water storage dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water stored in the subsurface as groundwater or soil moisture is the main fresh water source not only for drinking water and food production but also for the natural vegetation. In a changing environment water availability becomes a critical issue in many different regions. Long-term observations of the past are needed to improve the understanding of the hydrological system and the prediction of future developments. Tree ring data have repeatedly proved to be valuable sources for reconstructing long-term climate dynamics, e.g. temperature, precipitation and different hydrological variables. In water-limited environments, tree growth is primarily influenced by total water stored in the subsurface and hence, tree-ring records usually contain information about subsurface water storage. The challenge is to retrieve the information on total water storage from tree rings, because a training dataset of water stored in the sub-surface is required for calibration against the tree-ring series. However, measuring water stored in the subsurface is notoriously difficult. We here present high-precision temporal gravimeter measurements which allow for the depth-integrated quantification of total water storage dynamics at the field scale. In this study, we evaluate the relationship of total water storage change and tree ring growth also in the context of the complex interactions of other meteorological forcing factors. A tree-ring chronology was derived from a Norway spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. Total water storage dynamics were measured directly by the superconducting gravimeter of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell for a 9-years period. Time series were extended to 63-years period by a hydrological model using gravity data as the only calibration constrain. Finally, water storage changes were reconstructed based on the relationship between the hydrological model and the tree-ring chronology. Measurement results indicate that tree-ring growth is primarily controlled by total water storage in the subsurface. But high uncertainties intervals of the correlation coefficient urges for the extension of the measurement period. This multi-disciplinary study, combining hydrology, dendrochronology and geodesy shows that temporal gravimeter measurements may give us the unique opportunity to retrieve the information of total water storage contained in tree-ring records to reconstruct total water storage dynamics. Knowing the relationship of water storage and tree-ring growth can also support the reconstruction of other climate records based on tree-ring series, help with hydrological model testing and can improve our knowledge of long-term variations of water storage in the past.

Creutzfeldt, B.; Heinrich, I.; Merz, B.; Blume, T.; Güntner, A.

2012-04-01

59

Durability of bactericidal activity in electrolyzed neutral water by storage.  

PubMed

Electrolyzed strong and weak acid waters have been widely used for sterilization in clinical dentistry because of their excellent bactericidal activities. Electrolyzed neutral water was recently developed with a new concept of long-term good durability in addition to the excellent bactericidal activity similar to acid waters. The present study, evaluated the storage life of this water compared with the acid waters in terms of the changes in pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), residual chlorine and bactericidal activity under several conditions using Staphylococcus aureus 209P. The strong acid water showed a rapid deterioration of its bactericidal activity. The weak acid and neutral waters exhibited excellent durability. Although all the bacteria were annihilated by the contact with the waters even stored for 40 days in the uncapped bottle, the neutral water was superior in further long-term duration. PMID:12238791

Nagamatsu, Yuki; Chen, Kerr-Kong; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio

2002-06-01

60

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2012-07-01

61

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2011-07-01

62

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements...for uncovered finished water storage facilities....

2013-07-01

63

40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for...

2010-07-01

64

Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

Song, J.; Wood, B.D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ji, L.J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1998-03-01

65

Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system.  

PubMed

Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been addressed. In this paper, performance of a constructed wetland based grey water recycling system was analysed by taking the constraint of residence time during storage into account using an object based household water cycle model. Two indicators, water saving efficiency (WSE) and residence time index (RTI), are employed to reflect the system's performance and residence time during storage respectively. Results show that WSE and RTI change with storage tank volumes oppositely. As both high WSE and RTI cannot be achieved simultaneously, it is concluded that in order to achieve the most cost-effective and safe solution, systems with both small grey and green tanks are needed, whilst accepting that only relatively modest water saving efficiency targets can be achieved. Higher efficiencies will only be practicable if water quality deterioration in the green water tank can be prevented by some means (e.g. disinfection). PMID:19796787

Liu, S; Butler, D; Memon, F A; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L; Jefferson, B

2010-01-01

66

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

67

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

68

12 SWAT USER'S MANUAL, VERSION 98.1 CANOPY STORAGE. Canopy storage is the water intercepted by vegetative  

E-print Network

12 SWAT USER'S MANUAL, VERSION 98.1 CANOPY STORAGE. Canopy storage is the water intercepted by vegetative surfaces (the canopy) where it is held and made available for evaporation. When using the curve number method to compute surface runoff, canopy storage is taken into account in the surface runoff

69

Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures. PMID:25507374

Jur?ev-Savi?evi?, Anamarija; Bradari?, Nikola; Pai?, Vlado Ozic; Muli?, Rosanda; Puntari?, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

2014-09-01

70

Solar assist for the lifting, purification and storage of water  

SciTech Connect

This invention utilizes distillation to purify water but instead of the usual application of heat to boil the water and then condense it, heat is applied to a relatively small quantity of water which is confined until it is superheated. When the pressure reaches a pre-set level the water is released allowing sudden expansion to a vapor to create a high velocity directed through a venturi to suck water from the main body of water lifting it into an expansion chamber located at the elevation above the main body of water equaling the maximum lift by suction. The vapor is then led through a heat exchanger where it will circulate until it is condensed. Some of the condensate will replenish the water to be heated while the remainder is led around the vacuum chamber to heat the water therein and then to storage. In-as-much as a vacuum system is used to lift the water, the lower end of the vacuum chamber may be left open to the source of the water, which may be the ocean, and the concentrated pollutants will disburse back to the source and keep the fouling of the inside of the vacuum system to a minimum. Flow resistance is utilized to aid in separating the higher concentration of pollutants in the vacuum chamber from the polluted water freshly arriving.

Woods, E.K.

1983-05-17

71

Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. PMID:23262407

Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

2013-01-30

72

Tanker mooring, storage for sub-Arctic waters  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of exploration into sub-arctic offshore waters has created a need for tanker mooring facilities for floating storage vessels and tanker loading. In many sub-arctic areas mooring facilities are subject to wind, wave and current conditions which approach conditions in the North Sea during storm seasons. In other seasons, the same facilities will be subject to impact and overturning forces from drifting ice floes and massive ice ridges. A study to develop suitable concepts and preliminary designs for such tanker mooring facilities is discussed. The study was limited to areas where risk of iceberg collision may be ignored, but where ice conditions generally occur 4-6 months during each year with ice coverage ranging up to 100% during this period. The scope of the study required development of suitable concepts and preliminary design studies for three basic SPM tanker loading and storage systems: for direct loading of ice-strengthened shuttle tankers; with a permanently moored icebreaking storage vessel with storage capacity for 1,400,000 bbl of crude oil; and with submerged storage capacity for 1,400,00 bbl of crude oil.

Pedersen, K.I.; King, R.D.; Post, G.J.

1985-11-01

73

Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.  

PubMed

Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks. PMID:23428547

van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

2013-03-01

74

Historical water storage for irrigation in the Fayum depression (Egypt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into the much-discussed question of a historical manmade water storage lake within the Fayum depression were carried out in spring 1988. The results of the research into the dam between Itsa and Shidmuh indicate that there existed an artificial lake in the south-east of the Fayum as early as the 3rd Cent. B.C. The findings are in agreement with

Günther Garbrecht

1996-01-01

75

Improved methodologies for modeling storage and water level behavior in wetlands.  

E-print Network

??Wetlands are important elements of watersheds that influence water storage, surface water runoff, groundwater recharge/discharge processes, and evapotranspiration. To understand the cumulative effect wetlands have… (more)

Nilsson, Kenneth Allan

2010-01-01

76

27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.252 Samples larger than five gallons. (a)...

2014-04-01

77

27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.252 Samples larger than five gallons. (a)...

2013-04-01

78

Quantifying the Dimensions of Water Crisis in India: Spatial Water Deficits and Storage Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is facing threats of mounting water resources crisis with growing concerns on the reliable supply of water for various agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability, limited storage infrastructure to buffer the variations, and increasing consumptive uses across the country exacerbates the situation further. In this study, a detailed quantitative assessment of the water availability and storage requirements for India is presented. Considering the climate variability over a century time scale and the current water demands, Potential Storage Index (PSI) is developed for all districts in India using the sequent peak algorithm. The Potential Storage Index highlights the districts with high water stress, thus identifying the regions where water demand management or new storage infrastructure is needed. Preliminary analysis shows that the regions under high stress are the regions with high inter-annual variability in rainfall and depleted groundwater aquifers. The sensitivity of the model and applications to irrigated and rainfed crop management are presented. The results of the analysis are further used to assess differential vulnerability of particular sectors within the nation which can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions.

Perveen, S.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

2010-12-01

79

WATER PROPERTIES IN FERN SPORES: SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS RELATING TO WATER AFFINITY, GLASSY STATES AND STORAGE STABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of ...

80

Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single

Shelley A. James; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; David Woodruff; Timothy Jones; Teresa Restom; Monica Mejia; Michael Clearwater; Paula Campanello

2003-01-01

81

Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is understood about how storage of water on forest canopies varies during rainfall, even though storage changes intensity of throughfall and thus affects a variety of hydrological processes. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments using varying intensities yielded a better understanding of dynamics of rainfall storage on woody vegetation. Branches of eight species generally retained more water at

R. F. Keim; A. E. Skaugset; M. Weiler

2006-01-01

82

Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms in GIS, potential water storage sites are identified for constructing regional reservoirs. Subsequently, sites are prioritized based on runoff generation potential (m3 per unit area), and geographical suitability for constructing storage structures. The results from the spatial analysis are used as input for the optimization model. Allocation of resources and appropriate dimension for dams and associated structures are identified using the optimization model. The model evaluates the capability of alternative reservoirs for cost-efficient water management. The Geographic Information System is used to store, analyze, and integrate spatially explicit and non-spatial attribute information whereas the algebraic modeling platform is used to develop the dynamic optimization model. The results of this methodology are validated over space against satellite remote sensing data and existing data on reservoir capacities and runoff. The method is suitable for application of on-farm water storage structures, water distribution networks, and moisture conservation structures in a global context.

Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

2010-05-01

83

Fuzzy Modeling of Continental Water Storage Changes Observed by GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-low satellite-to-satellite (SST) tracking mission, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), provides scientists an efficient and cost-effective way to map the Earth's static and monthly temporal gravity fields with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. One of the major objectives of GRACE is to measure the climate-sensitive signals generated by mass redistributions on Earth at spatial scales greater than several hundred km and temporal scales longer than 30 days. Studies including non-isotropic filtering of GRACE signals and alternate processing of GRACE data have enabled enhancement of temporal and spatial resolutions. Fuzzy logic based methods have been widely used by various disciplines for improving model prediction, control, classification etc. Its ability of providing linguistic description of the relations between the model components has made it a valuable tool for potential model improvements. In this study, fuzzy inference systems whose parameters are optimized by mathematical optimization algorithms, have been used to recover monthly or sub-monthly mean water storage anomalies (MWSA) in South America from the gravity variations observed by GRACE. To this end, regularly gridded MWSA was computed by averaging daily water storage anomalies derived from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) daily mean water storage (MWS) data. We tested the fuzzy logic algorithm on the GRACE Level 2 (L2) data products and the data products generated by processing Level 1B (L1B) data based on the energy conservation methods. Results from the obtained fuzzy model were tested with independent data that was not used for estimation of the model parameters. Performance of the resulting model was compared with those of other models previously used for detection of MWSA from GRACE observations.

Akyilmaz, O.; Han, S.; Shum, C.

2005-05-01

84

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOEpatents

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07

85

Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.

Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.

1987-01-01

86

Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239  

SciTech Connect

The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

Chou, P

2011-12-14

87

Water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is well accepted that significant amounts of water can be stored as hydroxyl in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the mantle, the storage capacity of the mantle remains unknown because the simultaneous effects of pressure, temperature and composition have never been investigated in the laboratory. The majority of studies has concentrated on the study of single phases and have established very important basis for our understanding of water incorporation in minerals. It has been shown that the solubility of water in NAMs increases with increasing pressure and water fugacity. The effect of temperature is more complicated. At low pressures water solubility in olivine increases with temperature, whereas at high pressures it follows a bell-shaped curve and decreases with increasing temperature above a critical temperature which corresponds to the onset of wet melting around 1100-1200°C. Concerning the effect of composition, it has been shown that water solubility in olivine increases with increasing iron content at 0.3 GPa. But this is contradicted by recent reports at high pressures of 8 to 14 GPa. Silica activity is an important parameter at low pressure, which could affect the OH infrared absorption spectra of olivine and then potentially help in diagnosis of the environment in which olivine formed. However, these spectral distinctions disappear at high pressures. Also, the correlation of some hydroxyl absorption bands in infrared spectra of olivine with aliovalent impurities such as Fe3+, Al3+ and Ti4+ vanishes as water fugacity increases. This is logical since olivine does not incorporate much impurities, water fugacity will be the strongest effect with increasing pressure. Thus it appears that in olivine many behaviours due to environmental conditions measured at low pressures (< 3 GPa) are not occurring at high pressures, suggesting that extrapolation of solubility laws established at low pressures would yield misleading estimates at high pressures. A review of the state-of the-art results will be presented as well as a model of water storage capacity in the upper mantle.

Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie

2010-05-01

88

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4 October) rainfall, evaporation and runoff were 200, 256, and 43 mm in 1996, respectively, and 310, 286 and 74 mm in 1997, giving negative budgets of -99 mm in 1996 and -50 mm in 1997. Approximately 60% of the total budget was caused by storage changes in the upper 40 cm of the bog and 40% by swelling/shrinking in the layers below. This mire breathing must be incorporated in future models of mire-water dynamics. The water content varied diversely among the different microrelief elements, much depending on the properties of moss and peat together with distance to water table. There also was a strong hysteresis in the relationships between groundwater level and measured volumetric water content, depending partly on pore-throat effects and partly on swelling/shrinking of the peat matrix. A seasonal variation of volumetric water content in a layer beneath water table was found to be larger than what could be justified by compression alone. We think that probable causes could be methane gas expansion together with temperature effects. The main conclusions of this study were: (i) water-transport and storage characteristics are distinctly different among hummocks, ridges and hollows, (ii) mire wetness cannot be deduced from groundwater levels only, and (iii) an important part of the total water storage was caused by swelling/shrinking of the peat, not by changes in unsaturated water content.

Kellner, Erik; Halldin, Sven

2002-01-01

89

Optimal Parameter Determination for Tritiated Water Storage in Polyacrylic Networks  

SciTech Connect

Due to the remarkable capacity of water retaining, croslinked polyacrylic acids (PAA) represent an interesting alternative for tritiated water trapping. The study was developed on radiolytical processes in PAA:HTO systems derivated from irradiation of polymeric network by disintegration of tritium atoms from HTO. The aim of these studies is the identification of polymeric structures and optimal storage conditions.Sol and gel fractions were determinated by radiometrical methods using PAA labeled with 14-C at carboxylic groups and T at main chains of the polymer. Simulation of radiolytical processes was realized using {gamma} radiation field emitted by a irradiation source of 60-Co which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 3 kGy/h. Self-radiolytical effects were investigated using labeled PAA in HTO with great radioactive concentration (37-185 GBq/mL). The experiment suggests as optimum for HTO storage as tritium liquid wastes a 1:30 PAA:HTO swelling degree at 18.5-37 MBqL. HTO radioactive concentration.RES studies of radiolytical processes were also realized on dry polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyacrylic based hydrogels irradiated and determined at 77 K. In the study we observed the effect of swelling capacity of hydrogel o the formation of free radicals.

Postolache, C. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Matei, Lidia [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Ionita, Gh. [National R and D Institute for Criogenics and Isotopic Techologies (Romania)

2005-07-15

90

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

91

Impact of Reservoirs on GRACE Water Storage Estimates, Implications for Tigris-Euphrates and other regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes in basins globally, the impact of spatial distribution of mass storage within a basin is generally ignored. In this study, we evaluate the effects of concentrated masses from surface water reservoirs on basin scale estimates of water storage changes using numerical experiments and applications to different basins. While the spatial extent of reservoirs is much less than GRACE resolution, reservoir storage may represent a large fraction of storage changes in some basins. Results show that assuming uniform mass distribution for reservoirs may lead to underestimation or overestimation of basin water storage by up to a factor of two depending on reservoir location and extent within a basin. Several basins were examined including the Tigris-Euphrates and the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) basins, where availability of reservoir volume variations from satellite altimetry allows computation of their impact on GRACE water storage changes. Reservoirs are concentrated towards the basin center in the Tigris Euphrates basin, resulting in underestimation of seasonal variations and trends in water storage by a factor of 1.9 when reservoir storage is assumed to be uniformly distributed. Accurate representation of location and spatial extent of reservoirs indicates that changes in reservoir storage account for ~50% of total water storage decline during the drought from 2007 to 2010. Lake Nasser located near the edge of the Lower Nile Basin results in overestimation of water storage changes by a factor of two when a uniform mass distribution is assumed. In this desert region, volume variations in Lake Nasser account for ~ 95% of the seasonal water storage variations observed by GRACE. Accurate estimation of the impact of surface water on water storage changes is important, especially when extracting groundwater contribution from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of irregular water storage distributions is significant, GRACE based estimates of water storage changes will be improved when independent a priori information on reservoir water storages from other satellites (for e.g. upcoming SWOT satellite) can be used during GRACE processing.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Cretaux, J.

2012-12-01

92

Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

2011-01-14

93

Inferring Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Using ERA40 Reanalysis Data: The Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial water storage is an essential part of the hydrological cycle, encompassing crucial elements of the climate system, such as soil moisture, groundwater, snow, and land ice. On a regional scale, it is however not a readily measured variable and observations of its individual components are scarce. This study investigates the feasability of estimating monthly terrestrial water-storage variations from water-balance

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Pedro Viterbo; Daniel Lüthi; Christoph Schär

2004-01-01

94

Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

Allen, R.D.

1983-11-01

95

Ground-water recharge to and storage in the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Guilford County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground- water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Guilford County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground- water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 15 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an anlytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quantity of ground water in storage also are described. Guilford County covers approximately 658 square miles in the central part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 347,420; approximately 21 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies all of the county. Under natural conditions, recharge to the ground-water system in the county is derived from infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 19 gaging stations that measure streamflow within or from Guilford County were analyzed to produce daily estimates of ground-water recharge in 15 drainage basins and subbasins in the county. The recharge estimates were further analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term recharge rates, as well as recharge duration statistics. Mean annual recharge in the 15 basins and subbasins ranges from 4.03 to 9.69 inches per year, with a mean value of 6.28 inches per year for all basins. In general, recharge rates are highest for basins in the northern and northwestern parts of the county and lowest in the southern and southeastern parts of the county. Median recharge rates in the 15 basins range from 2.47 inches per year (184 gallons per day per acre) to 9.15 inches per year (681 gallons per day per acre), with a median value of 4.65 inches per year (346 gallons per day per acre) for all basins. The distribution of recharge rates in the county suggests a correlation between recharge rates and hydrogeologic units (and derived regolith). The highest recharge estimates occur in the northwestern part of Guilford County in basins unlain by felsic igneous intrusive rocks and lesser areas of metasedimentary rocks. Recharge estimates in this area range from 6.37 to 9.33 inches per year. Basins in the southwestern, central, and northeastern parts of the county are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, and recharge estimates range from 5.32 to 5.51 inches per year. In the extreme southern and southeastern parts of the county, the lower Deep River subbasin and the lower Haw River subbasins have the lowest estimated recharges at 4.15 and 4.03 inches per year, respectively. Although the areas of these subbasins that lie within Guilford County are underlain primarily by metaigneous rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, the larger part of these subbasins lies south and southeast of Guilford County in areas underlain by hydrogeologic units of metavolcanic origin. The distribution of recharge rates in the study area is almost the reverse of the distributio

Daniel, C. C., III; Harned, D.A.

1998-01-01

96

An economic analysis of air conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

McMullen, B. J.; Papaprokopiou, N. D.

1981-09-01

97

GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not a major factor. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO observations.

Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

2012-10-01

98

An Assessment of Aquifer Storage Recovery Using Ground Water Flow Models  

E-print Network

An Assessment of Aquifer Storage Recovery Using Ground Water Flow Models by Christopher S. Lowry1 drawdowns, technologies that use recharge options, such as aquifer storage recovery (ASR), are being used Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) systems have been in operation since the late 1960s in the United States

Lowry, Chris

99

Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

2012-04-01

100

Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs  

E-print Network

Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs Gallon the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Cups, cups, cups of water, Running down the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Gallons, gallons, gallons of water Rushing

101

Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

1980-01-01

102

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-print Network

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01

103

Contribution of Climate-Driven Change in Continental Water Storage to Recent Sea-Level Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snow pack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be

P. C. D. Milly; A. Cazenave; M. C. Gennero

2003-01-01

104

Safe water treatment and storage in the home. A practical new strategy to prevent waterborne disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many parts of the developing world, drinking water is collected from unsafe surface sources outside the home and is then held in household storage vessels. Drinking water may be contaminated at the source or during storage; strategies to reduce waterborne disease transmission must safeguard against both events. We describe a two-component prevention strategy, which allows an individual to disinfect

E. D. Mintz; Reiff F; Tauxe R

1995-01-01

105

77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Missouri River Municipal and Industrial (M & I) Reallocation and Hold Public Meetings...an integrated Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report...to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply may be warranted, and...

2012-07-19

106

GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.  

PubMed

Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate. PMID:22508123

Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

2012-01-01

107

Effect of an in-containment refueling water storage tank on station blackout accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) that includes two advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) and one advanced boiling water reactor is under development by US reactor manufacturers. One of the safety features of the APWRs is the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of this tank on

Carbajo

1991-01-01

108

Evaluation of time stability indices for soil water storage upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryTime stability index (TSI) is usually used to evaluate time stability of soil water storage (SWS) at point scales for SWS upscaling. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven TSIs for estimating mean SWS. Included were six indices used for indirect estimation (i.e., standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD), mean absolute bias error (MABE), width of the 90% empirical tolerance interval of relative water content (T), chi-squared statistic (?2), root-mean-squared differences (D), and temporal coefficient of variability (CVt)); and one index used for direct estimation (i.e., root mean square error (RMSE)). Five goodness-of-fit indices (GFIs), including root mean squared deviations (RMSD), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE), coefficient of determination (R2), absolute mean difference (BIAS), and relative bias error (RBIAS) were selected for evaluating mean SWS estimation quality in both calibration and validation periods. The minimum number of sampling occasions needed to identify the most time-stable location was identified considering different starting dates of sampling. Evaluation of the TSIs was performed using SWS data of 0-1.0 m layer obtaining from the Canadian Prairie landscape and the Chinese Loess Plateau. The results showed that MABE, ?2, D, and CVt outperformed SDRD and T irrespective of the GFI used. If RMSD and NSCE were used, D was the best TSI. If BIAS and RBIAS were adopted, MABE was the best TSI. Mean SWS estimation by the indirect method was more accurate than that by the direct method. For both study areas, the minimum number of sampling occasions needed to identify the most time-stable location varied with starting dates of SWS measurement, and generally five to seven sampling occasions was needed to identify the most time-stable location with D and MABE.

Hu, Wei; Tallon, Lindsay K.; Si, Bing Cheng

2012-12-01

109

Ground water geochemistry of short-term aquifer thermal energy storage test cycles  

SciTech Connect

The changes in the concentrations of Ca, dissolved silica, and alkalinity of the recovery waters of four short-term aquifer thermal energy storage test cycles with respect to the injection waters and the correlation of these concentrations with recovery water temperatures indicate that quartz and calcite dissolved during hot water storage. This hypothesis was supported by chemical equilibrium modeling and mass balance calculations. Magnesium concentrations were lower in recovery waters than in injection waters. Chemical modeling indicated that a Mg silicate (talc) could have precipitated. Potassium concentrations correlated well with temperatures, probably because of ion exchange involving potassium feldspars in the aquifer.

Holms, T.R.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Rosenberg, H.L.; Holm, N.P.

1987-06-01

110

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by

R. E. Beighley; Y. He; R. L. Ray; J. Guo; C. Shum

2009-01-01

111

Detecting terrestrial water storage variations in northwest China by GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide a new quantitative measurement to observe terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. In this paper, GRACE data were used to detect TWS changes (TWSC) in last decade in the arid region of northwest China. TWSC of the study area were obtained from RL05 Level 2 GRACE data between August 2002 and July 2013. These obtained GRACE based TWSC were thereafter validated against that calculated from global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) data. The validation showed TWSC from two sources were consistent. Together with precipitation, the analyses showed TWSC in this arid region changed over time, and responded sensitively to climate factors. Results indicated that TWSC showed distinct seasonal variation characteristics and the peaks of TWS appeared corresponding to precipitation. The summers of 2005 and 2012 were wet periods with a mean TWS higher than multiple-year average by about 30 mm, while the falls of 2008 and 2009 were dry seasons with a heavily deficit TWS, lower than multiple-year average by about -30 mm. The winter of 2008 was also in deficit but slightly better than the fall of same year. On average, in the last decade, the period of 2008 to 2009 was in the driest condition. Significant decreases in TWS in 2008 and 2009 were successfully detected by GRACE, and corresponded to drought events in the study area. This study showed in the last decade the changes of climate factors resulted in larger TWS variations in the arid region and proved the capability of GRACE in detecting larger-scale and long-term drought events in arid regions.

Cao, Yanping; Nan, Zhuotong

2014-11-01

112

Suboptimal on–off switching control strategies for chilled water cooling systems with storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of vapour compression refrigeration system is developed. The overall model consists of the following basic components: a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, an evaporative cooler and a cool storage. The integrated system is referred to as chilled water cooling system with storage (CWCS). The mathematical modelling of the CWC system undertaken in this study

Wei-Ling Jian; M. Zaheeruddin

1998-01-01

113

Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of NO2-saturated BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials to H2O vapour results in the conversion of surface nitrates to Ba(NO3)2 crystallites, causing dramatic morphological changes in the Ba-containing phase, demonstrating a role for water in affecting the NOx storage/reduction properties of these materials.

Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan; Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Peden, Charles HF

2007-03-07

114

Evaluating the Relative Variability of Lake and Wetland Storage in the Global Water Balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic investigations commonly stem from the analysis of observed or simulated river discharge which integrates processes upstream including snowpack and soil moisture storage. An understanding of the global water cycle, and in particular the land surface branch; however, requires consideration of all terms in the water budget, including storage in lakes, reservoirs and wetlands, which often is not represented in hydrologic models. Furthermore, direct observations of changes in these storage terms are scarce, especially at the global scale. Satellite observations provide an opportunity to incorporate information about fresh water surface storage into analyses of the water cycle at continental to global scales. We use a combination of direct measurements and modeling to evaluate the mean seasonal and interannual variability in fresh water surface storage over Africa. Satellite radar altimetry from Topex/POSEIDON for five major lakes in Africa (Nyasa, Tana, Tanganyika, Turkana and Victoria) over the period 1992-1999 is used to estimate the mean seasonal and interannual variability of large lake storage. We extend these observations to smaller water bodies using a lakes and wetland algorithm designed for use in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, and perform a 21-year simulation (1979-1999) over Africa. JERS synthetic aperture radar observations over western Africa, in combination with a global data set of reservoirs, wetlands and lakes, provide a basis for the generation of lake geometry profiles. As a point of comparison, we evaluate the mean seasonal and interannual variability for other major terms in the surface water balance as represented by a 21-year VIC global simulation at one-half degree spatial resolution. In particular, we calculate the variability of precipitation, evaporation, runoff, and storage change in the subsurface and in snow and glaciers across a variety of spatial scales from continental to grid cell. The analysis suggests that surface water storage plays an important role in the water cycle in comparison with other terms, such as soil moisture and snow that have received considerably more attention.

Clark, E. A.; Sridhar, V. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Birkett, C. M.; McDonald, K. C.; Bowling, L. C.

2004-05-01

115

EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

116

Mechanisms of water storage and flow in the unsaturated zone of the Chalk aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the volumes of water draining from some Chalk catchments in recessions are significantly greater than can be explained by gravity drainage from fissure porosity. The most likely source of this water is slow drainage from the matric porosity above the water table. This paper suggests that the location of this storage is in the irregularities on

M. Price; R. G Low; C McCann

2000-01-01

117

DIARRHEA PREVENTION THROUGH HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL WATER DISINFECTION AND SAFE STORAGE IN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water quality intervention that consists of water treatment, safe storage, and community education was field tested in Kitwe, Zambia. A total of 166 intervention households were randomly selected from one community and 94 control households from another. Baseline surveys were conducted and the intervention was distributed. Weekly active diarrhea surveillance, biweekly water testing, and a follow-up survey were conducted.

ROBERT E. QUICK; AKIKO KIMURA; ANGELICA THEVOS; MATHIAS TEMBO; ISIDORE SHAMPUTA; LORI HUTWAGNER; ERIC MINTZ

2002-01-01

118

Methodology for Determining the Optimal Operating Strategies for a Chilled Water Storage System  

E-print Network

This dissertation proposed a new methodology for determining the optimal operating strategies for a chilled water storage system under a Time-of-Use electricity rate structure. It is based on a new classification of operating strategies...

Zhang, Zhiqin

2011-08-08

119

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2011-04-01

120

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2014-04-01

121

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2010-04-01

122

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2013-04-01

123

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2012-04-01

124

Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage volume changes. Ground-based data can, in some cases, test the remote sensing accuracy and precision. Data accuracy requirements vary for different applications: reservoir management for flood control, agriculture, or power generation may need more accurate and timely information than (for example) regional assessments of water and food security issues. Thus, the long-term goal for the hydrological sciences community should be to efficiently mesh both types of information and with as extensive geographic coverage as possible.

Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

2013-12-01

125

Comparison Between TRNSYS Software Simulation and F-Chart Program on Solar Domestic Hot Water System  

E-print Network

115 461 462 Water set temperature (F) 120 Environmental temperature (F) 71.6 UA of auxiliary storage tank (Btu/hr-F) 0 Pipe heat loss No Tank-side f low rate/area (lb... (gallons) 60 Water set temperature (F) 140 Environmental temperature (F) 68 UA of auxiliary storage tank (Btu/hr-F) 7.6 Relative load heat exchanger size 1 F-Chart 0.719 0.744 0.798 0.877 0...

Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

2012-01-01

126

Studies of the water adsorption on Zeolites and modified mesoporous materials for seasonal storage of solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolites and mesoporous materials were systematically modified by ion exchange and impregnation with hygroscopic salts to improve their storage capacity in thermochemical storage of heat. The sorption properties of those potential storage materials against water were investigated with physico-chemical methods such as thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, microcalorimetry and isotherm measurements confirming the improvement of the storage properties. Selected materials were

J. Jänchen; D. Ackermann; H. Stach; W. Brösicke

2004-01-01

127

Factors affecting static stratification of thermal water storage  

SciTech Connect

The thermal shortage is a key component of any successful solar thermal system. A good thermal storage should allow minimum thermal energy losses while permitting the highest possible extraction efficiency of the stored thermal energy. Despite the many available examples of successful designs of solar thermal storage tanks, the static behavior of the solar thermal storage is not fully understood. Among the many factors influencing such behavior are heat losses, tank geometry, dead zones, and tank wall material. In this study, laboratory-scale models with different geometries were built for the purpose of examining thermal behavior during the period after charging. During this period, called the thermal diffusion period, the extraction efficiency was temporarily decreased until natural stratification was achieved. After the thermal period, the extraction efficiency decreased primarily as a result of thermal losses to the environment and thermal degradation caused by the storage tank walls. Increasing the ratio of length to diameter up to 3 or 4 significantly increases the extraction efficiency. Storages with length-to-diameter ratios larger than 4 are not desirable because the added cost does not result in improvement of the thermal extraction efficiency.

AlMarafie, A. (Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kuwait Univ., Kuwait City (KW)); Moustafa, S.M. (Mechanical Engineering Dept., California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (US)); Al-Kandarie, A. (Energy Dept., Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (KW))

1989-01-01

128

Validation of GRACE-derived Terrestrial Water Storage from a regional1 approach over South America2  

E-print Network

; Chen et al., 2009; Frappart et al., in42 press), to monitor aquifer storage (Rodell et al., 20071 Validation of GRACE-derived Terrestrial Water Storage from a regional1 approach over South.e., correlations generally greater18 than 0.7). Interannual variations of GRACE-based Terrestrial Water Storage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

130

Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (? = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

2014-01-01

131

Terrestrial water storage across scales: Applications of the GRACE satellite mission for global hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage is difficult to observe over large areas, and as a result, studies of the global water cycle under changing climate tend to focus on a few key methodologies: monitoring of the large-scale fluxes of precipitation, evaporation and discharge; modeling the relationship between runoff response and precipitation forcing; or applying limited in-situ data sets to generalize and scale behavior. With NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are finally able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2) with monthly time resolution, opening what was previously an unobservable 'black box' in land-surface water dynamics. GRACE data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in basin water storage behavior that are relevant for global climate studies. In this research we explore global to regional scale applications of GRACE data that highlight the novelty, functionality and importance of these groundbreaking observations. First, we present a new metric for the monitoring of global water cycle health and energy expenditure — the time-series of Total Global Ocean Mass Anomaly and Total Global Land Mass Anomaly from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment — and show that this metric is heavily influenced by highly variable regional water cycle dynamics in a few global "wet spots". Second, we provide results of a statistical model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation for the world's largest basins. Third, we combine new 1-degree GRACE storage observations with state-of-the-art global land-surface model representations of surface, canopy and snow water, to derive a 1-degree spatially variable sub-surface water storage anomaly time series with error estimates. We convolve this result with global estimates of porosity from FAO Harmonized Soil Database to estimate an effective global active soil depth range and changes during the GRACE record. Finally, terrestrial water storage anomaly from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and precipitation observations from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) are applied at the regional scale to show the usefulness of a remotely sensed, storage-based flood potential method.

Reager, J. T.

132

A recent assessment of terrestrial water storage depletion across the High Plains aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid to arid regions, water storage in the unsaturated and saturated zones is the main source of water for ecosystems, crops, and human needs. Recent concerns about the sustainability of agricultural systems in the US central High Plains have increased after the on-going exceptional drought that started in 2011. This work investigates the impacts of this exceptional event on water storage anomalies across the High-Plains Aquifer (HPA). Observations of the terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) provide estimates of monthly soil moisture and groundwater anomalies from 2004 to 2012. Spatial and temporal patterns of anomalies during the 100-month observed period included the 1st phase of the recent drought. Results show a continuous negative trend of total water storage between September 2010 and April 2012. Spatial variability of soil moisture and groundwater anomalies revealed divergent patterns since March 2008. During the 1st phase of the drought, water storage depletion was more pronounced in the southern HPA while no depletion was observed in the northern HPA. The 2nd phase of the drought shows negative anomalies across the entire HPA, but higher depletion rates were evident in the central and northern parts of the HPA. We estimate that more than 15 km3 of water were lost from the unsaturated zone across the HPA since the beginning of the recent drought with regional depletion rates from 1 mm/year in the Northern HPA to 34 mm/year in the Southern HPA. Despite strong depletion rates, the change in saturated storage, estimated as the difference between total water storage and unsaturated storage varied considerably between observed soil moisture data and NLDAS products, especially during the recent drought. Such sources of bias can alter estimates of groundwater trends. Since irrigation practices were not accounted for in this preliminary study, the actual changes in in unsaturated zone storage are likely underestimates, especially in croplands with inefficient water management practices. The spatial extent and temporal duration of the current drought detected by GRACE revealed that total water storage has reached a 10-year minimum value across the HPA.

Brena, A.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.

2012-12-01

133

Seasonal patterns of water storage as signatures of the climatological equilibrium between resource and demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is accumulated in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the resource to various demands like hydropower production, irrigation, water supply or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively optimizes the use of the resource during a given time period. One of its by-products is the estimation of the marginal storage water value (MSWV), defined by the marginal value of the future goods and benefits obtained from an additional unit of storage water volume. Knowledge of the MSWV makes it possible to determine a posteriori the storage requirement scheme that would have led to the best equilibrium between the resource and the demand. The MSWV depends on the water level in the reservoir and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This study uses the inter-annual average of both the storage requirement scheme and the MSWV cycle as signatures of the best temporal equilibrium that is achievable in a given resource/demand context (the climatological equilibrium). For a simplified water resource system in a French mountainous region, we characterize how and why these signatures change should the climate and/or the demand change, mainly if changes are projected in the mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) as well as in the water demand for energy production and/or maintenance of a minimum reservoir level. Results show that the temporal equilibrium between water resource and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of MSWV changes when, for example, earlier water storage is required to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand. Finally, understanding how MSWV signatures change helps to understand changes in the storage requirement scheme.

François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

2014-09-01

134

Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations of the Latin America cholera epidemic have repeatedly implicated untreated drinking water and water touched by hands during storage as important vehicles for disease transmission. To prevent such transmission, we provided a new narrow-mouthed, plastic, water storage vessel and 5% calcium hypochlorite solution for home disinfection of stored water to a Bolivian Aymara Indian community at risk for

Quick R; Venczel L; Espada A; Damiani E; Bean N

135

Energy conservation system for hot water heaters and storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a furnace for heating a building and a water heater, an energy conservation system is described comprising a first coil of water pipe disposed within a chamber or duct of said furnace for absorbing heat from said furnace to heat water in said first coil, said pipe being connected between a pressurized source of cold water for said building and a cold water inlet of said heater, said system further comprising a spurge tank for storing a quantity of water therein selectively connectable across said first coil, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the presure of the water flowing between said first coil and heater increases to a first pre-selected maximum pressure value, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the temperature of the water flowing betwen said first coil and heater inlet increases to a first pre-selected maximu temperature value, first check valve means for restraining the back-filling of said spurge tank with water flowing from said source and from the upstream end of said forst coil, second check valve means for restraining the back flow of water to said source from said spurge tank and said first coil, means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank when the water temperature in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected temperature value.

Farris, W.

1980-07-08

136

Simulated soil water storage effects on streamflow generation in a mountainous snowmelt environment, Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although soil processes affect the timing and amount of streamflow generated from snowmelt, they are often overlooked in estimations of snowmelt-generated streamflow in the western USA. The use of a soil water balance modelling approach to incorporate the effects of soil processes, in particular soil water storage, on the timing and amount of snowmelt generated streamflow, was investigated. The study

M. S. Seyfried; L. E. Grant; D. Marks; A. Winstral; J. McNamara

2009-01-01

137

A semi-analytical model for predicting water quality from an aquifer storage and recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) involves the injection of freshwater in an aquifer through wells for the purpose of creating a subsurface water supply that is recovered at a later time, often using the same wells, to meet seasonal, long-term, emergency, or other demands. In this paper a numerically efficient semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the quality of water

Ali Sedighi; Harald Klammler; Chris Brown; Kirk Hatfield

2006-01-01

138

Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of

Paul Pavelic; Brenton C. Nicholson; Peter J. Dillon; Karen E. Barry

2005-01-01

139

A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

Dale, Robert H.

1978-01-01

140

Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

Narayanan, M.

2009-12-01

141

Experimental studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with partitioned hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the performance of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system with a partitioned hot water storage tank. The system employs a flat-plate collector array with a surface area of 38 m2 to drive a LiBr–H2O absorption chiller of 4.7 kW cooling capacity. The system is provided with a storage tank (2.75 m3) which is partitioned into

Z. F Li; K Sumathy

2001-01-01

142

Physicochemical properties and bactericidal efficiency of neutral and acidic electrolyzed water under different storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral (NEW) and acidic (AEW) electrolyzed water were stored in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at 20°C for 30 days. The pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), available chlorine concentration (ACC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and bactericidal efficiency of NEW and AEW were determined during storage or before and after storage, respectively. The pH and

Xiaodong Cui; Yuchao Shang; Zhengxiang Shi; Hongwei Xin; Wei Cao

2009-01-01

143

Optimal reserved water of pumped storage power station for Black-start  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main functions of pumped storage power station is to provide black-start ancillary service in power systems with a larger proportion of thermal generators. However, the reserve water for black-start has significant influence on the other function of pumped storage power station, such as peak load shifting. Taking black-start benefits and static benefits into account synthetically, a mathematical

Chunyi Wang; Baoling He; Yutian Liu; Xizhao Qiu; Hong Mu; Wenjun Zhou; Gang Xu

2007-01-01

144

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR): A strategic cost-effective facility to balance water production and demand for Sharjah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquifer storage and recovery was evaluated as a strategic water storage facility and as a tool to reduce overallcost of water production. This work investigated the size, cost, and mode of operation required to run the proposed ASR. The best scenario was to build an ASR of 280 MIGs to balance the annual water demands and to cover up for

Asam Almulla; Ahmad Hamad; Mohamed Gadalla

2005-01-01

145

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1)  

E-print Network

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1) Site HEATING SYSTEMS: SRCC Certified Mfr Name & Model Number Net Solar Fraction (from attached CEC F-Chart) # of Collectors in System Collector Size Solar Tank Volume (gallons) §150(j)1B: Backup storage tanks for solar

146

Review of issues on water storage in international development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is essential for all life is and occurs in various natural stores of the Earth’s hydrological cycle, including lakes, wetlands, rivers and aquifers. However, natural spatial and temporal variability in climate means that water of sufficient quantity and adequate quality is not always available for human needs (drinking, growing crops, generating power, supporting industry or maintaining ecosystem services, such

Michael C Acreman; Richard Harding; Caroline A Sullivan; Charles Stratford; Francis Farquharson; Gwyn Rees; Helen Houghton-Carr; Ian Gale; Roger Calow; Alan MacDonald; John Chilton

2009-01-01

147

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2010-04-01

148

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2011-04-01

149

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2013-04-01

150

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2012-04-01

151

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2014-04-01

152

Historical and Hypothetical Future Sedimentation and Water Storage in Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUMMARY Sedimentation has reduced water storage in Kajakai Reservoir. If current sedimentation rates continue, hypothetical future reservoir water volumes at the spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters could be reduced about 22 percent from 2006 to 2057. Even if the spillway elevation is raised to 1,045 meters, a severe drought could result in large multiyear irrigation-supply deficits in which reservoir water levels remain below 1,022 meters for more than 4 years. Hypothetical climate change and sedimentation could result in greater water-supply deficits. The chance of having sufficient water supplies in Kajakai Reservoir during the worst month is about 47 percent.

Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2008-01-01

153

Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in the unsaturated zone is a major determinant of the hydrological behaviour of the soil, but methods to quantify soil water storage are limited. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil surface elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes. We measured moisture contents in soil aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in volumes comprising multiple aggregates and intra-aggregates spaces by CS616 sensors. In a prolonged drying period, aggregate-scale storage change measurements revealed normal shrinkage for layers ? 30 cm depth, indicating volume loss equalled water loss. Shrinkage in a soil volume including multiple aggregates and voids was slightly less than normal, due to soil moisture variations in the profile and delayed drying of deeper soil layers upon lowering of the groundwater level. This resulted in shrinkage curve slopes of 0.89, 0.90 and 0.79 for the layers 0-60, 0-100 and 0-150 cm. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, shrinkage curve slopes ranged from 0.29 to 0.69 (EC-5) and 0.27 to 0.51 (CS616). Alternation of shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in an underestimation of volume change relatively to water storage change, due to hysteresis between swelling and shrinkage. Since the slope of the shrinkage relation depends on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers, shrinkage curves from laboratory tests on clay aggregates require suitable modifications for application to soil profiles. Then, the linear portion of the curve can help soil water storage estimation from soil surface elevation changes. These elevation changes might be measurable over larger extents by remote sensing.

te Brake, B.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; de Rooij, G. H.

2012-11-01

154

Non-linearities and thresholds in water partitioning, storage and release in different ecohydrological units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water partitioning between transpiration, evaporation and runoff is controlled by climatic and water storage characteristics; yet our current knowledge of varying dominant retention and partitioning mechanisms remains limited. For some forested catchments with clear seasonal distinctions, recent work has revealed the existence of partitioned ecohydrological systems where plant - and stream-water are sourced from different subsurface water stores. It is still unclear what the roles of non-linearities are in different water-energy regimes and how soil and vegetation properties might influence such partitioning of water stores. This study aims to better understand the spatio-temporal controls on water residence times and hydrological responses at the catchment scale in a northern headwater catchment in Scotland. Here, the climate is usually consistently wet with low evapotranspiration rates. Within this context however, the study period involved an exceptionally dry summer. We explored non-linearities and thresholds in catchment input-output relationships and investigated the role of soil-water-vegetation interactions on water partitioning, storage, and release along different hillslopes during contrasting hydro-climatic conditions. Different ecohydrological units included poorly draining soils in riparian zones and freely draining soils on hillslopes, and both forested and non-forested sites were considered. Soil moisture dynamics and stable water isotope signatures of different waters (precipitation, stream-, soil -, and plant xylem-water) were examined throughout the year (winter and during the growing season that included the relatively dry summer) to identify plant water use, assess water movement, and explore vegetation-water linkages. The results indicate that threshold behaviour in runoff responses at the catchment scale can be linked to apparent differences between soil water dynamics and residence times of different hydropedological units. Linear input-output relationships exist when runoff is dominantly generated from the permanently wet riparian zones. In contrast, the freely draining hillslope soils show larger dynamic storage changes, and non-linear runoff generation processes can be related to temporary high soil wetness on the hillslopes. However, vegetation impacts are limited and the isotope data suggest that there is no strong evidence for the formation of two different ecohydrological subsurface water stores for either soil types at any time. Such contrasting results in relation to those of previous studies might be attributed to the overall relatively high subsurface storage, and the area's radiation energy-limited climate that lacks overall strong seasonality in high precipitation inputs. The results therefore suggest that the formation of different subsurface water stores might depend on thresholds in the water-energy balance, and as such depend on geographic and climatic conditions.

Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Soulsby, Chris

2014-05-01

155

Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.  

PubMed

Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. PMID:24629940

Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

2014-08-01

156

Control of degradation of spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel during dry storage in an inert atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry storage of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in inert gas (referred to as inerted dry storage or IDS) is being developed as an alternative to water pool storage of spent fuel. The objectives of the activities described in this report are to identify potential Zircaloy degradation mechanisms and evaluate their applicability to cladding breach during IDS, develop models of the dominant

M. E. Cunningham; E. P. Simonen; R. T. Allemann; I. S. Levy; R. F. Hazelton

1987-01-01

157

Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

158

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

1981-01-01

159

Long Term Water Storage Deteriorates Bonding of Composite Resin to Alumina and Zirconia Short Communication  

PubMed Central

Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long term water storage and ageing on the bond strength of resin composite cement to yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide (zirconia) and dialuminium trioxide (alumina). Substrate specimens of alumina and zirconia were air particle abraded with dialuminium trioxide before priming and application of composite resin. Priming was made with gamma metharyloxy-trimethoxysilane or acryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane monomer after which the intermediate dimethacrylate resin was applied and photopolymerized. This was followed by curing particulate composite resin cement (Relyx ARC) to the substrate as a resin stub. The ageing methods of the specimens (n=6) were: (1) they stored four years in 37±1ºC distilled water, (2) thermocycled 8000 times between 55±1ºC and 5±1ºC, (3) stored first in water for four years and then thermocycled. Specimens which were stored dry, were used as controls. Bonding of composite resin was measured by shear-bond strength test set-up. Both thermocycling and long-term water storage decreased significantly shear bond strength values compared to the control group (from the level of 20 MPa to 5 MPa) regardless of the used primer or the type of the substrate. Combination of four years water storage and thermocyling reduced the bond strength even more, to the level of two to three megapascals. In can be concluded that water storage and thermocycling itselves, and especially combination of water storage and thermocycling can cause considerable reduction in the bond strength of composite resin cement to alumina and zirconia. PMID:24167535

Heikkinen, T.T.; Matinlinna, J.P; Vallittu, P.K.; Lassila, L.V.J.

2013-01-01

160

A computerized storage and retrieval system for water quality data  

E-print Network

system, outfa'll system, and tributary systems. As shown by Figure I River 8 is an outfall or downstream system for River A. River 8 is also a source or upstream system for Lake C. River D is the outfall or downstream system from Lake C while Lake C...- ities represent river basins or estuarine systems as groups of independent but interconnected bodies of water so that each can be handled optimally yet water system interaction is possible use a simple flexible location encoding scheme with each body...

Sparr, Ted M

2012-06-07

161

Water Storage and Early Hydrous Melting of the Martian Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental investigation of a water-saturated analogue of the Martian mantle at low temperature (700-920°C) and high pressure (4-7GPa) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The results of this study are used to explore the role of water in the early chemical differentiation of the planet, and to further our understanding of the near-solidus behavior in planetary mantle compositions at high pressure. Water has a significant effect on the temperature of melting and therefore, on accretion and subsequent differentiation processes. Results show that the wet solidus reaction, located at ~800°C, remains at that temperature between 4GPa and 7GPa. The Martian primitive mantle can store significant amounts of water in hydrous minerals stable near the solidus. Humite minerals and phase E represent the most abundant hydrated minerals stable under pressure. The amount of water that can be stored in the mantle and mobilized during melting ranges from 1 to up to 4wt% at the wet solidus. Hydrous melt has also been analyzed in an experiment at 920°C and 5.2GPa and is roughly andesitic, consistent with the findings of others that partial melting of peridotite produces high silica melts. Based on our experimental data and considering both impact and radioactive heat sources, we propose a thermal model of Mars accretion. We assume that Mars formed very rapidly (3.6 Myr or less according to recent studies) and accreted initially from a mix of chondrites (85%H, 11%CV, 4%CI) that contain a bulk water content of 1.1 wt.% H2O. Because Mars accreted quickly and early in solar system history, 26Al decay played an important role in the thermal evolution of the planet. We found that at 20% of its present mass (corresponding to ~60% of its size), the planet is cool enough to retain the water stored in hydrous minerals. At 30% (~70% of its size), melting starts at -but is not limited to- a shallow depth (1-3GPa) and water can still be bound in crystalline solids. The critical stage is at 50% (~80% of its size), where Mars is now above the wet and dry solidi with most of its interior melted. Water allows melting to occur earlier in the accretion process and the presence of water promotes the formation of a significant amount of melt, contrasting with dry accretion scenarios. Interestingly, the 50 % accretion step matches with the time estimated for core formation by recent Hf/W isotopic studies [1]. Therefore, we suggest that water may have promoted early core formation on Mars and rapidly extended melting over a large portion of Mars interior. [1] Dauphas, N., Pourmand, A., 2011. Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo. Nature, 473, doi:10.1038/nature10077.

Pommier, A.; Grove, T. L.; Charlier, B.

2011-12-01

162

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

1979-01-01

163

Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

Lata

1996-09-26

164

Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global sea level has been rising over the past half century, according to tide-gauge data. Thermal expansion of oceans, melting of glaciers and loss of the ice masses in Greenland and Antarctica are commonly considered as the largest contributors, but these contributions do not entirely explain the observed sea-level rise. Changes in terrestrial water storage are also likely to affect sea level, but comprehensive and reliable estimates of this contribution, particularly through human water use, are scarce. Here, we estimate sea-level change in response to human impacts on terrestrial water storage by using an integrated model that simulates global terrestrial water stocks and flows (exclusive to Greenland and Antarctica) and especially accounts for human activities such as reservoir operation and irrigation. We find that, together, unsustainable groundwater use, artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in terrestrial water storage and the loss of water from closed basins have contributed a sea-level rise of about 0.77mmyr-1 between 1961 and 2003, about 42% of the observed sea-level rise. We note that, of these components, the unsustainable use of groundwater represents the largest contribution.

Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

2012-06-01

165

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13

166

Satellite measurements of changes in water storage and their impact on vegetation dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating dynamics of groundwater at regional or global scale is difficult because we cannot directly measure the amount of water under the ground. Currently, ten years data of GRACE equivalent water thickness data are available to study global scale groundwater dynamics. GRACE data is useful to understand change in water storage at global scale, but the mechanisms of the water storage dynamics and its impacts on vegetation are not well understood. In this study, we tried to explain the interannual variations in the GRACE equivalent water thickness in relation to other satellite data, such as TRMM precipitation and MODIS land surface temperature. Then, we assessed the effect of dynamics of ground water on vegetation at both regional and global scale. At first, we decomposed the GRACE equivalent water thickness record into year-to-year variations and ten-year trend. The year-to-year variations in GRACE data are the result of annual water budget, while the ten-year trend in GRACE data can be explained by the trend in annual water storage and additional human water usage, especially irrigation. The year-to-year variation in GRACE data was spatially matched well with TRMM annual precipitation, but the high correlations with LST were found only in a few regions. The most of significant trend in GRACE data can be explained with long-term TRMM annual precipitation trend. The trend that cannot be explained by TRMM precipitation trend can be considered as the human water usage. Finally, we focused on the regional analysis in India to scrutinize the relationship among those satellite data including seasonal analysis. It is well known that irrigation in northwest India is exploiting groundwater and that was observed in GRACE data as decreasing trend in equivalent water thickness. On the other hand, western India showed increasing trend in NDVI for the last decades. TRMM data showed no significant trend in precipitation in India for the last decade. Those inconsistencies were examined in seasonal to interannual scales.

Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

2013-12-01

167

ORIGINAL PAPER Water storage loss in central and south Asia  

E-print Network

in this region (Kirby A., `Kazakhstan's glaciers `melting fast', BBC, 4 September 2003). Tajikistan, one drought (Golovnina M., `Tajikistan battles drought', The New York Times, 12 June 2008). Unfortunately., `Climate change and water shortages closing in on Tajikistan and central Asia', Oxfam, 17 February 2010

Hwang, Cheinway

168

Water storage and early hydrous melting of the Martian mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental investigation of the near-solidus phase equilibria of a water-saturated analog of the Martian mantle. Experiments were performed at low temperatures (700-920 °C) and high pressure (4-7 GPa) using multi-anvil apparatus and piston cylinder device (4 GPa). The results of this study are used to explore the role of water during early melting and chemical differentiation of Mars, and to further our understanding of the near-solidus behavior in planetary mantle compositions at high pressure. Water has a significant effect on the temperature of melting and, therefore, on accretion and subsequent differentiation processes. Experiments locate the wet solidus at ?800 °C, and is isothermal between 4 GPa and 7 GPa. The Martian primitive mantle can store significant amounts of water in hydrous minerals stable near the solidus. Humite-group minerals and phase E represent the most abundant hydrous minerals stable in the 4-7 GPa pressure range. The amount of water that can be stored in the mantle and mobilized during melting ranges from 1 to up to 4 wt% near the wet solidus. We discuss thermal models of Mars accretion where the planet formed very rapidly and early on in solar system history. We incorporate the time constraint of Dauphas and Pourmand (2011) that Mars had accreted to 50% of its present mass in 1.8 Myr and include the effects of 26Al radioactive decay and heat supplied by rapid accretion. When accretion has reached 30% of Mars current mass (?70% of its present size), melting starts, and extends from 100 to 720 km depth. Below this melt layer, water can still be bound in crystalline solids. The critical stage is at 50% accretion (?80% of its size), where Mars is above the wet and dry solidi with most of its interior melted. This is earlier in the accretion process than what would be predicted from dry melting. We suggest that water may have promoted early core formation on Mars and rapidly extended melting over a large portion of Mars interior.

Pommier, A.; Grove, T. L.; Charlier, B.

2012-06-01

169

Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

1997-01-01

170

Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination of lterable reactive phosphorus, total lterable  

E-print Network

Review Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination and digestion of water samples for ®lterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total ®lterable phosphorus (TFP samples contain digestion of samples

Canberra, University of

171

Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

172

Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating  

SciTech Connect

Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

2013-03-01

173

Water-in-oil emulsions that improve the storage and delivery of the biolarvacide Lagenidium giganteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagenidium giganteum is an effective biological control agent for mosquitoes with limited use due to poor survival and contamination during storage.\\u000a Invert (water-in-oil) emulsions using crop oils were investigated for formulating L. giganteum mycelium for improved shelf life and delivery. Cells formulated in a water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion were just as effective against\\u000a larvae as those formulated in aqueous suspension. Cells

Jean Vandergheynst; Herbert Scher; Hong-Yun Guo; Damien Schultz

2007-01-01

174

Impact of water abstraction on storage and breakdown of coarse organic matter in mountain streams.  

PubMed

Water abstraction is a prevalent impact in streams and rivers, which is likely to increase in the near future. Because abstraction reduces discharge, the dimensions of the wetted channel and water depth and velocity, it can have strong influence on stream ecosystem functioning. Although the impacts of large dams on stream and river ecosystems are pretty well known, the effects of diversion schemes associated with low dams are still poorly understood. Furthermore, the remote location of many diversion schemes and the lack of collaboration by power companies often make it difficult to know the volume of water diverted and its environmental consequences. To assess the impact of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of coarse particulate organic matter in streams we compared reaches upstream and downstream from five low dams that divert water to hydropower plants in mountain streams in N Spain. We measured the storage of organic matter and the breakdown of alder leaves in winter and spring, and calculated the results at the patch (i.e., per square meter of bed) and at the reach scale (i.e., per lineal meter of channel). Water diversion significantly reduced discharge, and the width and depth of the wetted channel, but did not affect water quality. Diversion significantly reduced the storage and breakdown of organic matter in winter but not in spring. The number of shredders colonizing litter bags was also significantly reduced. The results point to an important effect of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of organic matter in streams at least in some periods, which could affect downstream reaches, global carbon fluxes, and associated ecosystem services. PMID:25039020

Arroita, Maite; Aristi, Ibon; Díez, Joserra; Martinez, Miren; Oyarzun, Gorka; Elosegi, Arturo

2015-01-15

175

Effects of Storage Conditions and pH on Chlorine Loss in Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light.

Soo-Voon Len; Yen-Con Hung; Donghwan Chung; James L. Anderson; Marilyn C. Erickson; Kazuo Morita

2002-01-01

176

Combining phosphate and bacteria removal on chemically active filter membranes allows prolonged storage of drinking water.  

PubMed

A chemically active filtration membrane with incorporated lanthanum oxide nanoparticles enables the removal of bacteria and phosphate at the same time and thus provides a simple device for preparation of drinking water and subsequent safe storage without using any kind of disinfectants. PMID:23913409

Rotzetter, A C C; Kellenberger, C R; Schumacher, C M; Mora, C; Grass, R N; Loepfe, M; Luechinger, N A; Stark, W J

2013-11-13

177

USING COMPUTER MODELS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have indicated that water quality is degraded as a result of long residence times in storage tanks, highlighting the importance of tank design, location, and operation. Computer models, developed to explain some of the mixing and distrribution issues associated with tank...

178

Morphology, growth and carbohydrate storage of the plant Typha angustifolia at different water depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological characteristics, growth and carbohydrate storage dynamics of Typha angustifolia in relation to water depth were investigated. The study was based on observations carried out in two stands, namely Akigase and Teganuma, for two growth seasons. The latter stand was about two times deeper than the former. Teganuma stands exhibited significantly higher number of thick shoots compared to those of

P. Sharma; T. Asaeda; M. Kalibbala; T. Fujino

2008-01-01

179

Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity  

E-print Network

decreased as rain- fall intensity increased. Leaf area was the best predictor of storage, especially at 20 mm hÃ?1 . Needle-leaved branches generally retained more water per leaf area than did branches from of snow by weighing entire trees. All of these methods are expensive and impractical for many applications

Keim, Richard

180

Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological information  

E-print Network

Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological information B. Devaraju1, N. Sneeuw1, H. Kindt2, and J. Riegger2 1. Institute of Geodesy,sneeuw]@gis.uni-stuttgart.de 1. Hydrology and GRACE The GRACE satellite mission provides high resolution time-variable gravity

Stuttgart, Universität

181

Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological  

E-print Network

Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological information B. Devaraju, N. Sneeuw Institute of Geodesy, Universit¨at Stuttgart, Germany estimates of mass changes with observed hydrological data, which is available for 20% of the land area

Stuttgart, Universität

182

Water activatable, lead--acid storage battery and method for manufacturing same  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of manufacturing a lead--acid storage battery capable of being stored after completing the battery processing and thereafter activated by the addition of water is described. The method includes coordinating the formation and processing of the battery elements with a deep discharge to provide residual sulfuric acid electrolyte within the battery elements with a desired specific gravity level and

Sabatino

1978-01-01

183

Presence of Paratracheal Water Storage Tissue does not Alter Vessel Characters in Cactus Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested hypotheses that the presence of water storage tissues immediately adjacent to vessels would protect vessels from cavitation and would result in evolution of broader vessels that occur in fewer, smaller clusters relative to vessels surrounded by a matrix of fibers. We examined 21 species that have dimorphic wood, that is, at one stage in their life they

James D. Mauseth; Brandon J. Plemons-Rodriguez

1997-01-01

184

Time-lapse microgravity surveys reveal water storage heterogeneity of a karst aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-lapse microgravity surveying combined with absolute gravity measurements is used to investigate water storage changes in a karst aquifer of ?100 km2 area. The survey consists of 40 gravity stations measured with a relative gravimeter; absolute gravity is measured at three stations for each survey. In total, four gravity surveys are performed over a 2 year time period during consecutive

Thomas Jacob; Roger Bayer; Jean Chery; Nicolas Le Moigne

2010-01-01

185

Characterization of Interfacial Structure in PEFCs: Water Storage and Contact Resistance Model  

E-print Network

Characterization of Interfacial Structure in PEFCs: Water Storage and Contact Resistance Model in the MPL|CL contact resistance. The model also shows that the void space along the MPL|CL interface can, the MPL and the diffusion media MPL|DM interface, and lastly, the DM and the bipolar plate DM|BP inter

Mench, Matthew M.

186

Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest  

PubMed Central

Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20?cm) than in the deep layers (20~40?cm and 40~60?cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

2014-01-01

187

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V.L.

2009-01-01

188

Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.  

PubMed

This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to an aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25399802

Miotli?ski, K; Dillon, P J

2014-11-14

189

Soil water storage, rainfall and runoff relationships in a tropical dry forest catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

forested catchments, the exceedance of rainfall and antecedent water storage thresholds is often required for runoff generation, yet to our knowledge these threshold relationships remain undescribed in tropical dry forest catchments. We, therefore, identified the controls of streamflow activation and the timing and magnitude of runoff in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During a 52 day transition phase from the dry to wet season, soil water movement was dominated by vertical flow which continued until a threshold soil moisture content of 26% was reached at 100 cm below the surface. This satisfied a 162 mm storage deficit and activated streamflow, likely through lateral subsurface flow pathways. High antecedent soil water conditions were maintained during the wet phase but had a weak influence on stormflow. We identified a threshold value of 289 mm of summed rainfall and antecedent soil water needed to generate >4 mm of stormflow per event. Above this threshold, stormflow response and magnitude was almost entirely governed by rainfall event characteristics and not antecedent soil moisture conditions. Our results show that over the course of the wet season in tropical dry forests the dominant controls on runoff generation changed from antecedent soil water and storage to the depth of rainfall.

Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

2014-12-01

190

On Leakage andSeepage of CO2 from Geologic Storage Sites intoSurface Water  

SciTech Connect

Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture ofanthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and its storage in deep geologicformations. The processes of CO2 seepage into surface water aftermigration through water-saturated sediments are reviewed. Natural CO2 andCH4 fluxes are pervasive in surface-water environments and are goodanalogues to potential leakage and seepage of CO2. Buoyancy-driven bubblerise in surface water reaches a maximum velocity of approximately 30 cms-1. CO2 rise in saturated porous media tends to occur as channel flowrather than bubble flow. A comparison of ebullition versus dispersive gastransport for CO2 and CH4 shows that bubble flow will dominate overdispersion in surface water. Gaseous CO2 solubility in variable-salinitywaters decreases as pressure decreases leading to greater likelihood ofebullition and bubble flow in surface water as CO2 migratesupward.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Lewicki, J.L.

2005-10-14

191

Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil) by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic) shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm) for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ? 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0-60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ?V-?W relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5) and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616). Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5) and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616). Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ?V-?W relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

te Brake, B.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; de Rooij, G. H.

2013-05-01

192

Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.  

PubMed

Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time. PMID:23064864

Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2012-11-01

193

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

2009-11-25

194

Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

1999-01-01

195

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01

196

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

197

Survival of Arcobacter butzleri during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) is a fresh stretched cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri during WBMC production and storage under different temperature conditions (5, 10, and 20 °C). Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with one reference strain and two isolates of A. butzleri, and the count was monitored during WBMC production and storage. The bacterial count of A. butzleri decreased during curd ripening (from 7.83 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 4.14 log CFU/g in about 4 h) and a further decrease (>4 log CFU/g) was observed at the end of curd stretching. During storage testing, A. butzleri was never detected by direct plating, whereas it was recovered from 12 of the total 162 WBMC until the end of storage testing by enrichment. The results revealed that A. butzleri is able to survive during WBMC production and storage at different temperature conditions. Consequently, traditional WBMC produced from raw milk could represent a potential source of Arcobacter infection for humans. PMID:23806147

Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Finazzi, Guido; Marchetti, Giacomo; Zambrini, Angelo V; Rosmini, Roberto

2013-09-01

198

Critical Zone Soil Properties effects on Soil Water Storage and Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil properties control a wide range of hydrologic processes including recharge to regional aquifers. Soil water must pass through the critical zone to contribute to ground water recharge. Deep percolation (DP) from catchments is considered to be an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. DP is also an important term in water mass balance studies, which attempt to estimate hydrologic states and fluxes in watersheds with fractured or transmissive bedrock. Few studies estimate the magnitude of this water balance term and it is often considered negligible. The objective of this study is to estimate the timing and magnitude of DP in the 0.015 km2 Tree Line experimental catchment (TL) from the 2011 water year. The catchment, which is located within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, Boise, ID, contains thin sandy soil over fractured granitic bedrock. We introduce modeling methods that focus on achieving a high degree of agreement between measured and modeled catchment storage. A distributed physically-based snow energy balance model is loosely coupled to a capacitance-based soil moisture model to estimate soil storage. Measured and calculated soil model parameters, including field capacity, saturated soil moisture content, and plant extraction limits, control the flux of water through the critical zone. Variability in soil storage and soil water fluxes through the critical zone is driven by soil properties. Parameters describing a leaf area index time series are calibrated to minimize the difference between measured and modeled soil dry down in the spring. DP is estimated to be 126 mm from Dec. 13, 2010 to June 30, 2011, which is 18% of the precipitation measured during that time. Rain-on-snow events are estimated to contribute 79 mm, which is 11% of precipitation or 63% of the calculated DP.

Kormos, P. R.; McNamara, J. P.; Seyfried, M. S.; Marks, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H.; Williams, C. J.

2012-12-01

199

Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

2014-06-01

200

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10

201

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

202

Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1gallon paint can ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1-gallon paint can labeling machine (Standard-Knapp of Portland). Note spiral attachment on floor. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

203

Process Waste Assessment for inorganic solid waste and empty containers <30 gallons  

SciTech Connect

This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the two largest hazardous waste streams generated on-site at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)/California -- ``Other Inorganic Solid Waste`` and ``Empty Containers <30 Gallons.``

Phillips, N.M.

1993-12-01

204

The ancient Kamirian water storage tank: A proof of concrete technology and durability for three millenniums  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the research work conducted on a concrete specimen cut from a manmade underground hydraulic structure\\u000a with respect to a well-preserved water storage tank which was discovered from the archaeological excavations in the area of\\u000a the ancient city of Kamiros. During Antiquity, this city was the largest of the three most important cities of the Greek island\\u000a of

M. Koui; Ch. Ftikos

1998-01-01

205

Food as a limiting factor for Aedes aegypti in water-storage containers.  

PubMed

An understanding of the ecological factors that regulate natural populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can improve control and reduce the incidence of dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in tropical areas. We investigated whether immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers from an urban area were under food limitation. We used starvation resistance (number of days alive without food) as an indicator of the feeding history in third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. Resistance to starvation and other measures of immature success, such as development time, survival, and adult mass, were investigated across a wide range of feeding conditions in the laboratory. Resistance to starvation of third-instar larvae and body mass of adults emerging from pupae collected in water-storage containers in an urban area were compared with the laboratory results. If resistance to starvation and adult mass of field-collected Ae. aegypti corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory, then food limitation could be inferred in field-collected larvae. Results showed that resistance to starvation was well correlated with previous feeding levels and with the other measures of immature success. Both resistance to starvation and adult body mass of field-collected specimens corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory. Therefore, it was concluded that food limitation or competition is likely to be a regulatory factor in water-storage containers in the urban area. It is recommended that any control measure applied to immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers should eliminate all or most of the individuals, otherwise unintended, undesirable results might occur, such as the production of more and larger adults. PMID:15266737

Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Barrera, Roberto

2004-06-01

206

Electrochemical decontamination of metallic surfaces contaminated by spent-fuel storage pool water  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was earlier shown theoretically that the radioactivity released by spent-fuel elements into storage pool water is predominantly carried by positive ions. In this paper a decontamination method is described in which freshly contaminated metallic surfaces are decontaminated electrochemically, resulting in smooth, shiny surfaces. This method, which uses current densities of â¼15 μA\\/cm², is quantitatively and qualitatively different from earlier

P. B. Chaudhary; M. G. Bhide

1992-01-01

207

Monitoring and modeling of water storage in karstic area (Larzac, France) with a continuous supraconducting gravimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative knowledge of the groundwater storage and transfer in karstic area is crucial for water resources management and protection. As the karst hydro-geological properties are highly heterogeneous and scale dependent, geophysical observations such as time dependant gravity could be helpful to fill the gap between local (based on boreholes, moisture sensors, …) and global (based on chemistry, river flow, …) studies. Since more than 2 years, the iGrav #002 supraconducting gravimeter is continuously operating in the French GEK observatory(Géodésie de l'Environnement Karstique, OSU OREME, SNO H+) in the Larzac karstic plateau (south of France). The observatory is surrounding more than 250m karstified dolomite, with an unsaturated zone of ~150m thickness. First, the evaluation of the iGrav data (calibration, steps and drift) will be presented. Then a careful analysis of the global, topographic and building effects will be done to evaluate the local water storage only. The gravity data will be integrated with the water level data in nearby boreholes and petrophysical data from core samples. Finally, simple hydrological models will be presented to help the interpretation on the karst groundwater storage and transfer and to merge the whole dataset.

Benjamin, Fores; Cédric, Champollion; Nicolas, Lemoigne; Jean, Chéry

2014-05-01

208

Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

1986-01-01

209

Ground water in the Piedmont Upland of central Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifers in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland and Piedmont, are shown to be the sole or principal source of water. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The groundwater is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most groundwater occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in groundwater storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70% of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The groundwater quality is generally satisfactory without treatment and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on groundwater use are as follows; 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000 for commercial purposes; and 160,000 for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of those and other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the groundwater available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the groundwater conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province. (USGS)

Richardson, Claire A.

1980-01-01

210

Underground storage tanks soft waste dislodging and conveyance  

SciTech Connect

Currently 140 million liters (37 million gallons) of waste are stored in the single shell underground storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford. The wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s testing program for soft waste dislodging and conveyance technology. This program was initialized to investigate methods of dislodging and conveying soft waste. The main focus was on using air jets, water jets, and/or mechanical blades to dislodge the waste and air conveyance to convey the dislodged waste. These waste dislodging and conveyance technologies would be used in conjunction with a manipulator based retrieval system.

Wellner, A.F.

1993-10-01

211

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4

Erik Kellner; Sven Halldin

2002-01-01

212

Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles  

SciTech Connect

Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

2013-09-01

213

Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage.  

PubMed

Antimony concentrations were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. Two of the brands were at or above the maximum allowable Sb concentration for drinking water in Japan (2 microg/L). Elevated concentrations of Sb in bottled waters are due mainly to the Sb2O3 used as the catalyst in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate (PET(E)). The leaching of Sb from PET(E) bottles shows variable reactivity. In 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. A mineral water from France in PET(E), purchased in Germany, yielded 725 ng/L when first tested, but 1510 ng/L when it was stored for 6 months at room temperature; the same brand of water, purchased in Hong Kong, yielded 1990 ng/L Sb. Pristine groundwater containing 1.7+/-0.4 ng/L Sb (n = 6) yielded 26.6+/-2.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) after storage in PET(E) bottles from Canada for 6 months versus 281+/-38 ng/L Sb (n = 3) in PET(E) bottles from Germany. Tap water bottled commercially in PET(E) in December 2005 contained 450+/-56 ng/L Sb (n = 3) versus 70.3+/-0.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) when sampled from a household faucet in the same village (Bammental, Germany), and 25.7+/-1.5 ng/L Sb (n = 3) from a local artesian flow. PMID:17396641

Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael

2007-03-01

214

Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry.  

PubMed

Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of 'vulnerability segmentation' between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

2013-05-01

215

Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry  

PubMed Central

Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K.

2013-01-01

216

COST ESTIMATING MANUAL--COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW STORAGE AND TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements are presented for combined sewer overflow treatment plants ranging from 5 to 200 million gallons per day in capacity, and storage facilities ranging in size from 1 to 240 million gallons. Es...

217

GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

2014-11-01

218

Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

2005-05-01

219

Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

2005-03-01

220

Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households

R. E. QUICK; L. V. VENCZEL; E. D. MINTZ; L. SOLETO; J. APARICIO; M. GIRONAZ; L. HUTWAGNER; K. GREENE; C. BOPP; K. MALONEY; D. CHAVEZ; M. SOBSEY; R. V. TAUXE

1999-01-01

221

Microbial reduction and storage quality of fresh-cut cilantro washed with acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy of decontamination treatments in reducing microbial populations on cilantro and in improving its storage quality was investigated. Fresh-cut cilantro samples were washed with one of the five treatments: tap water, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), aqueous ozone, chlorinated water, and aqueous ozone followed by AEW (sequential wash). Treated cilantro was packaged in polyethylene bags prepared with films of selected oxygen

Hua Wang; Hao Feng; Yaguang Luo

2004-01-01

222

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

223

Survival of alginate-entrapped cells of Azospirillum lipoferum during dehydration and storage in relation to water properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of alginate-entrapped cells of Azospirillum lipoferum was studied during dehydration using a dry air stream and during prolonged storage at various constant water activity values (aw). During the drying operation, the viability loss remained almost constant from the initial water content to 0.35 g water\\/g dry weight (DW) corresponding to a 98.5% water removal, strongly increased until a water

Etienne Paul; Jacques Fages; Philippe Blanc; Gerard Goma; Alain Pareilleux

1993-01-01

224

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Pesticide Storage and Handling  

E-print Network

Proper pesticide management is important to preventing ground water contamination. This publication contains helpful information about pesticide storage facilities, mixing and loading practices, and spill cleanup. A chart lists pesticides according...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29

225

[Preliminary study on the changes of bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage period].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the changes in water quality and the bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage and supply period, the microorganisms in water body were studied by microbial culture counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DEEG) technique. Results showed that the water quality had been improved significantly and the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations significantly reduced after the Yangtze River water flowed into the reservoir. The number of culturable microorganisms in the influent and the reservoir changed with the seasons, and there were more microorganisms in the influent than these in the reservoir during spring and summer, and fewer in autumn and winter, and the precipitation of suspended microorganisms in the water caused the increase of organic matter content in the sediment. PCR-DGGE results showed that bacterial community structure in the reservoir changed with the seasons, and the microbial community diversity was the highest in summer and the lowest in autumn. The cluster analysis showed that the similarity of microbial community structure of water and sediment samples was 62% , which might be due to the contribution of the precipitation of the suspended microorganisms. The dominant microbial species in water had high similarity with alpha, beta-Proteobacteria, Flavobacterium, Rheinheimera, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and Marine metagenome, indicating that Qingcaosha Reservoir faced the risk of algae bloom and seawater intrusion. The results provide the fundamental understanding on reservoir operation and can be used as reference for future studies. PMID:23233999

Peng, Qing; Xie, Bing; Yuan, Qi; Huang, Zhi-Ting; Cui, Lu-Lu; Wang, Wen-Ting

2012-10-01

226

The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil.

Landeen, D.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

227

Balancing Storage - some very different management approaches in a water scarce Developing Country.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing storage may be found in many different forms in South Africa. The first feature is often a large reservoir fairly high up the catchment, where losses are less, or even in a neighbouring catchment. The objective is to catch surplus water for later use. Alternatives include both within basin and interbasin transfers, either pumped over a catchment divide, or fed under gravity through a tunnel. Again there may be a reservoir at the start of the transfer scheme. This may be a large reservoir or may be a balancing storage reservoir. Transfers are required to make up for a deficiency of water in the demand area of the receiving catchment. The deficiency may be intermittent or continuous. Nevertheless, whatever the nature of the deficiency, it is important not to incur losses. The water will be more expensive than if it were possible to obtain it locally from within the demand area. When undertaking river regulation, one major concern is seeing expensive water flowing out to sea. Several different schemes are contrasted. One has been developed to run almost completely by gravity, others use the topography where possible with the aid of canals, gravity tunnels and pipelines. However, in some circumstances expensive electricity is required to pump the water to be transferred. Nowadays with the ever increasing cost of electricity some way is required of reducing the cost. The usual approach is to use "off peak" electricity but river release flows do not always cooperate so there is a further risk of loss, due to the induced "peaks and troughs" in the river hydrograph as the pumps are switched on and off. Balancing storage becomes even more important in this case to act as a smoothing mechanism. Sometimes the storage may take the form of an on stream reservoir, at others a suitable site besides the river may be developed. This latter has another advantage in allowing the system to avoid abstracting the inevitably poor quality of water at the start of the first seasonal flood, or the heavily silt laden water during major floods, or polluted water from upstream pollution incidents. Other forms of balancing storage may take the form of exploiting the natural contours of the river valley so that river control barrages may be built. These may be single purpose such as irrigation transfers or multi purpose where domestic supplies are abstracted. In addition the river may be made navigable and be developed for recreation. Some form of control is required. This may have started off as a manual system operating on very simple ‘control rules' but as either the worth of the water is increased or its scarcity develops, due to increasing demand, more sophisticated computer systems are needed. In South Africa half the water resources were originally allocated to agriculture, mainly irrigation. Now some of this water is required for industrial, environmental and domestic use. Innovative ways of making the resource go further are suggested. In addition some control concepts are developed using the "control band" approach.

Tollow, Anthony John

2010-05-01

228

Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

2003-01-01

229

The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

2001-01-01

230

Anthropogenic Effects on Total Water Storage from GRACE on Large South American Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over continents, GRACE total water storage (TWS) solutions are expected to represent main surface, soil and groundwater stocks variability. Recent studies have showed that intensive groundwater resources withdrawal in India can be “captured” by GRACE. Another important anthropogenic impact on the natural water cycle is the building and operation of large dams. Even though they impact primarily the local water stock variations, one can expect subsequent changes on the water cycle and some evidence of this from GRACE. This would be particularly evident where the volume of stored water behind dams represents a significant proportion of the total TWS. In this study, we analyzed the effect on the water cycle of large dams over South American large watersheds. Most of Brazilians large dams are located in the Upper Paraná watershed, upstream the Itaipu dam. By performing a correlation analysis between the upstream integrated rainfall and the GRACE TWS series, we found a noticeable phase difference between the two quantities. The phase difference is larger over the utmost upstream region of Upper Parana watershed. We assumed that this pattern could be due to an effect of man-made reservoirs. We took into account the reservoirs storage and found that they induce an additional phase-lag of about 1 month in the TWS response to precipitation forcing. We also investigated dams’ impact on the simulations of the Water Gap Hydrological Model. The results also show a similar time delay similar, suggesting that the model correctly accounts for the dam effect. Finally we see similar lags, though smaller, over other South American river basins.

Xavier, L.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Güntner, A.; Rotunno, O.

2009-12-01

231

Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during storm events. Depression storages are based on additional runoff obtained from CN calculation. Strategies mentioned in this study can be provided as references of climate change adaptions for related authorities.

Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

2014-05-01

232

Water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2011 and 2009-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States--Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area. This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from the time before substantial groundwater irrigation development began (generally before 1950, and termed "predevelopment" in this report) to 2011 and from 2009-11. The report also presents total water in storage, 2011, and change in water in storage in the aquifer from predevelopment to 2011. The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in water in storage; and total water in storage for this report used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of about 62 acres. These methods were modified from methods used in previous reports in an attempt to improve estimates of water-level changes and change in water in storage.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2011, by well, ranged from a rise of 85 feet to a decline of 242 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 14.2 feet from predevelopment to 2011, and a decline of 0.1 foot from 2009-11. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2011 was about 2.96 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 246 million acre-feet since predevelopment.

McGuire, Virginia L.

2013-01-01

233

CO2 leakage up from a geological storage site to shallow fresh groundwater: CO2-water-rock interaction assessment and  

E-print Network

of the ingress of CO2 during geological storage was conducted. The 3D model includes (i) storage saline aquifer and the host rock. The model uses the carbonate saline Dogger aquifer in the Paris Basin as the storageCO2 leakage up from a geological storage site to shallow fresh groundwater: CO2-water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Evaluating Water Storage Variations in the MENA region using GRACE Satellite Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations over large river basins can be derived from temporal gravity field variations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. These signals are useful for determining accurate estimates of water storage and fluxes over areas covering a minimum of 150,000 km2 (length scales of a few hundred kilometers) and thus prove to be a valuable tool for regional water resources management, particularly for areas with a lack of in-situ data availability or inconsistent monitoring, such as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This already stressed arid region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and overdraft of its non-renewable freshwater sources, and thus direction in managing its resources is a valuable aid. An inter-comparison of different GRACE-derived TWS products was done in order to provide a quantitative assessment on their uncertainty and their utility for diagnosing spatio-temporal variability in water storage over the MENA region. Different processing approaches for the inter-satellite tracking data from the GRACE mission have resulted in the development of TWS products, with resolutions in time from 10 days to 1 month and in space from 0.5 to 1 degree global gridded data, while some of them use input from land surface models in order to restore the original signal amplitudes. These processing differences and the difficulties in recovering the mass change signals over arid regions will be addressed. Output from the different products will be evaluated and compared over basins inside the MENA region, and compared to output from land surface models.

Lopez, O.; Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.

2013-12-01

235

1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage.  

E-print Network

TD 603 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage. 2. What is the storage in the dam (in cu.m.)? 3. What is the length and depth of the dam? What is its structure and cost? How much time did it take to build the dam? 4. Where

Sohoni, Milind

236

Calorimetric properties of water and triacylglycerols in fern spores relating to storage at cryogenic temperatures.  

PubMed

Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at -15 degrees C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to monitor enthalpy and temperature of water and TAG phase transitions within spores of five fern species: Pteris vittata, Thelypteris palustris, Dryopteris filix-mas, Polystichum aculeatum, Polystichum setiferum. The analyses suggested that these fern spores contained between 26% and 39% TAG, and were comprised of mostly oleic (P. vittata) or linoleic acid (other species) depending on species. The water contents at which water melting events were first observable ranged from 0.06 (P. vittata) to 0.12 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, and were highly correlated with water affinity parameters. In spores containing more than 0.09 (P. vittata) to 0.25 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, some water partitioned into a near pure water fraction that melted at about 0 degrees C. These sharp peaks near 0 degrees C were associated with lethal freezing treatments. The enthalpy of water melting transitions was similar in fern spores, pollen and seeds; however, the unfrozen water content was much lower in fern spores compared to other forms of germplasm. Though there is a narrow range of water contents appropriate for low temperature storage of fern spores, water content can be precisely manipulated to avoid both desiccation and freezing damage. PMID:17553480

Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

2007-08-01

237

Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.  

PubMed

Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry. PMID:21329343

Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

2011-03-15

238

Modeling the effects of surface storage, macropore flow and water repellency on infiltration after wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can reduce infiltration capacity of hillslopes by causing (i) extreme soil drying, (ii) increased water repellency and (iii) reduced soil structure. High severity wildfire often results in a non-repellent layer of loose ash and burned soil overlying a water repellent soil matrix. In these conditions the hydraulic parameters vary across discrete layers in the soil profile, making the infiltration process difficult to measure and model. The difficulty is often exacerbated by the discrepancy between actual infiltration processes and the assumptions that underlie commonly used infiltration models, most of which stem from controlled laboratory experiments or agricultural environments, where soils are homogeneous and less variable in space and time than forest soils. This study uses a simple two-layered infiltration model consisting of surface storage (H), macropore flow (Kmac) and matrix flow (Kmat) in order to identify and analyze spatial-temporal infiltration patterns in forest soils recovering from the 2009 Black Saturday wildfires in Victoria, southeast Australia. Infiltration experiments on intact soil cores showed that the soil profile contained a region of strong water repellency that was slow to take on water and inactive in the infiltration process, thus restricting flow through the matrix. The flow resistance due to water repellent soil was represented by the minimum critical surface tension (CSTmin) within the top 10 cm of the soil profile. Under field conditions in small headwaters, the CSTmin remained in a water repellent domain throughout a 3-year recovery period, but the strength of water repellency diminished exponentially during wet conditions, resulting in some weather induced temporal variation in steady-state infiltration capacity (Kp). An increasing trend in macropore availability during recovery was the main source of temporal variability in Kp during the study period, indicating (in accordance with previous studies) that macropore flow dominates infiltration processes in these forest soils. Storage in ash and burned surface soil after wildfire was initially high (?4 mm), then declined exponentially with time since fire. Overall the study showed that the two layered soil can be represented and parameterized by partitioning the infiltration process into surface storage and flow through a partially saturated and restrictive soil layer. Ash, water repellency and macropore flow are key characteristics of burned forest soils in general, and the proposed model may therefore be a useful tool for characterizing fire impact and recovery in other systems.

Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Smith, Hugh G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

2014-05-01

239

Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

1980-01-01

240

Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

None

2010-09-01

241

Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1987-11-01

242

Water-storage change measured with high-precision gravimetry at a groundwater recharge facility in Tucson, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater depletion is a serious problem in many regions around the world. Artificial groundwater recharge is used for the short- and long-term storage of water in subsurface and can be an effective tool to prevent aquifer over-draft. Effective design and management of recharge facilities benefits from knowledge of the subsurface conditions and water-storage properties. In this study we combine different types of gravimeters and coupled hydrogeophysical inverse techniques to monitor subsurface water storage and to estimate subsurface hydraulic properties at the field scale. Water storage dynamics are continuously monitored with two iGrav™ superconducting gravimeters and three gPhones at three infiltration basins of the Tucson Water Southern Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project facility. These continuous gravity observations are supported by time-lapse monitoring with absolute and spring gravimeters to map spatial gravity variations. Water level is monitored at 16 wells in the vicinity. The results of the first 6-month drying-wetting-drying cycle of the infiltration basins, during which 4,240,500 cubic meters (3,440 acre-feet) infiltrated over 53 days, are presented in this study. Gravity variations up to 170 ?Gal were observed. Collocated measurements show an overall good agreement of the different gravimeters. Distinct spatial variations of gravity change indicate variable water storage dynamics caused by subsurface heterogeneity at the field scale. Multiple gravimeter types combined with coupled inversion allows accurate tracking of subsurface water storage, which can improve the predictions of subsurface conditions and the water resources management of artificial recharge facilities.

Creutzfeldt, B.; Kennedy, J.; Ferre, P. A.

2012-12-01

243

Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water  

PubMed Central

Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria culture. PMID:22032822

2011-01-01

244

Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

Richardson, Claire A.

1982-01-01

245

Low water potentials affect expression of genes encoding vegetative storage proteins and plasma membrane proton ATPase in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined growth, water status and gene expression in dark-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seedlings in response to water deficit (low water potentials) during the first days following germination. The genes encoded the plasma membrane proton ATPase and two proteins of 28 kDa and 31 kDa putatively involved in vegetative storage. Water potentials of stems and roots decreased

Terry K. Surowy; John S. Boyer

1991-01-01

246

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

2010-01-01

247

Cool Storage Performance  

E-print Network

. This article covers three thermal storage topics. The first section catalogs various thermal storage systems and applications. Included are: load shifting and load leveling, chilled water storage systems, and ice storage systems using Refrigerant 22 or ethylene...

Eppelheimer, D. M.

1985-01-01

248

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01

249

Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

1979-01-01

250

Theoretical aspects of surface-to-volume ratios and water-storage capacities of succulent shoots.  

PubMed

Surface-to-volume (S/V) ratios of drought-adapted plants affect transpiration, photosynthesis, and water-storage capacity. The S/V ratio of cladodes and flat leaves is S/V = 2/T, where T is thickness: even slight thickening greatly reduces S/V. During rain/drought cycles succulent stems swell and shrink without tearing by having flexible ribs, but ribs increase S/V above that of a smooth cylindrical stem with equal volume: the increased surface area is S(ribbed)/S(cylindrical) = N[x + (?/N)]/?(1 + x), where N is number of ribs and x is rib height relative to the radius of the inner stem. Numerous low ribs provide moderate expandability (storage volume) with little increase in S/V and are adaptive where droughts are short. Tall ribs provide greater expandability but greatly increase S/V and probably are adaptive only in mesic habitats. Having ?8-15 ribs, each about as tall as the inner stem radius, provides large storage capacity and intermediate increase in S/V. By increasing absolute size, S/V is reduced so greatly that even large ribs can have an S/V smaller than that of a narrow cylindrical or spherical stem with less volume. PMID:10947995

Mauseth, J D

2000-08-01

251

Water-Soluble Electrospun Nanofibers as a Method for On-Chip Reagent Storage  

PubMed Central

This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform.

Dai, Minhui; Jin, Shengquan; Nugen, Sam R.

2012-01-01

252

This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

253

Determination of root-zone water storage in a desert woodland using a two-layer moisture balance model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root-zone water storage (RWS) is a fundamental component of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. In the lower reaches of arid river basins in inland China, low water recharge and hence low RWS have been associated with a series of ecological and environmental problems. Developing an improved unders...

254

Formation-water database on saline aquifer in Japan: Assessment of solubility trapping in open aquifer storage of CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been constructing a database named “Formation-water database” by accumulating chemical compositions of groundwater in deep aquifers in Japan. The study aims to evaluate potential for solubility trapping of deep groundwater for geological CO2 storage in Japan. The formation water of reservoir depth is found to be generally dilute in composition; regional average values of TDS are at about

Yasuko Okuyama; Masao Sorai; Munetake Sasaki; Hirofumi Muraoka; Norio Yanagisawa

2009-01-01

255

Water quality requirements for sustaining aquifer storage and recovery operations in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A changing climate and increasing urbanisation has driven interest in the use of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes as an environmental management tool to supplement conventional water resources. This study focuses on ASR with stormwater in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer and the selection of water treatment methods to prevent well clogging. In this study two different injection

Declan Page; Konrad Miotli?ski; Peter Dillon; Russel Taylor; Steve Wakelin; Kerry Levett; Karen Barry; Paul Pavelic

2011-01-01

256

Thermodynamic analyses of the performance of a thermal-storage system with water as its working fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal storage system for air-conditioning with water as its working substance is proposed and analyzed. Because water is a natural substance, the system has no environmental problems. The system consists of a steam compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, a separator, two ejectors, an evaporator and a pump. Owing to the pump and ejectors, the compression ratio and the

G. M. Chen; G. Q. Lu; J. F. Wang

1997-01-01

257

Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

258

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities  

E-print Network

and sides. The seal limits leaching, but seasonal filling and emptying can cause the seal to break down. Short-term solid manure storage areas and abandoned storage areas also can be sources of ground water contamination by nitrates. Livestock wastes (manure... and then applied to land by irrigation. Handling manure in this way ensures that fertilizer nutrients from the waste materials will be used by crops, while reducing risks of ground water and surface water contamination. Once manure is applied and incorporated, a...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29

259

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01

260

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

261

The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

Landeen, D.S.

1994-09-01

262

Comparing bioretention designs with and without an internal water storage layer for treating highway runoff.  

PubMed

This study compares the performance of a field bioretention cell with and without an internal water storage (IWS) layer for treating highway runoff. Both synthetic and natural runoff tests were conducted. Hydraulic performances on peak discharge reduction and detention time extension were measured. Pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated for total suspended solids (TSS), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate phosphorus. Pollutants in soil media were measured. Results reveal that both IWS and non-IWS designs reduced peak discharge and extended detention time, while the IWS design performed better. For water quality performance, the non-IWS design removed TSS, Cu, Pb, Zn, and total phosphorus to varying degrees of efficiency, but total nitrogen removal was minimal. The IWS layer significantly improved removal efficiencies for TSS, Cu, Zn, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Soil media accumulated some metals over time. PMID:24961065

Li, Ming-Han; Swapp, Mark; Kim, Myung Hee; Chu, Kung-Hui; Sung, Chan Yong

2014-05-01

263

Water storage changes and climate variability within the Nile Basin between 2002 and 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding water storage changes within the Nile's main sub-basins and the related impacts of climate variability is an essential step in managing its water resources. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides a unique opportunity to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) of large river basins such as the Nile. Use of GRACE-TWS changes for monitoring the Nile is, however, difficult since stronger TWS signals over the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) and the Red Sea obscure those from smaller sub-basins making their analysis difficult to undertake. To mitigate this problem, this study employed Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to extract statistically independent TWS patterns over the sub-basins from GRACE and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model. Monthly precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over the entire Nile Basin are also analysed by ICA. Such extraction enables an in-depth analysis of water storage changes within each sub-basin and provides a tool for assessing the influence of anthropogenic as well as climate variability caused by large scale ocean-atmosphere interactions such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our results indicate that LVB experienced effects of both anthropogenic and climate variability (i.e., a correlation of 0.56 between TWS changes and IOD at 95% confidence level) during the study period 2002-2011, with a sharp drop in rainfall between November and December 2010, the lowest during the entire study period, and coinciding with the drought that affected the Greater Horn of Africa. Ethiopian Highlands (EH) generally exhibited a declining trend in the annual rainfall over the study period, which worsened during 2007-2010, possibly contributing to the 2011 drought over GHA. A correlation of 0.56 was found between ENSO and TWS changes over EH indicating ENSO's dominant influence. TWS changes over Bar-el-Ghazal experienced mixed increase-decrease, with ENSO being the dominant climate variability in the region during the study period. A remarkable signal is noticed over the Lake Nasser region indicating the possibility of the region losing water not only through evaporation, but also possibly through over extraction from wells in the Western Plateau (Nubian aquifer).

Awange, J. L.; Forootan, E.; Kuhn, M.; Kusche, J.; Heck, B.

2014-11-01

264

Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.  

PubMed

We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

2014-11-13

265

Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

266

Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Land Surface Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system of satellites provides observations of large-scale, monthly terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In. this presentation we describe a land data assimilation system that ingests GRACE observations and show that the assimilation improves estimates of water storage and fluxes, as evaluated against independent measurements. The ensemble-based land data assimilation system uses a Kalman smoother approach along with the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). We assimilated GRACE-derived TWS anomalies for each of the four major sub-basins of the Mississippi into the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Compared with the open-loop (no assimilation) CLSM simulation, assimilation estimates of groundwater variability exhibited enhanced skill with respect to measured groundwater. Assimilation also significantly increased the correlation between simulated TWS and gauged river flow for all four sub-basins and for the Mississippi River basin itself. In addition, model performance was evaluated for watersheds smaller than the scale of GRACE observations, in the majority of cases, GRACE assimilation led to increased correlation between TWS estimates and gauged river flow, indicating that data assimilation has considerable potential to downscale GRACE data for hydrological applications. We will also describe how the output from the GRACE land data assimilation system is now being prepared for use in the North American Drought Monitor.

Reichle, Rolf H.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matt

2008-01-01

267

Recovery of terrestrial water storage change from low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spaceborne gravimetry provides a unique opportunity for quantifying geophysical signals including terrestrial water storage change for a wide variety of climate change and geophysical studies. The contemporary methodology to process GRACE data for temporal gravity field solutions is based on monthly estimates of the mean geopotential field with a spatial resolution longer than 600 km (the Level-2 or L2 data products), after appropriate Gaussian smoothing to remove high-frequency and geographically-correlated errors. Alternative methods include the direct processing of the GRACE low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking data over a region of interest, leading to improved or finer spatial and temporal resolutions of the resulting local gravity signals. The GRACE Level 1B data have been analyzed and processed to recover continental water storage in a regional solution, by first estimating in situ Line-Of-Sight (LOS) gravity differences simultaneously with the relative position and velocity vectors of the twin GRACE satellites. This new approach has been validated using a simulation study over the Amazon basin (with three different regularization methods to stabilize the downward continuation solutions), and it is demonstrated that the method achieves an improved spatial resolution as compared to some of the other GRACE processing techniques, including global spherical harmonic solutions, and regional solutions using in situ geopotential differences.

Chen, Yiqun

2007-05-01

268

Decomposing The Terrestrial Water Storage Signal Over Varying Spatial Scales Using Remote Sensing And Modeling In The Mississippi River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the potential impacts of climate and land cover change at continental to global scales with a sufficient resolution for assessment of local water resources and related systems (e.g., ecological and biogeochemical cycles) requires improved representation of the hydrologic cycle in terms of hydraulics (e.g., lateral transport and inundation), management systems (lakes/reservoirs dynamics), and scale (finer in both space and time) relative to many current Earth System models. To better understand the role of these components, this study investigates the terrestrial water storage signal and its dominant sub-signals for landscapes ranging from <10^2 to >10^6 km2 and temporal scales ranging from hours to months. Specifically, this study characterizes the dominant water storage components in the Mississippi Basin (3M sq km) and their corresponding magnitudes and variations in both space and time. A combination of remotely sensed and in-situ measurements and modeling is used to estimate the components of total water storage (TWS) changes. The Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model, TRMM precipitation (3B42v7), MODIS evapotranspiration (MOD16A2), AMSR-E snow water equivalent and brightness temperature, and ENVISAT/JASON-2 altimetry, LandSat based extent measurements over major lakes/reservoirs/rivers, and SRTM digital elevation data (v4.1) are used to estimate basin-wide total water storage variations for the period 2002-2012. In investigate scaling behavior, wavelet analysis is used to characterize water storage signals averaged over different spatial scales (<10^2 to >10^6 km2). Analyses are performed throughout the basin to investigate scaling behavior from landscaping with varying climate and land cover characteristics, (e.g., with vs. without snowmelt; mountainous vs. plains; etc.). Results show the effects of scale, climate and land cover characteristics on water storage signal variations.

Zhao, Y.; Beighley, E.; Yoon, Y.; Allen, G. H.; Miller, Z.; Lee, H.; Kustu, M. D.; Pavelsky, T.

2013-12-01

269

Solar disinfection of wild Salmonella sp. in natural water with a 18 L CPC photoreactor: Detrimental effect of non-sterile storage of treated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time solar disinfection of liters of water containing wild Salmonella sp. and total coliforms was carried out in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor at temperatures of almost 50°C. Using surface water with high turbidity, this treatment was efficient in completely inactivating Salmonella sp. without regrowth during the subsequent 72h of dark sterile storage. However if the

Frédéric Sciacca; Julián A. Rengifo-Herrera; Joseph Wéthé; César Pulgarin

2011-01-01

270

78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR- ISG...systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion under insulation. ADDRESSES:...

2013-11-22

271

Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns  

SciTech Connect

There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system`s costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies.

Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

1997-10-01

272

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1981-01-01

273

the impact of industrial biofuels on people and global hunger Meals per gallon  

E-print Network

the impact of industrial biofuels on people and global hunger Meals per gallon #12;Contents Executive summary 2 Chapter 1: Introduction 6 Chapter 2: Industrial biofuels ­ the context 8 What's driving the EU industrial biofuel boom? 9 Chapter 3: What's wrong with industrial biofuels? 12 Industrial

274

A water storage anomaly in mid-continent North America from combined gravity and GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute gravity and GRACE satellite data have been combined with GPS data to identify a large-scale water storage anomaly on the Canadian prairies. Monthly GRACE data for the period 2002-2011 were used to produce a gravity rate map of the northern mid-continent. This map was corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) using a GPS-based, vertical velocity map derived from 27 continuous and over 50 campaign sites, combined over the period 1996-2010. The vertical velocity map used to correct for GIA was first converted into a virtual gravity rate map using a linear relationship between surface gravity rate and vertical velocity (-0.16 microGal/mm), empirically derived from combined annual absolute gravity and continuous GPS observations at 7 sites outside the anomalous area. The corrected GRACE gravity rate map reveals a major mass rate anomaly with a water equivalent thickness rate of around 3 cm/yr and approximate dimensions of 600 km (N-S) and 800 km (E-W) centered on the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border. The amplitude and spatial extent of the anomaly are estimated by data inversion, taking into account the effect of elastic loading on the GPS-based GIA correction. The source of the anomaly is confirmed by records from deep observation wells in Saskatchewan to be an increase in total water content from 2002 to 2011, amounting to an overall water equivalent accumulation of around 27 cm over a wide area.

Lambert, A.; Huang, J.; Henton, J. A.; Mazzotti, S.; James, T. S.; Courtier, N.; Van Der Kamp, G.

2012-12-01

275

Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage  

PubMed Central

The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

2014-01-01

276

Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L. [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Sohn, C.W. [Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States). Construction Engineering Research Lab.

1994-12-31

277

Satellite observations of terrestrial water storage provide early warning information about drought and fire season severity in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

risk in the Amazon can be predicted several months before the onset of the dry season using sea surface temperatures in the tropical north Atlantic and tropical Pacific. The lead times between ocean state and the period of maximum burning (4-11 months) may enable the development of forecasts with benefits for forest conservation, yet the underlying physical and biological mechanisms responsible for these temporal offsets are not well known. Here, we examined the hypothesis that year-to-year variations in soil water recharge during the wet season modify atmospheric water vapor and fire behavior during the following dry season. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing terrestrial water storage observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), active fires from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and several other satellite and atmospheric reanalysis datasets during 2002-2011. We found that terrestrial water storage deficits preceded severe fire seasons across the southern Amazon. The most significant relationships between monthly terrestrial water storage and the sum of active fires during the dry season occurred during April-August (p < 0.02), corresponding to 1-5 month lead times before the peak month of burning (September). Analysis of other datasets provided evidence for a cascade of processes during drought events, with lower cumulative precipitation (and higher cumulative evapotranspiration) in the wet season substantially reducing terrestrial water storage, and subsequently, surface and column atmospheric water vapor. Our results suggest that terrestrial water storage observations from GRACE have the potential to improve fire season forecasts for the southern Amazon.

Chen, Yang; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, James S.; Randerson, James T.

2013-06-01

278

Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge. Observed land-subsidence during the monitoring period was less than 1 inch except in the central part of Tucson Basin where land subsidence was about 2-3 inches. Correlations of gravity-based storage and water-level change at 37 wells were variable and illustrate the complex nature of the aquifer system. Storage and water-level variations were insufficient to estimate specific yield at many wells. Correlations at several wells were poor, inverse, or resulted in unreasonably large values of specific yield. Causes of anomalously correlated gravity and water levels include significant storage change in thick unsaturated zones, especially near major ephemeral channels, and multiple aquifers that are poorly connected hydraulically. Good correlation of storage and water-level change at 10 wells that were not near major streams where significant changes in unsaturated zone storage occur resulted in an average specific-yield value of 0.27.

Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

2008-01-01

279

Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

1990-01-01

280

Anthropogenic CO2 estimates in the Southern Ocean: Storage partitioning in the different water masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the Southern Ocean (SO) remains a key issue in our understanding of the global carbon cycle and for predicting future climate change. A number of recent studies suggest that 30 to 40% of ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) occurs in the SO, accompanied by highly efficient transport of CANT by intermediate-depth waters out of that region. In contrast, storage of CANT in deep and bottom layers is still an open question. Significant discrepancies can be found between results from several indirect techniques and ocean models. Even though reference methodologies state that CANT concentrations in deep and bottom layers of the SO are negligible, recent results from tracer-based methods and ocean models as well as accurate measurements of 39Ar, CCl4 and CFCs along the continental slope and in the Antarctic deep and bottom waters contradict this conclusion. The role of the SO in the uptake, storage and transport of CANT has proved to be really important for the global ocean and there is a need for agreement between the different techniques. A CO2-data-based (“back-calculation”) method, the CT0 method, was developed with the aim of obtaining more accurate CANT concentration and inventory estimates in the SO region (south of 45°S). Data from the GLODAP (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project) and CARINA databases were used. The CT0 method tries to reduce at least two of the main caveats attributed to the back-calculation methods: the need for a better definition of water mass mixing and, most importantly, the unsteady state of the air-sea CO2 disequilibrium (?Cdis) term. Water mass mixing was computed on the basis of results from an extended Optimum Multi-Parametric (eOMP) analysis applied to the main water masses of the SO. Recently published parameterizations were used to obtain more reliable values of ?Cdis and also of preformed alkalinity. The variability of the ?Cdis term (?Cdis) was approximated using results from an ocean carbon cycle model. Results from the CT0 method are compared with those from the ?C* method, the TrOCA method, and two different tracer-based approaches, the transit-time distribution (TTD) and Green’s function (GF) methods. We find that the TTD, GF and CT0 methods give very similar estimates for the SO’s inventory (with reference to the year 1994) of 30 ± 2, 22 ± 2, 29 ± 3 PgC, respectively. Importantly, Antarctic Bottom Water shows CANT concentrations of 9 ± 1, 3 ± 0.3, 6 ± 1 ?mol kg-1, contributing 6-12% of the SO’s inventory. The ?C* and TrOCA methods seem to underestimate and overestimate, respectively, both the total CANT inventory and CANT concentrations in deep and bottom layers. Results from the CT0 method suggest that deep and bottom layers of the water column in the SO contain, in general, low concentrations of CANT compared with subsurface and intermediate layers but higher than those recorded in the global databases. It is important to note that, as deep and bottom layers in the SO fill two of the most voluminous water masses of the global ocean, even these relatively low values of CANT can be of considerable importance when computing the inventories in the water column, mostly in the SO but also in outer regions where bottom waters spread.

Pardo, Paula C.; Pérez, F. F.; Khatiwala, S.; Ríos, A. F.

2014-01-01

281

Scaling and Parametric Studies of Condensation Oscillation in an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a multihole sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The thickness of the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Three key scaling parameters were identified and correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation: flow restriction coefficient, area ratio of discharge hole to steam cavity, and density ratio of water to steam. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multihole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger. The results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the in-containment refueling water storage tank for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400.

Lee, Jun Hyung [Korea Power Engineering Company (Korea, Republic of); No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2003-05-15

282

Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques.  

PubMed

The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2)) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. The trees used in this study spanned a broad range of height (13.5-58 m) and diameter (0.14-1.43 m). Sap flow was monitored continuously with heat dissipation probes near the base of the trunk prior to, during and following injection of D2O. The transit time for D2O transport from the base of the trunk to the upper crown and the tracer residence time were determined by measuring hydrogen isotope ratios in water extracted from leaves sampled at regular intervals. Transit times for arrival of D2O in the upper crown ranged from 2.5 to 21 d and residence times ranged from 36 to 79 d. Estimates of maximum sap velocity derived from tracer transit times and path length ranged from 2.4 to 5.4 m d(-1). Tracer residence time and half-life increased as tree diameter increased, independent of species. Species-independent scaling of tracer velocity with sapwood-specific conductivity was also observed. When data from this study were combined with similar data from an earlier study of four tropical angiosperm trees, species-independent scaling of tracer velocity and residence time with sapwood hydraulic capacitance was observed. Sapwood capacitance is an intrinsic tissue-level property that appears to govern whole-tree water transport in a similar manner among both tracheid- and vessel-bearing species. PMID:17086757

Meinzer, F C; Brooks, J R; Domec, J C; Gartner, B L; Warren, J M; Woodruff, D R; Bible, K; Shaw, D C

2006-01-01

283

Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

1980-12-01

284

Water storage tank for use in the fresh food compartment of a refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A water storage tank for use in the fresh food compartment of a refrigerator is described comprising: a serpentine shaped hollow body having parallel first, second, third, and fourth straight sections serially connected and having their lateral cross-sections polygons in shape. The first section has an inlet at the top end and the fourth section has an outlet at the top end. The first sections connected to the second section by a U-shaped curved section at the bottom end. The second and third sections connected at the top by a U-shaped curved section. The third and fourth sections connected at the bottom by a U-shaped curved section, the four straight sections connected at the top thereof by air flow passageways and the U-shaped curved sections having an internal curvature in the shape of a teardrop.

True, H.D.F.

1988-04-26

285

Terrestrial water storage response to the 2012 drought estimated from GPS vertical position anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

drought monitoring systems have not incorporated observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS). Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments can be used to estimate TWS variations in near real time because the solid Earth responds elastically to changes in hydrologic loading. Here GPS vertical position data, u, are used to assess the timing and duration of TWS anomalies in the High Plains caused by the 2012 drought; u indicates an initial TWS minimum in 2012, consistent with GRACE TWS, several months after the most severe meteorological forcing. Standard drought indices show recovery from drought during spring 2013. In contrast, u indicates that the TWS anomaly intensified by approximately 15% during summer 2013, an interval when no GRACE data are available. Hydrologic observations indicate that depletion of groundwater, not soil moisture, is the source of the persistent TWS anomaly. These results show that GPS data could be used to monitor drought-induced variations in TWS in near real time.

Chew, Clara C.; Small, Eric E.

2014-09-01

286

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

2009-07-22

287

Investigation of water-logged spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to determine the amount of moisture contained in breached, water-logged spent fuel rods and the rate of release. Two well-characterized BWR fuel rods with reactor-induced breaches were tested in a hot cell. These rods contained approximately 6 to 10 g of moisture, most of which was released during heating tests simulating normal cask drying operations. Additional testing with two intentionally defected fuel rods (BWR and PWR) was performed to evaluate the effect of the cladding breach on migration of moisture along the length of the fuel rod. The results showed that the moisture released from reactor-breached spent fuel rods was insufficient to cause degradation of fuel or dry storage system components.

Kohli, R.; Pasupathi, V.

1986-09-01

288

O R E G O N S T A T E U N I V E R S I T Y E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e WATER STORAGE FOR EMERGENCIES  

E-print Network

or soap.) o Option 2: Bring the water to a full rolling boil, boil one minute, and cool. Fill clean.25% sodium hypochlorite). Large clean pan with lid for boiling water Purification Procedure Filter water and cool to room temperature. Add 2 drops bleach per gallon if you will be storing the water. Store

Tullos, Desiree

289

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by integrating vertical water balance, lateral surface and subsurface kinematic wave routing, and channel plus floodplain diffusion wave routing models. The period of study is 2003 through 2008. The model forcing data are TRMM precipitation and MODIS air temperature, albedo, cloud cover and leaf area index. The HRR model parameters accounting for the thickness of the rooting zone layer, timing of the subsurface response to the channel network and speed of the flood wave are calibrated using the GRACE estimates of water storage change. The resulting model predictions are compared to corresponding streamflow data in the Amazon Basin and historical flow data in the Congo Basin. The results of this study quantify the predictive capabilities of a large scale hydrologic model driven primarily with Satellite data and without calibrating to in-situ streamflow data.

Beighley, R. E.; He, Y.; Ray, R. L.; Guo, J.; Shum, C.

2009-12-01

290

Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the saltwater in the Floridan aquifer system probably is connate or unflushed seawater from high stands of sea level. The principal use of the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida is for subsurface storage of liquid waste. The Boulder Zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer is extensively used as a receptacle for injected treated municipal wastewater, oil field brine, and, to a lesser extent, industrial wastewater. Pilot studies indicate a potential for cyclic storage of freshwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer in southern Florida.

Meyer, Frederick W.

1989-01-01

291

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of vehicles proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÃ?) standard for cars and trucks. In 2004, American cars needed to achieve an average fuel economy of 27.5 miles per gallon (MPG) while light trucks needed

Carriquiry, Alicia

292

Ground-water supplies in the Murfreesboro area, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water occurs in the Murfreesboro area in solution openings in the otherwise dense paleozoic limestones that underlie most of central Tennessee. Test drilling based on conceptual models of ground-water occurrence in carbonate-rock aquifers indicate that multimillion-gallon-per-day supplies could be developed from strategically located production wells in the Shiloh and Overall Creek localities. The Shiloh locality which encompasses an elongated synclinal depression in the bedrock has the potential to supply 5 to 8 million gallons per day. The Overall Creek locality which straddles a joint-oriented lineament has the potential to supply 3 to 6 million gallons per day. Some local springs could be used as a supplemental source of potable water, but storage facilities would be needed to offset poorly sustained flows during dry periods. An exception is Fox Camp Spring which appears to be a natural well. The quality of ground water in the Murfreesboro area is typically hard, moderately mineralized and moderately to highly alkaline. Although the shallowest aquifers are subject to bacterial contamination from the land surface, aquifers beneath a depth of 100 feet are prone to yield potable water. (Woodard-USGS)

Rima, Donald Robert; Moran, Mary S.; Woods, E. Jean

1977-01-01

293

Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

1982-01-01

294

Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

1979-01-01

295

Fate of organic matter during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) of reclaimed water in a carbonate aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the fate of injected organic matter and the consequences of subsequent redox processes is essential to assess the viability of using reclaimed water in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). A full-scale field trial was undertaken at Bolivar, South Australia where two ASR cycles injected approximately 3.6×105m3 of reclaimed water into a carbonate aquifer over a 3-a period. Organic C

J. L. Vanderzalm; C. Le Gal La Salle; P. J. Dillon

2006-01-01

296

Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, July 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume previously lost during August 1940 to January 1993. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2008 ranged from a decline of 23.41 feet to a rise of 3.58 feet. The change in storage volume in the study area from August 1940 to July 2008 was a decrease of about 134,000 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 121,000 acre-feet, or about 47 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2008 in the central part of the study area, where city pumpage occurs, was a decrease of about 71,200 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 82,800 acre-feet, or about 54 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993 in the central part of the study area. The recovery in the central part of the study area probably was greater and more consistently maintained than in the study area as a whole because city pumpage has remained less than pre-1993 levels, whereas agricultural irrigation pumpage has been as much or more than pre-1993 levels in some years.

Hansen, Cristi V.

2009-01-01

297

GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought in Texas  

E-print Network

GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought] Texas experienced the most extreme one-year drought on record in 2011 with precipitation at 40% of long-based drought indicator, independent of traditional drought indicators based on in situ monitoring. GRACE shows

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Axisymmetric simulation of aquifer storage and recovery with SEAWAT and the Sea Water Intrusion (SWI) Package for MODFLOW  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEAWAT and the Sea Water Intrusion (SWI) Package for MODFLOW were used to simulate hypothetical aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) scenarios under constant- and variable-density conditions. To test the codes, both models were used to represent two-dimensional axisymmetric groundwater flow near an ASR well. The models were \\

Christian Langevin; Michael Zygnerski

299

THE FLOW AND STORAGE OF WATER IN THE WETLAND-DOMINATED CENTRAL MACKENZIE RIVER BASIN: RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were initiated in 1999 at Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada in order to improve the understanding and model-representation of the major water flux and storage processes within a wetland-dominated region of the discontinuous permafrost zone. This paper contributes to this end by presenting selected results on: 1) the physical and hydraulic properties of the active layer soils in

W. L. Quinton; M. Hayashi

300

Annual and interannual variations in terrestrial water storage during and following a period of drought in South Carolina, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the rate of change in terrestrial water storage after a major drought. We use a technique for estimating TWS proposed in the climate science community. The approach was validated against independent groundwater level observations. The severity and timing of the drought is highly variable throughout the state. The technique may be useful for determining human impacts on hydrologic

Mirza M. Billah; Jonathan L. Goodall

2011-01-01

301

COST ESTIMATING MANUAL COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW STORAGE AND TREATMENT (EPA/600/2-76/286)  

EPA Science Inventory

Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenancerequirements are presented for combined sewer overflow treatment plants ranging from about 5 to 200 million gallons per day in capacity, and storage facilities ranging in size from I to 240 million gallon...

302

The pros and cons of retained gallons payout in the sale of fueloil business  

SciTech Connect

Historically many fueloil businesses have been sold with at least a portion of the payout tied to the future delivery of gallons to the customers of the seller. This concept is usually not present in the sales of most retail businesses because future purchases by transferred customers is dependent on pricing, promotion, location, reputation, branding and other factors. In the case of fueloil, the customer is known to have a loyalty to the fueloil dealer, which in part is due to the need for service rendered to the heating equipment in the home. Periodic studies indicate customer loyalty is in the range of 8 to 10 years with the same dealer. In many markets, growth in the percentage of consumer price buyers who pay cash may be changing these loyalties. For example, in New Hampshire a recent study by the state energy office indicates that the percentage of fuel buyers who buy for cash has increased from 27.5% during the 1982-1983 heating season to 41.5% this past year. No one knows how this trend will impact on the sales of fueloil businesses via retained gallons. This article discusses the following: why customer lists should not be considered good will; underlying assumptions in sale; options of the seller; why misunderstandings occur; defining the account; definition of gallons to be counted; compatibility of policies; how much will be retained; and how to protect yourself and retention.

Hall, W.H. (Acorn Consultants, Edgecomb, ME (USA))

1990-01-01

303

Effect of thermocycling and water storage on bond longevity of two self-etch adhesives.  

PubMed

Despite recent improvements in adhesive systems and their bond strength to enamel and dentin, the resin-tooth interface appears to be the weakest part of tooth-colored restorations; in addition, there are concerns regarding bond durability of self-etch adhesives (SEAs). This in vitro study investigated the bond durability of 2 such adhesives following thermocycling and water storage. Forty-eight intact human third molars were sectioned mesiodistally and mounted in acrylic resin so that buccal and lingual surfaces were positioned horizontally. All enamel and dentin surfaces were ground flat and polished on silicon carbide papers. Samples were separated into 2 groups (n = 24). A 1-step SEA was applied to one group, while a 2-step SEA was applied to the other, according to manufacturers' instructions. Half of the specimens in each group underwent shear bond strength (SBS) testing after 24 hours of incubation, while the other half were tested after 3000 thermal cycles and 6 months of water incubation. SBS data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, 1-way ANOVA, and a post hoc Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. Under the limitations of the present study, the 2-step SEA demonstrated higher baselines and aged bond strength to dental tissues compared to the 1-step SEA; in addition, the enamel bond strength of the 2-step SEA improved after aging. PMID:23649573

Khoroushi, Maryana; Rafiei, Elahe

2013-01-01

304

Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-10-01

305

The terrestrial water storage changes in the continental United States inferred from GRACE data and simulations from land surface models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gravity changes by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are used to infer the terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations in the continental United States (US) between 2003 and 2010. The inferred TWS variations from 2003 to 2006 show, significant, continued loss of terrestrial water spreading across the southeastern region of the US and increase of terrestrial water storage in most western region and some northwestern region. Such geographical pattern of the inferred change of terrestrial water storage correlates well with Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) changes in the same time periods. The TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data since 2004 to 2010 show water loss in south central region and western region of the US, respectively in 2005-2006 (mainly in the summer and autumn of 2005 and in the summer and winter of 2006) and through all seasons of 2007, and water gain in southwestern region, south central region, central and north central region, eastern region and southwestern region of the US, respectively in 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data exhibit similar geographic patterns to those simulated from Mosaic land surface model (LSM) and Noah LSM, but differences exist in some regions and the amplitudes of the TWS variations inferred from the GRACE data are smaller than those simulated from LSMs. We will discuss these differences and possible means the GRACE data can be used to improve the monitoring of TWS variations.

Yi, H.; Wen, L.

2012-12-01

306

Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2007 in the Amazon Basin2 from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level3  

E-print Network

2003-2007 of different hydrological parameters in28 the Amazon river basin: vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry29 mission, surface water level over the Amazon River and its storage from GRACE and31 in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries. We also

Boyer, Edmond

307

Heat transfer enhancement in water when used as PCM in thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and reliable storage systems for thermal energy are an important requirement in many applications where heat demand and supply or availability do not coincide. Heat and cold stores can basically be divided in two groups. In sensible heat stores the temperature of the storage material is increased significantly. Latent heat stores, on the contrary, use a storage material that

L. F. Cabeza; H. Mehling; S. Hiebler; F. Ziegler

2002-01-01

308

Statistical separation and forecast of water storage patterns over West Asia using GRACE data and climate indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that large parts of West Asia, specifically the arid Middle East region, exhibited a rapid loss of freshwater reserves during the past decade. A reliable estimation of large scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) changes and the ability of forecasting them, with respect to climate variability and change, are therefore essential for West Asia. This study first implemented a least squares inversion approach to separate the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived total water storage products over West Asia. Time series of separated terrestrial water and groundwater storage changes were then generated over the region, covering the period of 2003 to 2013. Forecasting scenarios were generated to predict TWS and GWS changes by applying low-degree autoregressive models which relate basin averaged TWS and GWS changes to input values of precipitation and evaporation as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation index as the remote controller of the region's climate. Dry, normal, and wet scenarios were designed to forecast West Asia's TWS and GWS variations over the period of 2013 to 2015. Our separated results over 2003 to 2013 indicated a decline in TWS and GW over the Middle East. A strong correlation was found between the NAO index and variability of water storage over West Asia, specifically during the period of 2005 to 2008. Dry forecasting scenarios indicated continuous GWS decline over the northwest part of Iran, entire Iraq and Syria, which have been already facing challenges of limited water resources. Key words: Forecsting GRACE-TWS; Groundwater; Signal Separation; Middle East

Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Schumacher, Maike; Anyah, Richard; Awange, Joseph; Mostafaie, Abdorrahman

2014-05-01

309

Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

2011-01-01

310

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01

311

GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought in Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Texas experienced the most extreme one-year drought on record in 2011 with precipitation at 40% of long-term mean and agricultural losses of $7.6 billion. We assess the value of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-derived total water storage (TWS) change as an alternative remote sensing-based drought indicator, independent of traditional drought indicators based on in situ monitoring. GRACE shows depletion in TWS of 62.3 ± 17.7 km3 during the 2011 drought. Large uncertainties in simulated soil moisture storage depletion (14-83 km3) from six land surface models indicate that GRACE TWS is a more reliable drought indicator than disaggregated soil moisture or groundwater storage. Groundwater use and groundwater level data indicate that depletion is dominated by changes in soil moisture storage, consistent with high correlation between GRACE TWS and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. GRACE provides a valuable tool for monitoring statewide water storage depletion, linking meteorological and hydrological droughts.

Long, Di; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Sun, Alexander Y.; Fernando, D. Nelun; Save, Himanshu

2013-07-01

312

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni in bottled purified drinking water under different storage conditions.  

PubMed

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni that were separately inoculated into bottled purified drinking water was investigated during storage at 22, 4, and -18 °C for 5, 7, and 2 days, respectively. Two inoculation levels were used, 1 and 10 CFU/ml (10(2) and 10(3) CFU/100 ml). In samples inoculated with 10(2) CFU/100 ml, C. jejuni was not detectable (>2-log reduction) after storage under the conditions specified above. E. coli O157:H7 was detected on nonselective and selective media at log reductions of 1.08 to 1.25 after storage at 22 °C, 1.19 to 1.56 after storage at 4 °C, and 1.54 to 1.98 after storage at -18 °C. When the higher inoculation level of 10(3) CFU/100 ml was used, C. jejuni was able to survive at 22 and 4 °C, with 2.25- and 2.17-log reductions, respectively, observed on nonselective media. At these higher inoculation levels, E. coli O157:H7 was detectable at 22, 4, and -18 °C, with log reductions of 0.76, 0.97, and 1.21, respectively, achieved on nonselective media. Additionally, E. coli O157:H7 showed significant differences in culturability (P<0.05) on the nonselective and selective culture media under the different storage conditions, with storage at -18 °C for 2 days being the treatment most inhibiting. The percentage of sublethal injury of E. coli O157:H7 ranged from ?33 to 75%, indicating that microbial examination of bottled water must be done carefully, otherwise false-negative results or underestimation of bacterial numbers could pose a health risk when low levels of pathogens are present. PMID:21333145

Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Lu, Xiaonan; Al-Alami, Nivin I; Rasco, Barbara A

2011-02-01

313

High resolution modelling of the seasonal evolution of surface water storage on the Greenland Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal meltwater lakes form when surface runoff gets trapped in topographic depressions on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The development of such lakes affects the surface energy balance (and hence the mass balance) of the ice sheet, (as the lower albedo of surface water increases radiation-driven melting), and the ice sheet dynamics, (as sudden drainage of such lakes has been linked to observed increases in ice velocity). The areal extent, the depth, and duration of lakes have been inferred in an increasing number of studies from satellite imagery of the ice sheet. Such observational studies suffer from the limited temporal availability of satellite imagery which means that not all lakes may be observed, and also cannot be used to forecasting purposes. Here, we adopt a different model-based strategy to estimate the seasonal evolution of surface water storage for a ~3600km2 area of the western Greenland Ice Sheet. Our approach combines a high resolution surface mass balance model (used to calculate surface melt) with a novel model for supraglacial water routing which calculates the time-dependent filling and draining of supraglacial lakes, using a water volume threshold to trigger lake drainage. The model shows very good agreement between modelled lake locations and volumes and those observed in 10 LANDSAT images from 2001, 2002 and 2005. We have used the model to investigate the water volume needed to trigger lake drainage events, and the impact that this threshold volume has on the proportion of melt which runs off the ice surface supraglacially, the proportion stored in lakes on the ice surface, and the proportion which enters the subglacial drainage system following lake drainage events. Model performance is maximised with lake volume thresholds set to between 4000 and 7500 times the local ice thickness. For these thresholds, lakes transiently store up to 40% of melt at the beginning of the melt season, but this decreases to ~5 to 10% by the middle of the melt season. Between 40 and 50% of meltwater runs off the surface of the ice directly, and the remainder (50 to 40%) enters the subglacial drainage system through the bottom of drained lakes.

Arnold, N. S.; Banwell, A. F.; Willis, I. C.

2013-12-01

314

Effect of Endodontic Irrigants on Microtensile Bond Strength to Dentin After Thermocycling and Long-Term Water Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective: The bond strength of adhesives in irrigated dentin behaves differently over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of long-term water storage and thermocycling on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin irrigated with endodontic solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human molars were used after removal of the occlusal portion and exposure of the dentin by grinding. The specimens were irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl for 30 minutes and then 17% EDTA for 5 minutes and assigned to six groups according to the adhesive system (n=10): G1 and G2–Clearfil SE Bond; G3 and G4–Single Bond 2; and G5 and G6–XP Bond. The teeth were restored with composite and were subjected to water storage for different time periods. G1, G3 and G5 were stored for 24 h; G2, G4 and G6 were stored for 6 months and were subjected to thermocycling (12,000 cycles, 5°C to 55°C, 500 cycles per week for 6 months). After storage, the tooth/restoration assembly was sectioned to obtain four sticks of approximately 1 mm2, for microtensile bond strength testing. The results were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Significant differences were observed among the adhesives (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the microtensile bond strength between samples after 24 hours of storage without thermocycling and after 6-month storage with 12,000 cycles (p<0.05). Conclusion: The bond strengths of G5 and G6 after irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were significantly different from those of other groups. Long-term water storage/thermocycling had no effect on bond strength to dentin. PMID:24910650

Galafassi, Daniel; Colucci, Vivian; Cecchin, Doglas; Scatena, Camila; Nascimento, Telma N.; Corona, Silmara A. M.

2013-01-01

315

The Changing Nature of Water Storage in the Great Lakes Basin and its Implications for Future Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Home to approximately 40 million people in the United States and Canada, the Great Lakes drainage basin is a tremendous freshwater resource. It is, however, undergoing significant changes both in land use and climate. It has suffered from substantial deforestation in the last century and the continued drainage of wetlands. Reforestation, urbanization and increased demand for agricultural production on less land are all changing the face of the region. Climate is also changing with warmer, wetter winters changing the accumulation of snow and the formation of lake and soil ice. When land use and climate are relatively consistent between years, the storage of water in and on the land surface can be neglected for inter-annual analysis of the regional water balance, however, given the observed and projected future changes to the region it is clear that representing changes in storage will be critical for understanding how hydrology in the region will respond. As nearly half of the freshwater supply to the Great Lakes is in the form of land surface runoff, changes in the volume and timing of water storage within the drainage basin is a critical factor in the future health and sustainability of their ecosystem. Unlike air temperature and precipitation which are fairly well known in the region, many of these storage variables are known at only a handful of locations if they are monitored at all. Therefore, hydrology model become indispensable tools when trying to quantify changes in storage. For this presentation, observed and simulated datasets are used to identify and quantify changes in the timing and quantity of storage within the Great Lakes region due to changes in land use and climate. Storage terms that will be evaluated include soil moisture and ice, snow cover, groundwater, and inland lake and wetland storage. Warmer winters are reducing snow cover, which can lead to the formation of more soil ice and wetter spring soils for a time, though increasing temperatures will get warm enough to reduce the formation of soil ice as well. Wetter and warmer conditions in the winter and spring can lead to earlier spring runoff, though the presence of lake and wetland storage can mitigate this effect. Wetlands and lakes increase infiltration and the potential for groundwater recharge, while the expansion of urban impervious area reduces infiltration and recharge.

Cherkauer, K. A.

2012-12-01

316

Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions.

Lopez, O.; Stenchikov, G.; Missimer, T. M.

2014-07-01

317

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

1978-01-01

318

SAR interferometry, water balance measurements, and clay shrinkage to estimate soil water storage change from the field to the catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar interferometry (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique capable of measuring subtle surface elevation changes of large areas, with high spatial resolution. The technique is well established for applications like tectonic and volcanic induced deformation monitoring. Apart from a few studies using InSAR to quantify aquifer storage coefficients and hydraulic heads from land subsidence and some attempts to monitor open water level changes, applications in hydrology are virtually absent. Satellite radar (SAR) data of a study area, as used for InSAR, are generally acquired weekly to monthly, with a high spatial resolution (several tens of meters). The relatively high resolution (compared to many other remote sensing data) and the spatial extent, allow for detailed monitoring of hydrological variables. Using combinations of acquisitions of these data interferometrically may potentially be capable of measuring temporary surface elevation changes brought about by the swelling or shrinkage of clay. In unsaturated zone hydrology it has long been recognized that the soil shrinkage curve links elevation changes from clay dynamics to soil water storage changes. Therefore, satellite based radar interferometry can potentially offer an alternative methodology to estimate soil water storage change at field or regional scales. This study aims at investigating the possibilities and limitations of InSAR for soil water storage change estimations in clay areas. To do so, a novel combination of traditional and modern field measurements of water balance terms and TerraSAR-X data has been exploited. Measurements of soil water storage change and surface elevation change revealed in situ shrinkage curves with slopes close to 1, indicating normal shrinkage where soil water storage change approximates soil volume change. InSAR measurements revealed differences between different soil and land use types. Therefore care has to be taken in selecting areas subjected to InSAR analysis. We show that if this is done adequately, the InSAR observations correlate well with in situ measured soil surface elevation changes from clay shrinkage in a period of soil water depletion. Based on these results, the potential of the combination of high resolution SAR data and clay soil characterization in terms of the shrinkage curve for up-scaling from point scale in situ measurements to field and catchments scale remote sensing observations is evident. The values of SAR data for this application is expected to increase further with the upcoming Sentinel-1 SAR data which will provide SAR data every 6 days.

te Brake, Bram; van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit; Hanssen, Ramon

2013-04-01

319

Seasonal Water Storage Variations as Impacted by Water Abstractions: Comparing the Output of a Global Hydrological Model with GRACE and GPS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better quantification of continental water storage variations is expected to improve our understanding of water flows, including evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge as well as human water abstractions. For the first time, total water storage (TWS) on the land area of the globe as computed by the global water model WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) was compared to both gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. The GRACE satellites sense the effect of TWS on the dynamic gravity field of the Earth. GPS reference points are displaced due to crustal deformation caused by time-varying TWS. Unfortunately, the worldwide coverage of the GPS tracking network is irregular, while GRACE provides global coverage albeit with low spatial resolution. Detrended TWS time series were analyzed by determining scaling factors for mean annual amplitude ( f GRACE) and time series of monthly TWS ( f GPS). Both GRACE and GPS indicate that WaterGAP underestimates seasonal variations of TWS on most of the land area of the globe. In addition, seasonal maximum TWS occurs 1 month earlier according to WaterGAP than according to GRACE on most land areas. While WaterGAP TWS is sensitive to the applied climate input data, none of the two data sets result in a clearly better fit to the observations. Due to the low number of GPS sites, GPS observations are less useful for validating global hydrological models than GRACE observations, but they serve to support the validity of GRACE TWS as observational target for hydrological modeling. For unknown reasons, WaterGAP appears to fit better to GPS than to GRACE. Both GPS and GRACE data, however, are rather uncertain due to a number of reasons, in particular in dry regions. It is not possible to benefit from either GPS or GRACE observations to monitor and quantify human water abstractions if only detrended (seasonal) TWS variations are considered. Regarding GRACE, this is mainly caused by the attenuation of the TWS differences between water abstraction variants due to the filtering required for GRACE TWS. Regarding GPS, station density is too low. Only if water abstractions lead to long-term changes in TWS by depletion or restoration of water storage in groundwater or large surface water bodies, GRACE may be used to support the quantification of human water abstractions.

Döll, Petra; Fritsche, Mathias; Eicker, Annette; Müller Schmied, Hannes

2014-11-01

320

Effect of water content and temperature on seed longevity of seven Brassicaceae species after 5 years of storage.  

PubMed

Maximising seed longevity is crucial for genetic resource preservation and longevity of orthodox seeds is determined by environmental conditions (water content and temperature). The effect of water content (down to 0.01 g·H2 O·g(-1) ) on seed viability was studied at different temperatures for a 5-year storage period in taxonomically related species. Seeds of seven Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Eruca vesicaria, Malcolmia littorea, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium runcinatum) were stored at 48 environments comprising a combination of eight water contents, from 0.21 to 0.01 g·H2 O·g(-1) DW and six temperatures (45, 35, 20, 5, -25, -170 °C). Survival curves were modelled and P50 calculated for those conditions where germination was reduced over the 5-year assay period. Critical water content for storage of seeds of six species at 45 °C ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 g·H2 O·g(-1) . The effect of extreme desiccation at 45 °C showed variability among species: three species showed damaging effects of drying below the critical water content, while for three species it was neither detrimental nor beneficial to seed longevity. Lipid content could be related to longevity, depending on the storage conditions. A variable seed longevity response to water content among taxonomically related species was found. The relative position of some of the species as long- or short-lived at 45 °C varied depending on the humidity at which storage behaviour was evaluated. Therefore, predictions of survival under desiccated conditions based on results obtained at high humidity might be problematic for some species. PMID:24804799

Mira, S; Estrelles, E; González-Benito, M E

2015-01-01

321

Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

322

The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

2012-12-01

323

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

1980-01-01

324

Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

Not Available

1980-04-01

325

Effects of water source, dilution, storage, and bacterial and fecal loads on the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for the control of Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential of using electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in water for livestock, the effects of water source, electrolyte concentration, dilution, storage conditions, and bacterial or fecal load on the oxidative reduction potential (ORP) and bactericidal activity of EO water were investigated. Anode and combined (7:3 anode:cathode, vol/vol) EO waters reduced the pH and increased the ORP of deionized water, whereas cathode EO water increased pH and lowered ORP. Minimum concentrations (vol/vol) of anode and combined EO waters required to kill 10(4) CFU/ml planktonic suspensions of E. coli O157:H7 strain H4420 were 0.5 and 2.0%, respectively. Cathode EO water did not inhibit H4420 at concentrations up to 16% (vol/vol). Higher concentrations of anode or combined EO water were required to elevate the ORP of irrigation or chlorinated tap water compared with that of deionized water. Addition of feces to EO water products (0.5% anode or 2.0% combined, vol/vol) significantly reduced (P < 0.001) their ORP values to < 700 mV in all water types. A relationship between ORP and bactericidal activity of EO water was observed. The dilute EO waters retained the capacity to eliminate a 10(4) CFU/ml inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 H4420 for at least 70 h regardless of exposure to UV light or storage temperature (4 versus 24 degrees C). At 95 h and beyond, UV exposure reduced ORP, significantly more so (P < 0.05) in open than in closed containers. Bactericidal activity of EO products (anode or combined) was lost in samples in which ORP value had fallen to < or = 848 mV. When stored in the dark, the diluted EO waters retained an ORP of > 848 mV and bactericidal efficacy for at least 125 h; with refrigeration (4 degrees C), these conditions were retained for at least 180 h. Results suggest that EO water may be an effective means by which to control E. coli O157:H7 in livestock water with low organic matter content. PMID:15270489

Stevenson, S M L; Cook, S R; Bach, S J; McAllister, T A

2004-07-01

326

Measurements of Water and B4C Content of Rackable Can Storage Boxes for HEU Storage at the HEUMF at the Y-12 National Security Complex  

SciTech Connect

Extensive measurements at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with BoroBond{trademark} blocks of varying thickness, natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) content, and water content, and with a simplified mockup of the Rackable Can Storage Box (RCSB) of fixed natural B{sub 4}C and water content, have led to a method of quantifying the water content of RCSBs by fast neutron time-of-flight transmission measurements (NMIS)* and quantifying the B{sub 4}C content with gamma ray spectrometry assuming the water content is known. The time-of-flight transmission measurements results can also be used to assess the uniformity of the BoroBond{trademark} in the RCSB. The data from both measurements will be stored for future comparisons to initial measurements. These methods can also be implemented at the RCSB production site, or subsequently at the Y-12 National Security Complex during the operating lifetime of the RCSBs at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility.

Neal, JS

2003-03-24

327

27 CFR 1.71 - Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled...

2010-04-01

328

A tantalum nitride photoanode modified with a hole-storage layer for highly stable solar water splitting.  

PubMed

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is an ideal approach for renewable solar fuel production. One of the major problems is that narrow bandgap semiconductors, such as tantalum nitride, though possessing desirable band alignment for water splitting, suffer from poor photostability for water oxidation. For the first time it is shown that the presence of a ferrihydrite layer permits sustainable water oxidation at the tantalum nitride photoanode for at least 6?h with a benchmark photocurrent over 5?mA?cm(-2) , whereas the bare photoanode rapidly degrades within minutes. The remarkably enhanced photostability stems from the ferrihydrite, which acts as a hole-storage layer. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that it can be a general strategy for protecting narrow bandgap semiconductors against photocorrosion in solar water splitting. PMID:24890044

Liu, Guiji; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Fuxiang; Chen, Zheng; Han, Jingfeng; Ding, Chunmei; Chen, Shanshan; Wang, Zhiliang; Han, Hongxian; Li, Can

2014-07-01

329

Estimating long-term changes in actual evapotranspiration and water storage using a one-parameter model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimations of long-term regional trends in evapotranspiration (E) and water storage are key to our understanding of hydrology in a changing environment. Yet they are difficult to make due to the lack of long-term measurements of these quantities. Here we use a simple one-parameter model in conjunction with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to estimate long-term E and storage trends in the Missouri River Basin. We find that E has increased in the river basin over the period 1929-2012, consistent with other studies that have suggested increases in E with a warming climate. The increase in E appears to be driven by an increase in precipitation and water storage because potential E has not changed substantially. The simplicity of the method and its minimal data requirements provide a transparent approach to assessing long-term changes in hydrological fluxes and storages, and may be applicable to regions where meteorological and hydrological data are scarce.

Sharma, Asha N.; Walter, M. Todd

2014-11-01

330

Simulated effects of impoundment of lake seminole on ground-water flow in the upper Floridan Aquifer in southwestern Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic implications of the impoundment of Lake Seminole in southwest Georgia and its effect on components of the surface- and ground-water flow systems of the lower Apalachicola?Chattahoochee?Flint (ACF) River Basin were investigated using a ground-water model. Comparison of simulation results of postimpoundment drought conditions (October 1986) with results of hypothetical preimpoundment conditions (a similar drought prior to 1955) provides a qualitative measure of the changes in hydraulic head and ground-water flow to and from streams and Lake Seminole, and across State lines caused by the impoundment. Based on the simulation results, the impoundment of Lake Seminole changed ground-water flow directions within about 20?30 miles of the lake, reducing the amount of ground water flowing from Florida to Georgia southeast of the lake. Ground-water storage was increased by the impoundment, as indicated by a simulated increase of as much as 26 feet in the water level in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The impoundment of Lake Seminole caused changes to simulated components of the ground-water budget, including reduced discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer to streams (315 million gallons per day); reduced recharge from or increased discharge to regional ground-water flow at external model boundaries (totaling 183 million gallons per day); and reduced recharge from or increased discharge to the undifferentiated overburden (totaling 129 million gallons per day).

Jones, L. Elliott; Torak, Lynn J.

2004-01-01

331

Multivariate Prediction of Total Water Storage Changes Over West Africa from Multi-Satellite Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West African countries have been exposed to changes in rainfall patterns over the last decades, including a significant negative trend. This causes adverse effects on water resources of the region, for instance, reduced freshwater availability. Assessing and predicting large-scale total water storage (TWS) variations are necessary for West Africa, due to its environmental, social, and economical impacts. Hydrological models, however, may perform poorly over West Africa due to data scarcity. This study describes a new statistical, data-driven approach for predicting West African TWS changes from (past) gravity data obtained from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE), and (concurrent) rainfall data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) and sea surface temperature (SST) data over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The proposed method, therefore, capitalizes on the availability of remotely sensed observations for predicting monthly TWS, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for measuring regional energy balance, as well as for agricultural, and water resource management. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified using independent component analysis and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework. After a learning phase of 72 months, our approach predicted TWS from rainfall and SST data alone that fitted to the observed GRACE-TWS better than that from a global hydrological model. Our results indicated a fit of 79 % and 67 % for the first-year prediction of the two dominant annual and inter-annual modes of TWS variations. This fit reduces to 62 % and 57 % for the second year of projection. The proposed approach, therefore, represents strong potential to predict the TWS over West Africa up to 2 years. It also has the potential to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of 1 month about each 162 days as well as a—hopefully—limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE follow-on mission over West Africa. The method presented could also be used to generate a near-real-time GRACE forecast over the regions that exhibit strong teleconnections.

Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Loth, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Awange, Joseph; Longuevergne, Laurent; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, C. K.

2014-07-01

332

Vegetation and soil water interactions on a tailings sand storage facility in the athabasca oil sands region of Alberta Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between vegetation and soil water was studied on the Syncrude South West Sand Storage facility in the Athabasca Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. Soil water and relevant soil chemical and physical properties were measured at the soil surface, as well as above and below the reclamation soil and tailings sand interface, in areas of low and high vegetation cover. The interface between the reclamation soil and the tailings sand acted as a capillary barrier. Water content was highest under low vegetation cover but soil water conditions above field capacity were rare and unlikely to have impacted vegetation. Periods of water stress occurred, where volumetric water content was below wilting point; these periods were of short duration and generally typical of ecosystems in the study area. Differences in surface soil water between the two vegetation covers were attributed to evapotranspiration and/or canopy interception. Differences above and below the interface were attributed to variation in canopy cover at the surface and resulting quantities of water available for percolation through the soil profiles. At the interface of the reclamation soil and tailings sand, water movement was restricted. High and low canopy covers responded differently to precipitation events; low vegetation cover areas had greater fluctuations in volumetric water content at all depths. The occurrence of a capillary barrier effect will need to be accounted for in developing reclamation soil profiles.

Naeth, M. A.; Chanasyk, D. S.; Burgers, T. D.

333

Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2009, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and change in water in storage, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area. This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from the time before substantial groundwater irrigation development had occurred (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this report) to 2009, from 2007-08, and from 2008-09. The report also presents change in water in storage in the aquifer, from predevelopment to 2009. Ninety-nine percent of the water-level changes from predevelopment to 2009 ranged from a rise of 41 feet to a decline of 178 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were a decline of 14.0 feet from predevelopment to 2009, a decline of 0.1 foot from 2007-08, and a decline of 0.3 foot from 2008-09. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2009 was about 2.9 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 274 million acre-feet since predevelopment.

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

334

Environmental Health in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Use of Water Storage Containers, Water Quality, and Community Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality and availability are important issues in many developing countries where portions of populations still lack access to potable water. Throughout the English-speaking Caribbean and parts of Latin America, households and businesses invest in water supply systems even when they are connected to and pay for water services from a private or state owned provider. Inconsistent supplies of water

Erlande Omisca

2011-01-01

335

Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.  

PubMed

The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750?mW?cm(-2) at 750?°C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2?h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons. PMID:24798121

Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

2014-06-01

336

Effects of increasing forest plantation area and management practices on carbon storage and water use in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planted forest area in the United States gradually increased during the last half century, and by 2007 accounted for about 20% of the total forest area in the southern United States and about 13% in the entire country. Intensive plantation management activities - such as slash burning, thinning, weed control, fertilization and the use of genetically improved seedlings - are routinely applied during the forest rotation. However, no comprehensive assessments have been made to examine the impacts of this increased forest plantation area and associated management practices on ecosystem function. In this study, we integrated field measurement data and process-based modeling to quantitatively estimate the changes in carbon storage, nitrogen cycling and water use as influenced by forest plantations in the United States from 1925 to 2007. The results indicated that forest plantations and management practices greatly increased forest productivity, vegetation carbon, and wood product carbon storage in the United States, but slightly reduce soil carbon storage at some areas; however, the carbon sink induced by forest plantations was at the expense of more water use as represented by higher evapotranspiration. Stronger nitrogen and water limitations were found for forest plantations as compared to natural or naturally-regenerated forests.

Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.; Tian, H.

2013-12-01

337

Effects of tea polyphenol coating combined with ozone water washing on the storage quality of black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus).  

PubMed

The present research evaluated the effects of tea polyphenol (TP) combined with ozone water (O(3)) on the quality of black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus) over a period of 15 days storage at 4°C. A solution of TP (0.2%, w/v) was used to coat the fish after washing with ozone water (1mg/L). Fish physicochemical (pH, K value, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, texture, and colour), sensory, and bacteriological characteristics were all analysed. TP+O(3) treatment effectively reduced nucleotide breakdown, lipid oxidation, protein decomposition, and microbial growth, and maintained better characteristics of texture, colour, and sensory compared with the control. The efficiency of TP+O(3) treatment was also better than that of TP treatment or O(3) treatment alone. Therefore, tea polyphenol coating combined with ozone water prewashing may be a promising method of maintaining the storage quality of black sea bream and of extending fish post-mortem shelf-life during 4°C storage. PMID:22980890

Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia; Wang, Yanbo; Li, Jianrong

2012-12-15

338

Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers` desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

1991-12-31

339

Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers' desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

1991-01-01

340

The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the recent results on the maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle from the high pressure experimental point of view.

Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

2012-12-01

341

Availability of ground water in the lower Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Pawcatuck River basin in southwestern Rhode Island is an area of about 169 square miles underlain by crystalline bedrock over which lies a relatively thin mantle of glacial till and stratified drift. Stratified drift, consisting dominantly of sand and gravel, occurs in irregularly shaped linear deposits that are generally less than a mile wide and less than 125 feet thick; these deposits are found along the Pawcatuck River, its tributaries, and abandoned preglacial channels. Deposits of stratified sand and gravel constitute the principal aquifer in the lower Pawcatuck basin and the only one capable of sustaining yields of 100 gallons per minute or more to individual wells. Water available for development in this aquifer consists of water in storage--potential ground-water runoff to streams--plus infiltration that can be induced from streams. Minimum annual ground-water runoff from the sand and gravel aquifer is calculated to be at least 1.17 cubic feet per second per square mile, or 0.76 million gallons per day per square mile. Potential recharge by induced infiltration is estimated to range from about 250 to 600 gallons per day per linear foot of streambed for the principal streams. In most areas, induced infiltration from streams constitutes the major source of water potentially available for development by wells. Because subsurface hydraulic connection in the sand and gravel aquifer is poor in several places, the deposits are conveniently divisible into several ground-water reservoirs. The potential yield from five of the most promising ground-water reservoirs is evaluated by means of mathematical models. Results indicate that continuous withdrawals ranging from 1.3 to 10.3 million gallons per day, and totaling 31 million gallons per day, are obtainable from these reservoirs. Larger yields may be recovered by different well placement, spacing, construction and development, pumping practice, and so forth. Withdrawals at the rates indicated will reduce streamflow downstream from pumping centers but generally will not result in streams going dry, provided the water is returned to the basin. Export of water from the basin will require careful consideration of the effects of such withdrawals on low streamflow. Export from the Pawcatuck basin of 27 million gallons per day, estimated to be available from ground-water reservoirs in the upper Pawcatuck basin, in addition to 37.5 million gallons per day available in the lower Pawcatuck basin, will markedly reduce low streamflow. The 90-percent duration flow of the Pawcatuck River at Westerly would be reduced from 75 million gallons per day to perhaps as little as 21 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of water from both the sand and gravel aquifer and associated streams is suitable for most purposes. The water is soft, slightly acidic, and typically has a dissolved-solids content of less than 75 milligrams per liter. Some treatment may be required locally for removal of iron and manganese to meet recommended standards of the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water.

Gonthier, Joseph B.; Johnston, Herbert E.; Malmberg, Glenn T.

1974-01-01

342

Dynamics of Depletion and Replenishment of Water Storage in Stem and Roots of Black Spruce Measured by Dendrometers  

PubMed Central

In the short term, trees rely on the internal storage of water because it affects their ability to sustain photosynthesis and growth. However, water is not rapidly available for transpiration from all the compartments of the plant and the living tissues of the stem act as a buffer to preclude low water potentials during peaks of transpiration. In this paper, electronic dendrometers were used from mid-June to mid-September 2008 to compare the radius variations in stem and roots of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] in two sites of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada, with different soil characteristics and water retention. The duration of the daily cycles was similar between sites and measurement heights but greater amplitudes of contraction and expansion were observed on the stem and in the site with the shallowest soil organic layer. The expansion phase had higher amplitudes and lasted longer than contraction. On average, the contraction phase occurred between 07:00 and 16:30 (legal time), while expansion lasted 14.5?h. The roots in the site with the deepest organic layer showed a wider variation in the onset of contraction, which could be as late as 13:00. The probability of observing the contraction phase depended on precipitation. With a precipitation <0.5?mm?h?1, the bivariate posterior probabilities estimated >60% probability of observing contraction between 05:00 and 21:00, decreasing to 20% with precipitation >1.1?mm?h?1. These findings demonstrated that the depth of the organic layer plays an important role in maintaining the internal water reserve of trees. The dynamics of water depletion and replenishment can modify the water potential of xylem and cell turgor during the enlargement phase, thus affecting radial growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation regime could influence the dynamics of internal water storage in trees growing on shallower and drier soils. PMID:22639583

Turcotte, Audrey; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert

2011-01-01

343

Water-level changes and change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2013 and 2011-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2013, by well, ranged from a rise of 85 feet to a decline of 256 feet. Water-level changes from 2011 to 2013, by well, ranged from a rise of 19 feet to a decline of 44 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.4 feet from predevelopment to 2013, and a decline of 2.1 feet from 2011 to 2013. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2013 was about 2.92 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 266.7 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 36.0 million acre-feet from 2011 to 2013.

McGuire, Virginia L.

2014-01-01

344

Development of a Procedure for the Predictive Control Strategy of a Chilled Water Storage System  

E-print Network

Thermal energy storage systems store the thermal energy produced by the chiller plant in periods of off-peak electrical demand or when cheaper electricity is available. The stored thermal energy is then withdrawn from the reservoir to satisfy...

Wei, G.; Sakuri, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01

345

Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Water in Federal Projects: Elephant Butte Irrigahon District, Dona Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico  

E-print Network

TR- 121 1982 Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Water in Federal Projects: Elephant Butte Irrigation District, Dona Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico J.R. Ellis P.W. Teague R.D. Lacewell...

Ellis, J. R.; Teague, P. W.; Lacewell, R. D.

346

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01

347

Trace metals in water samples: minimising contamination during sampling and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling, storage and analytical techniques are described for a pilot study on Antarctic freshwaters. The study was aimed\\u000a at assessing the level of inorganic (mostly trace metals), anthropogenic contamination in freshwater lake systems in a relatively\\u000a densely populated area of Antarctica. Among the different types of material tested for sample storage, Teflon® is the cleanest\\u000a (lowest blanks), easiest to prepare,

Massimo Gasparon

1998-01-01

348

Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).  

PubMed

Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia). PMID:23428557

Aziz, Faissal; Mandi, Laila; Boussaid, Abdellatif; Boraam, Fatima; Ouazzani, Naaila

2013-03-01

349

Effect of Chitin Isolated from Crustaceans and Cephalopods on Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein and the State of Water during Frozen Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the point of view of utilization of shells as a waste product of fishery industry, the cryoprotective effect of chitin made from shell of crustaceans (Japanese fan lobster and Japanese swimming crab) and cartilage of cephalopods (spear squid) are studied. Chitin from the shells and cartilage were added to lizard fish myofibrils, and the changes of unfrozen water in myofibrils and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein were observed during frozen storage at -250°C for 120days. The amount of unfrozen water were increased by addition of three kinds of chitin, and decreased moderately during forzen storage. Whereas, in the chitin free sample, the amount of unfrozen water were decreased rapidly during frozen storage. Changes of ATPase activity of samples showed similar tendency to that of the amount of unfrozen water. The present moderate cryoprotective effect of chitin and data of unfrozen water and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein suggest the importance of the amount of unfrozen water in frozen matrix.

Arredondo Romero, Eduardo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashita, Yasumitsu; Ichikawa, Hisashi; Goto, Shingi; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Nozaki, Yukinori

350

Biosand filtration of high turbidity water : modified filter design and safe filtrate storage  

E-print Network

Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of water-related diseases that predominantly affect people living in developing countries. The most prevalent water-related disease is diarrhea, estimated to kill 1.8 million children ...

Collin, Clair

2009-01-01

351

Evaluation of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) alternatives in Ghana  

E-print Network

Ghana's water quality and sanitation condition are very poor. Pure Home Water (PHW), a local non-profit organization has been successfully improving the supply of safe drinking water in the northern region by producing and ...

Wong, TengKe

2014-01-01

352

Safe water storage in Kenya's modified clay pot : standardization, tap design, and cost recovery  

E-print Network

One of the main components necessary for providing safe drinking water for users who lack piped water in the home is the ability to safely store it in the home. Users in the Nyanza Province of Kenya frequently carry water ...

Young, Suzanne E

2005-01-01

353

Biofuel impacts on water.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

2011-01-01

354

Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns  

PubMed Central

Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001) and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). Conclusion The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties. PMID:25141200

de MENDONÇA, Luana Menezes; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; LANZA, Marcos Daniel Septímio; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

2014-01-01

355

Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California  

SciTech Connect

The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

None

1980-07-01

356

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage System [OCRWM PER REV2  

SciTech Connect

As part of the decommissioning of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells there is a need to remove commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presently stored in these hot cells. To enable fuel removal from the hot cells, the commercial LWR SNF will be packaged and shipped to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) in a manner that satisfies site requirements for SNF interim storage. This document identifies the criteria that the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cell Clean-out Project must satisfy for acceptance of the LWR SNF by the SNF Project at the 200 Area ISA. In addition to the acceptance criteria identified herein, acceptance is contingent on adherence to applicable Project Hanford Management Contract requirements and procedures in place at the time of work execution.

JOHNSON, D.M.

2000-12-20

357

Characterization of vegetative storage protein (VSP) and low molecular proteins induced by water deficit in stolon of white clover.  

PubMed

In stolon of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), the 17.3 kDa protein has been newly identified as a vegetative storage protein (VSP) which has preponderant roles in N accumulation and mobilization to sustain growth when capacity of N uptake is strongly reduced. To characterize the water deficit effect on this protein, the kinetic pattern of soluble protein, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and proteomic analysis was studied in the stolon of white clover during 28 days of water-deficit. Water deficit led to decrease protein concentration. SDS-PAGE revealed that two major proteins of 17.3 and 16 kDa were accumulated to high level in response to water stress. These proteins cross-reacted positively with antibodies raised against the 17.3 kDa VSP, a protein which shared biochemical features with stress proteins implied in dehydration tolerance. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis, it was demonstrated that 19.5 and 17.3 kDa protein spots were up-regulated by water stress, and both spots were identical to nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), respectively. These results suggest that low molecular proteins induced by water-deficit in the stolon of white clover act as an alternative N reserves or play significant roles in plant protection against water-deficit stress. PMID:24299955

Lee, Bok-Rye; Lee, Dong-Gi; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Kim, Tae-Hwan

2014-01-01

358

Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their criticality safety prior to their deployment and implementation.

Chou, P

2011-12-14

359

Effect of water storage on microtensile bond strength of a two-step self-etch adhesive and a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of 24 h (1d) and one-year (1yr) water storage on the microtensile dentin bond strength of a two-step total-etch and a two-step self-etch adhesive system. Ten extracted human third molars were sectioned perpendicularly to their long axis to expose flat occlusal dentin surfaces. Teeth were divided into two groups (n=5) according to the adhesive used: a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2) and two-step self-etching adhesive (Adper Scotchbond SE). Composite resin (Z350) build-ups were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. Specimens were sectioned into sticks (cross-sectional mean area 0.8 mm2) and after 1d and 1yr of storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C, the sticks were stressed to failure by microtensile test (1 mm/min). Interfacial observation of silver nanoleakage was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferronis test (p = 0.05). SB2 showed the highest bond strength values after 1d of water storage. After 1yr, SB2 values significantly decreased and were similar to ASE, independently of water storage period. Both adhesives, independently of storage time, showed silver nitrate uptake within the hybrid layer and the adhesive layer One-year of water storage only affected the bond strength of the two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. PMID:23230638

Mendez, Juan C; Pabon, Gloria E; Hilgenberg, Sergio P; Garcia, Eugenio J; Arana-Correa, Beatriz

2012-01-01

360

Water Supply at Los Alamos during 1997  

SciTech Connect

Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1997 totaled about 1,285.9 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1997. About 2.4 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used to irrigate public parks and recreational lands. The total water usage in 1997 was about 1,288.3 million gallons, or about 135 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was down about 82.2 million gallons in 1997 compared with the pumpage in 1996. Four new replacement wells were drilled and cased in Guaje Canyon between October 1997 and March 1998. These wells are currently being developed and aquifer tests are being performed. A special report summarizing the geological, geophysical, and well construction logs will be issued in the near future for these new wells.

M. N. Maes; S. G. McLin; W. D. Purtymun

1998-12-01

361

The possibility of fitting a pumped storage plant within the complex water development on upper Barzava, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper aims to explore the possibility of developing a Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant (PSHPP) within an existing complex hydro system on upper Barzava, by employing the given hydro potential of the accomplished water development. The present study analyses the hydropower parameters of a proposed Gozna-Semenic PSHPP, the power station looking to employ the existing Gozna water reservoir of a functional volume Vf = 10.0 mill.c.m. The plant assumes also to accomplish some new works: an upper reservoir - Semenic, the headrace, the press water conduits, the tailrace etc. The specific elements of the proposed solution are fitted in the general scheme of the complex water development, in special relation to Gozna reservoir for which the water level variation is analyzed with respect to PSHPP running in closed circuit with a reversibility coefficient aof 0.7. The study looks also to form a technical base for the special operations at local level, specifically to the upper Barzava region, with a special interest in improving the integrate water employment in hydropower as an objective of the national and European general strategy and directives for the following decades.

Constantin, A. T.; David, I.; Chebutiu, A.; Nicoar?, ?. V.; Vi?escu, M.

2010-08-01

362

Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy.  

PubMed Central

A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households had 44% fewer diarrhoea episodes than control households (P = 0.002). Infants < 1 year old (P = 0.05) and children 5-14 years old (P = 0.01) in intervention households had significantly less diarrhoea than control children. Campylobacter was less commonly isolated from intervention than control patients (P = 0.02). Stored water in intervention households was less contaminated with Escherichia coli than stored water in control households (P < 0.0001). Intervention households exhibited less E. coli contamination of stored water and less diarrhoea than control households. This promising new strategy may have broad applicability for waterborne disease prevention. PMID:10098789

Quick, R. E.; Venczel, L. V.; Mintz, E. D.; Soleto, L.; Aparicio, J.; Gironaz, M.; Hutwagner, L.; Greene, K.; Bopp, C.; Maloney, K.; Chavez, D.; Sobsey, M.; Tauxe, R. V.

1999-01-01

363

Expression of Two Soybean Vegetative Storage Protein Genes during Development and in Response to Water Deficit, Wounding, and Jasmonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of vspA and vspB genes encoding soybean vegetative storage proteins was studied during seedling development and in response to water deficit, tissue wounding, and jasmonic acid treatment. vspA and vspB encode VSP-a and VSP-8, 28-kilodalton and 31-kilodalton vacuole-localized polypeptides that are 80% homologous. vspA and vsp6 mRNAs could be distinguished on RNA blots using 3'-end probes. vspA mRNA

Hugh S. Mason; John E. Mullet

1990-01-01

364

Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1991-01-01

365

VOL. 12, NO. 6 WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH DECEMBER 1976 Heat Storage and Advection in Lake Erie  

E-print Network

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ann Arbor the Great Lakes have a tremendous heat storage capacity, a very important factor in the heat budget studies budget as one of several methods to compute lake evaporation. The period of record for the energy budget

366

Summary Appraisals of the Nation's Ground-Water Resources - Ohio Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the Ohio Region is a large, important, and manageable resource that should have a significant role in regional water development. On the basis of a comparison of ground-water withdrawals with estimated ground-water recharge, it appears that the ground-water resources of the Ohio Region probably will not be used at full potential under existing development plans. Annual ground-water use (1960) by municipalities and rural residents was about 1,000 million gallons per day. Average annual regional ground-water recharge is about 35,000 million gallons per day. Therefore, base-year (1960) municipal and rural ground-water use is only about 3 percent of recharge. Annual regionwide ground-water use (1965) by industry also is only about 3 percent of recharge. Not all ground water in storage is recoverable for development, but estimates of the amounts that can be obtained from storage, under specified conditions, are calculated to show the magnitude of water that is available. Total potable ground water available from storage in the outwash and alluvial aquifers in the Ohio River valley and the subbasins is about 23,000 billion gallons. This about four times the flood-control storage of all Ohio Region Corps of Engineers reservoirs constructed, under construction, or in advance planning as of July 1965. Approximately 85,000 billion gallons of potable ground water is available from storage in the region in aquifers other than the outwash and alluvial aquifers. This is about 20 percent of estimated storage in Lake Ontario. About 5 percent of the region has ground-water resources capable of supplying more than local needs. For example, under certain specified conditions the excess of ground-water recharge over base-year (1960) ground-water use is available for 22 million additional people in the Wabash subbasin; for 4, 1.5, and 12 million additional people, respectively, in the Miami, lower Scioto, and Allegheny subbasins; for 5 million additional people in the Ohio River valley; or for equivalent quantities of water supply for industrial or agricultural expansion or other use. A reasonable assumption is that much of the available ground water in these areas can be pumped and transported to reasonably distant points of need. The Wabash and White subbasins probably have the highest potential of all Ohio River subbasins for additional ground-water development. About 30,000 billion gallons, or about 28 percent of the total potable ground water available from storage in the Ohio Region, is in storage in these subbasins. Estimated average annual ground-water recharge in the Wabash and White subbasins is 7,300 million gallons per day. Annual ground-water use (1960) by municipalities and rural residents of the subbasins of about 220 million gallons per day is only about 3 percent of estimated annual ground-water recharge and only about 0.3 percent of the potable ground water in storage in the subbasins. Also, many high-yield aquifers are present and offer excellent reservoir-manipulation possibilities in conjunction with existing and planned surface reservoirs. Practically all areas of high population density in the Ohio Region have the potential for development of ground-water resources. The Indianapolis, Ind., area probably has the highest potential. Assuming that future population growth will be heaviest in the areas paralleling the interstate highway system, much of the increased water demand associated with these growth areas can be supplied by ground water. The areas of population growth in Indiana and southwestern and south-central Ohio are especially well situated in terms of potential ground-water supplies. Underground space in the Ohio Region, consisting of natural pore spaces and fractures in rocks and sediments, can be considered a regional resource in the sense that it can be included in regional water-pollution control or waste-disposal plans. Much of this space is already occupied by ground water

Bloyd, Richard M., Jr.

1974-01-01

367

Vertical profiles and storage fluxes of CO2, heat and water in a tropical rainforest at Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured intermittently for a 3-year period from the floor to the canopy top of a tropical rainforest in Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia. Mean diurnal CO2 storage flux (Sc; ?mol m-2 s-1) and sensible and latent heat storage fluxes (Qa and Qw; W m-2) ranged from -12.7 to 3.2 ?mol m-2 s-1, -15 to 27 W m-2 and -10 to 20 W m-2, respectively. Small differences in diurnal changes were observed in Sc and Qa between the driest and wettest periods. Compared with the ranges of mean diurnal CO2 eddy flux (-14.7 to 4.9 ?mol m-2 s-1), sensible eddy flux (-12 to 169 W m-2) and latent eddy flux (0 to 250 W m-2), the contribution of CO2 storage flux was especially large. Comparison with summertime data from a temperate Japanese cypress forest suggested a higher contribution of Sc in the tropical rainforest, probably mainly due to the difference in nighttime friction velocity at the sites. On the other hand, differences in Qa and Qw were smaller than the difference in Sc, probably because of the smaller nighttime sinks/sources of heat and water vapour.

Ohkubo, Shinjiro; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Takanashi, Satoru; Matsuo, Naoko; Tani, Makoto; Nik, Abdul Rahim

2008-09-01

368

Control of degradation of spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel during dry storage in an inert atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Dry storage of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in inert gas (referred to as inerted dry storage or IDS) is being developed as an alternative to water pool storage of spent fuel. The objectives of the activities described in this report are to identify potential Zircaloy degradation mechanisms and evaluate their applicability to cladding breach during IDS, develop models of the dominant Zircaloy degradation mechanisms, and recommend cladding temperature limits during IDS to control Zircaloy degradation. The principal potential Zircaloy cladding breach mechanisms during IDS have been identified as creep rupture, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and delayed hydride cracking (DHC). Creep rupture is concluded to be the primary cladding breach mechanism during IDS. Deformation and fracture maps based on creep rupture were developed for Zircaloy. These maps were then used as the basis for developing spent fuel cladding temperature limits that would prevent cladding breach during a 40-year IDS period. The probability of cladding breach for spent fuel stored at the temperature limit is less than 0.5% per spent fuel rod. 52 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Cunningham, M.E.; Simonen, E.P.; Allemann, R.T.; Levy, I.S.; Hazelton, R.F.

1987-10-01

369

Thermal performance of phase change material energy storage floor for active solar water-heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional active solar water-heating floor system contains a big water tank to store energy in the day time for heating\\u000a at night, which takes much building space and is very heavy. In order to reduce the water tank volume or even cancel the tank,\\u000a a novel structure of an integrated water pipe floor heating system using shapestabilized phase change

Ruolang Zeng; Xin Wang; Wei Xiao; Yinping Zhang; Qunli Zhang; Hongfa Di

2010-01-01

370

Solar process water heat for the Iris Images Custom Color Photo Lab. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report of the solar facility locted at Iris Images Custom Photo Laboratory in Mill Valley, California. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100/sup 0/F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxiliary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Freeze protection in this mild climate was originally provided by closed-loop circulation of hot water from the storage tank. Later this was changed to a drain-down system due to a freeze when electrical power failed. This system has been relatively successful with little or no scheduled maintenance. The site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are included.

Not Available

1980-03-01

371

Microbiologic effectiveness of boiling and safe water storage in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.  

PubMed

In Indonesia, where diarrhea remains a major cause of mortality among children <5 years, the government promotes boiling of drinking water. We assessed the impact of boiling on water quality in South Sulawesi. We surveyed randomly selected households with at least one child <5 years old in two rural districts and tested source and stored water samples for Escherichia coli contamination. Among 242 households, 96% of source and 51% of stored water samples yielded E. coli. Unboiled water samples, obtained from 15% of households, were more likely to yield E. coli than boiled samples [prevalence ratios (PR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.5]. Water stored in wide-mouthed (PR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) or uncovered (PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.3-2.4) containers, or observed to be touched by the respondent's hands (PR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.1) was more likely to yield E. coli. A multivariable model showed that households that did not boil water were more likely to have contaminated stored water than households that did boil water (PR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.3). Although this study demonstrated the effectiveness of boiling in reducing contamination, overall impact on water quality was suboptimal. Future studies are needed to identify factors behind the success of boiling water in Indonesia to inform efforts to scale up other effective water treatment practices. PMID:21976204

Sodha, Samir V; Menon, M; Trivedi, K; Ati, A; Figueroa, M E; Ainslie, R; Wannemuehler, K; Quick, R

2011-09-01

372

Changes in Solar Input, Water Temperature, Periphyton Accumulation, and Allochthonous Input and Storage after Canopy Removal along Two Small Salmon Streams in Southeast Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in solar radiation, water temperature, periphyton accumulation, and allochthonous inputs and storage were measured after we removed patches of deciduous, second-growth riparian vegetation bordering two small streams in southeast Alaska that produce coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Solar radiation and leaf litter input were measured at the water surface at random locations dispersed through six alternating closed- and open-canopy stream

N. J. Hetrick; M. A. Brusven; W. R. Meehan; T. C. Bjornn

1998-01-01

373

Problems in determination of the water content of rock-salt samples and its significance in nuclear-waste storage siting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ water content of rock salt in beds or domes and the exact nature of its occurrence are of considerable importance for the safe design and operation of nuclear-waste storage facilities in salt deposits. Most published determinations of the ``water content'' of salt are not comparable. Many determinations contain serious, and in part systematic, errors. The multiplicity of

Edwin Roedder; R. L. Bassett

1981-01-01

374

Isotope evolution and contribution to geochemical investigations in aquifer storage and recovery: a case study using reclaimed water at Bolivar, South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an important resource management tool whereby water from an available source is stored in a suitable aquifer for later use in periods of higher demand. Important issues in ASR include maintaining the injection rate and recovering water of suitable quality. Both of these depend on subsurface biogeochemical processes. This paper investigates the use of

C. Le Gal La Salle; J. Vanderzalm; J. Hutson; P. Dillon; P. Pavelic; R. Martin

2005-01-01

375

Effect of Chitin Isolated from Crustaceans and Cephalopods on Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein and the State of Water during Frozen Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of chitin hydrolysate made from shell of crustaceans and cartilage of cephalopods on the denaturation and the state of water of lizard fish myofibrillar protein (Mf) during frozen storage at -250°C for 120 days were investigated. 5.0% chitin hydrolysate (dried matter) added Mf samples were frozen at -25°C and storage for 120 days, and the change of inactivation of Mf Ca-ATPase and the change of unfrozen water in Mf were examined during the frozen storage. The decrease of Mf Ca-ATPase during frozen storage were slow by addition of chitin hydrolysate. The amount of unfrozen water in Mf were increased by addition of chitin hydrolysate, and decreaced gradually during frozen storage. On the other hand, the amount of unfrozen water of the control were decreaced suddenly during frozen storage. Above results suggest that chitin hydrolysate has cryoprotective effect on Mf. It is guessed that the mechanism of cryoprotective effect of chitin hydrolysate may be caused by an interaction between hydration sphere of Mf and equatorial OH groups in the molecular structure of chitin hydrolysate.

Yamashita, Yasumitsu; Zhang, Nong; Nozaki, Yukinori

376

Using Enhanced Grace Water Storage Data to Improve Drought Detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors by filling this observational gap. GRACE TWS data were assimilating into the Catchment Land Surface Model using an ensemble Kalman smoother enabling spatial and temporal downscaling and vertical decomposition into soil moisture and groundwater components. The Drought Monitors combine several short- and long-term drought indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence. To be consistent, we generated a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on a 60-year Catchment model simulation, which was used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into drought indicator percentiles. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of the GRACE assimilated moisture and indicator fields.

Houborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew; Lawrimore, Jay; Li, Bailing; Reichle, Rolf; Heim, Richard; Rosencrans, Matthew; Tinker, Rich; Famiglietti, James S.; Svoboda, Mark; Wardlow, Brian; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.

2011-01-01

377

DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

2009-07-31

378

Spatio-temporal patterns of soil water storage under dryland agriculture at the watershed scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySpatio-temporal patterns of soil water are major determinants of crop yield potential in dryland agriculture and can serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones. Soil water patterns can vary significantly due to differences in seasonal precipitation, soil properties and topographic features. In this study we used empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to characterize the spatial variability of soil water at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) near Pullman, WA. During the period 1999-2006, the CAF was divided into three roughly equal blocks (A, B, and C), and soil water at 0.3 m intervals to a depth of 1.5 m measured gravimetrically at approximately one third of the 369 geo-referenced points on the 37-ha watershed. These data were combined with terrain attributes, soil bulk density and apparent soil conductivity (EC a). The first EOF generated from the three blocks explained 73-76% of the soil water variability. Field patterns of soil water based on EOF interpolation varied between wet and dry conditions during spring and fall seasons. Under wet conditions, elevation and wetness index were the dominant factors regulating the spatial patterns of soil water. As soil dries out during summer and fall, soil properties (EC a and bulk density) become more important in explaining the spatial patterns of soil water. The EOFs generated from block B, which represents average topographic and soil properties, provided better estimates of soil water over the entire watershed with larger Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE) values, especially when the first two EOFs were retained. Including more than the first two EOFs did not significantly increase the NSCE of soil water estimate. The EOF interpolation method to estimate soil water variability worked slightly better during spring than during fall, with average NSCE values of 0.23 and 0.20, respectively. The predictable patterns of stored soil water in the spring could serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones as yield potential is largely driven by water availability. The EOF-based method has the advantage of estimating the soil water variability based on soil water data from several measurement times, whereas in regression methods only soil water measurement at a single time are used. The EOF-based method can also be used to estimate soil water at any time other than measurement times, assuming the average soil water of the watershed is known at that time.

Ibrahim, Hesham M.; Huggins, David R.

2011-07-01

379

Trimellitic anhydride exposure in a 55-gallon drum manufacturing plant: clinical, immunologic, and industrial hygiene evaluation.  

PubMed

Nine workers at a 55-gallon drum manufacturing plant had history of exposure to a paint powder that contained trimellitic anhydride (TMA). Environmental monitoring revealed airborne levels of TMA to be over 100 times the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 0.04 mg/m3. The exposed workers were evaluated in a cross-sectional study by questionnaire, physical examination, screening pulmonary function tests, serial peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), and serum antibody levels. Four workers had symptoms consistent with TMA-induced irritant effects. Three had symptoms and IgG levels consistent with TMA late respiratory systemic syndrome (LRSS). Two of these three had PEFR changes that showed significant drops (greater than 20%) 12-18 hours after the end of a work shift. The material safety data sheet for the paint powder failed to list TMA as an ingredient. Despite the well-described toxic effects of TMA, the present study documents that TMA-related illness may continue to be a problem in situations where workers and management are not properly notified of the potential hazards. The measurement of PEFR may be useful in identifying TMA-exposed workers with LRSS. PMID:3499818

Letz, G; Wugofski, L; Cone, J E; Patterson, R; Harris, K E; Grammer, L C

1987-01-01

380

Variability of basin-scale terrestrial water storage from a novel application of the water budget equation: the Amazon and the Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an approach termed the P-E-R (or simply PER) method, we apply the basin water budget equation to diagnose the long-term variability of the total terrestrial water storage (TWS). The key input variables are observed precipitation (P) and runoff (R), and estimated evaporation (E). Unlike typical offline land-surface model estimate where only atmospheric variables are used as input, the direct use of observed runoff in the PER method imposes an important constraint on the diagnosed TWS. Although there lack basin-scale observations of evaporation, the tendency of E to have significantly less variability than the difference between precipitation and runoff (P-R) minimizes the uncertainties originating from estimated evaporation. Compared to the more traditional method using atmospheric moisture convergence (MC) minus R (MCR method), the use of observed precipitation in PER method is expected to lead to general improvement, especially in regions atmospheric radiosonde data are too sparse to constrain the atmospheric model analyzed MC such as in the remote tropics. TWS was diagnosed using the PER method for the Amazon (1970-2006) and the Mississippi Basin (1928-2006), and compared with MCR method, land-surface model and reanalyses, and NASA's GRACE satellite gravity data. The seasonal cycle of diagnosed TWS over the Amazon is about 300 mm. The interannual TWS variability in these two basins are 100-200 mm, but multi-dacadal changes can be as large as 600-800 mm. Major droughts such as the Dust Bowl period had large impact with water storage depleted by 500 mm over a decade. Within the short period 2003-2006 when GRACE data was available, PER and GRACE show good agreement both for seasonal cycle and interannual variability, providing potential to cross-validate each other. In contrast, land-surface model results are significantly smaller than PER and GRACE, especially towards longer timescales. While we currently lack independent means to verify these long-term changes, simple error analysis using 3 precipitation datasets and 3 evaporation estimates suggest that the multi-decadal amplitude can be uncertain up to a factor of 2, while the agreement is high on interannual timescales. The large TWS variability implies the remarkable capacity of land-surface in storing and taking up water that may be under-represented in models. The results also suggest the existence of water storage memories on multi-year time scales, significantly longer than typically assumed seasonal timescales associated with surface soil moisture.

Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Mariotti, A.; Swenson, S.

2007-12-01

381

Water quality requirements for sustaining aquifer storage and recovery operations in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer.  

PubMed

A changing climate and increasing urbanisation has driven interest in the use of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes as an environmental management tool to supplement conventional water resources. This study focuses on ASR with stormwater in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer and the selection of water treatment methods to prevent well clogging. In this study two different injection and recovery phases were trialed. In the first phase ~1380 m(3) of potable water was injected and recovered over four cycles. In the second phase ~3300 m(3) of treated stormwater was injected and ~2410 m(3) were subsequently recovered over three cycles. Due to the success of the potable water injection cycles, its water quality was used to set pre-treatment targets for harvested urban stormwater of ? 0.6 NTU turbidity, ? 1.7 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and ? 0.2 mg/L biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. A range of potential ASR pre-treatment options were subsequently evaluated resulting in the adoption of an ultrafiltration/granular activated carbon system to remove suspended solids and nutrients which cause physical and biological clogging. ASR cycle testing with potable water and treated stormwater demonstrated that urban stormwater containing variable turbidity (mean 5.5 NTU) and organic carbon (mean 8.3 mg/L) concentrations before treatment could be injected into a low transmissivity fractured rock aquifer and recovered for irrigation supplies. A small decline in permeability of the formation in the vicinity of the injection well was apparent even with high quality water that met turbidity and DOC but could not consistently achieve the BDOC criteria. PMID:21652142

Page, Declan; Miotli?ski, Konrad; Dillon, Peter; Taylor, Russel; Wakelin, Steve; Levett, Kerry; Barry, Karen; Pavelic, Paul

2011-10-01

382

Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials: an FTIR, TPD, and time-resolved synchrotron XRD study  

SciTech Connect

The effect of water on the morphology of BaO/Al2O3-based NOx storage materials was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of this multi-spectroscopy study reveal that, in the presence of water, surface Ba-nitrates convert to bulk nitrates, and water facilitates the formation of large Ba(NO3)2 particles. This process is completely reversible, i.e. after the removal of water from the storage material a significant fraction of the bulk nitrates re-convert to surface nitrates. NO2 exposure of a H2O-containing (wet) BaO/Al2O3 sample results in the formation of nitrites and bulk nitrates exclusively, i.e. no surface nitrates form. After further exposure to NO2, the nitrites completely convert to bulk nitrates. The amount of NOx taken up by the storage material is, however, essentially unaffected by the presence of water, regardless of whether the water was dosed prior to or after NO2 exposure. Based on the results of this study we are now able to explain most of the observations reported in the literature on the effect of water on NOx uptake on similar storage materials.

Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Wang, Xianqin; Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Hanson, Jonathan; Epling, William S.; Peden, Charles HF

2007-03-29

383

Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives  

E-print Network

We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

Y. Wei; D. J. Durian

2014-02-10

384

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18 percent less than withdrawals for irrigation in 1974. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer for irrigation in 2000 were 21 million acre-feet (McGuire, 2007). Water-level changes in the aquifer result from an imbalance between discharge and recharge. Discharge is primarily ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. Discharge also includes evapotranspiration, where the water table is near the land surface, and seepage to streams and springs, where the water table intersects with the land surface. Recharge is primarily from precipitation. Other sources of recharge are irrigation return flow and seepage from streams, canals, and reservoirs. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for ground-water withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Water-level declines also can affect ground-water availability, surface-water flow, and near-stream (riparian) habitat areas (Alley and others, 1999).

McGuire, V.L.

2007-01-01

385

An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

1977-01-01

386

Geohydrology of Storage Unit III and a combined flow model of the Santa Barbara and foothill ground-water basins, Santa Barbara County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Santa Barbara pumps most of its ground water from the Santa Barbara and Foothill ground-water basins. The Santa Barbara basin is subdivided into two storage units: Storage Unit I and Storage Unit III. The Foothill basin and Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara basin have been studied extensively and ground-water flow models have been developed for them. In this report, the geohydrology of the Santa Barbara ground- water basin is described with a special emphasis on Storage Unit III in the southwestern part of the basin. The purposes of this study were to summarize and evaluate the geohydrology of Storage Unit III and to develop an areawide model of the Santa Barbara and Foothill basins that includes the previously unmodeled Storage Unit III. Storage Unit III is in the southwestern part of the city of Santa Barbara. It is approximately 3.5 miles long and varies in width from about 2,000 feet in the southeast to 4,000 feet in the north-west. Storage Unit III is composed of the Santa Barbara Formation and overlying alluvium. The Santa Barbara Formation (the principal aquifer) consists of Pleistocene and Pliocene(?) unconsolidated marine sand, silt, and clay, and it has a maximum saturated thickness of about 160 feet. The alluvium that overlies the Santa Barbara Formation has a maximum saturated thickness of about 140 feet. The storage unit is bounded areally by faults and low-permeability deposits and is underlain by rocks of Tertiary age. The main sources of recharge to Storage Unit III are seepage from Arroyo Burro and infiltration of precipitation. Most of the recharge occurs in the northwest part of the storage unit, and ground water flows toward the southeast along the unit's long axis. Lesser amounts of recharge may occur as subsurface flow from the Hope Ranch subbasin and as upwelling from the underlying Tertiary rocks. Discharge from Storage Unit III occurs as pumpage, flow to underground drains, underflow through alluvium in the vicinity of Arroyo Burro across the Lavigia Fault, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Pacific Ocean. The faults that bound Storage Unit III generally are considered to be effective barriers to the flow of ground water. Interbasin ground-water flow occurs where deposits of younger alluvium along stream channels cross faults. Ground-water quality in Storage Unit III deposits varies with location and depth. Upward leakage of poor-quality water from the underlying Tertiary rocks occurs in the storage unit, and such leakage can be influenced by poor well construction or by heavy localized pumping. The highest dissolved-solids concentration (4,710 milligrams per liter) in ground water resulting from this upward leakage is found in the coastal part of the storage unit. The ground-water system was modeled as two horizontal layers. In the Foothill basin and Storage Unit I the layers are separated by a confining bed. The upper layer represents the upper producing zone and the shallow zone near the coast. The lower layer represents the lower producing zone. In general, the faults in the study area were assumed to be no-flow boundaries, except for the offshore fault that forms the southeast boundary; the southeast boundary was simulated as a general-head boundary. The Storage Unit III model was combined with the preexisting Storage Unit I and Foothill basin models, using horizontal flow barriers, to form an areawide model. The areawide model was calibrated by simulating steady-state predevelopment conditions and transient conditions for 1978-92. The nonpumping steady- state simulation was used to verify that the calibrated model yielded physically reasonable results for predevelopment conditions. The calibrated areawide model calculates water levels in Storage Unit III that are within 10 feet of measured water levels at all sites of comparison. In addition, the model adequately simulates water levels in the Storage Unit I and Foothill basin areas. A total of 33,430 acre-feet of water was pum

Freckleton, John R.; Martin, Peter; Nishikawa, Tracy

1998-01-01

387

Integration of altimetric lake levels and GRACE gravimetry over Africa: Inferences for terrestrial water storage change 2003-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.

Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.

2014-12-01

388

Spatio-temporal patterns of soil water storage under dryland agriculture at the watershed scale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil water patterns vary significantly due to precipitation, soil properties, topographic features, and land use. We used empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to characterize the spatial variability of soil water across a 37-ha field of the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm near...

389

Comparison of measured and simulated water storage in dryland terraces of the Loess Plateau, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the hilly regions of China, developing sustainable agriculture requires implementing conservation management practices that prevent soil erosion and conserve soil and water resources. In the semiarid northwest Loess Plateau, the primary conservation management practice is terracing. Numerical simulation of soil water dynamics in terraces is potentially an efficient means of investigating the effects of terrace design on moisture retention,

Haishen Lü; Yonghua Zhu; Todd H. Skaggs; Zhongbo Yu

2009-01-01

390

Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 3, development of a three-dimensional digital ground-water flow model for storage unit I of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-bearing rocks within the 7 sq mi of Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara Groundwater Basin, consist of unconsolidated deposits that range in thickness from < 300 ft along the north perimeter of the unit to > 1,000 ft near the Pacific Ocean. The groundwater system was simulated as two horizontal layers separated by a confining bed. The model boundaries coincide with mapped faults on all sides. The faults were considered no-flow boundaries except for the offshore fault that forms the south boundary. This boundary was simulated as a general-head boundary , which allows water to move into and out of the modeled area. The model was calibrated by simulating both steady-state conditions (approximated by July 1978 and February 1983 water levels) and transient-state conditions (represented by May 1978 through December 1979 water level changes). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the period from January 1980 through December 1983 in order to verify the model. Model results generally closely matched measured data throughout Storage Unit I. During the transient and verification simulations, 9,980 acre-ft of groundwater was pumped from Storage Unit I for municipal use. Results of the model indicate that 42% (4,190 acre-ft) of the water pumped from the system was withdrawn from storage, 33% (3,290 acre-ft) was derived from changes in underflow across the offshore fault, and 25% (2,500 acre-ft) was derived from decreased groundwater discharge to drains. The model simulated that municipal pumpage induced about 1,380 acre-ft of water to move across the offshore fault toward Storage Unit I. Several model simulations were used to estimate aquifer response to different municipal pumpage patterns that could be used as management alternatives. Results of the simulations indicate that spreading municipal pumpage more evenly throughout Storage Unit I, by increasing the number of wells while reducing the pumping rate at the individual wells to maintain the same total pumpage, significantly reduces the inflow of groundwater across the offshore fault. (Author 's abstract)

Martin, Peter; Berenbrock, Charles

1986-01-01

391

Integrating Enhanced Grace Terrestrial Water Storage Data Into the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations nf the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including ground water. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors are two of the premier drought monitoring products available to decision-makers for assessing and minimizing drought impacts, but they rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors hy filling this observational gap. Horizontal, vertical and temporal disaggregation of the coarse-resolution GRACE TWS data has been accomplished by assimilating GRACE TWS anomalies into the Catchment Land Surface Model using ensemble Kalman smoother. The Drought Monitors combine several short-term and long-term drought indices and indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence for the location and time of year in question. To be consistent, we are in the process of generating a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on m 60-year Catchment model simulation which will subsequently be used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into soil moisture and groundwater percentiles. for systematic incorporation into the objective blends that constitute Drought Monitor baselines. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of GRACE assimilated Catchment model output against independent datasets including soil moisture observations from Aqua AMSR-E and groundwater level observations from the U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Climate Response Network.

Housborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew

2010-01-01

392

Estimation of the possible flood discharge and volume of stormwater for designing water storage.  

PubMed

The shortage of good-quality water resources is an important issue in arid and semiarid zones. Stormwater-harvesting systems that are capable of delivering good-quality wastewater for non-potable uses while taking into account environmental and health requirements must be developed. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, like stormwater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. Current stormwater management practices in the world require the creation of control systems that monitor quality and quantity of the water and the development of stormwater basins to store increased runoff volumes. Public health and safety considerations should be considered. Urban and suburban development, with the creation of buildings and roads and innumerable related activities, turns rain and snow into unwitting agents of damage to our nation's waterways. This urban and suburban runoff, legally known as stormwater, is one of the most significant sources of water pollution in the world. Based on various factors like water quality, runoff flow rate and speed, and the topography involved, stormwater can be directed into basins, purification plants, or to the sea. Accurate floodplain maps are the key to better floodplain management. The aim of this work is to use geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor and control the effect of stormwater. The graphic and mapping capabilities of GIS provide strong tools for conveying information and forecasts of different storm-water flow and buildup scenarios. Analyses of hydrologic processes, rainfall simulations, and spatial patterns of water resources were performed with GIS, which means, based on integrated data set, the flow of the water was introduced into the GIS. Two cases in Israel were analyzed--the Hula Project (the Jordan River floods over the peat soil area) and the Kishon River floodplains as it existed in the Yizrael Valley. PMID:22435327

Kirzhner, Felix; Kadmon, Avri

2011-01-01

393

New Zealand's 70 million sheep create 350 million methane gallons daily  

SciTech Connect

If you could hook up a sheep to the carburetor of a car, you could run it for several kilometers a day. To power the same vehicle by people, you'd need a whole football team and a couple of kegs of beer. That observation is made by David Lowe, a geophysicist with the New Zealand Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Wellington. Scientists are studying the methane output because of its potential serious threat by contributing to global warming via the greenhouse effect. According to a report in the Wall Street Journal, analysis of ancient air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice shows that 30,000 years ago methane concentration in the Earth's atmosphere was only a third as much as it is today. Radioactive dating can distinguish ages of different types of methane in the air, and researchers hope to quantify sources from sheep, swamps, people or industry. Sheep methane is collected at a local agricultural university from sheep with tubes protruding from their intestines. Sample collector Lowe alternates specimens from the university and the digester tank at the sewage treatment plant. The cleanest air samples, by contrast, are collected by Lowe at Baring Head, the first outcrop of land Antarctic winds hit after crossing thousands of miles of open sea. So far, Lowe and his colleagues have found that 75% of methane in the atmosphere is biological and of very recent origin. While the research goes on, New Zealand's sheep population continue to churn out 2.5 billion gallons of methane every week.

Not Available

1987-07-01

394

DEBRIS TRANSPORT ANALYSIS RELATED WITH GSI191 IN ADVANCED PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR EQUIPPED WITH INCONTAINMENT REFUELING WATER STORAGE TANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recirculation sump blockage issue is an important and urgent problem to be resolved for ensuring nuclear power plant safety. Through a series of intensive resolution activities, a new regulatory guide and an evaluation methodology were proposed. However, these were restricted to a conventional pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and the applicability of these methodologies to a new type or advanced

Jeong Ik Lee; Soon Joon Hong; Jonguk Kim; Byung Chul Lee; Young Seok Bang; Deog Yeon Oh; Byung Gil Huh

395

to characterize the impervious water storage with an urban surface-flux parameterization TERRA-MLU: evaluation and calibration for Toulouse city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation from the urban impervious surface could have a considerable impact on the surface energy and moisture balance on rainy days. In particular, the ever increasing urbanization could alter the interaction between evaporation from the surface and precipitation within the urban climate (change) in the future. However, uncertainty exists within the determination of water storage parameters for the impervious surface, and hydrological parameters of the soil for the natural fraction in urban environments. In order to investigate the water balance over urban areas in more detail, TERRA-MLU, a new urban surface-flux parameterization, is applied over Toulouse city centre during the CAPITOUL campaign during 2004. The new urban parameterization covers a direct implementation of urban characteristics in TERRA_ML, Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model of COSMO. Besides anthropogenic heat, specific dynamic, radiative and thermal parameters including roughness length, heat capacity, conductivity, albedo and emissivity are assigned for the urban land-cover. A bluff-roughness thermal roughness length parametrization is used. New surface-layer transfer coefficients are adopted which can deal with very small thermal roughness lengths typical for urban surfaces. An new impervious water storage parameterization is introduced as well. TERRA-MLU is evaluated 'offline' for Marseille, Toulouse, Basel and Vancouver. Sensitivity analysis at the Toulouse site demonstrates that the maximum impervious water storage needs to be equal or less than 1kg/m2 if one only considers evaporation at a potential rate from the impervious surface. Furthermore, results are improved by implementing a storage form parameter that accounts for the reduction of evaporative surface fraction in case of small water content on the impervious surface. An offline sensitivity analysis is performed to estimate the maximum water storage and the storage form parameter. At last, it is found that the rooting depth of the vegetation needs to be described carefully in urban environments with large trees in order not to underestimate the latent heat during summer.

Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole; Vogel, Gerd

2013-04-01

396

Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Irrigation Water in Federal Projects: El Paso County, Texas  

E-print Network

. This procedure produced a schedule of net farm revenues for alternative surface irrigation water allocations for use in conjunction with groundwater. The procedure was repeated with groundwater availability limited to zero. These two schedules of net farm...

Cornforth, G. C.; Lacewell, R. D.

397

IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE STORAGE OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The sorption of volatile organic analytes from water samples by the Teflon septum surface used with standard glass 40-ml sample collection vials was investigated. Analytes tested included alkanes, isoalkanes, olefins, cycloalkanes, a cycloalkene, monoaromatics, a polynuclear arom...

398

Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.

Low, J.M.

1992-05-19

399

Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for observation wells in the Mount Pleasant area. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 2 are between 2 and 106 feet lower for production wells and observation wells and between 11 and 27 feet higher for the injection wells in the Mount Pleasant area. Water budgets for the model area immediately surrounding the Mount Pleasant area were calculated for 2011 and for 2050. The largest flow component for the 2050 water budget in the Mount Pleasant area is discharge through wells at rates between 7.1 and 10.9 million gallons of water per day. This groundwater is replaced predominantly by between 6.0 and 7.8 million gallons per day of lateral groundwater flow within the Middendorf aquifer for the Base Case and two scenarios and through reclaimed-water injection of 3 million gallons per day for Scenarios 1 and 2. In addition, between 175,000 and 319,000 gallons of groundwater are removed from this area per day because of the regional hydraulic gradient. Additional sources of water to this area are groundwater storage releases at rates between 86,800 and 116,000 gallons per day and vertical flow from over- and underlying confining units at rates between 69,100 and 150,000 gallons per day. Reclaimed water injected into the Middendorf aquifer at three hypothetical injection wells moved to the Mount Pleasant Waterworks production wells in 18 to 256 years as indicated by particle-tracking simulations. Time of travel varied from 18 to 179 years for simulated conditions of 20 percent uniform aquifer porosity and between 25 to 256 years for 30 percent uniform aquifer porosity.

Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

2009-01-01

400

Flow toward storage tunnels beneath a water table: 1. Two-dimensional flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of parallel tunnels is excavated in saturated rock of low permeability for storing oil or LPG. In order to contain the product, permanent water inflow has to be maintained. In absence of recharge this flow causes a continuous drop of the water table. A numerical scheme, based on the boundary integral elements method, is used in order to determine the water table motion, the inflow to galleries, and the velocity on the perimeter. Both oil-filled and empty galleries are considered. The shape of the galleries is maintained fixed, while the spacing and the distance to an impervious bottom is varied. An analytical approximate solution, valid for sufficiently high water table above the galleries top, is also derived. This solution is extended to the cases of vertical recharge above the free surface and LPG filled galleries. The solution of the two-dimensional flow problem can be used in order to determine: (1) the time required for the water table to drop from its initial position to the gallery top, or to the product level, in absence of recharge; (2) the water velocity on the gallery perimeter; and (3) the total inflow to the gallery.

Tal, A.; Dagan, G.

1983-02-01

401

Surface gravity and deformation effects of water storage changes in China's Three Gorges Reservoir constrained by modeled results and in situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water impoundment of China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), with the largest dam in the world, makes a large mass concentrated and thus influences the surface gravity field and crustal deformation field. In the TGR area, water impoundment began in 2003, and the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of water storage. These responses can be investigated using the gravimeter and the GPS. In this paper, using a water load model derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and elastic loading Green's function, we modeled the surface gravity and displacement changes in the front area of TGR caused by water storage variations. Predictive results are compared with the measurements derived from absolute gravity by A10, continuous gravity by gPhone and GPS time series at the sites of front area in TGR. The observations agree well with the prediction spatially and temporally. The quantitative comparison and analysis indicate that the ground gravity and the vertical displacement are more sensitive to water storage changes than the horizontal displacement. The predictions from the water load model are consistent with the in situ measurements reported in this work and therefore can be utilized for water effect corrections for exacting the further signals related to lithospheric dynamics and geological hazards, such as abnormal deformation of active faults and landslides.

Wang, Linsong; Chen, Chao; Zou, Rong; Du, Jinsong

2014-09-01

402

Coupling landscape water storage and supplemental irrigation to increase productivity and improve environmental stewardship in the U.S. Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture must increase production for a growing population while simultaneously reducing its environmental impacts. These goals need not be in tension with one another. Here we outline a vision for improving both the productivity and environmental performance of agriculture in the U.S. Midwest, also known as the Corn Belt. Mean annual precipitation has increased throughout the region over the past 50 years, consistent with climate models that attribute the increase to a warming troposphere. Stream gauge data indicate that higher precipitation has been matched or exceeded by higher stream flows, contributing to flooding, soil loss, and excessive nutrient flux to the Gulf of Mexico. We propose increasing landscape hydrologic storage through construction of ponds and restoration of wetlands to retain water for supplemental irrigation while also reducing flood risks. Primary productivity is proportional to transpiration, and analysis shows that in the U.S. Midwest both can be sustainably increased with supplemental irrigation. The proposed strategy should reduce interannual yield variability by limiting losses due to transient drought, while facilitating adoption of cropping systems that "perennialize" the landscape to take advantage of the full potential growing season. When implemented in concert, these practices should reduce the riverine nitrogen export that is a primary cause of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Erosive sediment losses should also be reduced through the combination of enhanced hydrologic storage and increased vegetative cover. Successful implementation would require watershed-scale coordination among producers and landowners. An obvious mechanism to encourage this is governmental farm policy.

Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Ochsner, Tyson E.

2012-05-01

403

Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Savannah, Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar System was designed to provide 50 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Liquid Flat Plate Collectors (900 square feet) are used for the collector subsystem. The collector subsystem is closed loop, using 50 percent Ethylene Glycol solution antifreeze for freeze protection. The 1,000 gallon fiber glass storage tank contains two heat exchangers. One of the heat exchangers heats the storage tank with the collector solar energy. The other heat exchanger preheats the cold supply water as it passes through on the way to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tank heaters. Electrical energy supplements the solar energy for the DHW. The Collector Mounting System utilizes guy wires to structurally tie the collector array to the building.

1980-01-01

404

Air-Xe enrichments in Elk Hills oil field gases: role of water in migration and storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbons from the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR#1), Bakersfield, CA, are enriched in heavy noble gases. The 132Xe/ 36Ar ratios are as high as ˜576 times the ratio in air and represent the largest relative Xe-enrichments ever observed in terrestrial fluids. The Xe isotopic composition is indistinguishable from air. We show that these samples cannot be explained by equilibration of oil with air saturated water and secondary enrichment via a Rayleigh distillation gas stripping process. Based on laboratory studies of others with potential petroleum source rocks, we believe the source of this enriched heavy noble gas component was adsorbed air initially trapped in/on the source rocks that was expelled and mixed with the hydrocarbons during expulsion and primary migration. Kr and Xe enrichments decrease with increasing 36Ar concentration. We propose a model in which an initial Kr-Xe-enriched hydrocarbon becomes diluted with noble gases extracted from air saturated groundwater during expulsion, migration, and storage. The model generates an integrated water/hydrocarbon ratio for the production fluid which indicates a minimal role for water in hydrocarbon expulsion and migration. The results are interpreted to provide time/geometrical constraints on the mechanisms by which hydrocarbons can migrate as a separate phase.

Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B. M.

1999-04-01

405

H{sub 2}OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH){sub 3}[a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO{sub 2}) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO{sub 2} precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

1992-08-01

406

H[sub 2]OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH)[sub 3][a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO[sub 2]) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO[sub 2] precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

1992-08-01

407

Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) subsystems and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs.

Williams, David E.

2010-01-01

408

Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) subsystems and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs.

Williams, David E.

2011-01-01

409