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Sample records for gallon water storage

  1. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.J.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  2. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  4. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

  5. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  6. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  7. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  8. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  9. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  10. The effectiveness of large household water storage tanks for protecting the quality of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; VanDerslice, James

    2007-06-01

    Many communities along the US-Mexico border remain without infrastructure for water and sewage. Residents in these communities often collect and store their water in open 55-gallon drums. This study evaluated changes in drinking water quality resulting from an intervention that provided large closed water storage tanks (2,500-gallons) to individual homes lacking a piped water supply. After the intervention, many of the households did not change the source of their drinking water to the large storage tanks. Therefore, water quality results were first compared based on the source of the household's drinking water: store or vending machine, large tank, or collected from a public supply and transported by the household. Of the households that used the large storage tank as their drinking water supply, drinking water quality was generally of poorer quality. Fifty-four percent of samples collected prior to intervention had detectable levels of total coliforms, while 82% of samples were positive nine months after the intervention (p < 0.05). Exploratory analyses were also carried out to measure water quality at different points between collection by water delivery trucks and delivery to the household's large storage tank. Thirty percent of the samples taken immediately after water was delivered to the home had high total coliforms (> 10 CFU/100 ml). Mean free chlorine levels dropped from 0.43 mg/l, where the trucks filled their tanks, to 0.20 mg/l inside the household's tank immediately after delivery. Results of this study have implications for interventions that focus on safe water treatment and storage in the home, and for guidelines regarding the level of free chlorine required in water delivered by water delivery trucks. PMID:17674578

  11. Fuel performance in water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

  12. Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

  13. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  15. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  16. 124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  18. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of each month of the year) excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The two figures show that 2010 was the driest year since 2003. The drought in the Amazon was largely responsible, but an excess of water in 2009 seems to have buffered that drought to some extent. The drying trend in the 25-55 deg S zone is a combination of Patagonian glacier melt and drought in parts of Australia.

  19. Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for monitoring higher level parameters such as fauna diversity. The regenerating rainforest environment presents a number of interesting challenges for wireless sensor networks related to energy harvesting and to reliable low-power wireless communications through dense and wet vegetation. Located downstream from the Springbrook plateau, the Little Nerang and Hinze dams are the two major water supply storages for the Gold Coast region. In September 2009 we fitted methane, light, wind, and sonar sensors to our autonomous electric boat platform and successfully demonstrated autonomous collection of methane flux release data on Little Nerang Dam. Sensor and boat status data were relayed back to a human operator on the shore of the dam via a small network of our Fleck™ nodes. The network also included 4 floating nodes each fitted with a string of 6 temperature sensors for profiling temperature at different water depths. We plan to expand the network further during 2010 to incorporate floating methane nodes, additional temperature sensing nodes, as well as land-based microclimate nodes. The overall monitoring system will provide significant data to understand the connected catchment-to-storage system and will provide continuous data to monitor and understand change trends within this world heritage area.

  20. An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanino, Masayuki; Iribe, Masatake; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    The economic aspects of an ice storage system employing supercooled water were compared with those of a chilled water system. In this analysis, the characteristics of the thermal storage tank and the system-COP were selected as technological factors, that have particular relevance to the economic issues at introduction of tharmal storage systems. The following results were obtained : (1) The cooling rate of the ice storage system was comparable with the rate of a chilled water storage system. (2) The cooling rate of the ice storage system was not hardly influenced by the cost of thermal storage tank. (3) In the hybrid thermal storage system, the ice storage system could surely satisfy the requirement for large peak shift.

  1. 27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table 2, showing wine... § 30.62 Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight. The wine and proof gallon content by... same horizontal line with the weight will be found the wine gallons (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and...

  2. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  3. Water treatment considerations for thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    Traditional closed loop corrosion, fouling, and microbial control treatments are not always capable of providing effective treatment to Thermal Energy Storage systems. Typically, these systems experience a higher incidence of corrosion, corrosion related fouling and microbial problems than traditional closed loop applications. Customary corrosion control treatments like nitrite have yielded poor results due to microbial degradation. Microbial control is often harder due to the sheer volume of water needing treatment and inadequate distribution in the system. This paper will review the various water treatment needs for Thermal Energy Storage Systems and present data on a successfully operating Thermal Energy Storage system.

  4. An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Mitsuru; Tanino, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Sakae; Hayashi, Toshio; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    An ice storage system using supercooled water has been developed. In this system, only water is circulated and slurry-ice is stored in tanks. Since one of the critical components of the system is the supercooing heat exchanger, the first step in component development consisted in verification of stable conditions for supercooling water control by basic and integrated experiments. The results of these experiments yielded designcriteria concerning the degree of wall supercooling and the inlet water temperatures (i.e.,conditions for absence of ice nuclei). In addition, realistic operating techniques for supercooling heat exchangers with redundancy have been demonstrated by the field experiment.

  5. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Mitsuru; Tanino, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Sakae; Hayashi, Toshio; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    The storage and melting characteristics of slurry-ice mixtures in several tanks were investigated exprimentally. For ice storage processes, three different kinds ofice-feeding methods were tested in connection with the fluidizable water-ice two-phase mixture produced in the system. It was confirmed that the achievable bulk IPF in any tank and using any of these methods was 30-40% under stable operational conditions. For ice melting processes, two different kinds of methods were considered and tested. Both were advantageous in that almost all ice stored in a tank could be consumed, thereby maintaining high system performance. By a modeling analysis of ice melting processes in the tank, it was possible to predict accurately the time history of tank outlet water temperatures.

  9. Beyond peak water storage? A global estimate of declining water storage in reservoirs and snow packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Water storage is one of the primary mechanisms for coping with increasing variability of water supply and demand that can be expected with growing population and a changing climate. Man-made reservoirs can currently store about 15% of the global annual runoff. A similar amount of water is stored in one of the most important natural storage components - seasonal snow packs. The amount of water stored in each of those man-made and natural systems is roughly equivalent to the total annual anthropogenic water withdrawals. Storage in seasonal snow packs is declining as a result of climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt. At the same time, reservoir storage is declining as a result of sedimentation and limited construction of new reservoirs. We use a global hydrological model, combined with a global data set of ~6000 large reservoirs to simulate changes in reservoir and snow pack water storage and analyze impacts of those changes on seasonal water availability using a set of scenarios for changing climate conditions. Reservoir sedimentation is simulated using global erosion and sedimentation data sets and validated with observed reservoir storage loss. Results indicate annual loss rates between 0.5 and 1.0% of the installed capacity for most reservoirs, outpacing the storage increases through the construction of new reservoirs for the last decades so that reservoir storage is declining globally. With most reservoirs being about 50 years old, these losses threaten the sustainability of reservoir operation and can pose significant challenges to water resources management. Similarly, seasonal snow storage is declining at about 0.5% per year for the last 20 years. Even without changes in the magnitude of total precipitation, there can be significant changes in basin hydrology if there are climate-driven changes in snowfall and snowmelt, potentially away from the period (summer) when demand for irrigation, water supply, or hydropower production is high. These shifts in the timing can therefore result in significant socio-economic impacts through effects on food production or hydropower. Regions must vulnerable to dwindling total storage capacity include the southern slopes of the Himalaya, the east slopes of the Tibetan Plateau, and the basins in the Western US.

  10. Terrestrial water storage and polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehne, John; Wilson, Clark R.

    1991-01-01

    This study compares observed polar motion for the period 1900-1985 with meteorologic and hydrologic data for the world over the same period, in an effort to determine whether water storage, in combination with air mass redistribution, can account for the observed variance of polar motion. Monthly time series of estimated continental water storage and air mass excitation functions have been compared at the annual frequency and at the Chandler frequency using power, coherence, multiple coherence, and phase spectra. There is a discrepancy in accounting for more than half the variance of polar motion across a broad range of frequencies. Similar results have been obtained in recent studies of polar motion at frequencies above 1 cycle per year using modem space geodetic determinations of polar motion. The persistence of the discrepancey at the annual frequency and its broadband nature suggest a source of polar motion excitation due to air and water motion which has either not been correctly estimated or not yet identified.

  11. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, M.

    1981-01-01

    A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

  13. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  14. Case studies of chilled water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Andrepont, J.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Centralized chilled water systems are commonly used to meet the air conditioning needs of colleges, universities, medical complexes, and other large campuses or district cooling facilities. Data from the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) indicate that over half its members operate central cooling plants. Various configurations are in use, including single and multiple central chilling plants serving single distribution systems, nonconnected miniature central systems, and combinations of one central and one or more satellite plants on a single distribution loop. Central plant chillers may be electric motor-driven centrifugal compressors, gas engine-driven centrifugal compressors, steam turbine-driven centrifugal compressors, heat-driven absorption chillers, or combinations of these types. The usual refrigerants are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); but alternatives such as HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia (NH[sub 3]), and absorption solutions may also be employed. Free cooling via cooling towers is sometimes used, directly or indirectly, during periods of relatively low ambient air temperatures. During any central plant capacity expansion, O and M, capital, and life cycle costs are among the major concerns, as are the increasingly critical issues of reliability, flexibility, safety, and the environment. Specifically, atmospheric ozone depletion and the CFC refrigerant issue are now impacting everyone involved in the air conditioning field. Anyone selecting or planning for new chiller capacity is faced with choosing from such options as CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia, and absorption refrigeration. These choices have unique and serious drawbacks. Because of this chilled water storage is now experiencing increased application.

  15. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, Dominik; Frolking, Steve; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2013-09-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply and demand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can be significantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment of reservoir storage loss in conjunction with vulnerability to storage loss has not been done. We estimated the loss in reservoir capacity for a global data set of large reservoirs from 1901 to 2010, using modeled sediment flux data. We use spatially explicit population data sets as a proxy for storage demand and calculate storage capacity for all river basins globally. Simulations suggest that the net reservoir capacity is declining as a result of sedimentation (˜5% compared to the installed capacity). Combined with increasing need for storage, these losses challenge the sustainable management of reservoir operation and water resources management in many regions. River basins that are most vulnerable include those with a strong seasonal flow pattern and high population growth rates such as the major river basins in India and China. Decreasing storage capacity globally suggests that the role of reservoir water storage in offsetting sea-level rise is likely weakening and may be changing sign.

  16. Estimation of water withdrawal and distribution, water use, and wastewater collection and return flow in Cumberland, Rhode Island, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.; Craft, P.A.; Bratton, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Water-use data collected in Rhode Island by different State agencies or maintained by different public suppliers and wastewater- treatment facilities need to be integrated if these data are to be used in making water- resource management decisions. Water-use data for the town of Cumberland, a small area in northeastern Rhode Island, were compiled and integrated to provide an example of how the procedure could be applied. Integration and reliability assessment of water-use data could be facilitated if public suppliers, wastewater- treatment facilities, and State agencies used a number of standardized procedures for data collection and computer storage. The total surface water and ground water withdrawn in the town of Cumberland during 1988 is estimated to be 15.39 million gallons per day, of which 11.20 million gallons per day was exported to other towns. Water use in Cumberland included 2.51 million gallons per day for domestic use, 0.68 million gallons per day for industrial use, 0.27 million gallons per day for commercial use, and 0.73 million gallons per day for other use, most of which were unmetered use. Disposal of waste- water in Cumberland included 2.03 million gallons per day returned to the hydrologic system and 1.73 million gallons per day exported from Cumberland for wastewater treatment. Consumptive use during 1988 is estimated to be 0.43 million gallons per day.

  17. General view looking eastsoutheast, water storage tank on right, receiver ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking east-southeast, water storage tank on right, receiver building in center, antenna array in rear - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Columbia Falls Radar Site Receive Sector Three Water Storage Tank, At the end of Shadagee Ridge Road, Columbia Falls, Washington County, ME

  18. Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  19. General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  20. General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  1. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

  2. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be

  3. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  4. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  5. Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GRACE mission now allows hydrologists to study terrestrial water storage variations for the world's largest river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Because these mega-basins contribute the majority of global runoff, GRACE data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in basin water storage behavior that are relevant for global climate studies. Here we calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing, and then parameterize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. This results in a basin-independent relationship between precipitation forcing and storage response as a function of temporal frequency and large-scale basin properties, quantifying fundamental global hydrology relationships that were previously unobservable. Results show that for very large basins, temperature, soil water-holding capacity and percent forest cover are the major controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are relatively unimportant. At annual timescales, temperature variability drives storage variability for basins with a mean temperature under 15 deg C, while land surface variables characterize storage variability for warmer basins. At interannual timescales, land surface variables are the largest influence on storage behavior in all basins, with more forested and deeper soiled basins showing reduced response to interannual variability in precipitation forcing. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of forest cover and soil capacity on basin residence times for global-scale studies, and imply that land-atmosphere processes such as precipitation recycling play a critical role in large-basin storage dynamics. The derived empirical relationships were accurate in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period.

  6. Impact of bottled water storage duration and location on bacteriological quality.

    PubMed

    Duranceau, Steven J; Emerson, Hilary P; Wilder, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    An investigation studying the effects of storage duration and location on the persistence of heterotrophic microorganisms in oligotrophic bottled water environments has been completed. One-gallon high-density polyethylene water containers stored for up to 16 weeks at temperatures ranging from 2°C to >49°C in a refrigerator, indoor cabinet, covered porch, and car trunk were evaluated for microbiological quality. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) of up to 4 × 10(3) cfu/mL were detected in containers stored on a porch and car trunk; whereas, HPCs were found not to exceed 400 cfu/mL and 100 cfu/mL for bottles stored in indoor cabinets and refrigerators, respectively. Containers stored on an enclosed porch for up to seven years contained HPC of up to 4 × 10(4) cfu/mL. Logistic and Gompertz growth models predicted microbial growth rates for bottled water stored on a protected porch environment for long (R(2) 0.99) and short-term (R(2) 0.86) durations. PMID:22612550

  7. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  8. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ``an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.`` It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research.

  9. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  10. Streamflow sensitivity to water storage changes across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghuijs, Wouter R.; Hartmann, Andreas; Woods, Ross A.

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial water storage is the primary source of river flow. We introduce storage sensitivity of streamflow (ɛS), which for a given flow rate indicates the relative change in streamflow per change in catchment water storage. ɛS can be directly derived from streamflow observations. Analysis of 725 catchments in Europe reveals that ɛS is high in, e.g., parts of Spain, England, Germany, and Denmark, whereas flow regimes in parts of the Alps are more resilient (that is, less sensitive) to storage changes. A regional comparison of ɛS with observations indicates that ɛS is significantly correlated with variability of low (R2 = 0.41), median (R2 = 0.27), and high flow conditions (R2 = 0.35). Streamflow sensitivity provides new guidance for a changing hydrosphere where groundwater abstraction and climatic changes are altering water storage and flow regimes.

  11. Ammonia-water low-temperature thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Rizza, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    An analysis of a low-temperature thermal storage system using an ammonia-water solution both as a refrigerant and as a low-temperature thermal storage material is considered. The thermal storage is usable at a temperature of {minus}27 C and higher. The proposed system is designed to shift electric demand from high to low-demand periods. The system utilizes a heat-operated absorption refrigeration system; however, the generator heat is supplied by a self-contained vapor compression heat pump. The heat pump is operated during the off-peak period to recover the low-temperature thermal storage by reprocessing the stored ammonia-water solution to a lower ammonia-water concentration. The ammonia vapor liberated from solution in the dephlegmator is used in the compressor to produce the generator heat. Three different configurations are considered, including a solar-assisted system. The results are compared to a eutectic salt storage system.

  12. Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  13. Nitrogen sparging and blanketing of water storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, O.

    2000-04-01

    In many industrial processes, including most utility and industrial steam systems, good deaerated makeup and condensate water is stored in open-to-air storage tanks where it is contaminated by oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and dirt before it is used. This contamination can be prevented by nitrogen sparging and blanketing of storage tanks.

  14. Evolution of Forest Precipitation Water Storage Monitoring Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, J.; Lundquist, J. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation intercepted by forests plays a major role in the hydrologic cycle for more than one fourth of the global land area. Direct in situ measurement of intercepted precipitation is a challenging task. We discuss and compare measurement methods for forest precipitation interception beyond classical budgeting methods, with an emphasis on estimating the critical water storage component for rain and snow, then recommend future directions for the improvement of water storage estimation and monitoring. Comparison of techniques estimating water storage shows that methods submerging tree components produce the largest storage capacity values. Indirect methods typically result in the lowest water storage estimates. Whole tree lysimeters have been used with great success, yet are unable to separate trunk vs. canopy storage components. Remote sensing technologies, particularly signal attenuation, may permit this separation. Mechanical displacement methods show great promise and, perhaps as a result, have the greatest variety of techniques. Relating wind sway to canopy water storage via accelerometers also shows great promise, yet is in the proof-of-concept stage at present. Recommended future directions for forest water storage estimation are, to (1) apply these methods individually under different conditions to identify further strengths/weaknesses, (2) apply methods in tandem to identify complimentary strengths and limitations, (3) improve scaling techniques for element- and tree-specific techniques, (4) increase temporal monitoring resolution to capture intrastorm processes that may drive interception loss, and (5) foster synergies between communities developing methodologies for specific precipitation types as differing methods often rely on similar underlying measurement principles. Through addressing these research needs, we hope the scientific community can develop an "integrated" monitoring plan incorporating multiple measurement techniques to characterize forest-scale water storage dynamics while simultaneously being able to investigate underlying components driving those dynamics across the spectrum of precipitation and forest conditions.

  15. 16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. Hondius Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  16. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  17. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27’, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  18. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  19. Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

  20. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  1. Ecohydrology of dry regions: storage versus pulse soil water dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauenroth, William K.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Although arid and semiarid regions are defined by low precipitation, the seasonal timing of temperature and precipitation can influence net primary production and plant functional type composition. The importance of precipitation seasonality is evident in semiarid areas of the western U.S., which comprise the Intermountain (IM) zone, a region that receives important winter precipitation and is dominated by woody plants and the Great Plains (GP), a region that receives primarily summer precipitation and is dominated by perennial grasses. Although these general relationships are well recognized, specific differences in water cycling between these regions have not been well characterized. We used a daily time step soil water simulation model and twenty sites from each region to analyze differences in soil water dynamics and ecosystem water balance. IM soil water patterns are characterized by storage of water during fall, winter, and spring resulting in relatively reliable available water during spring and early summer, particularly in deep soil layers. By contrast, GP soil water patterns are driven by pulse precipitation events during the warm season, resulting in fluctuating water availability in all soil layers. These contrasting patterns of soil waterstorage versus pulse dynamicsexplain important differences between the two regions. Notably, the storage dynamics of the IN sites increases water availability in deep soil layers, favoring the deeper rooted woody plants in that region, whereas the pulse dynamics of the Great Plains sites provide water primarily in surface layers, favoring the shallow-rooted grasses in that region. In addition, because water received when plants are either not active or only partially so is more vulnerable to evaporation and sublimation than water delivered during the growing season, IM ecosystems use a smaller fraction of precipitation for transpiration (47%) than GP ecosystems (49%). Recognizing the pulse-storage dichotomy in soil water regimes between the IM and GP regions may be useful for understanding the potential influence of climate changes on soil water patterns and resulting dominant plant functional groups in both regions.

  2. Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zaag, Pieter; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2008-10-01

    In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid and dry subhumid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This paper addresses the following question: What criteria should policymakers apply in choosing between centralized storage capacity in the form of conventional large reservoirs and large interbasin water transfer schemes and decentralized and distributed storage systems in the farmers' fields and in microwatersheds and villages (tanks, microdams, and aquifers)? This exploratory paper uses an interdisciplinary framework encompassing the natural and social sciences to develop four indicators that are considered critical for understanding the biochemical, physical, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of the scale issues underlying the research question. These are the residence time of water in a reservoir, the water provision capacity, the cost effectiveness of providing reliable access to water per beneficiary, and the equity dimension: maximizing the number of beneficiaries and compensating the losers. The procedural governance challenges associated with each indicator are dealt with separately. It is concluded that water storage and the institutional capacity to effectively administer it are recursively linked. This implies that if the scale of new storage projects gradually increases, a society can progressively learn and adapt to the increasing institutional complexity.

  3. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  4. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  5. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  6. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  7. Optimal Water Pricing and Storage: The Effect of Discounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, R.; Gallagher, D.

    1982-02-01

    Optimizing the use of an exhaustible resource is a special case of the problem of storing a resource available as a periodic function of time. An extension of Hotelling's rule describes optimal storage policies: When water is in storage, its price should rise at the rate of interest, except that with contents at capacity the price must go up faster than the rate of interest. When contents are exhausted the price rises no more quickly than the rate of interest, and it must fall at some time. A rule is given for optimal storage capacity, and a version of Hotelling's rule is found for approximately optimal policies.

  8. Wettability of denture relining materials under water storage over time

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Na-Young; Lee, Ho-Rim; Lee, Heesu

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Poor wettability of denture relining materials may lead to retention problems and patient discomfort. PURPOSE Purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate wettability of nine denture relining materials using contact angle measurements under air and water storage over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nine denture relining materials were investigated in this study. Two heat-curing polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) denture base materials: Vertex RS, Lang, one self-curing polyethyl-methacrylate (PEMA) chairside reline resin: Rebase II, six silicone relining materials: Mucopren soft, Mucosoft, Mollosil plus, Sofreliner Touch, GC Reline Ultrasoft, Silagum automix comfort were used in this experiment. Contact angles were measured using high-resolution drop shape analysis system (DSA 10-MK2, KRUESS, Germany) under three conditions (in air after setting, 1 hour water storage, and 24 hours water storage). Nine materials were classified into three groups according to material composition (Group 1: PMMA, Group 2: PEMA, Group 3: Silicone). Mean values of contact angles were compared using independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, followed by a Scheffe's post hoc analysis (?= 0.01). RESULTS Contact angles of materials tested after air and water storage increased in the following order: Group 1 (PMMA), Group 2 (PEMA), Group 3 (Silicone). Heat-cured acrylic denture base resins had more wettability than silicone relining materials. Lang had the highest wettability after 24 hours of water storage. Silicone relining materials had lower wettability due to their hydrophobicity. Wettability of all denture relining materials, except Rebase II and Mollosil plus, increased after 24 hours of water storage. CONCLUSIONS Conventional heat-cured resin showed the highest wettability, therefore, it can be suggested that heat-cured acrylic resin is material of choice for denture relining materials. PMID:21165247

  9. Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE

    PubMed Central

    Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

    2013-01-01

    [1] A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world’s largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54 ≤ Ef ≤ 0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation. PMID:24563556

  10. 28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building on right, Minnesota Department of Transportation communication tower in center, and Minnesota Bureau of Mines wind tunnel on left, looking southwest toward launch pad area - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  11. WATER INFILTRATION AND STORAGE AFFECTED BY SUBSOILING AND SUBSEQUENT TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential benefits of subsoiling are difficult to predict. Objectives were to determine effect of subsoiling on water infiltration/storage and evaluate longevity of soil structure following tillage. Tillage treatments were no subsoiling (NoSS), subsoiled (SS), and subsoiled plus secondary tillage ...

  12. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  13. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  14. Augmenting soil water storage using uncharred switchgrass and pyrolyzed biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is an amendment that can augment soil water storage; however, its projected cost per ton could be financially limiting at field application scales. It may be more monetarily convenient if an alternate amendment were available that could deliver similar soil enhancements. We compared two swi...

  15. Residue management to improve precipitation storage and water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful dryland crop production in semiarid environments is dependent upon efficient storage of precipitation and use of stored soil water supplies. The objectives of this presentation are to: 1. Summarize information regarding the effects of time of year; environmental parameters; residue orient...

  16. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen...

  17. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen...

  18. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen...

  19. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen...

  20. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement Compressed Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen...

  1. Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, C. R., (compiler)

    1978-01-01

    This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Butler, D; Memon, F A; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L; Jefferson, B

    2010-01-01

    Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been addressed. In this paper, performance of a constructed wetland based grey water recycling system was analysed by taking the constraint of residence time during storage into account using an object based household water cycle model. Two indicators, water saving efficiency (WSE) and residence time index (RTI), are employed to reflect the system's performance and residence time during storage respectively. Results show that WSE and RTI change with storage tank volumes oppositely. As both high WSE and RTI cannot be achieved simultaneously, it is concluded that in order to achieve the most cost-effective and safe solution, systems with both small grey and green tanks are needed, whilst accepting that only relatively modest water saving efficiency targets can be achieved. Higher efficiencies will only be practicable if water quality deterioration in the green water tank can be prevented by some means (e.g. disinfection). PMID:19796787

  3. Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Jur?ev-Savi?evi?, Anamarija; Bradari?, Nikola; Pai?, Vlado Ozic; Muli?, Rosanda; Puntari?, Dinko; Mie, Kornelija

    2014-09-01

    Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures. PMID:25507374

  4. Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Jur?ev-Savi?evi?, Anamarija; Bradari?, Nikola; Pai?, Vlado Ozic; Muli?, Rosanda; Puntari?, Dinko; Mie, Kornelija

    2014-09-01

    Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures. PMID:25420390

  5. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  6. Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

    1993-03-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

  7. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  8. Tanker mooring, storage for sub-Arctic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, K.I.; King, R.D.; Post, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    The expansion of exploration into sub-arctic offshore waters has created a need for tanker mooring facilities for floating storage vessels and tanker loading. In many sub-arctic areas mooring facilities are subject to wind, wave and current conditions which approach conditions in the North Sea during storm seasons. In other seasons, the same facilities will be subject to impact and overturning forces from drifting ice floes and massive ice ridges. A study to develop suitable concepts and preliminary designs for such tanker mooring facilities is discussed. The study was limited to areas where risk of iceberg collision may be ignored, but where ice conditions generally occur 4-6 months during each year with ice coverage ranging up to 100% during this period. The scope of the study required development of suitable concepts and preliminary design studies for three basic SPM tanker loading and storage systems: for direct loading of ice-strengthened shuttle tankers; with a permanently moored icebreaking storage vessel with storage capacity for 1,400,000 bbl of crude oil; and with submerged storage capacity for 1,400,00 bbl of crude oil.

  9. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  10. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements with respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to...

  11. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements with respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to...

  12. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements with respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to...

  13. Colorado River Basin Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics and Vegetation Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durcik, M.; Troch, P. A.; Gupta, H. V.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is an important hydrologic variable that defines the state of a river basin (e.g. floods and droughts) and vegetation response to the water availability and incoming energy. Direct determination of TWS is difficult due to insufficient in-situ data on space-time variability of hydrologic stores (snow, soil moisture, and groundwater) and fluxes (precipitation, evapotranspiration). To better understand intra and inter annual variability of TWS and vegetation response to waters storage changes we implemented three alternative methods to estimate TWS changes: (1) the Basin-Scale Water Balance (BSWB) using North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset; (2) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) forced with gridded meteorological data; and (3) new remotely sensed gravity field data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Vegetation is represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from MODIS and AVHRR estimates. Preliminary results show strong correlations between TWS data and its components (precipitation, modeled shallow, deep soil moisture, etc.) and vegetation greenness and different vegetation response times to available water in upper and lower basins. TWS data are generated in near-real time, stored in the SAHRA Geodatabase and available at http://voda.hwr.arizona.edu/twsc/sahra/.

  14. SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

  15. Optimization of storage reservoir considering water quantity and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Paulo; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2003-10-01

    Many factors influence water quality within a reservoir. Deforestation, excessive erosion, introduction of new species, domestic and industrial waste disposal and agricultural runoff are only a few examples.It is well known by specialists in water resources management that water levels in a reservoir may also affect its quality. But how these processes occur and how appropriate water levels can be maintained are very hard questions to answer. This is because of the physical and biological processes occurring inside the water body, and also due to the various demands from society concerning water uses.Nowadays, through the use of models, knowledge of some of the conditions can enable us to predict future conditions. In many cases, reservoir models, such as physical models for water quality, may predict the future water quality situation. These models have been used successfully to enhance knowledge about the interactions among the different parts inherent to the water systems.Through the combination of water quality and optimization models, this study proposes a suitable methodology for the assessment of planning operations of a storage reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to consider a multipurpose reservoir, under different water demands and uses from societies, concerning reservoir water quality.The proposed optimization is realized through the use of dynamic programming combined with stochastic techniques that can handle the probabilistic characteristics of inflow quantity and quality. For the water quality assessment, the UNEP/ILEC one-dimensional model with two layers called PAMOLARE is applied. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out using a genetic algorithm model. Copyright

  16. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  17. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

  18. Replacement of tritiated water from irradiated fuel storage bay

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Kennedy, B.; Minichilli, A.; Mitchell, T.

    2015-03-15

    Recently, AECL developed a novel method to reduce tritium emissions (to groundwater) and personnel doses at the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor irradiated fuel storage bay (also known as rod or spent fuel bay) through a water swap process. The light water in the fuel bay had built up tritium that had been transferred from the heavy water moderator through normal fuel transfers. The major advantage of the thermal stratification method was that a very effective tritium reduction could be achieved by swapping a minimal volume of bay water and warm tritiated water would be skimmed off the bay surface. A demonstration of the method was done that involved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the swap process and a test program that showed excellent agreement with model prediction for the effective removal of almost all the tritium with a minimal water volume. Building on the successful demonstration, AECL fabricated, installed, commissioned and operated a full-scale system to perform a water swap. This full-scale water swap operation achieved a tritium removal efficiency of about 96%.

  19. 27 CFR 20.252 - Samples larger than five gallons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Samples larger than five gallons. 20.252 Section 20.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Samples of Specially Denatured Spirits §...

  20. Simulation of reservoir storage and firm yields of three surface-water supplies, Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2002-01-01

    A Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model previously developed for the Ipswich River Basin was modified to simulate the hydrologic response and firm yields of the water-supply systems of Lynn, Peabody, and Salem-Beverly. The updated model, expanded to include a portion of the Saugus River Basin that supplies water to Lynn, simulated reservoir system storage over a 35-year period (1961-95) under permitted withdrawals and hypothetical restrictions designed to maintain seasonally varied streamflow for aquatic habitat. A firm yield was calculated for each system and each withdrawal restriction by altering demands until the system failed. This is considered the maximum withdrawal rate that satisfies demands, but depletes reservoir storage. Simulations indicate that, under the permitted withdrawals, Lynn and Salem-Beverly were able to meet demands and generally have their reservoir system recover to full capacity during most years; reservoir storage averaged 83 and 82 percent of capacity, respectively. The firm yields for the Lynn and Salem-Beverly systems were 11.4 and 12.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), respectively, or 8 and 21 percent more than average 1998-2000 demands, respectively. Under permitted withdrawals and average 1998-2000 demands, the Peabody system failed in all years; thus Peabody purchased water to meet demands. The firm yield for the Peabody system is 3.70 Mgal/d, or 37 percent less than the average 1998-2000 demand. Simulations that limit withdrawals to levels recommended by the Ipswich River Fisheries Restoration Task Group (IRFRTG) indicate that under average 1998-2000 demands, reservoir storage was depleted in each of the three systems. Reservoir storage under average 1998-2000 demands and IRFRTG-recommended streamflow requirements averaged 15, 22, and 71 percent of capacity for the Lynn, Peabody, Salem-Beverly systems, respectively. The firm-yield estimates under the IRFRTG-recommended streamflow requirements were 6.02, 1.94, and 7.69 Mgal/d or 43, 64, and 34 percent less than the average 1998-2000 demands for the Lynn, Peabody, and Salem-Beverly systems, respectively. Simulations that limit withdrawals from the Saugus River to a less stringent set of restrictions (based on an Instream Flow Incremental Methodology study) than those previously simulated indicate that the firm yield of the Lynn system is about 31 percent less than the average 1998-2000 withdrawals (7.31 Mgal/d).

  1. Fractal behavior of soil water storage at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenjun; Lin, Mi; Biswas, Asim; Si, Bing C.; Chau, Henry W.; Cresswell, Hamish P.

    2016-02-01

    Spatio-temporal behavior of soil water is essential to understand the science of hydrodynamics. Data intensive measurement of surface soil water using remote sensing has established that the spatial variability of soil water can be described using the principle of self-similarity (scaling properties) or fractal theory. This information can be used in determining land management practices provided the surface scaling properties hold at deep layer. Current study examined the scaling properties of sub-surface soil water and its relationship to surface soil water, thereby serving as the supporting information for the plant root and vadose zone models. Soil water storage (SWS) down to 1.4 m depth at seven equal intervals was measured along a transect of 576 m for 5 years. The surface SWS showed multifractal nature only during the wet period (from snowmelt until mid to late June with large SWS) indicating the need of multiple scaling indices in transferring soil water variability information over multiple scales. However, with increasing depth, the SWS became monofractal in nature indicating the need of single scaling index to upscale/downscale soil water variability information. The dynamic nature made the surface layer soil water in the wet period highly variable compared to the deep layers. In contrast, all soil layers during the dry period (from late June to the end of the growing season with low SWS) were monofractal in nature, probably resulting from the high evapotranspirative demand of the growing vegetation that surpassed other effects. This strong similarity between the scaling properties at the surface layer and deep layers provides the possibility of inferring about the whole profile soil water dynamics using the scaling properties of the easy-to-measure surface SWS data.

  2. Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

  3. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  4. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms in GIS, potential water storage sites are identified for constructing regional reservoirs. Subsequently, sites are prioritized based on runoff generation potential (m3 per unit area), and geographical suitability for constructing storage structures. The results from the spatial analysis are used as input for the optimization model. Allocation of resources and appropriate dimension for dams and associated structures are identified using the optimization model. The model evaluates the capability of alternative reservoirs for cost-efficient water management. The Geographic Information System is used to store, analyze, and integrate spatially explicit and non-spatial attribute information whereas the algebraic modeling platform is used to develop the dynamic optimization model. The results of this methodology are validated over space against satellite remote sensing data and existing data on reservoir capacities and runoff. The method is suitable for application of on-farm water storage structures, water distribution networks, and moisture conservation structures in a global context.

  5. Behaviour of metals during reclaimed water aquifer storage and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderzalm, J.; Le Gal La Salle, C.; Hutson, J.; Dillon, P.

    2003-04-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a valuable resource management tool, storing available water, such as surface water or wastewater, for reuse when required. A full-scale ASR trial at Bolivar, South Australia, investigates the feasibility of harvesting and storing treated wastewater for irrigation in the neighbouring horticultural region, thus relieving pressure on groundwater resources and reducing the discharge of nutrient rich effluent to coastal waters. This paper investigates the impact of this reclaimed water ASR trial on the behaviour of iron, manganese, arsenic, aluminium, zinc, nickel and strontium, and the resultant recovered water quality. Subsurface transport can offer water quality improvements through attenuation of injected contaminants but can also release or mobilise metals, thus degrading water quality. At Bolivar, the ASR well is open over the entire depth of the target tertiary, confined limestone aquifer, approximately 100 to 170 metres below ground surface. Water quality changes are observed at 4 m and 50 m observation wells and in recovered water from the ASR well. The reclaimed water injectant has undergone conventional secondary treatment, dissolved air flotation and filtration and chlorination, and has variable composition throughout the 250 ML injection period. Iron, manganese, zinc and aluminium are injected in concentrations exceeding that of the native groundwater and removal is evident within 4 m of aquifer passage. Injected strontium is considerably lower than the native signature and mixing results in a marginal increase in the recovered level of strontium. Arsenic and nickel are injected at concentrations comparable to the native groundwater and while nickel shows little change with aquifer passage, arsenic increases slightly (0.0002 mmol/L) within 4 m aquifer passage. There is evidence of increased aluminium (0.05 mmol/L) in the most permeable zone of the aquifer (134-139 m) during both injection and recovery, but this is not seen in water recovered over the entire aquifer depth from the ASR well (<0.005 mmol/L). Peak concentrations of iron (0.18 mmol/L), manganese (0.011 mmol/L) and arsenic (0.0010 mmol/L) are evident in a strongly reducing environment surrounding the ASR well during the storage period but decline rapidly upon the commencement of recovery. Arsenic in the recovered water remains around 0.0002 mmol/L higher than injected, consistent with the concentrations at 4 m from the ASR well. Overall, the recovered water quality indicates that the ASR cycle is effective in decreasing the concentration of iron, manganese, zinc and aluminium in the reclaimed water injectant, with marginal increases in strontium and arsenic. Injected concentrations, with the exception of iron, meet the Australian irrigation water guidelines and remain within these guidelines in the recovered water (including iron), following the first 3 ML of recovery. Recovered concentrations predominantly meet the Australian drinking water guidelines for manganese, aluminium, zinc and nickel.

  6. Juvenile turtles for mosquito control in water storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G; Marten, G G; Fernandez, E; Portillo, H

    1993-09-01

    Juvenile turtles, Trachemys scripta, provided highly effective control of mosquito larvae in cement tanks (pilas) where water was stored for household cleaning. When single turtles were introduced to tanks with histories of high mosquito production, nearly all turtles remained in good health and no mosquito larvae survived to the pupal stage. Families welcome turtles in their water storage containers in Honduras. Humane conditions for turtles can be assured by providing small quantities of table scraps to supplement their diet and by placing a small floating platform in the tank for basking. Although turtles can serve as alternate hosts for Salmonella, available evidence suggests that turtles in tanks should not be a source of human infection. Further confirmation that there is no Salmonella hazard should precede routine use of turtles for mosquito control. PMID:7902872

  7. Evaluation of power generation operations in response to changes in surface water reservoir storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2013-06-01

    We used a customized, river basin-based model of surface water rights to evaluate the response of power plants to drought via simulated changes in reservoir storage. Our methodology models surface water rights in 11 river basins in Texas using five cases: (1) storage decrease of existing capacity of 10%, (2) storage decrease of 50%, (3) complete elimination of storage, (4) storage increase of 10% (all at existing locations), and (5) construction of new reservoirs (at new locations) with a total increase in baseline reservoir capacity for power plant cooling of 9%. Using the Brazos River basin as a sample, we evaluated power generation operations in terms of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability. As simulated water storage decreases, reliability generally decreases and resiliency and vulnerability remain relatively constant. All three metrics remain relatively constant with increasing reservoir storage, with the exception of one power plant. As reservoir storage changes at power plants, other water users in the basin are also affected. In general, decreasing water storage is beneficial to other water users in the basin, and increasing storage is detrimental for many other users. Our analysis reveals basin-wide and individual power plant-level impacts of changing reservoir storage, demonstrating a methodology for evaluation of the sustainability and feasibility of constructing new reservoir storage as a water and energy management approach.

  8. Optimal Parameter Determination for Tritiated Water Storage in Polyacrylic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia; Georgescu, Rodica; Ionita, Gh.

    2005-07-15

    Due to the remarkable capacity of water retaining, croslinked polyacrylic acids (PAA) represent an interesting alternative for tritiated water trapping. The study was developed on radiolytical processes in PAA:HTO systems derivated from irradiation of polymeric network by disintegration of tritium atoms from HTO. The aim of these studies is the identification of polymeric structures and optimal storage conditions.Sol and gel fractions were determinated by radiometrical methods using PAA labeled with 14-C at carboxylic groups and T at main chains of the polymer. Simulation of radiolytical processes was realized using {gamma} radiation field emitted by a irradiation source of 60-Co which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 3 kGy/h. Self-radiolytical effects were investigated using labeled PAA in HTO with great radioactive concentration (37-185 GBq/mL). The experiment suggests as optimum for HTO storage as tritium liquid wastes a 1:30 PAA:HTO swelling degree at 18.5-37 MBqL. HTO radioactive concentration.RES studies of radiolytical processes were also realized on dry polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyacrylic based hydrogels irradiated and determined at 77 K. In the study we observed the effect of swelling capacity of hydrogel o the formation of free radicals.

  9. Acceleration of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, R.; Chao, B. F.; Heki, K.

    2008-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite has been producing scientific results on mass variations since its launch in 2002, particularly land water storage on seasonal and inter-annual timescales as the soil moisture reflects the time integration of fluxes of precipitation, evapo-transpiration and runoff. For example, in Amazon Basin (e.g. Tapley et al., 2004), Alaska glacial melting (e.g. Tamisiea et al., 2005), ENSO precipitation anomalies (Morishita and Heki, 2008), and seasonal land water storage with global hydrological model (Syed et al., 2008). If climate changes have trends of time scale longer than inter-annual, we can expect to see quadratic trends in land water time series now that over six years have passed since GRACE"fs launch and the time span is becoming long enough to study such trends, which signify the temporal acceleration in gravity, and hence climatic, changes. To look for such accelerations, we compute time series of equivalent water thicknesses in global land regions from monthly GRACE data of gravity anomaly, and model the changes with quadratic functions in addition to seasonal components. We repeat similar calculations for the GLDAS global hydrological model data as well. We found that the geographic distribution of the quadratic trends shows good agreement between GRACE and GLDAS, prominent in East Africa, East Europe, Ural Mountains, eastern North America and southern South America. Amplitudes of the signals are generally larger in GRACE than the corresponding GLDAS model. We also compare and verify such acceleration terms with trends in meteorological data of precipitation and evapo-transpiration.

  10. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly underestimated (27 km3) if reservoir storage changes were assumed uniform in the basin. Consequently, estimated groundwater contribution from GRACE would have been largely overestimated in this region if the actual distribution of water was not explicitly taken into account. Effects of point masses on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating estimating groundwater storage changes from GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved by combining independent water mass spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not the dominant mechanism. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO (Follow-On) observations.

  11. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements for uncovered...

  12. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements for uncovered...

  13. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.714 Requirements for uncovered...

  14. A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Alys C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    We present a quantitative approach for measuring hydrological drought occurrence and severity based on terrestrial water storage observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied by calculating the magnitude of the deviation of regional, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies from the time series' monthly climatology, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Monthly deficits explicitly quantify the volume of water required to return to normal water storage conditions. We combine storage deficits with event duration to calculate drought severity. Drought databases are referenced to identify meteorological drought events in the Amazon and Zambezi River basins and the southeastern United States and Texas regions. This storage deficit method clearly identifies hydrological drought onset, end, and duration; quantifies instantaneous severity and peak drought magnitude; and compares well with the meteorological drought databases. It also reveals information about the hydrological effects of meteorological drought on regional water storage.

  15. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  17. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  18. Experimentally determined water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferot, A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.

    2010-12-01

    Trace amounts of hydrogen dissolved as defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) in the mantle are believed to play a key role in physical and chemical processes in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hence, the estimation of water storage in mantle phases and solubility mechanisms are important in order to better understand the effect of water. Experimental data on water solubility in NAMs are available for upper mantle minerals such as olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. However, the majority of studies are based on the study of single phases, and at temperatures or pressures that are too low for the Earth’s upper mantle. The aim of this study is to constrain the combined effects of pressure, temperature and composition on water solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene under upper mantle conditions. The solubility of water in coexisting orthopyroxene and olivine was investigated by simultaneously synthesizing the two phases at high pressure and high temperature in a multi-anvil press. Experiments were performed under water-saturated conditions in the MSH systems with Fe and Al at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 9 GPa and temperatures between 1175 and 1400°C. Integrated OH absorbances were determined using polarized infrared spectroscopy on doubly polished thin sections of randomly oriented crystals. Water solubility in olivine increases with pressure and decreases with temperature as has been described previously (Bali et al., 2008). The aluminum content strongly decreases in olivine with pressure from 0.09 wt% at 2.5 GPa and 1250°C to 0.04 wt% at 9 GPa and 1175°C. The incorporation of this trivalent cation in the system enhances water solubility in olivine even if present in trace amounts, however this behavior appears to reverse at high pressure. The effect of temperature on water solubility follows a bell-shaped curve with a maximum solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene at 1250°C. Aluminum is incorporated in orthopyroxene following the Tschermak substitution and strongly decreases as pressure increases. Water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine is always lower than 1 except at low pressure. However, it increases with the incorporation of aluminum wich results in water contents in olivine 5 times greater that in orthopyroxene at 7.5 GPa, despite aluminum preferentially entering into orthopyroxene. Finally, water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine decreases with pressure in the Al-free and -bearing system. The effect of temperature is more variable with pressure. The present data allows constructing a model of water solubility in olivine at all pressures and temperatures in the MFASH system. Combining this model with the presently measured partitioning of water between olivine and orthopyroxene, as well as previous data on solubility in clinopyroxene and garnet we are able to build a model of water saturation curve in the upper mantle. References Bali, E., Bolfan-Casanova, N., Koga, K.T., 2008. Pressure and temperature dependence of H solubility in forsterite : an implication to water activity in the Earth interior. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 268, 354-363.

  19. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2012-10-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not a major factor. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO observations.

  20. Modelling the operation of a solar hot water installation with a storage tank containing two thermal energy storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, Zbyslaw; Wnuk, Ryszard; Jaworski, Maciej

    1993-12-01

    The performance of a solar hot water installation may be dramatically improved by placing elements with substances which undergo phase changes accompanied by significant heat effects in the water tank. In this article the authors provide a mathematical description of a hot water installation with two storage media. The authors experimentally verified a mathematical model of a tank for a spherical storage bed filled with stearin. The authors also provide sample simulation calculations of the operation of an installation designed for Polish climatic conditions which demonstrates the dramatic effect of elements with substances which undergo phase changes accompanied by significant heat effects on the installation's performance characteristics.

  1. Water contamination in urban south India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Brick, Thomas; Primrose, Beryl; Chandrasekhar, R; Roy, Sheela; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2004-10-01

    Water contamination, at source and during household storage, is a major cause of enterically transmitted infections in developing countries. This study assessed contamination of the municipal water in a south Indian town, which obtains its water intermittently from a surface lake and by pumping subsurface water from a dry river bed, and monitored microbial contamination during household storage. All samples of the 'treated' municipal water were contaminated when freshly pumped, and on household storage, 25/37 (67%) showed increased contamination during storage periods from 1 to 9 days. Household storage in brass, but not in containers of other materials significantly decreased contamination of water (p = 0.04). This was confirmed in the laboratory by testing water seeded with 10(3) to 10(5) Escherichia coli per 100 ml stored in containers of different materials (p < 0.01). Despite the requirements for provision of safe drinking water in municipal areas, in practice the water supplied in Vellore is contaminated and current household storage practices increase the level of contamination in at least two-thirds of households. The implementation of locally appropriate point-of-use disinfection and safe household storage practices in developing countries is an urgent need to ensure a safe, reliable year-round supply in areas where clean water is not available. PMID:15575563

  2. Water contamination in urban south India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Brick T; Primrose B; Chandrasekhar R; Roy S; Muliyil J; Kang G

    2004-10-01

    Water contamination, at source and during household storage, is a major cause of enterically transmitted infections in developing countries. This study assessed contamination of the municipal water in a south Indian town, which obtains its water intermittently from a surface lake and by pumping subsurface water from a dry river bed, and monitored microbial contamination during household storage. All samples of the 'treated' municipal water were contaminated when freshly pumped, and on household storage, 25/37 (67%) showed increased contamination during storage periods from 1 to 9 days. Household storage in brass, but not in containers of other materials significantly decreased contamination of water (p = 0.04). This was confirmed in the laboratory by testing water seeded with 10(3) to 10(5) Escherichia coli per 100 ml stored in containers of different materials (p < 0.01). Despite the requirements for provision of safe drinking water in municipal areas, in practice the water supplied in Vellore is contaminated and current household storage practices increase the level of contamination in at least two-thirds of households. The implementation of locally appropriate point-of-use disinfection and safe household storage practices in developing countries is an urgent need to ensure a safe, reliable year-round supply in areas where clean water is not available.

  3. Tree invasion effects on peat water storage capacity (La Guette peatland, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Stephane; Viel, Emelie; Gogo, Sebastien; Le Moing, Franck; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    In peatlands, carbon fluxes are mainly controlled by peat water saturation state, and this saturation state is an equilibrium between recharge/drainage fluxes and the peat storage capacity. The invasion of Sphagnum peatlands by vascular plants is a current problem in many peat-accumulating systems, raising the question of the relationships between vegetation changes and water storage capacity of peat horizons. To investigate this question, the water storage capacity of the "La Guette" peatland (France), invaded by Betula spp was monitored at the watershed scale since 2008 using a water balance approach and was estimated during the 20th century using historical photographs showing the drainage network and the land cover change. During this period, the site clearly experienced a vegetation change as the site was treeless in 1944. Two main results arise from this experimental device: (1) In this disturbed peatland, tree consumption amplifies the summer drought and the resulting water table drawdown allows an increase of air entrapment in the peat. Even if runoff flows occurred after this drought, the water storage capacity is affected, with about 30% of air that remains trapped in the peat porosity 6 months after the drought period. The effects of a single drought on peat water storage capacity are observed over more than a single hydrological cycle, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of droughts decreasing the peat water storage capacity. (2) Tree invasion is found to drive the drainage network morphology. Hydrological model calibrated for the study site suggested that the development of drainage network had reduced the water storage capacity of the peatland. These observations evidenced a positive feedback between vegetation dynamics and water storage capacity: tree invasion changes the drainage network geometry that decreases the peat water storage capacity, which in return may favor tree development. These two results highlight that the peat water storage capacity is indirectly reduced by tree invasion.

  4. Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

  5. Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of five homosporeous species of ferns and compared with properties of pollen, seeds, and fern leaf tissue. Isotherms were constructed at 5, 25, and 45 degrees C and analysed using different physicochemical models in order to quantify chemical affinity and heat (enthalpy) of sorption of water in fern spores. Fern spores hydrate slowly but dry rapidly at ambient relative humidity. Low Brunauer-Emmet-Teller monolayer values, few water-binding sites according to the D'Arcy-Watt model, and limited solute-solvent compatibility according to the Flory-Huggins model suggest that fern spores have low affinity for water. Despite the low water affinity, fern spores demonstrate relatively high values of sorption enthalpy (DeltaH(sorp)). Parameters associated with binding sites and DeltaH(sorp) decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting temperature- and hydration-dependent changes in volume of spore macromolecules. Collectively, these data may relate to the degree to which cellular structures within fern spores are stabilized during drying and cooling. Water sorption properties within fern spores suggest that storage at subfreezing temperatures will give longevities comparable with those achieved with seeds. However, the window of optimum water contents for fern spores is very narrow and much lower than that measured in seeds, making precise manipulation of water content imperative for achieving maximum longevity. PMID:17283377

  6. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  7. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  8. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  9. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  10. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  11. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  12. Effect of the storage tank thermal insulation on the thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using CFD simulations. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data from literature, we propose a geometrical change allowing limiting the main disadvantage of this solar system which is its high night losses due to the non-insulated storage tank surface. A second 3D CFD model of an ICSSWH in which the storage tank is partially insulated is developed and three values of this tank thermal insulated fraction are studied. Numerical results show that the partially insulated tank based ICSSWH presents lower thermal losses during the night and this night thermal losses coefficient is reduced from 14.6 to 11.64 W K-1 for the tank thermal insulation fraction τ = 1/4. Similarly, the modified system presents the advantage of its lower thermal losses even during the day. Regarding the thermal production, it is seen that the modified system presents higher water temperature at night and that for all the tank thermal insulation fractions. Concerning the operation of this modified system during the day, the water temperature is lower during the day and that up to 16 h but the water temperature which achieves 324 K for the storage tank thermal insulation fraction τ = 1/8 still sufficiently high to satisfy a family hot water needs.

  13. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate. PMID:22508123

  14. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation potential in the presence of excess chlorine was measured. The role of mixing between injection water and ground water and the conservative or non-conservative behavior of trihalomethanes was studied by adding a conservative tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, to the injection water and monitoring its concentration in the extraction water. The potential for biodegradation of trihalomethanes by aquifer bacteria was assessed in laboratory experiments: Microcosms containing ground water or extraction water and sediment or concentrated bacteria were spiked with trihalomethanes, and the amount of trihalomethanes was monitored during an incubation period. The potential for sorption of trihalomethanes to aquifer sediments was assessed in laboratory experiments: Mixtures of sediment and water were spiked with trihalomethanes, and then the trihalomethane concentrations were measured after an equilibration period.

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  17. Measuring water storage fluctuations in lake Dongting, China, by Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiqun; Xu, Kaiqin; Yang, Yonghui; Qi, Lianhui; Hayashi, Seiji; Watanabe, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    Although satellite radar altimetry was developed and optimized for open oceans, it has been used to monitor variations in the level of inland water-bodies such as lakes and rivers. Here, for the first time, we have further used the altimetry-derived variation of water level for estimating the fluctuation of water storage as an addition to the present in situ water storage estimation systems to be used in remote areas and in emergency situation such as in the events flooding monitoring and for studying the effect of climate change. Lake Dongting, the second largest lake in China, influenced frequently by flooding, was, therefore, chosen to demonstrate the potential of the technique. By using the concept of an "assumed reference point", we converted Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry data on water level variations in Lake Dongting to "water level" data. The "water level" time-series data and in situ water storage were used to establish a rating curve. From the rating curve, we converted data on "water level" derived from seven years (1993-1999) of Topex/Poseidon data to actual water storage in Lake Dongting. The result reveals that the seasonal and annual fluctuations of water storage occurred during the 1990s with a more frequent flooding at the late 1990s' especially the flooding in whole catchment level in 1998 and 1999. The study supports the usefulness of satellite altimetry for dense and continuous monitoring of the temporal variations in water dynamic in moderate to large lakes. PMID:16502025

  18. Relating GRACE terrestrial water storage variations to global fields of atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Isabelle Seneviratne, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in atmospheric dynamics all influence terrestrial water storage, with impacts on ecosystems functions, human activities and land-climate interactions. Here we explore to which degree atmospheric variables can explain GRACE estimates of terrestrial water storage on different time scales. Since 2012, the most recent GRACE gravity field solutions (Release 05) can be used to monitor global changes in terrestrial water storage with an unprecedented level of accuracy over more than a decade. In addition, the release of associated gridded and post-processed products facilitates comparisons with other global datasets such as land surface model outputs or satellite observations. We investigate how decadal trends, inter-annual fluctuations as well as monthly anomalies of the seasonal cycle of terrestrial water storage can be related to fields of atmospheric forcing, including e.g. precipitation and temperature as estimated in global reanalysis products using statistical techniques. In the majority of the locations with high signal to noise ratio, both short and long-term fluctuations of total terrestrial water storage can be reconstructed to a large degree based on available atmospheric forcing. However, in some locations atmospheric forcing alone is not sufficient to explain the total change in water storage, suggesting strong influence of other processes. Within that framework, the question of an amplification or attenuation of atmospheric forcing through land-surface feedbacks and changes in long term water storage is discussed, also with respect to uncertainties and potential systematic biases in the results.

  19. Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

  20. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    LEWIS, M.E.

    2000-04-06

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

  1. Total water storage dynamics derived from tree-ring records and terrestrial gravity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Heinrich, Ingo; Merz, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    For both societal and ecological reasons, it is important to understand past and future subsurface water dynamics but estimating subsurface water storage is notoriously difficult. In this pilot study, we suggest the reconstruction of subsurface water dynamics by a multi-disciplinary approach combining hydrology, dendrochronology and geodesy. In a first step, nine complete years of high-precision gravimeter observations are used to estimate water storage changes in the subsurface at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. The record is extended to 63 years by calibrating a hydrological model against the 9 years of gravimeter observations. The relationship between tree-ring growth and water storage changes is evaluated as well as that between tree-ring growth and supplementary hydro-meteorological data. Results suggest that tree-ring growth is influenced primarily by subsurface water storage. Other variables related to the overall moisture status (e.g., Standardized Precipitation Index, Palmer Drought Severity Index, streamflow) are also strongly correlated with tree-ring width. While these indices are all indicators of water stored in the landscape, water storage changes of the subsurface estimated by depth-integral measurements give us the unique opportunity to directly reconstruct subsurface water storage dynamics from records of tree-ring width. Such long reconstructions will improve our knowledge of past water storage variations and our ability to predict future developments. Finally, knowing the relationship between subsurface storage dynamics and tree-ring growth improves the understanding of the different signal components contained in tree-ring chronologies.

  2. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  3. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are

  4. Monitoring gravity and water storage changes in northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    The humid sudanian zone of West-Africa undergoes a monsoon climate, implying a strong seasonality in water storage changes (WSC). The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project aims at monitoring both these local and non-local hydrological contributions with the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is located in hard-rock basement context in Djougou, northern Benin, and is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rainfall, soil moisture, water table, evapotranspiration, ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared to hydrological data and to physically-based or conceptual hydrological models calibrated on these data. This presentation shows the results and limitations of each gravimeter in the context of WSC retrieval. This site was first measured with a FG5 absolute gravimeter four times a year from 2008 to 2013. This can be considered as a high sampling rate, given the remote location and the complexity of FG5 carriage and installation. It allowed to derive an average specific yield for the local aquifer, and preliminary estimates of seasonal WSC (up to 120 nm/s2 - 270mm). Yet the lack of continuity in the data avoids further investigations. The SG-060 superconducting gravimeter has been installed in 2010 in order to monitor gravity response to WSC in a continuous way. A strong drift is present (230nm/s2/yr), and FG5 data together with a-priori information on WSC are needed for estimating its effect. Also, frequent power-failures lead to some significant gaps and offsets during which fast WSC may occur (e.g. rain), yielding to a challenging correction for these events. The retrieval of inter-annual WSC suffers from these strong and limiting instrumental effects. At higher frequencies, up to a few days, continuous gravity monitoring may help to quantify evapotranspiration (ET), a poorly-known variable of the hydrological cycle. In Djougou, favorable -flat- topographic conditions and significant ET (up to 5 mm/day) are present. However, the shelter size together with the low altitude of the SG sensor with respect to the ground yield to diminish the expected effect of ET. Also, atmospheric contribution at such frequencies in the equatorial band is governed by S1 and S2 pressure waves of planetary extension, with rather complicated behavior. Therefore, the retrieval of ET is limited by the SG environment (shelter and instrument height) and our ability to fully correct for atmospheric effects. The spatial variations of gravity changes on the local catchment are also investigated by CG5 micro-gravity surveys since July 2011 with weekly measurements in the wet season and monthly in the dry season, resulting in more than two years and 3 wet seasons coverage. This survey helped to identify preferential recharge areas and some specific water-redistribution processes at the catchment scale, driven by subsurface heterogeneities.

  5. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  6. Integrated Modeling Approach for Verifying Water Storage Services for a Payment for Environmental Service Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, G.; Shukla, S.; Guzha, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic models have been used for improved understanding of how an ecosystem's hydrologic response to human intervention and may provide substantial insight into the viability of payment for environmental services (PES) programs. Little is currently known about how hydrologic models can contribute to the design and evaluation of PES programs. Increased water storage is a desired environmental service (ES) for the Florida Everglades' watershed to reduce nutrient loads and excessive flows to lakes and estuaries in the region. We present monitoring and modeling results to verify the water storage PES for two ranch sites (wetland and watershed scales) located in the Northern Everglades region located north of the Lake Okeechobee (LO). Verification of the water storage PES using at least 3 years of hydrologic data was inconclusive due to variable rainfall during pre- and post-PES periods. An integrated surface and groundwater model, MIKE-SHE/MIKE11, was used to help verify the water storage service as well as predict ecological responses for different water storage scenarios (different levels of storage). The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using field measurements and was able to effectively simulate the surface and groundwater levels for the watershed (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency, NSE = 0.54 to 0.82) and for surface water levels within wetlands (NSE = 0.54 to 0.84). Scenario analyses for storage levels showed an inverse relationship between board heights for water control structures and flows at the watershed outlet. Changes in flow were marginal when board heights approached a maximum indicating movement of water into subsurface storage. Combining simulation results with field measurements showed reduced flows and increased subsurface storage (2 cm/yr.), a desired outcome for protecting LO and estuarine systems from excessive flows. Simulated wetland water levels were combined with LIDAR-based topography to predict inundation for wetlands at the two PES sites for exploring the addition of biodiversity related ES. Simulations showed that effects of increased storage on enhanced hydro-periods and biodiversity was limited to the wetlands close to the drainage ditches. Results for a variety of water management scenarios showed that modeling can be used as an effective tool for optimizing the ES for a desired PES scheme. Measured and predicted surface flows from watershed and wetland water levels for different scenarios are currently being combined with ecological measurements to develop hydro-ecological models that predict the effects of enhanced water storage on ecological diversity.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  8. SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

  9. EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

  10. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  11. Sensory crispness of crispy rolls: effect of formulation, storage conditions, and water distribution in the crust.

    PubMed

    Primo-Martín, C; Van Vliet, T

    2009-10-01

    Crispness is an important sensory quality parameter that strongly influences the acceptability of cellular solid foods such as the crust of many types of breads. Crispness of the bread crust depends particularly on its water content. In this study, the relationship between sensory crispness of crispy rolls and the average water content of the crust was studied for different bread formulations (control, amylase, glucose-oxidase, and protease) and storage conditions (40% and 80% RH). From the different formulations used, only protease treatment increased the crispness of the crust and its retention at both storage conditions. The positive effect of the protease treatment was due to a lower water content of the crust of these breads compared to the other formulations. The relationship between sensory attributes, formulation, and storage conditions was found to be dominated by the dependence on storage conditions. When combining data for low and high humidity storage it showed that crusts with equal water contents could exhibit different scores for crispness. The results led to the hypothesis that a gradient of water content exists within the crust. At high humidity, the crust will take up water from both crumb and environment and a relative smaller gradient of water will exist within the crust. At low humidity on the other hand, the crust will take up water from the crumb only, resulting in a larger gradient of water within the crust. PMID:19799683

  12. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage volume changes. Ground-based data can, in some cases, test the remote sensing accuracy and precision. Data accuracy requirements vary for different applications: reservoir management for flood control, agriculture, or power generation may need more accurate and timely information than (for example) regional assessments of water and food security issues. Thus, the long-term goal for the hydrological sciences community should be to efficiently mesh both types of information and with as extensive geographic coverage as possible.

  13. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  14. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Fountain, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  15. Estimated water use in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Water-use data for 1980 are summarized in this report for 16 counties in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Data include total use of ground water and surface water for each of five water-use categories. The 1980 withdrawals for each category were as follows: 290 million gallons per day for public supply, 63 million gallons per day for rural, 325 million gallons per day for industry, 416 million gallons per day for irrigation, and 6,605 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation. Withdrawals totaled 7,699 million gallons per day and included 983 million gallons per day of ground water and 6,716 million gallons per day of surface water. Excluding thermoelectric power generation, all water withdrawn was freshwater except 38 million gallons per day of saline ground water withdrawn for industrial use in Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  16. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  17. Study of Disinfection By-Products and Long Term Storage of Drinking Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, G.; White, D.; Garland, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the challenges facing many of Alaska's communities is providing safe and reliable drinking water from sources containing high concentrations of natural organic material (NOM). These highly colored waters, locally referred to as "tundra tea," often result in the formation of disinfectant byproducts during treatment. Since surface water sources in the Arctic are often frozen for 6-9 months per year, communities are often forced to either store raw water for treatment during the winter or treat and store enough drinking water during the summer to last through the winter. Because long-term storage practices are somewhat unique to water treatment in the rural Northern communities, the practice has not been thoroughly studied and there is limited published information on how water quality is affected by extended storage. Anecdotal evidence and data collected by field engineers indicate that significant changes are occurring and that the quality of the treated water can be adversely impacted. The University of Alaska Small Drinking Water System Technical Assistance Center (ATTAC) is conducting fundamental and applied research to help Alaska's small communities provide safe and reliable drinking water. One research focus area is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in small drinking water systems. Studies to characterize the NOM present in Alaskan surface waters and demonstrations of NOM removal technologies have been have been conducted over the past several years. The study presented here examined the formation of disinfection by-products during long-term storage of water from five small Alaskan water systems. Results from this research suggest that long-term storage has a significant impact on DBP formation. The results suggest that the NOM escaping treatment is likely to react in the storage tank resulting in DBP concentrations that are well above the estimated DBP formation potential.

  18. The impact of impervious water-storage parametrization on urban climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Demuzere, Matthias; De Ridder, Koen; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the representation of the water balance in urban land-surface models, we present a new impervious water-storage parametrization that assumes a distribution of water reservoirs. It has been implemented in TERRA-URB, a new urban parametrization for COSMO-CLM's standard land-surface module TERRA-ML. The water-storage capacity and the maximal wet surface fraction of the urban impervious land cover consisting of streets and buildings are estimated for Toulouse centre by matching the modelled and observed evapotranspiration (ET) rates. They amount to 1.31 ± 0.20 kg m-2} and 12 ± 4%, respectively. The model successfully reproduces the timespan and magnitude of increased ET for both urban observations campaigns CAPITOUL and BUBBLE. Our sensitivity study reveals that water-storage parametrization largely affects the performance of modelled ET rates. Hereby, the simulation employing the new water-storage parametrization is improved compared to arbitrary or existing water-storage parametrizations. The ET, surface sensible heat exchange and upwelling infra-red radiation are all affected until 12 day-time hours after rainfall on average. The modelled annual-mean ET during the CAPITOUL campaign from the urban land in Toulouse is an order of magnitude lower than that observed for the natural surroundings.

  19. Groundwater storage and water security: making better use of our largest reservoir.

    PubMed

    Tuinhof, A; Olsthoorn, T; Heederik, J P; de Vries, J

    2005-01-01

    Provision of sufficient storage capacity under growing water demands and increasing climate variability is one the main concerns for water managers in the coming decades. It is expected that 150-300 km3 of additional storage capacity will be needed by 2025 especially in semi-arid and arid regions where changes in climate variability will have most impact on rainfall and drought. Storage of substantial amounts of water can either be above ground, in reservoirs behind dams or underground in aquifers (sub-surface storage). Recharge enhancement through management of aquifer recharge (MAR) and sub-surface storage (SSS) is a known technology and already successfully applied in a number of countries for many years at different scales. MAR-SSS is a flexible and cost-effective means to increase storage capacity both at village level and in modern water management schemes. A dialogue and information exchange between climate experts and water managers can provide an effective contribution to the planning, design and operation of MAR-SSS schemes. PMID:15918367

  20. Terrestrial water storage across scales: Applications of the GRACE satellite mission for global hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T.

    Terrestrial water storage is difficult to observe over large areas, and as a result, studies of the global water cycle under changing climate tend to focus on a few key methodologies: monitoring of the large-scale fluxes of precipitation, evaporation and discharge; modeling the relationship between runoff response and precipitation forcing; or applying limited in-situ data sets to generalize and scale behavior. With NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are finally able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2) with monthly time resolution, opening what was previously an unobservable 'black box' in land-surface water dynamics. GRACE data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in basin water storage behavior that are relevant for global climate studies. In this research we explore global to regional scale applications of GRACE data that highlight the novelty, functionality and importance of these groundbreaking observations. First, we present a new metric for the monitoring of global water cycle health and energy expenditure the time-series of Total Global Ocean Mass Anomaly and Total Global Land Mass Anomaly from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and show that this metric is heavily influenced by highly variable regional water cycle dynamics in a few global "wet spots". Second, we provide results of a statistical model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation for the world's largest basins. Third, we combine new 1-degree GRACE storage observations with state-of-the-art global land-surface model representations of surface, canopy and snow water, to derive a 1-degree spatially variable sub-surface water storage anomaly time series with error estimates. We convolve this result with global estimates of porosity from FAO Harmonized Soil Database to estimate an effective global active soil depth range and changes during the GRACE record. Finally, terrestrial water storage anomaly from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and precipitation observations from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) are applied at the regional scale to show the usefulness of a remotely sensed, storage-based flood potential method.

  1. Seasonal patterns of water storage as signatures of the climatological equilibrium between resource and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

    2014-09-01

    Water is accumulated in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the resource to various demands like hydropower production, irrigation, water supply or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively optimizes the use of the resource during a given time period. One of its by-products is the estimation of the marginal storage water value (MSWV), defined by the marginal value of the future goods and benefits obtained from an additional unit of storage water volume. Knowledge of the MSWV makes it possible to determine a posteriori the storage requirement scheme that would have led to the best equilibrium between the resource and the demand. The MSWV depends on the water level in the reservoir and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This study uses the inter-annual average of both the storage requirement scheme and the MSWV cycle as signatures of the best temporal equilibrium that is achievable in a given resource/demand context (the climatological equilibrium). For a simplified water resource system in a French mountainous region, we characterize how and why these signatures change should the climate and/or the demand change, mainly if changes are projected in the mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) as well as in the water demand for energy production and/or maintenance of a minimum reservoir level. Results show that the temporal equilibrium between water resource and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of MSWV changes when, for example, earlier water storage is required to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand. Finally, understanding how MSWV signatures change helps to understand changes in the storage requirement scheme.

  2. Variations in surface water-ground water interactions along a headwater mountain stream: Comparisons between transient storage and water balance analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Adam S.; Payn, Robert A.; Gooseff, Michael N.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Kelleher, Christa A.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of discharge along a stream valley is frequently assumed to be the primary control on solute transport processes. Relationships of both increasing and decreasing transient storage, and decreased gross losses of stream water have been reported with increasing discharge; however, we have yet to validate these relationships with extensive field study. We conducted transient storage and mass recovery analyses of artificial tracer studies completed for 28 contiguous 100 m reaches along a stream valley, repeated under four base-flow conditions. We calculated net and gross gains and losses, temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves, and best fit transient storage model parameters (with uncertainty estimates) for 106 individual tracer injections. Results supported predictions that gross loss of channel water would decrease with increased discharge. However, results showed no clear relationship between discharge and transient storage, and further analysis of solute tracer methods demonstrated that the lack of this relation may be explained by uncertainty and equifinality in the transient storage model framework. Furthermore, comparison of water balance and transient storage approaches reveals complications in clear interpretation of either method due to changes in advective transport time, which sets a the temporal boundary separating transient storage and channel water balance. We have little ability to parse this limitation of solute tracer methods from the physical processes we seek to study. We suggest the combined analysis of both transient storage and channel water balance more completely characterizes transport of solutes in stream networks than can be inferred from either method alone.

  3. Storage water value as a signature of the climatological balance between resource and uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

    2013-07-01

    Water is stored in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the water resource to the various water demands like hydropower production, irrigation or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively identifies optimal reservoir operations that could have been achieved to balance resource and demand during a given time period in the ideal configuration where future inflows and demand are perfectly known. A by-product of dynamic programming is the estimation of the storage water value (SWV) which is the marginal value of the future benefits potentially obtained from an additional unit of water volume stored in a reservoir and which determines the optimal storage strategy. The SWV depends on the reservoir level and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This paper uses the SWV as an index of the adequacy between water resources and water demands for a simplified water resource system in a mountainous region in France. It characterizes how and why the adequacy and optimal strategy could change for this system if the climate and/or demand change. Changes in mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) are analyzed. The influence of the nature of water demand on the SWV is also described (energy production or minimum lake level maintenance). In the studied case, the adequacy between water resources and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of SWV changes with for example earlier water storage is to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand.

  4. Decline in recycled water quality during short-term storage in open ponds.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jennifer; Warnken, Jan; Teasdale, Peter R; Arthur, J Michael

    2009-12-01

    Changes were assessed in urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent quality during short-term storage in open surface ponds. Water quality was monitored over five years at the inlets and outlets of open storage ponds located at three biological nutrient removal plants. Pond influent temperature, rainfall and sewage inflow were not found to be major factors. However, there was a trend for water temperature to be correlated negatively with nitrogenous nutrient and positively with faecal coliform values. The observed increases in faecal coliforms, nutrients and chemical oxygen demand were most likely caused through avian faecal contamination. These increases challenge the notion that pond storage has a positive or negligible effect on effluent quality. The observed one to two orders of magnitude increase in faecal coliforms may affect reuse scheme viability by limiting the range of uses under Australian water recycling guidelines. Potential improvements to short-term recycled water storage management at WWTPs could include the integration of monitoring requirements in WWTP discharge licences and recycling guidelines and the monitoring of all water quality parameters, including microbiological ones, at the point of entry into the recycled water distribution system, after WWTP storage, rather than directly post-disinfection. PMID:19590127

  5. Land water storage change from satellite altimetry and GRACE; Inference on sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cretaux, J.

    2009-12-01

    Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 6-year time span (mid-2002 to mid-2008) using satellite altimetry and space gravimetry data from GRACE. Satellite altimetry allows determination of surface water volume change while GRACE data provide vertically-integrated water storage change. The 32 largest river basins are considered as well as lakes not included in the 32 basins (Caspian and Aral seas). We focus on the year to year variability and construct a combined water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The mean trend in total water storage adjusted over this 6-year time span is positive and amounts to 114 +/- 24 km3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Orinoco, Ob, Nile, Niger, Zambezi, Tocantins and Volga. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Yukon, Eyre, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Eyre, Murray and Mekong basins. Lakes volume change is slightly negative over the 2002-2008 time span (~ -16 km3/yr). Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2008 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.27 +/- 0.07 mm/yr. The time series for each basins clearly show that year to year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. Another interesting results of the study is the significant correlation (0.7) between (detrended) year-to- year variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion) and GRACE-based land water storage contribution.

  6. How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood?

    PubMed

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Gartner, Barbara L

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this research project was to determine the water transport behaviour of earlywood versus latewood in the trunk of 21-year-old Douglas-fir [Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees. Specific conductivity (k(s)) and the vulnerability of xylem to embolism were measured on a single growth ring and in a subset of earlywood and latewood samples within the same ring. Earlywood/latewood ratio, trunk water potential (Psi) and relative water content (RWC) were used to predict differences in conductivities and vulnerability to embolism. Earlywood has about 11 times the k(s) of latewood, and up to 90% of the total flow occurred through the earlywood. Earlywood's vulnerability to embolism followed the same trend as that of the whole wood, with 50% loss of conductivity at -2.2 MPa (P(50)). Latewood was more vulnerable to embolism than earlywood at high Psi, but as Psi decreased, the latewood showed very little further embolism, with a P(50) <-5.0 MPa. The lowest trunk Psi estimated in the field was about -1.4 MPa, indicating that latewood and earlywood in the field experienced about 42% and 16% loss of k(s), respectively. The higher vulnerability to embolism in latewood than in earlywood at field Psi was associated with higher water storage capacity (21.8% RWC MPa(-1) versus 4.1% RWC MPa(-1), latewood and earlywood, respectively). The shape of the vulnerability curve suggests that air seeding through latewood may occur directly through pores in the margo and seal off at lower pressure than earlywood pores. PMID:12432029

  7. Water storage dynamics and runoff response of a Boreal Shield headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, C.; Richardson, M. C.; Branfireun, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Headwater catchments in boreal landscapes are highly sensitive to inter- and intra-annual variability in precipitation and temperature regimes. This leads to dramatic differences in seasonal and annual runoff to streams, wetlands and lakes. Quantifying the mechanistic relationships among hydroclimatic conditions, catchment water storage capacity and runoff response will help refine our understanding of boreal watershed ecosystem sensitivity to seasonal and annual hydrologic variability. Accordingly, our understanding of the potential consequences of hydrologic regime shifts caused by landscape disturbances and climate warming will improve. Specifically, this study was conducted to determine how thresholds in catchment storage could be better quantified to explain dramatic variations in observed rainfall-runoff relationships. Using a 1m resolution LiDAR digital elevation model, a 7.5-ha boreal shield headwater catchment was partitioned into discrete landscape elements on the basis of local drainage conditions. These elements were subsequently classified into hydrologic response unit (HRU) types using several topographic and vegetation indices, and used to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of water storage dynamics. We calculated saturated and unsaturated water storage in depression and midslope HRUs using an extensive network of continuous hydrometric measurements and a depth function for drainable porosity. We then modeled the nonlinear storage-discharge (S-Q) relationships for the catchment using a piecewise regression analysis (PRA). From the PRA we were able to quantify a breakpoint in the S-Q relationship, with separate linear regressions explaining the change in discharge with storage above and below this value. Above the breakpoint, a large increase in discharge is associated with a small increase in storage. Based on four different efficiency criteria, the PRA model with storage in the terminal depression HRU as a predictor was the strongest at reproducing discharge, which agrees with our conceptual model that storage dynamics in downslope depressions ultimately control catchment runoff at this study site. We then examined the rainfall-runoff response for the catchment over three years, and quantitatively related this to the water storage dynamics of the delineated HRUs. Our results suggest that the sum of antecedent storage in the terminal depression and total event precipitation best explain the large variability in runoff response. Runoff response is also strongly related to maximum event storage and the proportion of total event discharge that occurs when storage is greater than its breakpoint in the terminal depression. The application of landscape modelling, hydrometric monitoring and PRA to model S-Q relationships is an objective means of quantifying the transition between the two distinct hydrologic regimes in this catchment and provides further insight into how S-Q dynamics govern the hydrologic functioning of Shield dominated catchments.

  8. Residue Management Impacts on Field-Scale Snow Redistribution and Soil Water Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial variation of soil water affects crop performance, fertilizer use efficiencies and other important economic and environmental factors. Soil water storage could be increased and field variability reduced by residue management practices such as no-tillage (NT) as surface residues can retain mor...

  9. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d. PMID:25989554

  10. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Report; Environmental Impact Statement for Missouri River Municipal and Industrial (M & I) Reallocation..., intends to prepare an integrated Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report... Reallocation Report/EIS will discuss and evaluate the following: (1) Identify current and future water...

  11. Impact of soil water storage and distribution on snowmelt generated streamflow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowmelt is the primary source of water generating streamflow in much of the western USA and Canada. The amount and timing of this streamflow, which affects a number of management decisions, is directly related to the amount and timing of snowmelt, soil water storage and transmission. The impact of...

  12. A Tool for Optimizing Unit Configuration of Heat Pump Water Heater System with a Storage Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokoro, Ken-Ichi; Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuuichi

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are one of the key technologies for reducing CO2 emissions from the household sector and must be downsized to expand their use in high density urban areas. Though the reduction of tank capacity is vital for downsizing HPWH, this often increases operation costs because it means heat pumps must boil water with expensive electricity during the day in order to avoid running out of hot water. Consequently, the development of a heat pump water heater with a storage battery (HPWH-SB) was investigated. In this paper, we develop an optimizing unit configuration tool that finds the optimal combination of heat pump, storage tank, and storage battery and estimate battery break-even point.

  13. Quantification of water storage in fingers associated with preferential flow in milled peat stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.M.; Ward, S.M.

    1999-06-01

    The economic value of stockpiled milled peat for fuel energy is dependent on its wet-weight water content when sold. Research into milled peat stockpile rewetting has shown that, while there is surface rewetting (a wet layer), there is also significant through-flow water movement into the center of the stockpile with associated zones (termed fingers) of water storage. A method of quantifying the importance of finger storage was developed using serial digital images obtained in the field. Results showed that the wetted volume within a stockpile was similar regardless of milled peat type ({approx}40%), and that the internal wetting contributed up to 28 times more to final water content than the surface wet layer. Thus surface wet layers have relatively little economic impact when compared with finger storage. Field observation of through-flow indicated that a rivulet flow mechanism in conjunction with stockpile geometry contributes to the development of fingers.

  14. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

  15. Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

  16. Global land water storage change from GRACE over 2002-2009; Inference on sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Becker, Mélanie; Cazenave, Anny; Crétaux, Jean-François; Ramillien, Guillaume

    2010-03-01

    Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 7-year time span (August 2002 to July 2009) using space gravimetry data from GRACE. The 33 World largest river basins are considered. We focus on the year-to-year variability and construct a total land water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The short-term trend in total water storage adjusted over this 7-year time span is positive and amounts to 80.6 ± 15.7 km 3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Zambezi, Orinoco and Ob basins. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Aral, Euphrates, Indus and Parana. Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2009 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.22 ± 0.05 mm/yr. The time series for each basin clearly show that year-to-year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. We also compare the interannual variability of total land water storage (removing the mean trend over the studied time span) with interannual variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion). A correlation of ˜0.6 is found. Phasing, in particular, is correct. Thus, at least part of the interannual variability of the global mean sea level can be attributed to land water storage fluctuations.

  17. Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, S.C.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Land Water Storage within the Congo Basin Inferred from GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2006-01-01

    GRACE satellite gravity data is used to estimate terrestrial (surface plus ground) water storage within the Congo Basin in Africa for the period of April, 2002 - May, 2006. These estimates exhibit significant seasonal (30 +/- 6 mm of equivalent water thickness) and long-term trends, the latter yielding a total loss of approximately 280 km(exp 3) of water over the 50-month span of data. We also combine GRACE and precipitation data set (CMAP, TRMM) to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Congo Basin. We find that the seasonal water storage tends to saturate for anomalies greater than 30-44 mm of equivalent water thickness. Furthermore, precipitation contributed roughly three times the peak water storage after anomalously rainy seasons, in early 2003 and 2005, implying an approximately 60-70% loss from runoff and evapotranspiration. Finally, a comparison of residual land water storage (monthly estimates minus best-fitting trends) in the Congo and Amazon Basins shows an anticorrelation, in agreement with the 'see-saw' variability inferred by others from runoff data.

  19. Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Donna

    2010-08-01

    Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

  20. Effective and culturally acceptable water storage in Zimbabwe: maintaining the quality of water abstracted from upgraded family wells.

    PubMed

    Mazengia, E; Chidavaenzi, M T; Bradley, M; Jere, M; Nhandara, C; Chigunduru, D; Murahwa, E C

    2002-04-01

    Because domestic water can be a vehicle of disease transmission in the home, there is a need for intervention. In Zimbabwe. 60 rural households obtaining water from shallow wells were selected for a field study. A water urn was designed, pretested, and field-tested. Thirty households designated as the case group were given two water urns each to substitute for traditional water storage containers (paint containers, oil containers, etc.). The remaining 30 households served as a control group. Samples were collected twice, at two-week intervals, from the water supply source (upgraded family wells) and storage containers (water urn or traditional containers) of each household (228 samples). Total coliform bacteria and fecal coliform bacteria were enumerated with the membrane filtration technique. A pretest of the water urn design showed a decline in turbidity that corresponded with a decline in bacterial counts. Wells supplying the case households had higher bacterial counts than those supplying the control households, but bacterial loads in the water urns were significantly lower than those observed in the corresponding supply wells (paired t-test: t = 3.97, df = 55, p < .01). Bacterial loads in traditional containers were similar to those observed in the supply wells (paired t-test; t = 0.2, df = 57, p > .05). The case group eagerly substituted water urns for traditional containers. The use of water urns was found to prevent or to reduce further contamination of well water after collection. PMID:11930811

  1. 27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table 4, showing the.... 30.64 Section 30.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... proof gallons. This table may also be used for ascertaining the quantity of water required to reduce...

  2. 27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table 4, showing the.... 30.64 Section 30.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... proof gallons. This table may also be used for ascertaining the quantity of water required to reduce...

  3. GRACE-observed water storage deficits for hydrologic drought characterization, including recent U.S. droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rodell, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative framework for measuring the severity of hydrologic drought based on observations of terrestrial water storage deficits from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied for drought characterization by calculating the deviation of monthly-average terrestrial water storage anomalies from the regional climatological reference, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Each deficit conveys the volume of water that would be required to recover from a drought. Moreover, this finite deficit observation allows for the calculation of a likely time for recovery based on statistical percentiles of storage change distributions, for every month through the end of the event. To quantify event severity, we combine storage deficits with event duration. Substantial drought events are investigated for four study regions during the GRACE record: the Amazon and Zambezi basins, the Southern Plains, and the Southeastern United States A. Amazon, B. Zambezi, C. Southern Great Plains, and D. Southeastern United States: Regional, spatial average storage anomalies and deficits (km^3). Blue-shaded confidence bounds represent one standard deviation of the residual time series. Maps of study locations and area (km^2) are shown along the left panel.

  4. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  5. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two...

  6. Effects of water sample preservation and storage conditions on nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.C.; Alva, A.K.; Calvert, D.V.; Zhang, M.

    1995-12-31

    USEPA method 300 requires water samples should be stored at 4 C immediately after collection and NO{sub 3}-N concentration analyzed within 48 hr of sample collection. Many research and commercial laboratories find it is difficult to meet this holding time. Water samples are often stored for several days at 4 C or {minus}20 C until analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of groundwater sample pretreatment, storage temperatures, and holding times on concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N. The storage of samples at 25 C decreased concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N by 1.7% and 12.5% for 48 hr and 50 days, respectively. No significant changes were observed during the 50 days storage at 4 C or {minus}20 C. Acidification of water samples at 4 C had no significant effect on NO{sub 3}-N concentration up to 50-day holding time.

  7. Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might partly explain the competitive position of babassu palms on pastures or secondary forests.

  8. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003–2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes. PMID:26506230

  9. The influence of ENSO on global surface water storage using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. P.; Nerem, R.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly time variable gravity data for the period January 2003 to December 2010 were used to study the influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on global water storage variations. The datasets were detrended and seasonal variations removed. We corrected for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment [Paulson, 2007] and used the Swenson and Wahr [2006] method to destripe the dataset before the monthly gravity map is smoothed using a 500km half-width. We then studied the relationship between GRACE land water storage and ENSO by correlating with the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). Our results indicate that the tropical regions show a strong negative correlation (Borneo: -0.78, Amazon Basin: -0.69) and, arid regions show a strong positive correlation (Patagonia: 0.63). Remote regions such as the south coast of Alaska (0.57) and the Southeast coast of Greenland (0.56) also show a positive correlation. The Amazon Basin shows an increase of 50cm water equivalent per 1 MEI per year, which Please complete the information below correlation. The Amazon Basin shows an increase of 50cm water equivalent per 1 MEI per year, which explains ~15% of its variability. The lower basin of the Indus River experiences an increase of 30cm (water equivalent) per 1 unit MEI per year, which corresponds to ~26% of its variability. ENSO effects the precipitation and water storage in Central and northern South America as well as in Southeast Asia simultaneously. Regions such as the Congo Basin and Greenland show a lag of up to 3 months. Our results demonstrate the strong capability of GRACE to detect ENSO teleconnections in global water storage that has the potential for contributing to projections of short term water storage for resource planning and management.

  10. Karstic water storage response to the recent droughts in Southwest China estimated from satellite gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chaolong; Luo, Zhicai

    2015-12-01

    The water resources crisis is intensifying in Southwest China (SWC), which includes the world's largest continuous coverage of karst landforms, due to recent severe drought events. However, because of the special properties of karstic water system, such as strong heterogeneity, monitoring the variation of karstic water resources at large scales remains still difficult. Satellite gravimetry has emerged as an effective tool for investigating the global and regional water cycles. In this study, we used GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data from January 2003 to January 2013 to investigate karstic water storage variability over the karst region of SWC. We assessed the impacts of the recent severe droughts on karst water resources, including two heavy droughts in September 2010 to May 2010 and August 2011 to January 2012. Results show a slightly water increase tend during the studied period, but these two severe droughts have resulted in significant water depletion in the studied karst region. The latter drought during 2011 and 2012 caused more water deficits than that of the drought in 2010. Strong correlation between the variations of GRACE-based total water storage and precipitation suggests that climate change is the main driving force for the significant water absent over the studied karst region. As the world's largest continuous coverage karst aquifer, the karst region of SWC offers an example of GRACE applications to a karst system incisively and will benefit for water management from a long-term perspective in karst systems throughout the world.

  11. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. PMID:24629940

  12. Non-linearities and thresholds in water partitioning, storage and release in different ecohydrological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Soulsby, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Water partitioning between transpiration, evaporation and runoff is controlled by climatic and water storage characteristics; yet our current knowledge of varying dominant retention and partitioning mechanisms remains limited. For some forested catchments with clear seasonal distinctions, recent work has revealed the existence of partitioned ecohydrological systems where plant - and stream-water are sourced from different subsurface water stores. It is still unclear what the roles of non-linearities are in different water-energy regimes and how soil and vegetation properties might influence such partitioning of water stores. This study aims to better understand the spatio-temporal controls on water residence times and hydrological responses at the catchment scale in a northern headwater catchment in Scotland. Here, the climate is usually consistently wet with low evapotranspiration rates. Within this context however, the study period involved an exceptionally dry summer. We explored non-linearities and thresholds in catchment input-output relationships and investigated the role of soil-water-vegetation interactions on water partitioning, storage, and release along different hillslopes during contrasting hydro-climatic conditions. Different ecohydrological units included poorly draining soils in riparian zones and freely draining soils on hillslopes, and both forested and non-forested sites were considered. Soil moisture dynamics and stable water isotope signatures of different waters (precipitation, stream-, soil -, and plant xylem-water) were examined throughout the year (winter and during the growing season that included the relatively dry summer) to identify plant water use, assess water movement, and explore vegetation-water linkages. The results indicate that threshold behaviour in runoff responses at the catchment scale can be linked to apparent differences between soil water dynamics and residence times of different hydropedological units. Linear input-output relationships exist when runoff is dominantly generated from the permanently wet riparian zones. In contrast, the freely draining hillslope soils show larger dynamic storage changes, and non-linear runoff generation processes can be related to temporary high soil wetness on the hillslopes. However, vegetation impacts are limited and the isotope data suggest that there is no strong evidence for the formation of two different ecohydrological subsurface water stores for either soil types at any time. Such contrasting results in relation to those of previous studies might be attributed to the overall relatively high subsurface storage, and the area's radiation energy-limited climate that lacks overall strong seasonality in high precipitation inputs. The results therefore suggest that the formation of different subsurface water stores might depend on thresholds in the water-energy balance, and as such depend on geographic and climatic conditions.

  13. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: WATER POLLUTANTS FROM COAL STORAGE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a...

  14. Leaf area and water content changes after permanent and temporary storage.

    PubMed

    Juneau, Kevyn J; Tarasoff, Catherine S

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of leaf morphology must be taken to develop models of ecosystem productivity and climate change projections. Once leaves are removed from a plant they begin to lose water and degrade. If specimens cannot be measured immediately after harvest, it is important to store the leaves in a manner that reduces morphological changes. If preserved specimens are used, estimates that closely match fresh measurements need to be calculated. This study examined the change in leaf area after storage treatments and developed models that can be used to more accurately estimate initial leaf area. Fresh leaf area was measured from ten plant species then stored in one of two common storage treatments. After storage, leaf area was re-measured and comparisons were made between species and growth forms. Leaf area decreased the most after permanent storage treatments and the least after temporary storage. Pressed leaves shrunk over 18% while cold storage leaves shrunk under 4%. The woody dicot growth form shrunk the least in all treatments. Shrinkage was positively correlated with initial water content and dissection index, a measure of leaf shape and complexity. PMID:22880051

  15. Performance of Four Experimental High-btu-per-gallon Fuels in a Single Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonash, Edmund R; Metzler, Allen; Butze, Helmut F

    1955-01-01

    Performance characteristics of four hydrocarbon fuels having high Btu per gallon were determined in a single turbojet combustor. At simulated low-altitude operating conditions, the fuels with high Btu per gallon generally produced more carbon than did JP-4 and JP-5 fuels. The deposits were reduced appreciably with a fuel-oil additive. At high-altitude conditions, the high Btu-per-gallon fuels gave lower efficiencies than did JP-4 or JP-5 fuels. No attempts were made to improve performance by combustor design modification.

  16. Land-subsidence and ground-water storage monitoring in the Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Don R.; Winster, Daniel; Cole, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA) comprises two basins--Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. The TAMA has been directed by Arizona ground-water law to attain an annual balance between groundwater withdrawals and recharge by the year 2025. This balance is defined by the statute as "safe yield." Current ground-water withdrawals exceed recharge, resulting in conditions of ground-water overdraft, which causes removal of water from ground-water storage and subsidence of the land surface. Depletion of storage and associated land subsidence will not be halted until all discharge from the system, both natural and human induced, is balanced by recharge. The amount of the ground-water overdraft has been difficult to estimate until recently because it could not be directly measured. Overdraft has been estimated using indirect water-budget methods that rely on uncertain estimates of recharge. As a result, the status of the ground-water budget could not be known with great certainty. Gravity methods offer a means to directly measure ground-water overdraft through measurement of changes in the gravitational field of the Earth that are caused by changes in the amount of water stored in the subsurface. Changes in vertical position also affect the measured gravity value and thus subsidence also must be monitored. The combination of periodic observations of gravity and vertical positions provide direct measures of changes in stored ground water and land subsidence.

  17. Stirring system for radioactive waste water storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Nishizawa, Kunihide . Radioisotope Research Center)

    1999-07-01

    A stirring system for 100-m[sup 3] radioactive liquid waste tanks was constructed to unify radioactive concentrations in the tank. The stirring system is effective in certifying that the radioactive concentrations in the tanks are less than the legal limits before they are drained away as waste liquid. This system is composed of discharge units, pipe lines, and a controller. The performance of the system was assessed by comparing the calculated red ink and [sup 32]P concentrations with those monitored at six locations in the tanks. The concentration reached equilibrium after stirring 60 o 120 min with discharge units equipped with six fixed openings configured in differing directions. Residual chlorine in city water used for dilution occasionally bleached the red ink and reduced its concentration. The adsorption of [sup 32]P by slime on the walls of the tanks storing actual waste water lowered the equilibrium concentration.

  18. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  19. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  20. Groundwater, Soil Moisture, Snow Water Equivalent, and River Water in the Seasonal Variation of Total Terrestrial Water Storage in Major River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Yoshimura, K.; Kim, H.; Shen, Y.; Thanh, N. D.; Seto, S.; Kanae, S.

    2006-12-01

    Both the combined atmospheric-river basin water balance and the remote sensing by GRACE can estimate the variation of the total terrestrial water storage which consist the changes in ground water, soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and water in rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. What are the major components in the change of the total terrestrial water storage? One hand, the seasonal variation of the total water storage in major continental-scale river basins are estimated by the atmospheric-river basin water balance (AWB) method The global distribution of water vapor flux convergence was estimated using the ECMWF global analysis data for the period from 1986 through 1995. The 10 year mean value of the atmospheric water vapor convergence was adjusted to match with the climatological mean value of river runoff for 1961-1990. Then the seasonal changes of the total terrestrial water storage were estimated by AWB method combining the atmospheric water vapor convergence for major river basins and the runoff from the area. On the other hand, the components in the change of the total terrestrial water storage were investigated using the multi-model products forced by observed surface meteorology. Under the Global Land/Atmosphere Study (GLASS), the Phase 2 of the Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP-2) produced the first global (excluding Antarctica) 1x1 degree Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) of land-surface variables and fluxes for the 10-year period of 1986 1995 at the daily time scale. Thirteen land-surface models (LSMs) were driven by the best possible forcing data of the atmospheric conditions, such as precipitation, downward radiation, wind speed, air humidity and air temperature with temporal resolution of 3-hourly or higher. Water balance in major continental scale river basins were post-processed and the seasonal changes in ground water, soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and the water in river channel were analyzed using the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) and a simple ground water model of linear reservoirs. The seasonal changes of the total water storage in river basins estimated by both AWB method and GSWP MMA are compared, and basically they corresponded fairly well. It was found that in the case of the Amazon River basin, the storage term which appears in the runoff routing model plays a significant role in the seasonal change of the total water storage in the watershed. This result suggests that it is important to exclude the contribution of the changes of river water from the changes in the total terrestrial water storage in order to purely estimate the changes in ground water, and at the same time, this result is encouraging because it suggests that the storage term in the simple runoff routing scheme is not an imaginary term but a physically relevant variable.

  1. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  2. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  3. Water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California inferred from GPS observation of loading deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical loading deformation in the Pacific mountain system is observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to more than 1 cm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise during the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study, we invert such GPS measurements of loading deformation for surface water variations in Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), and study seasonal, interannual and long-term trend water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California. The resulting GPS determination of the total water thickness change is compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics different physiographic provinces of western U.S. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April to October is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. With GPS monthly time series, we infer surface water variation at higher temporal (monthly) interval. The current California drought since 2011 is precisely quantified with GPS inversed surface water change. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, our GPS results indicate ~14 Gigaton/year water loss between 2011 to 2014, and this rate is much larger than that of the previous drought event (~9 Gigaton/year) between 2006 to 2009. Our results inferred from GPS show that rapid near-surface water decrease is occurring in Sierra Nevada Mountain, Klamath Mountain. In the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon, there is no significant water loss there. Because the GPS network in the western U.S. is dense enough and GPS position solutions can be derived very quickly, we conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system at high spatial resolution in near real time.

  4. Satellite measurements of changes in water storage and their impact on vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating dynamics of groundwater at regional or global scale is difficult because we cannot directly measure the amount of water under the ground. Currently, ten years data of GRACE equivalent water thickness data are available to study global scale groundwater dynamics. GRACE data is useful to understand change in water storage at global scale, but the mechanisms of the water storage dynamics and its impacts on vegetation are not well understood. In this study, we tried to explain the interannual variations in the GRACE equivalent water thickness in relation to other satellite data, such as TRMM precipitation and MODIS land surface temperature. Then, we assessed the effect of dynamics of ground water on vegetation at both regional and global scale. At first, we decomposed the GRACE equivalent water thickness record into year-to-year variations and ten-year trend. The year-to-year variations in GRACE data are the result of annual water budget, while the ten-year trend in GRACE data can be explained by the trend in annual water storage and additional human water usage, especially irrigation. The year-to-year variation in GRACE data was spatially matched well with TRMM annual precipitation, but the high correlations with LST were found only in a few regions. The most of significant trend in GRACE data can be explained with long-term TRMM annual precipitation trend. The trend that cannot be explained by TRMM precipitation trend can be considered as the human water usage. Finally, we focused on the regional analysis in India to scrutinize the relationship among those satellite data including seasonal analysis. It is well known that irrigation in northwest India is exploiting groundwater and that was observed in GRACE data as decreasing trend in equivalent water thickness. On the other hand, western India showed increasing trend in NDVI for the last decades. TRMM data showed no significant trend in precipitation in India for the last decade. Those inconsistencies were examined in seasonal to interannual scales.

  5. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  6. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  7. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  8. Multi-scale hydropedological controls on water storage, mixing and release in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Birkel, Christian; Soulsby, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Water storage, mixing and flux processes regulate the generation of stream flow and the time scales for the transport of solutes and contaminants. Understanding the space and time variant dominant mechanisms on these processes in different landscapes and climates remains a key challenge in water resource research. The scope of this presentation is to provide an overview of new insights into the multiscale and integrated spatio-temporal controls of hydropedology on water storage, mixing and release in low energy, humid headwater catchments. We provide some examples from the Bruntland Burn experimental catchment (3.2 km2) in the Scottish Highlands. This area is characterised by high precipitation inputs, low evapotranspiration rates and storage reservoirs which are typically close to the threshold of saturation for most of the time. We explored water storage, mixing, and flow processes in the soil matrix, at different soil-vegetation plots, and along a hillslope transect. Sites included two common soil types (Histosols in the riparian zone and Podzols on hillslopes) and both forested (with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)) and non-forested areas. We also explored the integrated effects of the spatio-temporal dynamics in these processes at the catchment scale, using high resolution hydrometric and stable water isotope analyses. By comparing stable water isotopes of soil water held at different soil water tensions, we found that water held at high tensions (i.e. in the smaller pores) had a longer residence time than that held at lower tensions. However, these variations were small in the context of the differences observed in soil water storage and flow dynamics between soil types and their integrated control at the catchment scale. Storage dynamics in the different hydropedological units controlled hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and the stream network, runoff generation, and the evolution of catchment transit time distributions. It was found that vegetation cover played a minor role and only locally during unusually dry conditions. We briefly reflect on the ecohydrological and management implications of these results at multiple scales and provide insights into future directions.

  9. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  10. Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

  11. Effective Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

  12. Effect of an in-containment refueling water storage tank on station blackout accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    A new generation of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) that includes two advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) and one advanced boiling water reactor is under development by US reactor manufacturers. One of the safety features of the APWRs is the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of this tank on containment pressurization and on hydrogen production during a station blackout severe accident. It is concluded that although the IRWST of ALWRs may increase the containment pressure during a station blackout accident faster than without the IRWST, its benefits outweigh this drawback.

  13. Total energy food plant 21 million gallon ethanol facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    The Phase I Engineering study includes the following: process description, waste water treatment plant, material summary, energy chart, capital cost estimate, equipment list, personnel requirements, drawings list, specifications list, and project schedule. The economic and financial feasibility of the technical process, and environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic assessments for the project are reported. The costs for extending the following utilities to the property line of the selected site are presented: potable water, sewer system, electricity, roads for truck traffic, and rail service.

  14. Variations in surface water-ground water interactions along a headwater mountain stream : comparisons between transient storage and water balance analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Adam S.; Payn, Robert A.; Gooseff, Michael N.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Kelleher, Christa A.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of discharge along a stream valley is frequently assumed to be the primary control on solute transport processes. Relationships of both increasing and decreasing transient storage, and decreased gross losses of stream water have been reported with increasing discharge; however, we have yet to validate these relationships with extensive field study. We conducted transient storage and mass recovery analyses of artificial tracer studies completed for 28 contiguous 100 m reaches along a stream valley, repeated under four base-flow conditions. We calculated net and gross gains and losses, temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves, and best fit transient storage model parameters (with uncertainty estimates) for 106 individual tracer injections. Results supported predictions that gross loss of channel water would decrease with increased discharge. However, results showed no clear relationship between discharge and transient storage, and further analysis of solute tracer methods demonstrated that the lack of this relation may be explained by uncertainty and equifinality in the transient storage model framework. Furthermore, comparison of water balance and transient storage approaches reveals complications in clear interpretation of either method due to changes in advective transport time, which sets a the temporal boundary separating transient storage and channel water balance. We have little ability to parse this limitation of solute tracer methods from the physical processes we seek to study. We suggest the combined analysis of both transient storage and channel water balance more completely characterizes transport of solutes in stream networks than can be inferred from either method alone.

  15. Total Water Storage Change Over the San Joaquin and Sacramento River Basins Comparing GRACE and Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S.; Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Swenson, S. C.; Anderson, K. J.; Syed, T. H.; Rosenberg, E. A.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the state of California has experienced drought conditions that have not significantly improved. Of particular concern are the major sources for Californias developed water system, the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins, which lie in the semi-arid Central Valley. Recent GRACE satellite data show a pronounced decrease in water storage in the basins over the past several years. The goal of this study is to use a combination of the most recent remote sensing products to calculate the water balance of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins in order to determine whether the GRACE data are accurate; and if so, the underlying causes for the decrease in water storage. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and streamflow data were assembled and compared to GRACE observations of storage change. Additionally, snow water equivalent data were compared to GRACE storage anomalies. Results show that the observed water balance (precipitation minus evapotranspiration and streamflow) agrees well with the storage changes observed from GRACE, giving confidence to the GRACE-based estimates of declining water storage. Additionally, results also indicate that the trend of decreasing water storage seen in the GRACE data may be due to decreasing groundwater supplies, which may well be the result of excessive groundwater pumping in the Central Valley. Further research will be required to better understand the forces driving decreasing water storage in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins.

  16. Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    1992-07-06

    In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

  17. Process Waste Assessment for inorganic solid waste and empty containers <30 gallons

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-12-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the two largest hazardous waste streams generated on-site at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)/California -- ``Other Inorganic Solid Waste`` and ``Empty Containers <30 Gallons.``

  18. 27 CFR 26.203 - Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.203 Containers of 1... Virgin Islands, having a capacity of not more than 1 gallon (3.785 liters), shall conform to...

  19. 27 CFR 26.203 - Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.203 Containers of 1... Virgin Islands, having a capacity of not more than 1 gallon (3.785 liters), shall conform to...

  20. 27 CFR 26.203 - Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.203 Containers of 1... Virgin Islands, having a capacity of not more than 1 gallon (3.785 liters), shall conform to...

  1. Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1gallon paint can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1-gallon paint can labeling machine (Standard-Knapp of Portland). Note spiral attachment on floor. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  3. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section 1250.83 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation...

  4. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to translate a unique approach for the synthesis of self-assembled nanostructured carbon into industrially viable technologies for two important, large-scale applications: electrochemical double-layer capacitors (also referred to as ultracapacitors) for electrical energy storage, and capacitive deionization (CDI) systems for water treatment and desalination.

  5. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing the final License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR- ISG provides changes to NRC staff-recommended aging management programs (AMPs), aging management review (AMR) items, and definitions......

  6. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section 1250.83 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation...

  7. GPS as an independent measurement to estimate terrestrial water storage variations in Washington and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuning; Argus, Donald F.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) measures elastic ground loading deformation in response to hydrological mass variations on or near Earth's surface. We present a time series of change in terrestrial water storage as a function of position in Washington and Oregon estimated using GPS measurements of vertical displacement of Earth's surface. The distribution of water variation inferred from GPS is highly correlated with physiographic provinces: the seasonal water is mostly located in the mountain areas, such as the Cascade Range and Olympic Mountains, and is much smaller in the basin and valley areas of the Columbia Basin and Harney Basin. GPS is proven to be an independent measurement to distinguish between hydrological models. The drought period of 2008-2010 (maximum in 2010) and the recovery period of 2011-2012 in the Cascade Range are well recovered with GPS-determined time-variable monthly water mass series. The GPS-inferred water storage variation in the Cascade Range is consistent with that derived from JPL's GRACE monthly mass grid solutions. The percentage of RMS reduction is ~62% when we subtract GRACE water series from GPS-derived results. GPS-determined water storage variations can fill gaps in the current GRACE mission, also in the transition period from the current GRACE to the future GRACE Follow-on missions. We demonstrate that the GPS-inferred water storage variations can determine and verify local scaling factors for GRACE measurements; in the Cascade Range, the RMS reduction between GRACE series scaled by GPS and scaled by the hydrological model-based GRACE Tellus gain factors is up to 90.5%.

  8. Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, M D; Handzel, T; Venczel, L

    2003-01-01

    Simple, effective and affordable methods are needed to treat and safely store non-piped, gathered household water. This study evaluated point-of-use chlorination and storage in special plastic containers of gathered household water for improving microbial quality and reducing diarrhoeal illness of consumers living under conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene. Community families were recruited and randomly divided into intervention (household water chlorination and storage in a special container) and control (no intervention) households. Microbes in stored household water were extensively inactivated by 1-5-mg/L doses of hypochlorite. Escherichia coli levels in stored household waters were < 1/100 mL in most intervention households but readily detectable at high levels in control households. Stored water of intervention households was also lower in Clostridium perfringens and heterotrophic plate count bacteria than in control households. The intervention reduced household diarrhoeal illness. In Bolivia, monthly episodes of household diarrhoeal illness were 1.25 and 2.2 in intervention and control families, respectively (P = < 0.002) indicating that 43% of community diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. In Bangladesh, mean episodes of child diarrhoea/1,000 d were 19.6 and 24.8 in intervention and control groups respectively (P = < 0.03) indicating that about 24% of observed diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. Chlorine disinfection and storage in an appropriate container significantly improved the microbiological quality of non-piped household drinking water and reduced community diarrhoeal disease. Widespread use of this simple treatment and storage system for non-piped domestic water has the potential to dramatically reduce the global burden of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. PMID:12639033

  9. Impact of water abstraction on storage and breakdown of coarse organic matter in mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Aristi, Ibon; Díez, Joserra; Martinez, Miren; Oyarzun, Gorka; Elosegi, Arturo

    2015-01-15

    Water abstraction is a prevalent impact in streams and rivers, which is likely to increase in the near future. Because abstraction reduces discharge, the dimensions of the wetted channel and water depth and velocity, it can have strong influence on stream ecosystem functioning. Although the impacts of large dams on stream and river ecosystems are pretty well known, the effects of diversion schemes associated with low dams are still poorly understood. Furthermore, the remote location of many diversion schemes and the lack of collaboration by power companies often make it difficult to know the volume of water diverted and its environmental consequences. To assess the impact of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of coarse particulate organic matter in streams we compared reaches upstream and downstream from five low dams that divert water to hydropower plants in mountain streams in N Spain. We measured the storage of organic matter and the breakdown of alder leaves in winter and spring, and calculated the results at the patch (i.e., per square meter of bed) and at the reach scale (i.e., per lineal meter of channel). Water diversion significantly reduced discharge, and the width and depth of the wetted channel, but did not affect water quality. Diversion significantly reduced the storage and breakdown of organic matter in winter but not in spring. The number of shredders colonizing litter bags was also significantly reduced. The results point to an important effect of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of organic matter in streams at least in some periods, which could affect downstream reaches, global carbon fluxes, and associated ecosystem services. PMID:25039020

  10. Impact of water abstraction on storage and breakdown of coarse organic matter in mountain streams.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Arroita M; Aristi I; Díez J; Martinez M; Oyarzun G; Elosegi A

    2015-01-15

    Water abstraction is a prevalent impact in streams and rivers, which is likely to increase in the near future. Because abstraction reduces discharge, the dimensions of the wetted channel and water depth and velocity, it can have strong influence on stream ecosystem functioning. Although the impacts of large dams on stream and river ecosystems are pretty well known, the effects of diversion schemes associated with low dams are still poorly understood. Furthermore, the remote location of many diversion schemes and the lack of collaboration by power companies often make it difficult to know the volume of water diverted and its environmental consequences. To assess the impact of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of coarse particulate organic matter in streams we compared reaches upstream and downstream from five low dams that divert water to hydropower plants in mountain streams in N Spain. We measured the storage of organic matter and the breakdown of alder leaves in winter and spring, and calculated the results at the patch (i.e., per square meter of bed) and at the reach scale (i.e., per lineal meter of channel). Water diversion significantly reduced discharge, and the width and depth of the wetted channel, but did not affect water quality. Diversion significantly reduced the storage and breakdown of organic matter in winter but not in spring. The number of shredders colonizing litter bags was also significantly reduced. The results point to an important effect of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of organic matter in streams at least in some periods, which could affect downstream reaches, global carbon fluxes, and associated ecosystem services.

  11. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  13. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  14. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  15. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  16. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  17. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  18. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  19. Using Deuterium to trace movement and storage of water in Eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Wyczesany, Tomasz; Eamus, Derek; Pfautsch, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of trees to release water from storage compartments into the transpiration stream can mitigate damage to hydraulic functioning. However, the location and magnitude of these 'mobile' water sources still remains a topic of research. We conducted an experiment on two tree species that naturally grow in regions of high (Eucalyptus tereticornis) and low (E. sideroxylon) rates of annual precipitation. Deuterium enriched water (1350 ‰ label strength) was introduced into the transpiration stream of three trees per species for four consecutive days. Then the trees were felled and samples of all woody tissues were collected from different heights and positions of the stem. Water was extracted from all samples and the isotopic composition measured. Our results indicate that vertical water transport was more efficient in E. tereticornis while radial water transport was more pronounced in E. sideroxylon. The latter has a larger relative stem water storage capacity than E. tereticornis. This is probably related to differences in the hydraulic architecture across the two species, with a larger resistance of the xylem to cavitation in E. sideroxylon due to smaller vessel diameters, resulting in the trade-off of slower growth and lower tree height. Generally water in the phloem is a larger source for capacitance than water in the heartwood. Further integrative data analyses will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that allow trees to survive and adapt to drought.

  20. A stable isotope approach to assessing water loss in fruits and vegetables during storage.

    PubMed

    Greule, Markus; Rossmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig; Mosandl, Armin; Keppler, Frank

    2015-02-25

    Plant tissue water is the source of oxygen and hydrogen in organic biomatter. Recently, we demonstrated that the stable hydrogen isotope value (δ(2)H) of plant methoxyl groups is a very reliable and easily available archive for the δ(2)H value of this tissue water. Here we show in a model experiment that the δ(2)H values of methoxyl groups remain unchanged after water loss during storage of fruits and vegetables under controlled conditions, while δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of tissue water increase. This enhancement is plant-dependent, and the correlation differs from the meteoric water line. The δ(18)O value is better correlated to the weight decrease of the samples. Therefore, we postulate that the δ(2)H value of methoxyl groups and the δ(18)O value of tissue water are suitable parameters for checking postharvest alterations of tissue water, either addition or loss. PMID:25674668

  1. Influence of Water Storage and Bonding Material on Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Consani, Simonides; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Vedovello Filho, Mário; Santos, Eduardo Cesar Almada; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of water storage (24 h and 6 months), and Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC bonding materials on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to feldspathic ceramic. Four cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s. Each cylinder received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT or Fuji Ortho LC. Light-activation was carried out with 40 s total exposure time using Bluephase G2. Half the specimens for each bonding materials (n=20) were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h and the other half for 6 months. Shear bond strength testing was performed after storage times at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Transbond XT showed significantly higher bond strength (p<0.05) than Fuji Ortho LC. Significant differences in bond strength (p<0.05) were found when 24 h and 6 months storage times were compared between materials. ARI showed a predominance of score 0 for all groups, and higher scores at 1, 2 and 3 for 24 h storage time. In conclusion, storage time and bonding materials showed significant influence on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic. PMID:26647936

  2. Estimate of ground water in storage in the Great Lakes basin, United States, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Sheets, Rodney A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data from Regional Aquifer System Analyses (RASA) studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Great Lakes Basin, United States, during 1978-95, were compiled and used to estimate the total volume of water that is stored in the many aquifers of the basin. These studies focused on six regional aquifer systems: the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana; the Silurian- Devonian aquifers in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; the surficial aquifer system (aquifers of alluvial and glacial origin) found throughout the Great Lakes Basin; and the Pennsylvanian sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers and the Mississippian sandstone aquifer in Michigan. Except for the surficial aquifers, all of these aquifer systems are capable of yielding substantial quantities of water and are not small aquifers with only local importance. Individual surficial aquifers, although small in comparison to the bedrock aquifers, collectively represent large potential sources of ground water and therefore have been treated as a regional system. Summation of ground-water volumes in the many regional aquifers of the basin indicates that about 1,340 cubic miles of water is in storage; of this, about 984 cubic miles is considered freshwater (that is, water with dissolved-solids concentration less than 1,000 mg/L). These volumes should not be interpreted as available in their entirety to meet water-supply needs; complete dewatering of any aquifer is environmentally undesirable. The amount of water that is considered available on the basis of water quality and environmental, economic, and legal constraints has not been determined. The effect of heavy pumping in the Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee, Wis., areas, which has caused the regional ground-water divide in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system to shift westward, has been included in the above estimates. This shift in the ground-water divide has increased the amount of water in storage in the deep-bedrock aquifers of the Great Lakes Basin by about 36 cubic miles; however, this water is removed by wells and, after use, is mostly discharged to the Mississippi River Basin rather than to the Great Lakes Basin. The corresponding decrease in ground-water storage that has resulted from lowering of the potentiometric surface due to this heavy pumping (0.059 cubic miles) is negligible compared to the total estimated storage.

  3. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  4. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

  5. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

  6. Instrumental method to reduce error in canopy water storage estimates via mechanical displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, J. T.; Martin, K.; Friesen, J.; Jarvis, M. T.; Lundquist, J. D.; Levia, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    To improve the water budgeting of forested catchments and inform relevant hydrologic theory regarding water cycling within forests, the scientific community has been seeking simple, inexpensive, direct methods for determining rain water storage on in situ tree canopies. We evaluate an installation arrangement and routine for one such method: mechanical displacement sensors placed on a tree's trunk to directly monitor compression under canopy water loading from rainfall. The evaluated installation routine aligns mechanical displacement sensors along orthogonal axes passing through the mechanical center of the trunk to reduce wind-induced noise. The experimental attainment of neutral bending axes for a subject hard- and softwood tree suggest the routine is precise and approximates the trunk's mechanical center well regardless of differences in cellular axial stiffness between heart and sapwood. When installed in this precise sensor arrangement, bending tests of different loading direction produced a consistent signal ratio between sensor pairs of approximately -1 (1 unit compression / 1 unit elongation), allowing the identification and removal of bending strains from the raw strain signals to isolate the compression component attributable to canopy water storage loads. The same experiments performed on sensors just 5 cm off the trunk's computed mechanical center were unable to produce neutral bending axes or consistent signal ratios during bending from variable loading directions. Results from the method evaluation were translated into a data processing technique that is then applied to strain data collected through 2 sample rain events (1 each for the hard- and softwood trees). The processed strain data showed a clear synchronicity between rainfall and canopy loading, as well as periods of maximized canopy water loading (canopy storage capacity). Our results indicate that the evaluated arrangement and installation procedure for mechanical displacement sensors may be able to provide scientists with simple, direct canopy water storage estimates at high temporal resolution and sensitivity.

  7. Diagnosing Land Water Storage Variations in Major Indian River Basins using GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Aarti; Syed, Tajdarul H.

    2015-10-01

    Scarcity of freshwater is one of the most critical resource issue the world is facing today. Due to its finite nature, renewable freshwater reserves are under relentless pressure due to population growth, economic development and rapid industrialization. Assessment of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS), as an unified measure of freshwater reserve, is vital to understand hydrologic and climatic processes controlling its availability. In this study, TWS variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are analyzed in conjuction with multi-platform hydrologic observations for the period of 2003-2012. Here, the primary objective is to quantify and attribute the observed short-term variability of TWS and groundwater storage in the largest river basins of India (Ganga, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi). Alongside commendable agreement between TWS variations obtained from GRACE and water balance computation, results highlight some of the important deficiencies between the two. While monthly changes in TWS are highly correlated with precipitation, monthly TWS anomalies reveal a 1-2 month lag in their concurrence. Analysis of groundwater storage estimates demonstrate significant decline in the Ganga basin (- 1.28 ± 0.20 mm/month) but practically no change in the Mahanadi basin. On the contrary, groundwater storage in Godavari and Krishna basins reveal notable increase at the rate of 0.74 ± 0.21 mm/month and 0.97 ± 0.21 mm/month respectively. Subsequently, in order to assess the influence of quasi-periodic, planetary scale, variations in the Earth's climate system, groundwater storage anomalies are evaluated with reference to ENSO variability. Results manifest that in all the basins, with the exception of Ganga, groundwater storage is dominantly influenced by ENSO, with large decrease (increase) during El Niño (La Niña) events. In the Ganga basin, groundwater storage variations refer to possible amalgamation of human intervention and natural climate variability.

  8. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  9. Effects of field storage method on E. coli concentrations measured in storm water runoff.

    PubMed

    Harmel, Daren; Wagner, Kevin; Martin, Emily; Smith, Doug; Wanjugi, Pauline; Gentry, Terry; Gregory, Lucas; Hendon, Tina

    2016-03-01

    Storm water runoff is increasingly assessed for fecal indicator organisms (e.g., Escherichia coli, E. coli) and its impact on contact recreation. Concurrently, use of autosamplers along with logistic, economic, technical, and personnel barriers is challenging conventional protocols for sample holding times and storage conditions in the field. A common holding time limit for E. coli is 8 h with a 10 °C storage temperature, but several research studies support longer hold time thresholds. The use of autosamplers to collect E. coli water samples has received little field research attention; thus, this study was implemented to compare refrigerated and unrefrigerated autosamplers and evaluate potential E. coli concentration differences due to field storage temperature (storms with holding times ≤24 h) and due to field storage time and temperature (storms >24 h). Data from 85 runoff events on four diverse watersheds showed that field storage times and temperatures had minor effects on mean and median E. coli concentrations. Graphs and error values did, however, indicate a weak tendency for higher concentrations in the refrigerated samplers, but it is unknown to what extent differing die-off and/or regrowth rates, heterogeneity in concentrations within samples, and laboratory analysis uncertainty contributed to the results. The minimal differences in measured E. coli concentrations cast doubt on the need for utilizing the rigid conventional protocols for field holding time and storage temperature. This is not to say that proper quality assurance and quality control is not important but to emphasize the need to consider the balance between data quality and practical constraints related to logistics, funding, travel time, and autosampler use in storm water studies. PMID:26884357

  10. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  11. Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

  12. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  13. Effects of inter-annual climate variability on water storage in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Troch, P., A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Durcik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB), located in the Southwestern United States, is largely semi-arid. 70% of streamflow originates from the high-elevation snowpack, and precipitation is generally concentrated in the North-American Monsoon period (summer). Recently, the CRB experienced a severe multi-year drought, and the population in the area is growing fast, increasing the pressure on water resources. Understanding the long-term (inter-annual to decadal) variability of water availability, therefore, is paramount for water resources management. Here, we analyze monthly time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation and discharge spanning 74 years in the Colorado River Basin and statistically relate them to monthly climate indices that describe variability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure in the tropical and extra-tropical Pacific. ENSO indices in winter (JFM) are related to winter precipitation, as well as to soil moisture and discharge in the Lower Colorado. The low-frequency mode of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) appears to be strongly correlated with saturated water storage (groundwater). During the negative PDO phase, saturated storage anomalies tend to be negative, and the "amplitudes" (mean absolute anomalies) of soil moisture, snow and discharge are lower compared with periods having positive PDO phases. Predicting inter-annual variability, therefore, strongly depends on the capability of predicting PDO regime shifts. If indeed a shift to a cool PDO phase occurred in the mid-nineties, as data suggest, the current dry conditions in the Colorado basin may persist.

  14. Concurrent calcium peroxide pretreatment and wet storage of water hyacinth for fermentable sugar production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a novel concurrent process of pretreatment and wet storage was developed and investigated by applying calcium peroxide for preservation and conversion of fresh water hyacinth biomass to fermentable sugars. The effects of CaO2 loading concentration and moisture content on the lignin reduction, carbohydrate preservation and enzymatic saccharification of water hyacinth biomass were evaluated by experimental design using a response surface methodology. The data showed that the concurrent process could conserve 70% carbohydrates and remove 40% lignin from biomass of water hyacinth at the best condition in this study. The enzymatic digestibility and reducing sugar yield from the best condition of concurrent process were around 93% and 325mg/g (dry weight) of fresh biomass, respectively. The result suggested that the concurrent process developed in this work could be a potential alternative to consolidate the pretreatment and storage of aquatic plant biomass for fermentable sugar production. PMID:25461012

  15. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    PubMed

    Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25399802

  16. Integrating Stable Isotope Tracers with Rainfall-Runoff Models as Tools for Assessing Catchment-Scale Water Storage Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2012-12-01

    Water supplies and the ecohydrological function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are dependent on the storage and release of water from the unsaturated and saturated zone of catchments. Attempts to measure and estimate storage dynamics at operational catchment scales are hampered by spatial heterogeneity which makes interpolation of point measurements (e.g. of soil moisture and groundwater dynamics) difficult. Storage-discharge relationships from rainfall-runoff models can explicitly acknowledge that water storage is neither time nor space invariant and can be useful to assess catchment storage dynamics. However, input-output relationships of natural isotopic tracers such as oxygen-18 and deuterium usually show damping and time-lags in stream flow response to precipitation fluxes. Such damping behaviour implies large mixing volumes that are usually much greater than those suggested by dynamic storage changes estimated from water balance calculations in rainfall-runoff models. This larger volume is often referred to as "passive" storage or so-called "immobile" water available for mixing that hydraulically does not contribute to streamflow at least in the short-term. Thus, combining tracer based storage (passive) estimates with those inferred from dynamic model storage (active) estimates from runoff models has the potential to provide multi-proxy tools to investigate the concept of catchment storage in an integrated way. In this paper we explore the storage-discharge relationships of two nested (3.6 and 30 km2) montane catchments in Scotland using rainfall-runoff models: (a) a non-linear discharge sensitivity function and (b) a process-based conceptual model constrained by high resolution (daily), long-term (3 year) isotope time series. Both modelling approaches consistently simulated small seasonal storage fluctuations (ca. 40-50mm) in both catchments: consistent with the wet, cool climate. In contrast, input-output relationships of oxygen-18 tracer time series in both catchments were used to estimate the passive storage available for mixing and tracer damping in streams. This showed that minimal catchment storage is at least two magnitude greater (ca. 1000mm) than the dynamic storage estimated by both models. The passive storage inferred by the isotopes indicates that dynamic storage revealed by water balance considerations masks a much larger catchment storage which may in turn determine sensitivity to environmental change. We suggest that isotopic tracers have significant unrealised potential in assessing these storage dynamics.

  17. Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, Deborah S.

    1980-01-01

    The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

  18. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    te Brake, B.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil) by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic) shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm) for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ≥ 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0-60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ΔV-ΔW relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5) and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616). Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5) and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616). Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ΔV-ΔW relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

  19. Differential peat deformation, compressibility, and water storage between peatland microforms: Implications for ecosystem function and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, J. M.; Kellner, E.; Strack, M.; Price, J. S.

    2010-07-01

    Because peat is elastic, the daily to seasonal swelling and shrinking of the peat surface not only affects water storage but also alters peatland hydraulics and the biogeochemical and thermal properties of peat. Due to different botanical origins and degrees of decomposition, we hypothesized that different peatland microforms (ridges and lawns) display a large variation in peat deformation and compressibility. Here we examined the spatial variation of peat surface movement, peat strength, and volumetric water content at a low lawn (LL), upper lawn (UL), and ridge (R) along a 5 m transect in a peatland in Quebec, Canada. The average seasonal amplitude in peat surface level was 9, 6, and 2 cm at the LL, UL, and R sites, respectively. The surface layers in each of these sites were fairly rigid with the largest changes in peat thickness occurring between 20 and 60 cm depth in the peat profile. Compressibility varied among microforms but was not correlated to other properties within the layer in individual soil layers. However, when average profile compressibility was considered, it was significantly correlated to peat depth, von Post humification, distance to hollow, and peat strength. The total water storage by dilation below the water table was about the same as the water deficit (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) for LL, while the storage deficit for UL and especially R was lower. Including changes in entrapped gas content over the season reduced estimates of changes in water storage at all sites. Because microform type and position were significant predictors of hydrophysical properties, we argue that this suggests that peatland microtopography is self-reinforcing through ecohydrological feedbacks. Including the variability in these properties in peatland ecohydrological models will be key for predicting the response of peatland ecosystems to disturbance.

  20. Seventeen years of experience with storage of irradiated Candu fuel under water

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Wood, J.C.; Surette, B.A.; Freire-Canosa, J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a destructive examination of 29 fuel elements from 15 different fuel bundles are described. These elements have been stored under water for 3 to 17 years. No deterioration of either the Zircaloy sheaths or of the UO/sub 2/ could be attributed to the water storage. Experiments on unirradiated Zircaloy-4 suggest that fission product induced stress corrosion cracking is unlikely. The examination was part of a continuing program to demonstrate the safety of storing irradiated nuclear fuel under water for at least 50 years. Extrapolation of present data suggests this target time could be safely exceeded.

  1. On Leakage andSeepage of CO2 from Geologic Storage Sites intoSurface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Lewicki, J.L.

    2005-10-14

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture ofanthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and its storage in deep geologicformations. The processes of CO2 seepage into surface water aftermigration through water-saturated sediments are reviewed. Natural CO2 andCH4 fluxes are pervasive in surface-water environments and are goodanalogues to potential leakage and seepage of CO2. Buoyancy-driven bubblerise in surface water reaches a maximum velocity of approximately 30 cms-1. CO2 rise in saturated porous media tends to occur as channel flowrather than bubble flow. A comparison of ebullition versus dispersive gastransport for CO2 and CH4 shows that bubble flow will dominate overdispersion in surface water. Gaseous CO2 solubility in variable-salinitywaters decreases as pressure decreases leading to greater likelihood ofebullition and bubble flow in surface water as CO2 migratesupward.

  2. Solar vacuum alcohol still. Final report. [50 gallons per day

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-04

    This project constructed a six-inch diameter solar vacuum alcohol still. The column was constructed with steel pipe and commercial packing was used to increase condensation surface area. A used automobile air compressor and a small electric motor were used to fabricate a vacuum pump capable of 25 inches of mercury. Flat plate commercial type solar collectors were used to heat the wine before it entered the distillation column. This resulted in a considerable reduction in fuel required. Additional heat was still needed from a propane fueled reboiler which utilized a closed loop copper coil to circulate water into the base of the column. Future research should focus on using solar panels to provide this heat source and reduce energy needs even further. The unit is capable of producing 135 proof alcohol in one pass. This unit or one of similar design could be utilized by a farm operation for supplemental fuels needs. 12 references, 7 figures.

  3. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

  4. Terrestrial Water Storage Changes in the Tibetan Plateau in the Past Decade and the Possible Cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, F.; Su, F.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is the water stored on and below the land surface, which includes snow, ice, soil moisture, groundwater, and surface water. TWS is a fundamental component of the terrestrial hydrological cycle given that precipitation (P) reaching the land surface is balanced by evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and the change of terrestrial water storage (TWSC) [P=R+ET+TWSC]. As an integrated measure of surface and groundwater availability, TWS has significant implications for water resources management. The Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas (TP), which are characterized by high elevation, extensive glaciers, permafrost, snowpack, and mountain lakes, is known as the "roof of the world", the Third Pole, and also the water towers of Asia. Studies of meteorological observations, reanalysis data, and ice core records have suggested a warming trend over the TP in recent decades. Along with the rising temperature, the detected glacier melt, permafrost degradation, and lakes changes in the TP will thus affect the water storage changes and the hydrological cycle in the area. In this study, we examine the spatial-temporal variation of TWS change over the TP through the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data and the VIC land surface hydrologic model during 2004-2013. Meanwhile, the spatial-temporal characteristics of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and snow cover as well as the distribution of glaciers, lakes, and frozen soil are analyzed to examine the factors that might be responsible for the TWS changes in the TP. The objective of our study is to achieve a better understanding of the water balance change in the TP under the warming climate. Our work could provide a basis for conservation strategies and policy decisions for the fragile, invaluable eco-hydrological environment in the Tibet Plateau.

  5. Water storage under changing climates: A case study of small farm dams in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J.; Preston, N.; Jackson, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    In many regions of the world, climate change scenarios predict a trend towards drier conditions. In agricultural areas, less rainfall during planting and growing periods will exacerbate existing water supply issues, with communities striving to find alternative water storage options. In New Zealand, both government and agricultural interest groups are promoting the construction of storage ponds (both small-scale ponds for farm use and larger reservoirs for community use) to tackle this issue. This paper investigates the use of small farm dams as a means of providing secure water storage while also considering downstream environmental impacts. New Zealand has thousands of small stock water and irrigation dams that interrupt streamflow, primarily located on first-order streams. With climate change scenarios predicting a 3-4% decrease in annual precipitation in some regions, it is expected that dam numbers will increase in the future. However, little is known about the impact of these dams on the downstream environment in terms of water quantity, quality, sediment transfer, and stream morphology at either the local or regional scale. A combination of field-based methods and modelling is used to quantify the overall impact of farm dams on the downstream system in an agricultural catchment in the Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Results show that farm dams reduce overall discharge and flood peaks, but sustain winter flows for a longer duration between rainfall events. The dams also create a lowering of water quality and a decrease in the transfer of sediment, with aggradation occurring in downstream channel reaches. Implications at the wider catchment scale are discussed, along with improved management practices which could allow for both water security and the protection of the environment. Results have implications for regions of the world which face drier conditions under changing climate regimes and need environmentally and socio-economically sustainable water security options.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of Terrestrial Water Storage in five major Africa river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyene, T.; Kabat, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Ludwig, F.

    2010-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of continental hydrologic water balances are poorly understood despite recent advances in remote sensing and modeling techniques applicable to continental river basins. The African continent has particularly interesting surface water dynamics due to strong precipitation gradients, and it’s a large number of lakes and wetlands. However, it lacks hydrologic measurements that would help to understand its terrestrial water balance. We use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements and the Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model to characterize terrestrial water dynamics over five major African river basins (Nile , Congo, Zambezi, Niger and Oranje). Temporal variations in the gravitational field obtained from GRACE are used to reveal the total terrestrial water storage changes over the selected river basins. Recent advances in filtering and leakage error corrections near the coasts enable us to obtain total water storage changes at finer spatial resolution than has previously been possible. These satellite measurements are then used to constrain the hydrologic- modeling results over river basins where in situ data are sparse. Comparison of the GRACE observations for the period April 2002 to Jan 2010, i.e., the mass variability extracted from temporal gravity variations, with the VIC water balance components suggests that, when filtered with an averaging radius of 750 km, the hydrological signals generated at the selected river basin scale are clearly recovered by GRACE. Keywords: Remote sensing; gravity field; GRACE; hydrology; VIC; spatio-temporal

  7. Seasonal variation in total water storage in California inferred from GPS observations of vertical land motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Fu, Yuning; Landerer, Felix W.

    2014-03-01

    GPS is accurately recording vertical motion of Earth's surface in elastic response to seasonal changes in surface water storage in California. California's mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, the rain runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. We invert the GPS observations of seasonal vertical motions to infer changes in equivalent water thickness. GPS resolves the distribution of change in total water across California's physiographic provinces at a resolution of 50 km, compared to 200 km resolution from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. The seasonal surface water thickness change is 0.6 m in the Sierra Nevada, Klamath, and southern Cascade Mountains and decreases sharply to about 0.1 m east into the Great Basin and west toward the Pacific coast. GPS provides an independent inference of change in total surface water, indicating water storage to be on average 50% larger than in the NLDAS-Noah hydrology model, likely due to larger changes in snow and reservoir water than in the model. Seismicity and land uplift produced by groundwater loss in California's Central Valley is also being evaluated.

  8. Annual and seasonal water storage changes detected from GRACE data in the La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ayelen; Pacino, María Cristina

    2012-12-01

    The gravity does not remain constant, but changes over time depending on the redistribution of the masses. Aquatic environments, like a river basin, perform important functions in nature such as control of climate, floods and nutrients; and they also provide goods and services for humanity. To monitor these environments at large spatial scales, the satellite gravity mission GRACE provides time-variable gravity field models that reflect the Earth's gravity field variations due to mass transport processes, like continental water storage variations. The La Plata Basin is the second largest in South America and is a sample of the abundance, variety and quality of natural resources and possibilities offered in connection with the production of goods and services. The objective of this work is to analyze GRACE capability to monitor the water storage variations in the La Plata Basin. Firstly, GRACE solutions from four different processing centers are used to estimate the gravity trend and gravity amplitude over this basin. Afterwards, the calculated hydrological signal is used to obtain mass change models over this hydrographic system's area, using two different methods and for the period from 2002 to 2009. Next, the annual and seasonal water storage changes from GRACE solutions are validated in Argentina by rainfall data over the time periods where extreme weather conditions took place. The results indicate that GRACE detected the variations of the continental water storage in the La Plata Basin, and particularly, it detected the important decrease in the South of the basin. Moreover, a coherency between the estimates of water mass changes and rainfall data was found, which shows that GRACE also detected extreme weather events (such as drought and intense rain episodes) that occurred in the 2004-2009 period in Argentina.

  9. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  10. Surface Water Storage Capacity of Twenty Tree Species in Davis, California.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingfu; McPherson, E Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage capacity is known to vary widely among tree species, but it is little studied. This research measured surface storage capacities of 20 urban tree species in a rainfall simulator. The measurement system included a rainfall simulator, digital balance, digital camera, and computer. Eight samples were randomly collected from each tree species. Twelve rainfall intensities (3.5-139.5 mm h) were simulated. Leaf-on and leaf-off simulations were conducted for deciduous species. Stem and foliar surface areas were estimated using an image analysis method. Results indicated that surface storage capacities varied threefold among tree species, 0.59 mm for crape myrtle ( L.) and 1.81 mm for blue spruce ( Engelm.). The mean value across all species was 0.86 mm (0.11 mm SD). To illustrate application of the storage values, interception was simulated and compared across species for a 40-yr period with different rainfall intensities and durations. By quantifying the potential for different tree species to intercept rainfall under a variety of meteorological conditions, this study provides new knowledge that is fundamental to validating the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry as a green infrastructure strategy and designing functional plantings. PMID:26828174

  11. Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

  12. Storage of Stock Cultures of Filamentous Fungi, Yeasts, and Some Aerobic Actinomycetes in Sterile Distilled Water

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, M. R.; Padhye, A. A.; Ajello, L.

    1974-01-01

    Castellani's procedure for maintaining cultures of filamentous fungi and yeasts in sterile distilled water was evaluated. Four hundred and seventeen isolates of 147 species belonging to 66 genera of filamentous fungi, yeasts, and aerobic actinomycetes were maintained in sterile distilled water at room temperature over periods ranging from 12 to 60 months in four independent experiments. Of the 417 cultures, 389 (93%) survived storage in sterile distilled water. The selection of good sporulating cultures and sufficient inoculum consisting of spores and hyphae suspended in sterile distilled water were the most important factors influencing survival in water over a longer period of time. The technique was found to be simple, inexpensive, and reliable. PMID:4854418

  13. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  14. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, D

    2007-10-30

    The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

  15. Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

  16. Determinants of water circulation in a woody bamboo species: afternoon use and night-time recharge of culm water storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Goldstein, Guillermo; Sun, Mei; Ma, Ren-Yi; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-09-01

    To understand water-use strategies of woody bamboo species, sap flux density (Fd) in the culms of a woody bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland) was monitored using the thermal dissipation method. The daytime and night-time Fd were analyzed in the dry and rainy seasons. Additionally, diurnal changes in root pressure, culm circumference, and stomatal conductance (gs) were investigated to characterize the mechanisms used to maintain diurnal water balance of woody bamboos. Both in the dry and rainy seasons, daytime Fd responded to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in an exponential fashion, with a fast initial increase in Fd when VPD increased from 0 to 1 kPa. The Fd and gs started to increase very fast as light intensity and VPD increased in the morning, but they decreased sharply once the maximum value was achieved. The Fd response of this woody bamboo to VPD was much faster than that of representative trees and palms growing in the same study site, suggesting its fast sap flow and stomatal responses to changes in ambient environmental factors. The Fd in the lower and higher culm positions started to increase at the same time in the morning, but the Fd in the higher culm position was higher than that of the lower culm in the afternoon. Consistently, distinct decreases in its culm circumference in the afternoon were detected. Therefore, unlike trees, water storage of bamboo culms was not used for its transpiration in the morning but in the afternoon. Nocturnal sap flow of this woody bamboo was also detected and related to root pressure. We conclude that this bamboo has fast sap flow/stomatal responses to irradiance and evaporative demands, and it uses substantial water storage for transpiration in the afternoon, while root pressure appears to be a mechanism resulting in culm water storage recharge during the night. PMID:26232783

  17. Land water storage variability over West Africa estimated by Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Frappart, F.; Araud, Q.; Boone, A.; de Rosnay, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Gascoin, S.; Balsamo, G.; Ottlé, C.; Decharme, B.; Saux-Picart, S.; Ramillien, G.

    2011-05-01

    Land water storage plays a fundamental role in the West African water cycle and has an important impact on climate and on the natural resources of this region. However, measurements of land water storage are scarce at regional and global scales and especially in poorly instrumented endorheic regions, such as most of the Sahel, where little useful information can be derived from river flow measurements and basin water budgets. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides an accurate measurement of the terrestrial gravity field variations from which land water storage variations can be derived. However, their retrieval is not straightforward, and different methods are employed, which results in different water storage GRACE products. On the other hand, water storage can be estimated by land surface modeling forced with observed or satellite-based boundary conditions, but such estimates can be highly model dependent. In this study, land water storage by six GRACE products and soil moisture estimations by nine land surface models (run within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Land Surface Intercomparison Project (ALMIP)) are evaluated over West Africa, with a particular focus on the Sahelian area. The water storage spatial distribution, including zonal transects, its seasonal cycle, and its and interannual variability, are analyzed for the years 2003-2007. Despite the nonnegligible differences among the various GRACE products and among the different models, a generally good agreement between satellite and model estimates is found over the West Africa study region. In particular, GRACE data are shown to reproduce well the water storage interannual variability over the Sahel for the 5 year study period. The comparison between satellite estimates and ALMIP results leads to the identification of processes needing improvement in the land surface models. In particular, our results point out the importance of correctly simulating slow water reservoirs as well as evapotranspiration during the dry season for accurate soil moisture modeling over West Africa.

  18. Simulated water-level responses, ground-water fluxes, and storage changes for recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, John P.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2005-01-01

    A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which derives boundary conditions from a basin-scale model, spans the 12-mile reach of Rillito Creek and extends 9 miles south into the Central Well Field. Recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek range from 5,000 to 60,000 acre-feet per year and are simulated to begin in 2005 and extend through 2225 to estimate long-term changes in ground-water level, ground-water storage, ground-water flux, and evapotranspiration. The base case for comparison of simulated water levels and flows, referred to as scenario A, uses a long-term recharge rate of 5,000 acre-feet per year to 2225. Scenario B, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 9,500 acre-feet per year, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 53 feet to 86 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 60 feet to 80 feet. More than half of these rises occur by 2050, and more than 95 percent occur by 2188. Scenario C, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 16,700 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 71 feet to 102 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 80 feet to 95 feet. More than half of the rises occur by 2036, and more than 95 percent occur by 2100. Scenario D, which initially increases the recharge rate by about 55,000 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, resulted in simulated water levels that rise to land surface along Rillito Creek. This rise in water level resulted in rejected recharge. As the water table continued to rise, the area of stream-channel surface intersected by the water table increased causing continual decline in the recharge rate until a long-term recharge rate of about 34,000 acre-feet per year was sustained. The long-term recharge rate for scenario D is about 29,000 acre-feet per year greater than the long-term recharge rate for scenario A. Simulated long-term water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek range from about 97 feet to 131 feet, resulting in water levels near or at the land surface. Shallow depths to water associated with this scenario have implications for contamination owing to the presence of landfills within or adjacent to Rillito Creek. Water-level rises for cells within the Central Well Field range from about 96 feet to 109 feet. More than half of the water-level rises occur by 2018 and more than 95 percent occur by 2041. Almost all the increased water added to the ground-water system in the recharge scenarios can be accounted for by a combination of increased storage near Rillito Creek, ground-water flux to the south, ground-water flux to the northwest, and increased discharge as evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek. The percentage of newly added water accounted for by storage changes is large relative to the percentage accounted for by changes in flux and evapotranspiration at the onset of each scenario; however, the changes in storage become smaller throughout the simulation, and the long-term component accounted for by storage is minimal. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the south increase by about 3,300, 4,840, and 7,500 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The percentage of increased recharge that flows south toward the Central Well Field, therefore, is 35, 29, and 26 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the northwest increase by about 3,100, 3,900, and 6,980 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The long-term percentage of increased recharge flowing northwestward is about 31, 25, and 21 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Shallow ground-water evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek incr

  19. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-29

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment. PMID:26727278

  20. Continental water storage inferred from 3-D GPS coordinates in Danube Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T. M.; Wang, L.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Tourian, M. J.; Chen, Q.; Sneeuw, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    GPS coordinates time series contain viable information about continental water storage (CWS) at global and regional scale. The permanent GPS network of GPS stations around the Earth recorded more than 15 years of data, which comprise the elastic response of the bed rock movements induced by mass loading. The inversion of the observed displacements, yields mass variations which can be interpreted as CWS under the condition that no other mass loading is interfering. GPS-derived CWS offers complimentary information to the widely used CWS determination by GRACE but is also able to mitigate a possible loss of data in case the GRACE mission ends before the launch of the GRACE Follow-On mission. GPS also allows increasing the temporal resolution (weekly from GPS versus monthly from GRACE) and the spatial resolution (especially in the regions with dense GPS networks). Here, we determine the weekly mass variations from GPS 3-D coordinates by using mass-loading Green's function in six Danube sub-basins. The results are validated against GRACE and hydro-meteorological models. We also demonstrate the contribution of GPS horizontals for regional water storage and provide insights into the benefits and limitations of 3-D GPS inversions for regional water storage.

  1. Evaluation of an instrumental method to reduce error in canopy water storage estimates via mechanical displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Jan; Van Stan, John; Martin, Kael; Jarvis, Matthew; Lundquist, Jessica; Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    To improve water budgeting of forested catchments and inform relevant hydrologic theory regarding forest water cycling, the scientific community has been seeking simple, inexpensive, direct methods for determining rainwater storage on in-situ tree canopies. This paper evaluates an installation arrangement/routine for one such method: mechanical displacement sensors placed on the trunk to directly monitor compression under canopy water loading from rainfall. The evaluated installation routine aligns mechanical displacement sensors along orthogonal axes passing through the trunk's mechanical center to reduce wind-induced noise. Experimental attainment of neutral bending axes for a subject hard- and softwood tree suggest the routine is precise and approximates the trunk's mechanical center well regardless of differences in cellular axial stiffness between heart and sapwood. When installed in this precise sensor arrangement, bending tests of different direction produced consistent signal ratios between sensor pairs about -1 (1 unit compression/1 unit elongation), allowing the identification and removal of bending strains from raw strain signals to isolate the compression component attributable to canopy water storage. The same experiments performed on sensors 5cm off the computed mechanical center were unable to produce neutral bending axes or consistent signal ratios during directional bending. Results from the method evaluation were translated into a data processing technique that is applied to strain data from 2 sample storms (1 each for the hard- and softwood trees). Processed strain data showed clear synchronicities between rainfall and canopy loading, and periods of maximized canopy water loading (capacity). Our results indicate the evaluated arrangement/installation procedure for mechanical displacement sensors may provide scientists with simple, direct canopy water storage estimates at high temporal resolution and sensitivity.

  2. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. A major risk factor, potentially jeopardizing the safety of the water supply, is the presense of microorganisms. Historically, the challenge of controlling microbial proliferation has been addressed through the maintenance of residual biocide levels. While chemical biocides are effective, their use requires carefeul consideration towards materials selection for the water storage containers, as surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are passivated stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system, ionic silver, will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium alloy, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium alloys, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  3. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstratemore » the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (<5000 m3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.« less

  4. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  5. Temperature stratification from thermal diodes in solar hot water storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Jinny; Campbell, Andrew; Mariadass, Adele; Morhous, Branden

    2010-03-15

    In this brief note, we have experimentally measured the temperature stratification in a solar hot water storage tank resulting from a simulated solar heating load. Various modifications using a double chimney device that acts as a thermal diode were examined with the intent of maximizing temperature stratification. The greatest stratification was seen with a unique thermal diode arrangement named the express-elevator design, so-called for the direct hot water path from the bottom third of the tank to the top third. (author)

  6. Soil storage and plant controls on carbon and water fluxes in seasonally dry ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Souza, R. M.; Feng, X.; Vico, G.; Lima, R.; Souza, E.; Antonino, A.; Montenegro, S.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of seasonal and interannual rainfall variability on the water and carbon fluxes are investigated along a rainfall gradient with different rainfall amounts and duration of the wet season. To this purpose we use stochastic ecohydrological models and measured data in three different sites in Northeast Brazil, ranging from mesic to semi-arid conditions, to predict productivity of paired ecosystems consisting of pasture and seasonally dry forest.Hysteretic loops in mean soil moisture, evapotranspiration, carbon fluxes from these ecosystems are also analyzed to understand the different roles of soil water storage and plant phenology in creating asymmetry in the ecosystem response with respect to the seasonal forcing.

  7. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  8. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  9. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  10. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The Solar Energy System located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas was designed to supply 63% of the total hot water load. The Solar Energy System consists of a 2100 square foot Raypack Liquid Flat Plate Collector Subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10/sup 8/ Btu/y. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  11. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  12. Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage.

    PubMed

    Grings, F; Salvia, M; Karszenbaum, H; Ferrazzoli, P; Kandus, P; Perna, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and vegetation condition). Two marsh species, named junco and cortadera, were monitored. This overall data set gave us the possibility of studying and understanding the basic interactions between the radar, the soil under different flood conditions, and the vegetation structure. The comprehension of the observed features was addressed through electromagnetic models developed for these ecosystems. The procedure used in this work to estimate water level within marshes combines a direct electromagnetic model, field work data specifically obtained to feed the model, the actual ASAR measurements and a well known retrieval scheme based on a cost function. Results are validated with water level evaluations at specific points. A map showing an estimation of the water storage capacity and its error in junco and cortadera areas for the date where the investigation was done is also presented. PMID:18367312

  13. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24 days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30 mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21 days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6 days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12 days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. PMID:26190604

  14. Continental water storage variations in Africa from space gravity and altimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    Precision data from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission, launched in March 2002, permit the recovery of continental water storage variations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Mass variations are directly inverted from the inter-satellite K-band range-rate (KBRR) data using a localized mascon approach. Using appropriate constraints, our regional solutions allow better temporal (10-day) and spatial (2-degrees) resolution, than the classical spherical harmonic solutions. In addition altimetry measurements allow the retrieval of the water level variations at a few centimeter level, for major lakes and reservoirs. Because of its smaller footprint (50 to 100 meters, depending on the laser period) compared to radar altimeters (several kilometers), ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation satellite) laser altimetry is more suitable for the retrieval of water level variations of small inland bodies, and when water returns can be highly contaminated by land or vegetation. We combine these gravity and altimetry measurements with hydrology models and in-situ measurements in order to describe the continental water storage variations at seasonal timescales and also long-term variations in Africa.

  15. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  17. Spatiotemporal evolution of water storage changes in India from the updated GRACE-derived gravity records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Dileep K.; Wahr, John

    2016-01-01

    Investigating changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) is important for understanding response of the hydrological cycle to recent climate variability worldwide. This is particularly critical in India where the current economic development and food security greatly depend on its water resources. We use 129 monthly gravity solutions from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the period of January 2003 to May 2014 to characterize spatiotemporal variations of TWS and groundwater storage (GWS). The spatiotemporal evolution of GRACE data reflects consistent patterns with that of several hydroclimatic variables and also shows that most of the water loss has occurred in the northern parts of India. Substantial GWS depletion at the rate of 1.25 and 2.1 cm yr-1 has taken place, respectively in the Ganges Basin and Punjab state, which are known as the India's grain bowl. Of particular concern is the Ganges Basin's storage loss in drought years, primarily due to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawals that sustain rice and wheat cultivation. We estimate these losses to be approximately 41, 44, and 42 km3 in 2004, 2009, and 2012, respectively. The GWS depletions that constitute about 90% of the observed TWS loss are also influenced by a marked rise in temperatures since 2008. A high degree of correspondence between GRACE-derived GWS and in situ groundwater levels from observation well validates the results. This validation increases confidence level in the application of GRACE observations in monitoring large-scale storage changes in intensely irrigated areas in India and other regions around the world.

  18. Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

    2005-03-01

    Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

  19. Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C.; Dillon, Peter J.; Barry, Karen E.

    2005-05-01

    Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from <1 to 65 days, with persistence of chloroform being highest and bromoform lowest. HAA attenuation was rapid (<1 day). Rates of THM attenuation were shown to be highly dependent on the geochemical environment as evidenced by the 2-5 fold reduction in half-lives at the ASR well which became methanogenic during the storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

  20. The evaluation of water storage in Death Valley using GRACE satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweigart, Maile J.

    As drought conditions spread across the United States, concerns over water supplies, water use, and water management policies are growing and possible contributing environmental factors are continually being scrutinized. This thesis examines Death Valley as an analog for Southern Nevada and utilizes NASA EOS data, combined with ancillary climate data, to assess the effect of decadal climate variability on groundwater storage in the Death Valley area. Historical climate data, combined with satellite imagery observations, were compiled and calculated for analyses. Conclusions derived from statistical analyses infer trends between GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data and fluctuating levels of recharge and groundwater storage, as well as climatic changes in temperature and rainfall. The observations show seasonal variations in ground water thickness of up to 10 cm from the mean, correlated directly to seasonal temperature variability. Connections were also observed between temperature and precipitation with a correlation factor of -0.5. The relationship between precipitation and groundwater thickness change is also evident, with a correlation factor of 0.4 where evaporation and delayed aquifer response are likely impacting direct correlation. The research illustrates how and which environmental factors are impacting the groundwater storage in Death Valley. Due to the similarity of climates between Death Valley and Southern Nevada, this research may be used as an analogy illustrating the impact of climate variability in Southern Nevada. The research, combining GRACE satellite observations and downscaled historical climate data will show any adverse effects that climate variability may be having on the area, including the impact it has on aquifers, and the impact it has on Death Valley's water supply in general.

  1. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

  2. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of 'vulnerability segmentation' between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

  3. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials. PMID:25581319

  4. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  5. Balancing Storage - some very different management approaches in a water scarce Developing Country.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollow, Anthony John

    2010-05-01

    Balancing storage may be found in many different forms in South Africa. The first feature is often a large reservoir fairly high up the catchment, where losses are less, or even in a neighbouring catchment. The objective is to catch surplus water for later use. Alternatives include both within basin and interbasin transfers, either pumped over a catchment divide, or fed under gravity through a tunnel. Again there may be a reservoir at the start of the transfer scheme. This may be a large reservoir or may be a balancing storage reservoir. Transfers are required to make up for a deficiency of water in the demand area of the receiving catchment. The deficiency may be intermittent or continuous. Nevertheless, whatever the nature of the deficiency, it is important not to incur losses. The water will be more expensive than if it were possible to obtain it locally from within the demand area. When undertaking river regulation, one major concern is seeing expensive water flowing out to sea. Several different schemes are contrasted. One has been developed to run almost completely by gravity, others use the topography where possible with the aid of canals, gravity tunnels and pipelines. However, in some circumstances expensive electricity is required to pump the water to be transferred. Nowadays with the ever increasing cost of electricity some way is required of reducing the cost. The usual approach is to use "off peak" electricity but river release flows do not always cooperate so there is a further risk of loss, due to the induced "peaks and troughs" in the river hydrograph as the pumps are switched on and off. Balancing storage becomes even more important in this case to act as a smoothing mechanism. Sometimes the storage may take the form of an on stream reservoir, at others a suitable site besides the river may be developed. This latter has another advantage in allowing the system to avoid abstracting the inevitably poor quality of water at the start of the first seasonal flood, or the heavily silt laden water during major floods, or polluted water from upstream pollution incidents. Other forms of balancing storage may take the form of exploiting the natural contours of the river valley so that river control barrages may be built. These may be single purpose such as irrigation transfers or multi purpose where domestic supplies are abstracted. In addition the river may be made navigable and be developed for recreation. Some form of control is required. This may have started off as a manual system operating on very simple ‘control rules' but as either the worth of the water is increased or its scarcity develops, due to increasing demand, more sophisticated computer systems are needed. In South Africa half the water resources were originally allocated to agriculture, mainly irrigation. Now some of this water is required for industrial, environmental and domestic use. Innovative ways of making the resource go further are suggested. In addition some control concepts are developed using the "control band" approach.

  6. [Preliminary study on the changes of bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage period].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Xie, Bing; Yuan, Qi; Huang, Zhi-Ting; Cui, Lu-Lu; Wang, Wen-Ting

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the changes in water quality and the bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage and supply period, the microorganisms in water body were studied by microbial culture counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DEEG) technique. Results showed that the water quality had been improved significantly and the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations significantly reduced after the Yangtze River water flowed into the reservoir. The number of culturable microorganisms in the influent and the reservoir changed with the seasons, and there were more microorganisms in the influent than these in the reservoir during spring and summer, and fewer in autumn and winter, and the precipitation of suspended microorganisms in the water caused the increase of organic matter content in the sediment. PCR-DGGE results showed that bacterial community structure in the reservoir changed with the seasons, and the microbial community diversity was the highest in summer and the lowest in autumn. The cluster analysis showed that the similarity of microbial community structure of water and sediment samples was 62% , which might be due to the contribution of the precipitation of the suspended microorganisms. The dominant microbial species in water had high similarity with alpha, beta-Proteobacteria, Flavobacterium, Rheinheimera, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and Marine metagenome, indicating that Qingcaosha Reservoir faced the risk of algae bloom and seawater intrusion. The results provide the fundamental understanding on reservoir operation and can be used as reference for future studies. PMID:23233999

  7. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil.

  8. Effect of storage method and associated holding time on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in surface water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessments were conducted to determine the effect of sample storage method and associated holding time on surface water nutrient concentrations from field sites. Six surface water sites and two nutrient spiked, laboratory water samples were evaluated for nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, filtered orthop...

  9. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 20012010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earths water...

  10. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001–2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth’s water...

  11. The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2001-01-01

    One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

  12. SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Thermal energy storage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The solar-powered water desalination pilot plant at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a unique project in terms of its size, purpose, objectives, and scope. The plant uses a combination of solar thermal energy and fossil-fuel energy to provide the shaft horsepower necessary to operate the indirect heat-transfer freeze desalination process developed and patented by Chicago Bridge and Iron Inc. (CBandI) to produce potable water. The thermal storage acts as a buffer between the energy collection subsystem and the energy delivery subsystem. This report describes the thermal storage subsystem. One of the objectives of the desalination research project is to publish a series of reports on the performance of its various subsystems. The authors of this report do not claim that it is exhaustive and complete in all respects, for more than one reason. Any research activity is like an open-ended problem and during the tenure of its investigation it raises more problems than can be solved. However, the authors believe that the storage system behavior has posed no serious problem and that the report adequately covers all the facets of the investigation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  14. Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during storm events. Depression storages are based on additional runoff obtained from CN calculation. Strategies mentioned in this study can be provided as references of climate change adaptions for related authorities.

  15. Anthropogenic Effects on Total Water Storage from GRACE on Large South American Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, L.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Güntner, A.; Rotunno, O.

    2009-12-01

    Over continents, GRACE total water storage (TWS) solutions are expected to represent main surface, soil and groundwater stocks variability. Recent studies have showed that intensive groundwater resources withdrawal in India can be “captured” by GRACE. Another important anthropogenic impact on the natural water cycle is the building and operation of large dams. Even though they impact primarily the local water stock variations, one can expect subsequent changes on the water cycle and some evidence of this from GRACE. This would be particularly evident where the volume of stored water behind dams represents a significant proportion of the total TWS. In this study, we analyzed the effect on the water cycle of large dams over South American large watersheds. Most of Brazilians large dams are located in the Upper Paraná watershed, upstream the Itaipu dam. By performing a correlation analysis between the upstream integrated rainfall and the GRACE TWS series, we found a noticeable phase difference between the two quantities. The phase difference is larger over the utmost upstream region of Upper Parana watershed. We assumed that this pattern could be due to an effect of man-made reservoirs. We took into account the reservoirs storage and found that they induce an additional phase-lag of about 1 month in the TWS response to precipitation forcing. We also investigated dams’ impact on the simulations of the Water Gap Hydrological Model. The results also show a similar time delay similar, suggesting that the model correctly accounts for the dam effect. Finally we see similar lags, though smaller, over other South American river basins.

  16. Crop water stress indices correlated with soil water storage: Implications for variable rate irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water sensing methods are now coming to be used for irrigation scheduling of whole fields. However, newly introduced variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems require information about soil water content in many areas of a field, each called an irrigation management zone. Commonly available soil w...

  17. Chemical analyses of ground water for saline-water resources studies in Texas Coastal Plain stored in National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 4,269 water samples from wells in 66 counties in Texas have been processed into the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System by the Gulf Coast Hydrogeology Project of the U. S. Geological Survey. More than 65,000 chemical analyses of saline waters produced by oil test and production wells have been contributed to the project by major oil companies. The computerized tabulation and the computer-drawn map of the locations of sampling sites are the initial release of oil company, State, and Federal data in Texas Coastal Plain from the data bank.

  18. Measuring Terrestrial Water Storage Change Using GPS, Absolute Gravity and GRACE in Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lulu; Wang, Hansheng; Wang, Xinsheng

    2015-04-01

    For Scandinavia, terrestrial water storage change estimates from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) would be seriously affected by the process of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) . The effects of GIA are typically removed using modeled values. However, the uncertainty in current GIA models is very large. To solve this problem, we calculates the measured linear ratio of GIA gravity rates and vertical displacement rates according to the data from collocation stations for absolute gravity and GPS in Scandinavia. Using the linear ratio and uplift field derived from GPS observation network, we get the gravity signal of GIA. Gravity change rates from GRACE RL05 data can be corrected for GIA using independent gravity rates derived from GPS vertical velocities, and then we can calculate corresponding equivalent water thickness in Scandinavia and the uncertainties are evaluated by considering the uncertainties from data. Our method utilizes observational data only and can avoid the enormous uncertainty from GIA models.The results are compared with that of two hydrological models. The ratio of gravity versus uplift obtained by ground-based measurements in Scandinavia is 0.148±0.020μGal/mm, which validates Wahr's approximate theoretical ratio (Wahr et al., 1995) and is very close to the result from North America (Mazzotti et al., 2011). From January 2003 to March 2011, terrestrial water storage shows obvious increase in Scandinavia. The main signal locates at the Vänern lake which is in the southern tip of the peninsula. The rate of total water storage change is 4.6±2.1 Gt/yr and the corresponding cumulative quantity is 38±17 Gt for the period 2003-2011. Results from hydrological models are consistent with our result very well. The correlation coefficient between GRACE and WGHM hydrological model can reach 0.69, while for GLDAS model the correlation coefficient is slightly smaller(0.57)

  19. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  20. Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with a storage tank equipped with radial fins of rectangular profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using the package Fluent 6.3. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data of Chaouachi and Gabsi (Renew Energy Revue 9(2):75-82, 2006), an attempt to improve this solar system operating was made by equipping the storage tank with radial fins of rectangular profile. A second 3D CFD model was developed and a series of numerical simulations were conducted for various SWH designs which differ in the depth of this extended surface for heat exchange. As the modified surface presents a higher characteristic length for convective heat transfer from the storage tank to the water, the fins equipped storage tank based SWH is determined to have a higher water temperature and a reduced thermal losses coefficient during the day-time period. Regarding the night operating of this water heater, the results suggest that the modified system presents higher thermal losses.

  1. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  2. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. 27 CFR 26.203a - Containers in excess of 1 gallon (3.785 liters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Virgin Islands, having a capacity in excess of 1 gallon (3.785 liters), are required to be marked in accordance with customs regulations (19 CFR chapter I). ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.203a Containers...

  4. 27 CFR 26.203a - Containers in excess of 1 gallon (3.785 liters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Virgin Islands, having a capacity in excess of 1 gallon (3.785 liters), are required to be marked in accordance with customs regulations (19 CFR chapter I). ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.203a Containers...

  5. 27 CFR 26.203a - Containers in excess of 1 gallon (3.785 liters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Virgin Islands, having a capacity in excess of 1 gallon (3.785 liters), are required to be marked in accordance with customs regulations (19 CFR chapter I). ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.203a Containers...

  6. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  7. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

  8. Calorimetric properties of water and triacylglycerols in fern spores relating to storage at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-08-01

    Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at -15 degrees C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to monitor enthalpy and temperature of water and TAG phase transitions within spores of five fern species: Pteris vittata, Thelypteris palustris, Dryopteris filix-mas, Polystichum aculeatum, Polystichum setiferum. The analyses suggested that these fern spores contained between 26% and 39% TAG, and were comprised of mostly oleic (P. vittata) or linoleic acid (other species) depending on species. The water contents at which water melting events were first observable ranged from 0.06 (P. vittata) to 0.12 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, and were highly correlated with water affinity parameters. In spores containing more than 0.09 (P. vittata) to 0.25 (P. setiferum)gH(2)Og(-1)dry weight, some water partitioned into a near pure water fraction that melted at about 0 degrees C. These sharp peaks near 0 degrees C were associated with lethal freezing treatments. The enthalpy of water melting transitions was similar in fern spores, pollen and seeds; however, the unfrozen water content was much lower in fern spores compared to other forms of germplasm. Though there is a narrow range of water contents appropriate for low temperature storage of fern spores, water content can be precisely manipulated to avoid both desiccation and freezing damage. PMID:17553480

  9. Increases in the annual range of soil water storage at northern middle and high latitudes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Ying; Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-05-01

    Soil water storage is a fundamental signal in the land hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture can affect regional climate. In this study, we used simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to investigate changes in the annual range of soil water storage under global warming at northern middle and high latitudes. Results show that future warming could lead to significant declines in snowfall, and a corresponding lack of snowmelt water recharge to the soil, which makes soil water less available during spring and summer. Conversely, more precipitation as rainfall results in higher recharge to soil water during its accumulating season. Thus, the wettest month of soil water gets wetter, and the driest month gets drier, resulting in an increase of the annual range and suggesting that stronger heterogeneity in global water distribution (changing extremes) could occur under global warming; this has implications for water management and water security under a changing climate.

  10. Assessing Links Between Water and Carbon Storage in Indonesian Peatlands Using Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swails, E.; Reager, J. T., II; Randerson, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, K.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation and drainage of tropical peat swamp forests for conversion to other uses results in a loss of carbon storage through the clearing and burning of forest vegetation as well as decomposition of peat soils and increased frequency of fires following drainage. We used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage observations and a global forest cover change product to investigate trends in terrestrial water storage associated with land use conversion in Indonesian peatlands between 2002 and 2012. Our initial analysis indicated that secular trends in GRACE terrestrial water storage were consistent with the spatial distribution of peatlands drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations. A decreasing trend in GRACE terrestrial water storage measurements over the observation period indicated a substantial decrease in water table heights. Combining this information with measurements of bulk density and carbon content of surface peat layers, we estimated potential emissions from carbon stocks now vulnerable to oxidation. Independent measurements of fire carbon emissions were used to estimate the fraction of committed emission that was combusted. Our research represents the first known application of GRACE data to assess loss of soil carbon storage associated with depletion of soil water.

  11. Identification of prominent spatio-temporal signals in GRACE derived terrestrial water storage for India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, C.; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2014-11-01

    Fresh water is a necessity of the human civilization. But with the increasing global population, the quantity and quality of available fresh water is getting compromised. To mitigate this subliminal problem, it is essential to enhance our level of understanding about the dynamics of global and regional fresh water resources which include surface and ground water reserves. With development in remote sensing technology, traditional and much localized in-situ observations are augmented with satellite data to get a holistic picture of the terrestrial water resources. For this reason, Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission was jointly implemented by NASA and German Aerospace Research Agency - DLR to map the variation of gravitational potential, which after removing atmospheric and oceanic effects is majorly caused by changes in Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS). India also faces the challenge of rejuvenating the fast deteriorating and exhausting water resources due to the rapid urbanization. In the present study we try to identify physically meaningful major spatial and temporal patterns or signals of changes in TWS for India. TWS data set over India for a period of 90 months, from June 2003 to December 2010 is use to isolate spatial and temporal signals using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), an extensively used method in meteorological studies. To achieve better disintegration of the data into more physically meaningful components we use a blind signal separation technique, Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

  12. Water and climate risks to power generation with carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, E. A.; Hall, J. W.; Amezaga, J. M.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Leathard, A.

    2016-02-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) provides the opportunity to minimize atmospheric carbon emissions from fossil fuel power plants. However, CCS increases cooling water use and few studies have simulated the potential impacts of low flows on CCS power plant reliability. We present a framework to simulate the impacts of natural hydrological variability and climatic changes on water availability for portfolios of CCS capacity and cooling technologies. The methods are applied to the River Trent, the UK’s largest inland cooling water source for electricity generation capacity. Under a medium emissions climate change scenario, the projected median reductions in river flow by the 2040s was 43% for Q 99.9 very low flows and 31% in licensable abstractions between Q 99.9 and Q 91. With CCS developments, cooling water abstractions are projected to increase, likely exceeding available water for all users by the 2030s-2040s. Deficits are reduced when wet/dry hybrid tower cooling is used, which may increase reliability at low flows. We also explore alternative water licensing regimes, currently considered by the UK Government. Climate change and growing cooling demands, individually and jointly present risks that will be prominent by the 2030s, if unaddressed. These risks may be managed if water-efficient abstraction is prioritized when supplies are limited.

  13. Mutagenic potential of water concentrates from the effluent of a waste oil storage pond

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.W.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1982-04-01

    An investigation to compare the mutagenic effects of water samples collected before and after a contaminated waste oil storage pond was dredged and to evaluate the utility of bioassays for the determination of the mutagenic potential of a complex mixture is presented. Water samples collected from the pond were analyzed in two biological systems capable of detecting mutagens and potential carcinogens (Salmonella/microsome assay and Bacillus subtillis DNA repair assay). Although the water samples contained compounds which were toxic to bacteria, the sample collected after the dredging operation exhibited a substantial reduction in its capacity to produce repairable DNA damage. The results indicate the potential utility of bioassays for the detection of mutagens in environmental samples. (JMT)

  14. Water-storage change measured with high-precision gravimetry at a groundwater recharge facility in Tucson, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, B.; Kennedy, J.; Ferre, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater depletion is a serious problem in many regions around the world. Artificial groundwater recharge is used for the short- and long-term storage of water in subsurface and can be an effective tool to prevent aquifer over-draft. Effective design and management of recharge facilities benefits from knowledge of the subsurface conditions and water-storage properties. In this study we combine different types of gravimeters and coupled hydrogeophysical inverse techniques to monitor subsurface water storage and to estimate subsurface hydraulic properties at the field scale. Water storage dynamics are continuously monitored with two iGrav™ superconducting gravimeters and three gPhones at three infiltration basins of the Tucson Water Southern Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project facility. These continuous gravity observations are supported by time-lapse monitoring with absolute and spring gravimeters to map spatial gravity variations. Water level is monitored at 16 wells in the vicinity. The results of the first 6-month drying-wetting-drying cycle of the infiltration basins, during which 4,240,500 cubic meters (3,440 acre-feet) infiltrated over 53 days, are presented in this study. Gravity variations up to 170 μGal were observed. Collocated measurements show an overall good agreement of the different gravimeters. Distinct spatial variations of gravity change indicate variable water storage dynamics caused by subsurface heterogeneity at the field scale. Multiple gravimeter types combined with coupled inversion allows accurate tracking of subsurface water storage, which can improve the predictions of subsurface conditions and the water resources management of artificial recharge facilities.

  15. Water Solubility in Lower Mantle Minerals and the Role of Peridotite and Basalt in Water Storage in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litasov, K.; Ohtani, E.

    2002-12-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest water plays a key role in the geodynamics of the Earth's interior. Experimental data on water solubility in minerals of the Earth's mantle suggest that upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle could have different potential to store water. Transition zone should be an important water reservoir due to significant water solubility in wadsleyite and ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. However, water storage capacity of lower mantle is still very controversial. Meade et al. (1994) reported results of in situ FTIR measurement of water solubility in MgSiO3-perovskite and suggest water content of 60 ppm. Bolfan-Casanova et al. (2000; 2002) showed absence of water (<1 ppm H2O) in MgSiO3-perovskite and 20 ppm H2O in magnesiowustite. In the contrary Murakami et al., 2002 measured 0.1-0.4 wt% H2O in peridotite-related Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite, 0.3-0.4 wt% H2O in Ca-perovskite and about 0.2 wt% H2O in magnesiowustite. Recently, we obtained data on phase relation in hydrous MORB at 20-26 GPa (Litasov and Ohtani, 2002) and found, that stability field of Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite shifts to the lower pressure. This fact suggests that these perovskites of exotic Fe-rich composition may also accommodate water. Our new FTIR data on water solubility in lower mantle minerals at 25 GPa and 1200-1600°C suggest water content in pure MgSiO3-perovskite is <90 ppm (bands at 3397, 3423, 3448, and 3482 cm-1). Water content in Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite (Al2O3=13-17 wt%; Mg#=58-61) observed in MORB is <100 ppm (bands at 3397 and 3423 cm-1). Water content in Al-Fe-Mg-perovskite (Al2O3=5-6 wt.%; Mg#=88-90) observed in peridotite is 1400-1800 ppm (band at 3397 cm-1). Water content in magnesiowustite (Mg0.8Fe0.2O) is 20-60 ppm (band at 3320 cm-1). Therefore, we confirmed that peridotite-related Mg-perovskite is a major water reservoir in the lower mantle; however role of Ca-perovskite and magnesiowustite is not clear. Using data on water solubility in Mg-perovskite the maximum amount of water stored in the lower mantle is estimated to be 3.42x1021 kg, which is 2.5 times of the present ocean mass. Comparison of the phase relations in hydrous pyrolite and hydrous MORB indicates that pyrolite is more important as water container and water carrier in the mantle. Pyrolite contains dense hydrous magnesium silicates, like superhydrous phase B and phase G (D) existing under the conditions of subducting slabs. At the normal mantle and hotter conditions hydrous wadsleyite, ringwoodite and Mg-perovskite are the major water reservoirs in pyrolite. In the MORB composition, lawsonite and phengite are stable up to 12-13 GPa under slab conditions. At the higher pressure and temperature, distribution of water to the MORB components is very restricted.

  16. Effect of Water Stress and Storage Time on Anthocyanins and Other Phenolics of Different Genotypes of Fresh Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Luna, María C; Bekhradi, Farzaneh; Ferreres, Federico; Jordán, María J; Delshad, Mojtaba; Gil, María I

    2015-10-28

    This study describes the effect of water stress and storage time on the content of anthocyanins and other phenolics in different genotypes of fresh sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Purple and green Iranian cultivars and a Genovese variety were exposed to a control (100% of the field capacity, FC) and to water stress of mild and severe deficit irrigation treatments (25 and 50 DI corresponding to 75 and 50% FC, respectively). The individual characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and the MS fragmentation pathway of anthocyanins are described. A 50% increase in the anthocyanin content was observed in 50 DI after storage. Water stress markedly enhanced the content of phenolic acids after storage in the three genotypes. Water stress can be an efficient way to help the sustainability of water resources, enriching the content of phenolic compounds that may be beneficial to human health. PMID:26473474

  17. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  18. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  19. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

  20. Understanding changes in terrestrial water storage over West Africa between 2002 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher; Awange, Joseph; Agutu, Nathan; Kuhn, Michael; Heck, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    With the vast water resources of West Africa coming under threat due to the impacts of climate variability and human influence, the need to understand its terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes becomes very important. Due to the lack of consistent in-situ hydrological data to assist in the monitoring of changes in TWS, this study takes advantage of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly gravity fields to provide estimates of vertically integrated changes in TWS over the period 2002-2014, in addition to satellite altimetry data for the period 1993-2014. In order to understand TWS variability over West Africa, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a second order statistical technique, and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA) are employed. Results show that dominant patterns of GRACE-derived TWS changes are observed mostly in the West Sahel, Guinea Coast, and Middle Belt regions of West Africa. This is probably caused by high precipitation rates at seasonal and inter-annual time scales induced by ocean circulations, altitude and physiographic features. While the linear trend for the spatially averaged GRACE-derived TWS changes over West Africa for the study period shows an increase of 6.85 ± 1.67 mm/yr, the PCA result indicates a significant increase of 20.2 ± 5.78 mm/yr in Guinea, a region with large inter-annual variability in seasonal rainfall, heavy river discharge, and huge groundwater potentials. The increase in GRACE-derived TWS during this period in Guinea, though inconsistent with the lack of a significant positive linear trend in TRMM based precipitation, is attributed to a large water surplus from prolonged wet seasons and lower evapotranspiration rates, leading to an increase in storage and inundated areas over the Guinea region. This increase in storage, which is also the aftermath of cumulative increase in the volume of water not involved in surface runoff, forms the huge freshwater availability in this region. However, the relatively low maximum water levels of Kainji reservoir in recent times (i.e., 2004/2005, 2007/2008, and 2011/2012) as observed in the satellite altimetry-derived water levels might predispose the Kainji dam to changes that probably may have a negative impact on the socio-economic potentials of the region. GRACE-derived TWS is not well correlated with TRMM-based precipitation in some countries of West Africa and apparently indicates a lag of two months over much of the region. On the other hand, the regression fit between GLDAS-derived TWS and GRACE-derived TWS shows R2 of 0.85, indicating that trends and variability have been well modeled.

  1. Water-Soluble Electrospun Nanofibers as a Method for On-Chip Reagent Storage

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Minhui; Jin, Shengquan; Nugen, Sam R.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform. PMID:25586029

  2. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; van der Hoek, Wim; Cairncross, Sandy; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2002-07-01

    Even if drinking water of poor rural communities is obtained from a 'safe' source, it can become contaminated during storage in the house. To investigate the relative importance of this domestic domain contamination, a 5-week intervention study was conducted. Sixty-seven households in Punjab, Pakistan, were provided with new water storage containers (pitchers): 33 received a traditional wide-necked pitcher normally used in the area and the remaining 34 households received a narrow-necked water storage pitcher, preventing direct hand contact with the water. Results showed that the domestic domain contamination with indicator bacteria is important only when the water source is relatively clean, i.e. contains less than 100 Escherichia coli per 100 ml of water. When the number of E. coli in the water source is above this value, interventions to prevent the domestic contamination would have a minor impact on water quality compared with public domain interventions. Although the bacteriological water quality improved, elimination of direct hand contact with the stored water inside the household could not prevent the occasional occurrence of extreme pollution of the drinking water at its source. This shows that extreme contamination values that are often thought to originate within the domestic domain have to be attributed to the public domain transmission, i.e. filling and washing of the water pitchers. This finding has implications for interventions that aim at the elimination of these extreme contaminations. PMID:12100444

  3. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  4. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from Arctic watersheds, then the state of downstream aquatic ecosystems is strongly tied with upstream changes in surface energy balance and precipitation regimes. Future analyses will relate storage exceedance and water flux to biogeochemical cycling and solute fluxes in these hillslope watersheds.

  5. Storage Stability of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Circulating Electrolyzed Water and Their Property Changes after Application.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Meng-Meng; Ahn, Juhee; Ma, Yan-Na; Chen, Shi-Guo; Ye, Xing-Qian; Liu, Dong-Hong; Ding, Tian

    2016-03-01

    Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been recognized as an effective bactericidal agent with free chlorine, but its limitations include its instability and its great dependence on equipment. Newly developed circulating electrolyzed water (CEW) with a higher available chlorine concentration (ACC) could successfully overcome these limitations. In this study, SAEW (ACC of 20 mg/L), CEW1 (ACC of 200 mg/L), and CEW2 (ACC of 20 mg/L) were evaluated for changes in properties (pH, oxidization reduction potential [ORP], and ACC) during storage in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) and after washing pork and lettuce. Additionally, the washed pork and lettuce were evaluated for total viable counts, pH and general appearance. The results showed that CEW1 with a higher ACC has better stability than SAEW with a lower ACC for the storage and washing experiments, and CEW still remained stable after dilution with distilled water. The property indices of EW were greatly affected for the pork-washing experiments compared with the lettuce-washing experiments, probably due to the existence of alkaline and organic materials on the surface of pork. Furthermore, EWs were more effective for inactivating microbes in lettuce than in pork, while there was no significant difference in tissue pH and the general appearance of pork and lettuce. These findings indicated that CEW with a higher ACC shows potential for reducing foodborne pathogens on pork and lettuce without effects on their physicochemical characteristics, and it can be applied in a diluted form. PMID:26869019

  6. Water storage changes and climate variability within the Nile Basin between 2002 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awange, J. L.; Forootan, E.; Kuhn, M.; Kusche, J.; Heck, B.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding water storage changes within the Nile's main sub-basins and the related impacts of climate variability is an essential step in managing its water resources. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides a unique opportunity to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) of large river basins such as the Nile. Use of GRACE-TWS changes for monitoring the Nile is, however, difficult since stronger TWS signals over the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) and the Red Sea obscure those from smaller sub-basins making their analysis difficult to undertake. To mitigate this problem, this study employed Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to extract statistically independent TWS patterns over the sub-basins from GRACE and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model. Monthly precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over the entire Nile Basin are also analysed by ICA. Such extraction enables an in-depth analysis of water storage changes within each sub-basin and provides a tool for assessing the influence of anthropogenic as well as climate variability caused by large scale ocean-atmosphere interactions such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our results indicate that LVB experienced effects of both anthropogenic and climate variability (i.e., a correlation of 0.56 between TWS changes and IOD at 95% confidence level) during the study period 2002-2011, with a sharp drop in rainfall between November and December 2010, the lowest during the entire study period, and coinciding with the drought that affected the Greater Horn of Africa. Ethiopian Highlands (EH) generally exhibited a declining trend in the annual rainfall over the study period, which worsened during 2007-2010, possibly contributing to the 2011 drought over GHA. A correlation of 0.56 was found between ENSO and TWS changes over EH indicating ENSO's dominant influence. TWS changes over Bar-el-Ghazal experienced mixed increase-decrease, with ENSO being the dominant climate variability in the region during the study period. A remarkable signal is noticed over the Lake Nasser region indicating the possibility of the region losing water not only through evaporation, but also possibly through over extraction from wells in the Western Plateau (Nubian aquifer).

  7. Comparing bioretention designs with and without an internal water storage layer for treating highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Han; Swapp, Mark; Kim, Myung Hee; Chu, Kung-Hui; Sung, Chan Yong

    2014-05-01

    This study compares the performance of a field bioretention cell with and without an internal water storage (IWS) layer for treating highway runoff. Both synthetic and natural runoff tests were conducted. Hydraulic performances on peak discharge reduction and detention time extension were measured. Pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated for total suspended solids (TSS), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate phosphorus. Pollutants in soil media were measured. Results reveal that both IWS and non-IWS designs reduced peak discharge and extended detention time, while the IWS design performed better. For water quality performance, the non-IWS design removed TSS, Cu, Pb, Zn, and total phosphorus to varying degrees of efficiency, but total nitrogen removal was minimal. The IWS layer significantly improved removal efficiencies for TSS, Cu, Zn, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Soil media accumulated some metals over time. PMID:24961065

  8. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  9. Space flight micro-fungi after 27 years storage in water and in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Parent, S L

    1998-01-01

    Four species of micro-fungi were selected for study in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) mycology experiments. Trichophyton terrestre, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetomium globosum were selected from a series of preflight test fungi for the MEED mycology studies during the 2 years prior to the actual flight (Volz, 1971a, 1972b). Conidia of T. terrestre, ascospores of C. globosum and yeast cells of R. rubra and S. cerevisiae were suspended in sterile distilled water and loaded into wet and dry cuvettes for exposure to specific space flight parameters according to the filters built into the space flight hardware (Volz, 1971b). Living cells were found in the original inocula and phenotype water storage after 27 years. Colony cells were also examined after 27 years of continuous culture. PMID:10093232

  10. Treatment of Water in Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins to Control Radioactivity Release

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, E.C.

    2001-03-09

    Visibility and radioactivity control in the fuel component storage and disassembly basins at the Savannah River Plant are maintained with a newly developed purification system. Experimental work was performed to develop the application of sand filters to operate at high flow rates with an effluent turbidity below 0.1 JTU squared. Filtration efficiency of SRP sand filters is dependent on the characteristics of the solids in the feed water and the degree to which filterability can be improved by addition of coagulant aids. It is independent of flow up to flow rates of 15 gpm/square feet (higher flow rates have not been tested). Effluent turbidity remains below 0.1 JTU with no indication of breakthrough. Total water throughput is dependent on the amount of solids removed and is independent of flow rate and concentration of solids.

  11. Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anyana; McFarland, Deborah A; Singh, Ritu; Quick, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Providing safe water to >1 billion people in need is a major challenge. To address this need, the Safe Water System (SWS) - household water treatment with dilute bleach, safe water storage, and behavior change - has been implemented in >20 countries. To assess the potential sustainability of the SWS, we analyzed costs in Zambia of "Clorin" brand product sold in bottles sufficient for a month of water treatment at a price of $0.09. We analyzed production, marketing, distribution, and overhead costs of Clorin before and after sales reached nationwide scale, and analyzed Clorin sales revenue. The average cost per bottle of Clorin production, marketing and distribution at start-up in 1999 was $1.88 but decreased by 82% to $0.33 in 2003, when >1.7 million bottles were sold. The financial loss per bottle decreased from $1.72 in 1999 to $0.24 in 2003. Net program costs in 2003 were $428,984, or only $0.04 per person-month of protection. A sensitivity analysis showed that if the bottle price increased to $0.18, the project would be self-sustaining at maximum capacity. This analysis demonstrated that efficiencies in the SWS supply chain can be achieved through social marketing. Even with a subsidy, overall program costs per beneficiary are low. PMID:17878553

  12. Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

    1997-01-01

    Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue. PMID:12223860

  13. Climate change and water storage variability over an arid endorheic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Xi; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) plays an important role in regional climate and water resources management, especially in arid regions under global change context. However, serious lack of in-situ measurements in remote alpine mountains is hindering our current understanding of regional TWS change in the Tarim River Basin (TRB), a large and typical arid endorheic area in Northwest China of Central Asia. To solve the problem, four different hydrology products from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, model simulations from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in conjunction with in-situ measurements, are utilized to investigate patterns and underlying causes of TWS and its component changes. An excess of precipitation over evapotranspiration (ET) plus runoff contributes to an increase of TWS. The phase of Total Soil Moisture (TSM) lags that of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), indicating a recharge from snowmelt to TSM. Increasing TWS together with decreasing SWE resulted in an increase of subsurface water. Our results are of great value to amend basin-wide water management and conservation strategies for the similar arid regions considering climate change.

  14. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  16. Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4 · 2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O with no FeSO4 · 2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions. PMID:24682481

  17. Hotel in the Bahamas profits from solar hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    On Paradise Island, located in the Bahamas, American Energy Technologies Inc. (AET) recently designed and supplied a domestic solar water heating system for the new Comfort Suites Hotel. AET is a Florida manufacturer of solar thermal collectors. The hotel has 150 rooms. Hot water usage entails the laundry facilities and the limited kitchen facilities. Access to hot showers is more of a luxury in some places, but guests at the Comfort Suites Hotel need not be concerned. During the development of the hotel, it was noted that the high heating costs of the propane-fueled hotel boiler were somewhat prohibitive. Propane cost approximately $1.67/gallon, causing the cost of heating water for the hotel to be estimated at over $1,000 per month. To offset the high heating costs, a 49-collector system on a 3200 gallon storage tank was designed into the plans for the new facility. The 49 roof mounted collectors were placed on a direct solar link to the 3200 gallon storage tank. The water is preheated before it gets to the boiler, cutting costs tremendously.

  18. Assessing Global Water Storage Variability from GRACE: Trends, Seasonal Cycle, Subseasonal Anomalies and Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-03-01

    Throughout the past decade, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has given an unprecedented view on global variations in terrestrial water storage. While an increasing number of case studies have provided a rich overview on regional analyses, a global assessment on the dominant features of GRACE variability is still lacking. To address this, we survey key features of temporal variability in the GRACE record by decomposing gridded time series of monthly equivalent water height into linear trends, inter-annual, seasonal, and subseasonal (intra-annual) components. We provide an overview of the relative importance and spatial distribution of these components globally. A correlation analysis with precipitation and temperature reveals that both the inter-annual and subseasonal anomalies are tightly related to fluctuations in the atmospheric forcing. As a novelty, we show that for large regions of the world high-frequency anomalies in the monthly GRACE signal, which have been partly interpreted as noise, can be statistically reconstructed from daily precipitation once an adequate averaging filter is applied. This filter integrates the temporally decaying contribution of precipitation to the storage changes in any given month, including earlier precipitation. Finally, we also survey extreme dry anomalies in the GRACE record and relate them to documented drought events. This global assessment sets regional studies in a broader context and reveals phenomena that had not been documented so far.

  19. Global terrestrial water storage variations revealed by gravity mission and hydrologic and climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Haohan; Yan, Hongbo; Shi, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    The terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) for global scale as well as area scale can be estimated by GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) mission, while hydrologic and climate model named GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) provide variations of soil moisture and snows which can also derive the TWSC. These new technologies provide new methods to monitor global terrestrial water storage variations and climate change. The global monthly TWSC have been derived from GRACE observations and GLDAS model estimates respectively, it shows there have high There have high correlations between TWSC derived from GRACE observations and GLDAS model estimates, while due to lack of information from GLDAS models, TWSC derived from GRACE observations is more reliable. The monthly mean TWSC from April 2002 to August 2011 have been derived from GRACE observations, and there has a steady condition of the global TWSC with a slowly growing rapid of 0.142+/-0.0028cm/year in this period. while the change range of Northern Hemisphere of TWSC is more obvious than those of Southern Hemisphere. Due to the unbalance of regional rainfall, the TWSC in the middle latitude regions are changing more significantly than those in high-and-low latitude regions. It shows great correlations between global TWSC and global land surface temperature with correlation coefficient of 0.91, while the change of land surface temperature always occurred about two months later than the TWSC, and both of them have obvious change with annual period.

  20. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-03-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

  1. Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

    2002-10-10

    Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

  2. Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

  3. Assessing Global Water Storage Variability from GRACE: Trends, Seasonal Cycle, Subseasonal Anomalies and Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the past decade, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has given an unprecedented view on global variations in terrestrial water storage. While an increasing number of case studies have provided a rich overview on regional analyses, a global assessment on the dominant features of GRACE variability is still lacking. To address this, we survey key features of temporal variability in the GRACE record by decomposing gridded time series of monthly equivalent water height into linear trends, inter-annual, seasonal, and subseasonal (intra-annual) components. We provide an overview of the relative importance and spatial distribution of these components globally. A correlation analysis with precipitation and temperature reveals that both the inter-annual and subseasonal anomalies are tightly related to fluctuations in the atmospheric forcing. As a novelty, we show that for large regions of the world high-frequency anomalies in the monthly GRACE signal, which have been partly interpreted as noise, can be statistically reconstructed from daily precipitation once an adequate averaging filter is applied. This filter integrates the temporally decaying contribution of precipitation to the storage changes in any given month, including earlier precipitation. Finally, we also survey extreme dry anomalies in the GRACE record and relate them to documented drought events. This global assessment sets regional studies in a broader context and reveals phenomena that had not been documented so far.

  4. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Land Surface Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system of satellites provides observations of large-scale, monthly terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In. this presentation we describe a land data assimilation system that ingests GRACE observations and show that the assimilation improves estimates of water storage and fluxes, as evaluated against independent measurements. The ensemble-based land data assimilation system uses a Kalman smoother approach along with the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). We assimilated GRACE-derived TWS anomalies for each of the four major sub-basins of the Mississippi into the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Compared with the open-loop (no assimilation) CLSM simulation, assimilation estimates of groundwater variability exhibited enhanced skill with respect to measured groundwater. Assimilation also significantly increased the correlation between simulated TWS and gauged river flow for all four sub-basins and for the Mississippi River basin itself. In addition, model performance was evaluated for watersheds smaller than the scale of GRACE observations, in the majority of cases, GRACE assimilation led to increased correlation between TWS estimates and gauged river flow, indicating that data assimilation has considerable potential to downscale GRACE data for hydrological applications. We will also describe how the output from the GRACE land data assimilation system is now being prepared for use in the North American Drought Monitor.

  5. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

  6. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in...

  7. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  8. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  9. Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)

    SciTech Connect

    Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G.

    2008-04-15

    Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

  10. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  11. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 20012010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

  12. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001–2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

  13. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  14. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  15. The pros and cons of retained gallons payout in the sale of fueloil business

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Historically many fueloil businesses have been sold with at least a portion of the payout tied to the future delivery of gallons to the customers of the seller. This concept is usually not present in the sales of most retail businesses because future purchases by transferred customers is dependent on pricing, promotion, location, reputation, branding and other factors. In the case of fueloil, the customer is known to have a loyalty to the fueloil dealer, which in part is due to the need for service rendered to the heating equipment in the home. Periodic studies indicate customer loyalty is in the range of 8 to 10 years with the same dealer. In many markets, growth in the percentage of consumer price buyers who pay cash may be changing these loyalties. For example, in New Hampshire a recent study by the state energy office indicates that the percentage of fuel buyers who buy for cash has increased from 27.5% during the 1982-1983 heating season to 41.5% this past year. No one knows how this trend will impact on the sales of fueloil businesses via retained gallons. This article discusses the following: why customer lists should not be considered good will; underlying assumptions in sale; options of the seller; why misunderstandings occur; defining the account; definition of gallons to be counted; compatibility of policies; how much will be retained; and how to protect yourself and retention.

  16. Development of a high-efficiency gas-fired water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, A. D.; Gerstmann, J.; Pearson, J. F.; Walukas, D. J.

    Unlike conventional water heaters which use a center-flue water storage tank, the design decouples the water heating and storage functions through the use of an external heat exchanger, thus reducing standby losses. The compact high-effectiveness heat exchanger achieves a recovery efficiency of 82 percent, using a naturally-aspirated, 100 percent premixed burner. Besides its low cost, this burner has the additional advantage of producing very low emissions of NO sub x. The use of an internally insulated polyethylene lined 40 gallon storage tank is expected to provide significantly longer service life than conventionally-lined steel tanks, thereby enhancing consumer acceptance. A description of the design of the water heater and the results of prototype efficiency and emission tests are included. Also included are data on heat exchanger and storage tank temperature distributions, standby losses, and hot water delivery capability.

  17. Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L.; Sohn, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

  18. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  19. Developments in Climate and Soil Water Storage in the Locality of Poiplie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztorová, Mária

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is one of the largest threats to the modern world. It is primarily experienced via changes and extreme weather events, including air temperature changes, the uneven distribution of precipitation and an increase in the alteration of torrential short-term precipitation and longer non-precipitation periods. However climate change is not only a change in the weather; it also has a much larger impact on an ecosystem. As a result of expected climate change, a lack of either surface water or groundwater could occur within wetlands; thus, the existence of wetlands and their flora and fauna could be threatened. This submitted work analyses the impact of climate change on the wetland ecosystems of Poiplie, which is situated in the south of Slovakia in the Ipeľ river basin. The area is an important wetland biotope with rare plant and animal species, which mainly live in open water areas, marshes, wet meadows and alluvial forests. To evaluate any climate change, the CGCM 3.1 model, two emission scenarios, the A2 emission scenario (pessimistic) and the B1 emission scenario (optimistic), were used within the regionalization. For simulating the soil water storage, which is one of the components of a soil water regime, the GLOBAL mathematical model was used.

  20. CO2 Releases from Deep Storage Formations into Drinking Water Aquifers - Assessment of Impacts on Drinking Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Painter, S. L.; Walter, G. R.; Bertetti, F. P.

    2008-12-01

    Geological storage of supercritical CO2 is envisioned as a means of mitigating the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, the potential exists for CO2 to migrate from the deep geologic formations to overlying aquifers that serve as sources of drinking water, which could lead to geochemical alterations that have detrimental effects on drinking water quality. For example, elevated CO2 levels in drinking water aquifers can enhance the solubility and decrease the sorbed fraction of trace metals and radionuclides to an extent that concentrations may reach undesirable levels at the local scale. Therefore, an assessment of these effects is necessary to determine the risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO2. In this study, the effects of CO2 intrusion into a sandstone aquifer (with and without calcite cement present) on the water chemistry and on the mobility of trace metals and radionuclides were investigated. The aquifer was assumed to be unpolluted such that sorption, not solubility, was likely to be the predominant process controlling heavy metal and radionuclide mobility. Four elements with very different geochemical behaviors were selected for the study - lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium - and sorption was assumed to occur on ferric oxyhydroxides coating the sandstone matrix. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted using the coupled reactive-transport code MULTIFLO to determine the changes in aquifer water chemistry - spatially and temporally - as a function of CO2 flux from a leaking CO2 sequestration aquifer. Lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium Kd values as a function of pH and pCO2 were derived using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations and used to assess the impact of CO2 leakage on heavy metal and radionuclide mobility based on the MULTIFLO results. This work was funded by the Southwest Research Institute Internal Research and Development Project 20- R9826.

  1. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance carbon sequestration. Despite global recognition of wetlands as carbon sinks, information regarding carbon dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating carbon sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve carbon storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC), carbon sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of carbon sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective management of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance carbon sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.

  2. The relationship of increasing trends in GRACE observed total water storage to landscape changes in the Southern Taiga Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Huang, J.; Chasmer, L.; Ambadan, J. T.; Connon, R.; Stone, L.

    2014-12-01

    The southern margin of discontinuous permafrost in Canada is highly sensitive to climate change. Warming to this region causes rapid thaw and disappearance of permafrost resulting in large changes to ecological and hydrological processes. Changes in hydrology result from permafrost thaw induced subsidence and conversion of tree-covered peat plateaus into bogs and channel fens. . Bogs, fens and plateaus have contrasting hydrological functions. The elevated plateaus with their shallow root zone due to frozen soils convert a relatively high proportion of hydrological input to runoff which they convey to adjacent channel fens and bogs. Bogs are largely water storage features and are typically surrounded by raised peat plateaus, while channel fens transmit water to streams and rivers. In the Scotty Creek watershed, within the southern Taiga Plains regions of Canada's Northwest Territories, numerous researchers have documented the decline of peat plateaus as a proxy for areal loss of permafrost terrain, and concomitant increases of wetland coverage. Analysis of spatial trends in global total water storage as measured by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites suggest a increasing trend of 6+/-1 mm/year water equivalent units over this region during the period 2003-2013. Analysis of a water budget constructed for the Scotty Creek watershed suggest that this long term trend is only weakly associated to the moderate increases to precipitation while the statistically significant increasing trends observed in discharge in this watershed would likely result in opposite sign. Further, seasonal trend analysis of the GRACE total water storage observations suggest that much of the increase in total water mass over this region occurs over the warm season suggesting that larger snowpacks are not driving the mass increase. In this presentation the changes to total water storage are compared to the trends of landscape change over this region to corroborate the rates of total water mass increase with changes in area of storage features.

  3. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  5. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  8. The landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China and the effects of water storage and rain on their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keqiang, He; Xiangran, Li; Xueqing, Yan; Dong, Guo

    2008-07-01

    According to the statistics, there were about 1,736 landslides with the total volume of 1.339 1011 m3 in the 100 km2 area of upper reaches of the Yangtze River, in which about 94% of landslides are triggered by rain and water storage. Thus, based investigation of the results of the landslides in this region, this paper completed a systematic study on the effects of rainfall and water storage on the landslides in the region and found that the distribution of landslides over time and space are well correlated with the precipitation distribution in this region; landslides are also strictly controlled by the stratum, geological structure, river valley form, shore type, etc. Meanwhile, the pattern of water table variation of the three gorges reservoir will do have very serious impacts on the stability of the slopes in this region. All research results show that water storage and rainfall are the two important inducing factors that can cause a lot of large-scale landslides. Therefore, some effective control measures for water storage and rainfall should be taken so as to minimize the impacts of water on the stability of the slopes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region of Yangtze River, China.

  9. Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.H. ); Cosgrove, D.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

  10. Assimilating GRACE terrestrial water storage data into a conceptual hydrology model for the River Rhine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B.; Weerts, A.; van de Giesen, N.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key component of the terrestrial and global hydrological cycles, and plays a major role in the Earth’s climate. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellite mission provided the first space-based dataset of TWS variations, albeit with coarse resolution and limited accuracy. Here, we examine the value of assimilating GRACE observations into a well-calibrated conceptual hydrology model of the Rhine river basin. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were applied to assimilate the GRACE TWS variation data into the HBV-96 rainfall run-off model, from February 2003 to December 2006. Two GRACE datasets were used, the DMT-1 models produced at TU Delft, and the CSR-RL04 models produced by UT-Austin . Each center uses its own data processing and filtering methods, yielding two different estimates of TWS variations and therefore two sets of assimilated TWS estimates. To validate the results, the model estimated discharge after the data assimilation was compared with measured discharge at several stations. As expected, the updated TWS was generally somewhere between the modeled and observed TWS in both experiments and the variance was also lower than both the prior error covariance and the assumed GRACE observation error. However, the impact on the discharge was found to depend heavily on the assimilation strategy used, in particular on how the TWS increments were applied to the individual storage terms of the hydrology model.

  11. Predicting storage-lipid water partitioning of organic solutes from molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Anett; Oemisch, Luise; Endo, Satoshi; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Partitioning to storage fat is the major process for bioaccumulation of many neutral organic chemicals. In this work, we evaluated the performance of four predictive models, ABSOLV, COSMOtherm, KOWWIN, and SPARC to calculate storage lipid-water partition coefficients. In a first step of the validation, we used over 300 literature data for chemicals with relatively simple molecular structures. For these compounds the overall performance was similar for all models with a root-mean-square error (rmse) between 0.45 and 0.61 log units. Clear differences became visible in the second validation step where a subset with only H-bond-donor compounds was used. Here, COSMOtherm and SPARC performed clearly better with an rmse of 0.35 and 0.42 log units, respectively, compared to ABSOLV and KOWWIN with an rmse of 0.91 and 0.85 log units, respectively. The last step in our validation was a comparison with experimental values for 22 complex, multifunctional chemicals (including pesticides, hormones, mycotoxins) that we measured specifically for this validation purpose. For these chemicals, predictions by all models were less accurate than those for simpler chemicals. COSMOtherm performed the best (rmse 0.71 log units) while the other methods showed considerably poorer results (rmse 1.29 (ABSOLV), 1.25 (SPARC), and 1.62 (KOWWIN) log units). PMID:25834931

  12. Variations in water storage in China over recent decades from GRACE observations and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, X.; Wu, J. J.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    We applied Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Tellus products in combination with Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) simulations and data from reports, to analyze variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in China as a whole and eight of its basins from 2003 to 2013. Amplitudes of TWS were well restored after scaling, and showed good correlations with those estimated from models at the basin scale. TWS generally followed variations in annual precipitation; it decreased linearly in the Huai River basin (-0.56 cm yr-1) and increased with fluctuations in the Changjiang River basin (0.35 cm yr-1), Zhujiang basin (0.55 cm yr-1) and southeast rivers basin (0.70 cm yr-1). In the Hai River basin and Yellow River basin, groundwater exploitation may have altered TWS's response to climate, and TWS kept decreasing until 2012. Changes in soil moisture storage contributed over 50 % of variance in TWS in most basins. Precipitation and runoff showed a large impact on TWS, with more explained TWS in the south than in the north. North China and southwest rivers region exhibited long-term TWS depletions. TWS has increased significantly over recent decades in the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River, southeastern coastal areas, as well as the Hoh Xil, and the headstream region of the Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau. The findings in this study could be helpful to climate change impact research and disaster mitigation planning.

  13. Anthropogenic CO2 estimates in the Southern Ocean: Storage partitioning in the different water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Paula C.; Pérez, F. F.; Khatiwala, S.; Ríos, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Southern Ocean (SO) remains a key issue in our understanding of the global carbon cycle and for predicting future climate change. A number of recent studies suggest that 30 to 40% of ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) occurs in the SO, accompanied by highly efficient transport of CANT by intermediate-depth waters out of that region. In contrast, storage of CANT in deep and bottom layers is still an open question. Significant discrepancies can be found between results from several indirect techniques and ocean models. Even though reference methodologies state that CANT concentrations in deep and bottom layers of the SO are negligible, recent results from tracer-based methods and ocean models as well as accurate measurements of 39Ar, CCl4 and CFCs along the continental slope and in the Antarctic deep and bottom waters contradict this conclusion. The role of the SO in the uptake, storage and transport of CANT has proved to be really important for the global ocean and there is a need for agreement between the different techniques. A CO2-data-based ("back-calculation") method, the CT0 method, was developed with the aim of obtaining more accurate CANT concentration and inventory estimates in the SO region (south of 45°S). Data from the GLODAP (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project) and CARINA databases were used. The CT0 method tries to reduce at least two of the main caveats attributed to the back-calculation methods: the need for a better definition of water mass mixing and, most importantly, the unsteady state of the air-sea CO2 disequilibrium (ΔCdis) term. Water mass mixing was computed on the basis of results from an extended Optimum Multi-Parametric (eOMP) analysis applied to the main water masses of the SO. Recently published parameterizations were used to obtain more reliable values of ΔCdis and also of preformed alkalinity. The variability of the ΔCdis term (δCdis) was approximated using results from an ocean carbon cycle model. Results from the CT0 method are compared with those from the ΔC* method, the TrOCA method, and two different tracer-based approaches, the transit-time distribution (TTD) and Green's function (GF) methods. We find that the TTD, GF and CT0 methods give very similar estimates for the SO's inventory (with reference to the year 1994) of 30 ± 2, 22 ± 2, 29 ± 3 PgC, respectively. Importantly, Antarctic Bottom Water shows CANT concentrations of 9 ± 1, 3 ± 0.3, 6 ± 1 μmol kg-1, contributing 6-12% of the SO's inventory. The ΔC* and TrOCA methods seem to underestimate and overestimate, respectively, both the total CANT inventory and CANT concentrations in deep and bottom layers. Results from the CT0 method suggest that deep and bottom layers of the water column in the SO contain, in general, low concentrations of CANT compared with subsurface and intermediate layers but higher than those recorded in the global databases. It is important to note that, as deep and bottom layers in the SO fill two of the most voluminous water masses of the global ocean, even these relatively low values of CANT can be of considerable importance when computing the inventories in the water column, mostly in the SO but also in outer regions where bottom waters spread.

  14. Impact of changes in GRACE derived terrestrial water storage on vegetation growth in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We use GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) and ERA-interim air temperature, as proxy for available water and temperature constraints on vegetation productivity, inferred from MODIS satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), in Northern Eurasia during 2002-2011. We investigate how changes in TWS affect the correlation between NDVI and temperature during the non-frozen season. We find that vegetation growth exhibits significant spatial and temporal variability associated with varying trend in TWS and temperature. The largest NDVI gains occur over boreal forests associated with warming and wetting. The largest NDVI losses occur over grasslands in the Southwestern Ob associated with regional drying and cooling, with dominant constraint from TWS. Over grasslands and temperate forests in the Southeast Ob and South Yenisei, wetting and cooling lead to a dominant temperature constraint due to the relaxation of TWS constraints. Overall, we find significant monthly correlation of NDVI with TWS and temperature over 35% and 50% of the domain, respectively. These results indicate that water availability (TWS) plays a major role in modulating Eurasia vegetation response to temperature changes.

  15. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground. PMID:26813800

  16. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  17. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from −4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to −6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by −5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground. PMID:26813800

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  19. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

  20. Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1980-12-01

    Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

  1. Recovery of several volatile organic compounds from simulated water samples: Effect of transport and storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, L.C.; Schroder, L.J.; Brooks, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Solutions containing volatile organic compounds were prepared in organic-free water and 2% methanol and submitted to two U.S. Geological Survey laboratories. Data from the determination of volatile compounds in these samples were compared to analytical data for the same volatile compounds that had been kept in solutions 100 times more concentrated until immediately before analysis; there was no statistically significant difference in the analytical recoveries. Addition of 2% methanol to the storage containers hindered the recovery of bromomethane and vinyl chloride. Methanol addition did not enhance sample stability. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in results from the two laboratories, and the recovery efficiency was more than 80% in more than half of the determinations made. In a subsequent study, six of eight volatile compounds showed no significant loss of recovery after 34 days.

  2. Ground-Water Storage Change and Land Subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Southeastern Arizona, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Donald R.; Anderson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Gravity and land subsidence were measured annually at wells and benchmarks within two networks in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley from 1998 to 2002. Both networks are within the Tucson Active Management Area. Annual estimates of ground-water storage change, ground-water budgets, and land subsidence were made based on the data. Additionally, estimates of specific yield were made at wells within the monitored region. Increases in gravity and water-level rises followed above-average natural recharge during winter 1998 in Tucson Basin. Overall declining gravity and water-level trends from 1999 to 2002 in Tucson Basin reflected general declining ground-water storage conditions and redistribution of the recent recharge throughout a larger region of the aquifer. The volume of stored ground-water in the monitored portion of Tucson Basin increased 200,000 acre-feet from December 1997 to February 1999; however, thereafter an imbalance in ground-water pumpage in excess of recharge led to a net storage loss for the monitoring period by February 2002. Ground-water storage in Avra Valley increased 70,000 acre-feet during the monitoring period, largely as a result of artificial and incidental recharge in the monitored region. The water-budget for the combined monitored regions of Tucson Basin and Avra Valley was dominated by about 460,000 acre-feet of recharge during 1998 followed by an average-annual recharge rate of about 80,000 acre-feet per year from 1999 to 2002. Above-average recharge during winter 1998, followed by average-annual deficit conditions, resulted in an overall balanced water budget for the monitored period. Monitored variations in storage compared well with simulated average-annual conditions, except for above-average recharge from 1998 to 1999. The difference in observed and simulated conditions indicate that ground-water flow models can be improved by including climate-related variations in recharge rates rather than invariable rates of average-annual recharge. Observed land-subsidence during the monitoring period was less than 1 inch except in the central part of Tucson Basin where land subsidence was about 2-3 inches. Correlations of gravity-based storage and water-level change at 37 wells were variable and illustrate the complex nature of the aquifer system. Storage and water-level variations were insufficient to estimate specific yield at many wells. Correlations at several wells were poor, inverse, or resulted in unreasonably large values of specific yield. Causes of anomalously correlated gravity and water levels include significant storage change in thick unsaturated zones, especially near major ephemeral channels, and multiple aquifers that are poorly connected hydraulically. Good correlation of storage and water-level change at 10 wells that were not near major streams where significant changes in unsaturated zone storage occur resulted in an average specific-yield value of 0.27.

  3. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across the landscape.

  4. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Brooks, J R; Domec, J C; Gartner, B L; Warren, J M; Woodruff, D R; Bible, K; Shaw, D C

    2006-01-01

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2)) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. The trees used in this study spanned a broad range of height (13.5-58 m) and diameter (0.14-1.43 m). Sap flow was monitored continuously with heat dissipation probes near the base of the trunk prior to, during and following injection of D2O. The transit time for D2O transport from the base of the trunk to the upper crown and the tracer residence time were determined by measuring hydrogen isotope ratios in water extracted from leaves sampled at regular intervals. Transit times for arrival of D2O in the upper crown ranged from 2.5 to 21 d and residence times ranged from 36 to 79 d. Estimates of maximum sap velocity derived from tracer transit times and path length ranged from 2.4 to 5.4 m d(-1). Tracer residence time and half-life increased as tree diameter increased, independent of species. Species-independent scaling of tracer velocity with sapwood-specific conductivity was also observed. When data from this study were combined with similar data from an earlier study of four tropical angiosperm trees, species-independent scaling of tracer velocity and residence time with sapwood hydraulic capacitance was observed. Sapwood capacitance is an intrinsic tissue-level property that appears to govern whole-tree water transport in a similar manner among both tracheid- and vessel-bearing species. PMID:17086757

  5. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  6. Influence of lateral subsurface flow and connectivity on soil water storage in land surface modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonggun; Mohanty, Binayak P.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral surface/subsurface flow and their connectivity play a significant role in redistributing soil water, which has a direct effect on biological, chemical, and geomorphological processes in the root zone (~1 m). However, most of the land surface models neglect the horizontal exchanges of water at the grid or subgrid scales, focusing only on the vertical exchanges of water as one-dimensional process. To develop better hydrologic understanding and modeling capability in complex landscapes, in this study we added connectivity-based lateral subsurface flow algorithms in the Community Land Model. To demonstrate the impact of lateral flow and connectivity on soil water storage we designed three cases including the following: (1) with complex surface topography only, (2) with complex surface topography in upper soil layers and soil hydraulic properties with uniform anisotropy. and (3) with complex surface topography and soil hydraulic properties with spatially varying anisotropy. The connectivity was considered as an indicator for the variation of anisotropy in the case 3, which was created by wetness conditions or geophysical controls (e.g., soil type, normalized difference vegetation index, and topographic index). These cases were tested in two study sites (ER 5 field and ER-sub watershed in Oklahoma) comparing to the field (gravimetric and remote sensing) soil moisture observations. Through the analysis of spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of soil moisture predictions from the study cases, surface topography was found to be a crucial control in demonstrating the variation of near surface soil moisture, but not significantly affected the subsurface flow in deeper soil layers. In addition, we observed the best performance in case 3 representing that the lateral connectivity can contribute effectively to quantify the anisotropy and redistributing soil water in the root zone. Hence, the approach with connectivity-based lateral subsurface flow was able to better characterize the spatially distributed patterns of subsurface flow and improve the simulation of the hydrologic cycle.

  7. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 ± 0.18 mm yr-1 in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 ± 64 km3 yr-1 in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  8. CONSERVING WATER AND WASHDOWN EFFECTIVENESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1990's before the implementation of the Pathogen Reduction/HACCP (PR/HACCP) regulation, poultry processing plants used 4.5 to 5.5 gallons of water to process each broiler. At this time, the average water cost across the United States was approximately $2.50/1000 gallons of water. This...

  9. Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. The effects of water sample treatment, preparation, and storage prior to cyanotoxin analysis for cylindrospermopsin, microcystin and saxitoxin.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Lisa; Church, Jennifer L; Carpino, Justin; Faltin-Mara, Erin; Rubio, Fernando

    2016-02-25

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms occur in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs, and in brackish waters throughout the world. The wide variety of cyanotoxins and their congeners can lead to frequent exposure of humans through consumption of meat, fish, seafood, blue-green algal products and water, accidental ingestion of contaminated water and cyanobacterial scum during recreational activities, and inhalation of cyanobacterial aerosols. Cyanotoxins can also occur in the drinking water supply. In order to monitor human exposure, sensitive analytical methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are often used. Regardless of the analytical method of choice, some problems regularly occur during sample collection, treatment, storage, and preparation which cause toxin loss and therefore underestimation of the true concentration. To evaluate the potential influence of sample treatment, storage and preparation materials on surface and drinking water samples, the effects of different types of materials on toxin recovery were compared. Collection and storage materials included glass and various types of plastics. It was found that microcystin congeners LA and LF adsorbed to polystyrene, polypropylene, high density polyethylene and polycarbonate storage containers, leading to low recoveries (<70%), cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin did not adsorb to the containers tested. Therefore, this study shows that glass or polyethylene terephthalate glycol containers are the materials of choice for collection and storage of samples containing the cyanotoxins cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxin. This study also demonstrated that after 15 min chlorine decreased the concentration of microcystin LR to <40%, microcystin LA and saxitoxin to <15%, therefore quenching of drinking water samples immediately upon sample collection is critical for accurate analysis. In addition, the effect of various drinking water treatment chemicals on toxin recovery and the behavior of those chemicals in the enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were also studied and are summarized. PMID:26740478

  11. Experimental study of soil water storage capacity on rocky slopes in the Negev Highlands, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikel, Harald; Kuhn, Nikolaus; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Deserts and semi-deserts cover more than one-third of the global land surface. That means that in total about 49 million km2 are affected by aridity. Arid regions are characterized by sparse and patchy vegetation, forming so called "fertility islands". The mosaic of vegetated and non-vegetated patches is dynamically interdependent and has shown to be an adaptation of the ecosystem to limited water availability and soil resources. To understand spatial heterogeneity of vegetation in (semi-)arid regions and vegetation response to climate change, studies on small scale runoff patterns, infiltration and their role in ecohydrology are required. Dryland vegetation is expected to respond sensitively to climate change and the projected variability of rainfall events. While rainfall as a water source is an obvious factor for vegetation water supply, the ability of patchy soil coverage to store water has not been studied in detail for dryland hydrological systems. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between climate change and plant available water on patchy soils in the Negev desert / Israel. Understanding rainfall-soil interaction will improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on vegetation in arid environments. Ten micro-catchments in different landscape units near Sede Boqer were examined. Topographic variables were extracted from high resolution (~0.02m) digital elevation models for each micro-catchment. Soil volume was estimated by laser scanning before and after soil excavation. Bulk density was estimated by weighing the excavated soil. To study the formation of runoff and redistribution of precipitation at the different catchment surface units, sprinkling experiments were conducted. Rainfall of 18mm/h was applied on 20 plots with an area of 1m2 each. The experiments lasted 25 to 40 minutes, until equilibrium runoff rates were achieved. Furthermore, rainfall records for the period of 1976-2008 of the vegetation periods (November - February) were analyzed. Based on experiments, analysis of rainfall records, soil properties and infiltration rates, it was possible to estimate the recurrence interval of events generating sufficient runoff to wet soil patches to a degree that is suitable for plant growth. The preliminary results indicate that a minimum effective rainfall amount of 2.5 mm in the soil patch contribution area is required to saturate soil patches with water. Such low rainfall events are relatively frequent in this region of the Negev, indicating that there is potential to frequently fill soil pore volume. The storage capacity of the soil is particularly relevant for plant water supply during periods without rain. Our results therefore show that the impact of climate change in drylands can only be predicted by taking the soil water storage capacity into account. The study also illustrates how rainfall simulation experiments and the analysis of meteorological records can be combined as a tool for the assessment of environmental change.

  12. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria culture. PMID:22032822

  13. Multi-scale linkages between forest water use, catchment storage, and streamflow dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Forests exert an explicit control on streamflow dynamics through their use of water stored within the catchment. While the connection between stored water and stream discharge dynamics has been studied for decades, forest hydrologists continue to struggle to understand how trees modulate these fluxes on timescales of hours to years. Here we present new data from the Alsea experimental forest in Western Oregon that examines coupled ecohydrological processes from tree to headwater catchment scales. We combine experimental forest removal and water isotope (18O and 2H) analysis of tree source water with more traditional hydrometric measurements and analysis (stream gauging and groundwater hydrology) to probe forest-catchment coupling mechanisms. Preliminary results show that removal of riparian zone Douglas-fir and red alder forest from first-order channels had no discernable effect on diel fluctuations in stream discharge. In contrast to this tightly coupled behavior, analysis of precipitation and stream water isotope signals (weekly sampling) indicate that the mean transit time of our stream water is in excess of 2.5 years. In between the extremes of diel streamflow fluctuations and multi-annual particle flux through the subsurface, water levels in shallow (5-8 m depth) and deep (37 m) fractured bedrock groundwater systems show evidence of storm rainfall response, but only after a storage deficit has been met through the course of the Pacific Northwest’s seasonal wetting cycle. Once activated, event-based groundwater level response was as much as 0.5 m and typically lagged the precipitation center of mass on the order of minutes to hours. During the same wetting period, streamflow runoff ratios increased from 1-5% under dry catchment conditions and plateaued at 65-85% when events occurred during moderately wet to very wet catchment conditions. Overall, our results suggest that while forests modulate small daily fluctuations in summer baseflow, they also set the threshold for full catchment hydrological activation; which is a prerequisite to produce the high runoff ratios observed during winter storm events. Our findings help define the temporal and spatial importance of forest vegetation and its interaction with the subsurface hydrological system for improved rainfall-runoff process conceptualization of forested catchments.

  14. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute VolgNIIGiM situated at a left bank of Volga River of Saratov Region of Russia (N51.384650°, E46.055890°). The digital elevation model of soil surface has been created, as well as monitoring of spatial water storage with EM 38 device and of a biomass were carried out. Layers of corresponding spatial data have been created and analyzed. The carried out analysis of spatial regresses has shown presence of links between productivity of a biomass of a alfalfa, water storage and topography. The obtained results shows the significance to include spatial characteristics of the topography and water storage to the irrigation models, as well as adaptation of sprinkler technology to allow differentiate the volume and rate of the applied water within the field. Special attention should be done to quantify relationships between uniform technology of water application by sprinkler and spatial nonuniformity of moisture storage (zoning of high soil moisture in depressions) in soil and as consequence of infiltration capacity.

  15. Marginal gap formation of composites in dentine: effect of water storage.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U J; Shah, K C; Chew, C L

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of water storage on the marginal adaptation of two composite resins (Spectrum TPH and Ariston AT), two polyacid-modified composite resins (Dyract AP and F2000) and a new PRG composite (Reactmer) to dentine over time. Two cylindrical dentine cavities (1.5 mm diameter and 1.5 mm deep) were prepared on the horizontally sectioned surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. In each tooth, one cavity was restored using composites with their respective bonding system and the other without the bonding system. The sample size for each material with/without bonding system was 6. The composites were placed in one increment, bulk-polymerized, immediately finished/polished with the Sof-lex discs system and fine polished on 30 microm silicon carbide/9 microm aluminium oxide lapping film discs in a microgrinding system. The specimens were then stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C and the maximum marginal gap width between the material and the dentine wall was determined at 24 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks using a measurescope at x500 magnification. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using monva, anova/Scheffe's post hoc test and independent samples of t-test at significance level 0.05. At all time intervals, no significant difference in marginal gap formation was observed between materials. Where bonding systems were not used, a decrease in gap widths over time was observed with most materials but only Dyract AP exhibited a significant decrease. The latter was observed after 2 weeks storage in water. The use of bonding systems reduced dentine marginal gaps significantly and is therefore mandatory for all composites evaluated. Marginal gaps arising from polymerization contraction of conventional, polyacid-modified and PRG composites cannot be fully compensated by hydroscopic expansion. Clinical relevance Bonding systems are mandatory for all composites when bonding to dentin. In the event of a bond failure at placement, hygroscopic expansion of composites can reduce marginal gaps but not completely. PMID:12588494

  16. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

  17. Global spaceborne assessment of the relationship between terrestrial water storage and evaporative demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, P. A.; De Linage, C.; Velicogna, I.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Feedbacks between terrestrial water storage (TWS) and the atmosphere can impact climatic extremes such as droughts and heat waves. High evaporative demand (high temperature and/or low humidity) removes more water by evapotranspiration, leading to lower TWS. At the same time, low TWS availability limits evapotranspiration, which increases evaporative demand by reducing the ratio of latent to sensible heat fluxes from the land surface. Studies using coupled land-atmosphere models have explored the strength of these relationships, and have been validated using local observational data, but global-scale observational studies are limited by data availability. We quantified these relationships globally using TWS data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), surface air temperature and relative humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Our approach demonstrated a strong relationship between antecedent TWS and subsequent evaporative demand in certain key regions of the globe. These regions are consistent with the "hot spots" of land-atmosphere coupling found in modeling studies, and represent semi-arid transitional areas where TWS strongly limits evapotranspiration. We also found a strong relationship between antecedent evaporative demand and subsequent TWS throughout most of the global land surface. These observational relationships provide a benchmark for comparison with climate model simulations. We found good agreement between the satellite-derived relationships and the equivalent relationships calculated with output from the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5.

  18. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. ); Knoll, R.W. )

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Variations in the total water storage in the major river basins of India from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Swenson, S.

    2008-12-01

    We present an estimate of total water storage variations of the major river basins of India during the period of 2002 to mid 2008 from modelling of time-variable gravity field observed by GRACE satellite by utilising the scheme of Swenson and Wahr, (2002). The largest annual volume change is observed over the upper Ganga basin, followed by the lower Gnaga basin and the Yamuna basin of northern India. Basins of northern India show a declining trend of water storage over this time period, whereas the Godavari basin, the largest basin of central south India, as well as basins in central India show similar seasonal variations but increasing trends. It is interesting to note that these trends are prevalent over a decadal time period of ground water level and therefore the trend observed from GRACE data can be extrapolated backward. If these trends are sustained over a long time period, northern India and Bangladesh will lead to a major water crisis

  20. Dynamics of surface water storage in the Amazon inferred from measurements of inter-satellite distance change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Kim, Hyungjun; Yeo, In-Young; Yeh, Pat; Oki, Taikan; Seo, Ki-Weon; Alsdorf, Doug; Luthcke, Scott B.

    2009-05-01

    Terrestrial water storage in the Amazon basin and its surrounding areas is studied by exploring the instantaneous measurements of distance changes between two satellites from the GRACE mission. The surface water in the channels and floodplains can be significant in weighing total water storage. Its magnitude can be as large as soil moisture perturbing the motions of the satellites to a detectable amount by the on-board instrument. The river runoff routing simulations indicate the effective velocity throughout the Amazon basin over the years is about 30 cm/s with significant seasonal change. The lower velocity, during rising stages and peak water season, and the faster velocity, during falling stages, are delineated from the observations. The backwater effects may impact such seasonal change on the overall flow velocity. Direct assimilation of GRACE tracking data can contribute to land surface dynamic processes by resolving the time scale of transport in rivers and streams.

  1. Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    1992-07-06

    In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

  2. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  3. Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

    1982-01-01

    The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  4. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  5. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  6. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. The Impact of the Annual Continental Water-Storage Cycle on Coastal Sea-Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamisiea, M. E.; Hill, E. M.; Ponte, R. M.; Davis, J. L.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Holgate, S. J.; Howard, T.

    2007-12-01

    Geographic variations in coastal sea-level change, as observed by tide gauges, are driven not only by ocean dynamics and freshwater flux, but also crustal motion and equipotential height variations caused by varying mass loads on the continents. These patterns of sea-level change have been used in the past to infer the mass balance of the large ice sheets. However, GRACE observations suggest that even larger amplitude geographic variations may be produced on shorter time scales by mass changes associated with the hydrological cycle. In this talk, we examine the impact of the hydrological cycle on tide-gauge observations, focusing only on the static variations in sea level. Previous studies have shown that the non-steric, globally-averaged, annual sea-level change is primarily due to mass exchange between the continents and the oceans. This does not imply, though, that the sea level varies uniformly. Indeed, large regional variations in this signal exist along the coasts, depending upon the phase difference between the local water storage cycle and the mean global ocean signal. During late summer, when the annual ocean cycle is at its maximum and the water stored in most of the Northern Hemisphere is at a minimum, the local crustal uplift and equipotential subsidence due to the decrease of mass in the northern latitudes cancels the impact of the increase water volume in the oceans. However, when the ocean signal and hydrological signal are in phase, the loading effects and increased mean sea level contribute to a sea-level annual cycle amplitude of up to 20~mm. In particular, we focus on regions where this signal is the largest, such as the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The results also demonstrate the importance of not assimilating the entire signal present in tide-gauge records into ocean models.

  8. Cesium removal from the fuel storage water at the Savannah River Site R-Building Disassembly Basin using 3M Empore{reg_sign}-membrane filter technology

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.; Thompson, M.C.; Peterson, K.; May, C.; Kafka, T.M.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes results from a seven-day demonstration of the use of 3M Empore membrane filter loaded with ion exchange material (potassium cobalt hexacynoferrate (CoHex)) for cesium uptake from the R-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site. The goal of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of the Process Absorber Development unit (PADU), a water pre-filtration /CoHex configuration on a skid, to remove cesium from R-Disassembly Basin at a linear processing flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (1,195.8 liters/minute/m{sup 2} or 29.35 gallons/minute/ft{sup 2}). Over 210,000 liters (> 55,500 gallons) of R-Disassembly Basin water was processed through the PADU without a cesium breakthrough, that is, the effluent after treatment with CoHex, contained less than detectable amounts of radioactive cesium. Some of the observed advantages of the Empore membrane filter technology over conventional packed column ion exchange systems includes rapid flow rates without channeling effects, low volume secondary waste and fast extraction or rapid kinetics per unit of flow.

  9. Bias investigation of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.; Long, S.M.; Sampson, T.E.

    1993-08-01

    This paper addresses a series of studies undertaken while fulfilling the measurement requirements for certification of a 55-gallon drum-sized segmented gamma scanner to be used at the plutonium facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos. These studies were initiated to investigate anomalies seen in the data as well as gain a quantifiable understanding of effects caused by using standards of considerably different geometric proportions than the assay items, oftentimes necessitated due to lack of adequate standards. The first investigation concerned effects caused by items not being exactly centered on the measurement table. The remaining studies involved establishing the magnitude of the bias induced by so-called ``end effects`` as well as by size differences between calibration standards and assay items. In order to unravel the above effects, can and drum parameter files were interchangeably employed in conjunction with comparisons of the instrument calibrations obtained with can-sized standards and 55-gallon drum standards. The paper will discuss the results and the magnitude of the observed effects.

  10. Statistical separation and forecast of water storage patterns over West Asia using GRACE data and climate indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Schumacher, Maike; Anyah, Richard; Awange, Joseph; Mostafaie, Abdorrahman

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that large parts of West Asia, specifically the arid Middle East region, exhibited a rapid loss of freshwater reserves during the past decade. A reliable estimation of large scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) changes and the ability of forecasting them, with respect to climate variability and change, are therefore essential for West Asia. This study first implemented a least squares inversion approach to separate the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived total water storage products over West Asia. Time series of separated terrestrial water and groundwater storage changes were then generated over the region, covering the period of 2003 to 2013. Forecasting scenarios were generated to predict TWS and GWS changes by applying low-degree autoregressive models which relate basin averaged TWS and GWS changes to input values of precipitation and evaporation as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation index as the remote controller of the region's climate. Dry, normal, and wet scenarios were designed to forecast West Asia's TWS and GWS variations over the period of 2013 to 2015. Our separated results over 2003 to 2013 indicated a decline in TWS and GW over the Middle East. A strong correlation was found between the NAO index and variability of water storage over West Asia, specifically during the period of 2005 to 2008. Dry forecasting scenarios indicated continuous GWS decline over the northwest part of Iran, entire Iraq and Syria, which have been already facing challenges of limited water resources. Key words: Forecsting GRACE-TWS; Groundwater; Signal Separation; Middle East

  11. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? 80.1440 Section 80.1440... handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year, and who do not have...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? 80.1440 Section 80.1440... handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year, and who do not have...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? 80.1440 Section 80.1440... handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year, and who do not have...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? 80.1440 Section 80.1440... handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year, and who do not have...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? 80.1440 Section 80.1440... handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year, and who do not have...

  16. Preliminary screening of thermal storage concepts for water/steam and organic fluid solar thermal receiver systems

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.J.; Karpuk, M.E.; Ullman, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary comparison of thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications was done generically for large and small solar systems with sensible and latent heat and two-stage storage concepts. Concepts were ranked based on the cost of delivered energy. A +- 20% uncertainty in subsystem cost was included in the analysis. Water/steam and organic fluid collector/receivers were studied separately. For the water/steam concept, Barstow technology (100 MW/sub e/) was examined. A nitrite/nitrate salt with a low-cost solid medium was best for buffer storage; for diurnal storage, the two-stage draw salt/low-cost media and oil/rock concept was best. Phase change concepts require improvements on the concept analyzed to be attractive. For the organic fluid system, a Shenandoah total energy system was examined. The Syltherm trickle charge taconite concept was the most favorable and may be improved by replacing the taconite with a lower-cost oil-compatible medium. Salt concepts can be competitive with this system only if there is a low-cost solid medium that is compatible with the salt and the end use requires a large amount of storage. The phase change concept examined was found to be quite poor for this total energy application.

  17. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni in bottled purified drinking water under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Lu, Xiaonan; Al-Alami, Nivin I; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-02-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni that were separately inoculated into bottled purified drinking water was investigated during storage at 22, 4, and -18 C for 5, 7, and 2 days, respectively. Two inoculation levels were used, 1 and 10 CFU/ml (10(2) and 10(3) CFU/100 ml). In samples inoculated with 10(2) CFU/100 ml, C. jejuni was not detectable (>2-log reduction) after storage under the conditions specified above. E. coli O157:H7 was detected on nonselective and selective media at log reductions of 1.08 to 1.25 after storage at 22 C, 1.19 to 1.56 after storage at 4 C, and 1.54 to 1.98 after storage at -18 C. When the higher inoculation level of 10(3) CFU/100 ml was used, C. jejuni was able to survive at 22 and 4 C, with 2.25- and 2.17-log reductions, respectively, observed on nonselective media. At these higher inoculation levels, E. coli O157:H7 was detectable at 22, 4, and -18 C, with log reductions of 0.76, 0.97, and 1.21, respectively, achieved on nonselective media. Additionally, E. coli O157:H7 showed significant differences in culturability (P<0.05) on the nonselective and selective culture media under the different storage conditions, with storage at -18 C for 2 days being the treatment most inhibiting. The percentage of sublethal injury of E. coli O157:H7 ranged from ?33 to 75%, indicating that microbial examination of bottled water must be done carefully, otherwise false-negative results or underestimation of bacterial numbers could pose a health risk when low levels of pathogens are present. PMID:21333145

  18. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the San Gorgonio Pass area. The water-bearing deposits were divided into three aquifers: (1) the perched aquifer, (2) the upper aquifer, and (3) the lower aquifer based on lithologic and downhole geophysical logs. Natural recharge in the San Gorgonio Pass area was estimated using INFILv3, a deterministic distributed- parameter precipitation-runoff model. The INFILv3 model simulated that the potential recharge of precipitation and runoff in the Beaumont and Banning storage units was about 3,710 acre-feet per year and that the potential recharge in 28 sub-drainage basins upstream of the storage units was about 6,180 acre-feet per year. The water supply for the Beaumont and Banning storage units is supplied by pumping ground water from wells in the Canyon (Edgar and Banning Canyons), Banning Bench, Beaumont, and Banning storage units. Total annual pumpage from the Beaumont and Banning storage units ranged from about 1,630 acre-feet in 1936 to about 20,000 acre-feet in 2003. Ground-water levels declined by as much as 100 feet in the Beaumont storage unit from 1926-2003 in response to ground-water pumping of about 450,160 acre-feet during this period. Since ground-water development began in the San Gorgonio Pass area, there have been several sources of artificial recharge to the basin including return flow from applied water on crops, golf courses, and landscape; septic-tank seepage; and infiltration of storm runoff diversions and imported water into recharge ponds. Return flow from applied water and septic-tank seepage was estimated to reach a maximum of about 8,100 acre-feet per year in 2003. Owing to the great depth of water in much of study area (in excess of 150 feet), the return flow and septic-tank seepage takes years to decades to reach the water table. Stable-isotope data indicate that the source of ground-water recharge was precipitation from storms passing through the San Gorgonio Pass as opposed to runoff from the higher altitudes of the San Bernar

  19. Multivariate forecasting of water storage change for West-Africa using sea surface temperature and GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, E.; Kusche, J.; Eicker, A.; Krasbutter, I.; Schuh, W.; Diekkrüger, B.; Schmidt, M. G.; Guo, J.; Shum, C.

    2012-12-01

    Several West-African countries are located besides the Atlantic Ocean, exposed to coastal and Sahel-type regimes. To these countries, global warming may pose multiple threats including sea level rise and reduced freshwater availability. Changes in the terrestrial water cycle may be accompanied by an increasing frequency, duration and magnitude of droughts and floods. Understanding patterns of water storage change from remote sensing and linking them to climate variability is thus essential. However, being able to forecast water storage changes will improve the ability of West African countries to planning and adapting to climate change. In this study, we develop a data-driven method for seasonal forecast of water storage changes that capitalizes on the teleconnections between water storage and sea surface temperature (SST) and on the ability of GRACE to measure total water storage (TWS) change directly. In the first step, we identify statistically independent patterns of TWS from monthly GRACE data over West-Africa, and of SST over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. We apply Independent Component Analysis rather than Principle Component Analysis to reveal teleconnections more pronounced. Our results show that annual variability of TWS over West-Africa is controlled by the Atlantic Ocean, while inter-annual and long-term variability is correlated with ENSO. Different auto-regressive models were then derived from these multivariate time-series and applied to predict TWS variations over West-Africa from Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean-SST. The performance of the forecast models is compared to other statistical methods as Canonical Correlation Analysis, as well as to the output of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), which is forced by climate data. Forecast errors were also evaluated using a Monte Carlo error propagation. We find that forecasting TWS using SST as indicator shows a reliable performance for periods of up to two years. Future studies include additional exploitation of other space geodetic and hydrography data including satellite altimetry and Argo. Keywords: West Africa, GRACE, ICA, AR model, multivariate water storage forecast

  20. The Changing Nature of Water Storage in the Great Lakes Basin and its Implications for Future Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkauer, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Home to approximately 40 million people in the United States and Canada, the Great Lakes drainage basin is a tremendous freshwater resource. It is, however, undergoing significant changes both in land use and climate. It has suffered from substantial deforestation in the last century and the continued drainage of wetlands. Reforestation, urbanization and increased demand for agricultural production on less land are all changing the face of the region. Climate is also changing with warmer, wetter winters changing the accumulation of snow and the formation of lake and soil ice. When land use and climate are relatively consistent between years, the storage of water in and on the land surface can be neglected for inter-annual analysis of the regional water balance, however, given the observed and projected future changes to the region it is clear that representing changes in storage will be critical for understanding how hydrology in the region will respond. As nearly half of the freshwater supply to the Great Lakes is in the form of land surface runoff, changes in the volume and timing of water storage within the drainage basin is a critical factor in the future health and sustainability of their ecosystem. Unlike air temperature and precipitation which are fairly well known in the region, many of these storage variables are known at only a handful of locations if they are monitored at all. Therefore, hydrology model become indispensable tools when trying to quantify changes in storage. For this presentation, observed and simulated datasets are used to identify and quantify changes in the timing and quantity of storage within the Great Lakes region due to changes in land use and climate. Storage terms that will be evaluated include soil moisture and ice, snow cover, groundwater, and inland lake and wetland storage. Warmer winters are reducing snow cover, which can lead to the formation of more soil ice and wetter spring soils for a time, though increasing temperatures will get warm enough to reduce the formation of soil ice as well. Wetter and warmer conditions in the winter and spring can lead to earlier spring runoff, though the presence of lake and wetland storage can mitigate this effect. Wetlands and lakes increase infiltration and the potential for groundwater recharge, while the expansion of urban impervious area reduces infiltration and recharge.

  1. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Van Brunt, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure.

  2. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, O.; Stenchikov, G.; Missimer, T. M.

    2014-07-01

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions.

  3. Effects of Scrophularia striata water extract on quality and shelf life of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during superchilled storage

    PubMed Central

    Jebelli Javan, A; Bolandi, M; Jadidi, Z; Parsaeimehr, M; Javaheri Vayeghan, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Scrophularia striata water extract on the quality and shelf life of the rainbow trout fillet during superchilled storage. Fish samples were treated with 1% and 3% S. striata water extract and then stored at -2°C for 20 days. The samples were analyzed periodically for chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results indicated that incorporation of S. striata water extract on rainbow fillets caused the delay of lipid peroxidation and hydrolytic spoilage in 3% treated sample in comparison with the control sample at the last day of the experiment (P<0.05). Moreover, fish fillets containing 3% S. striata water extract showed lower bacterial count than the control and 1% water extract supplemented samples (P<0.05) during the experiment. According to sensory analysis results, 3% treated samples were acceptable even at the end of the 20-day storage. It was concluded that the effect of S. striata extract on fish samples was to retain their good quality characteristics and extend the shelf life during superchilled storage. PMID:27175179

  4. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts. PMID:25764851

  5. Quantifying impacts of coupled chemical and physical heterogeneity on water quality evolution during Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Descourvieres, C.; Seibert, S.; Harris, B.; Atteia, O.; Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an important water management option in water-scarce regions. During wet periods surplus water is injected into suitable aquifers for storage and later recovery. ASR sites are, however, also ideal natural laboratories that provide opportunities for studying coupled physical and geochemical processes and water quality evolution at field-scale under well-controlled hydrological conditions. In this study, we use reactive transport modelling to assess the impacts of physical and chemical heterogeneities on the water quality evolution during the injection of oxic surface water into the anoxic, pyrite-bearing Leederville aquifer in Perth, Western Australia. Physical heterogeneity was identified from geophysical well logs and time lapse temperature logs. Those data were used to define the spatial, depth-varying alternation of three lithofacies (sandstone, siltstone and clay). Chemical heterogeneity was incorporated through distinct chemical zones, based on data derived from a comprehensive pre-trial geochemical characterization and from dedicated laboratory respirometer experiments. Calibration of flow and conservative transport parameters was constrained by the spatially varying measured chloride breakthrough behavior. Subsequent reactive transport modeling discerned the key geochemical processes that affected the water quality evolution during ASR. Clearly identified processes included oxidation of pyrite, mineralization of sedimentary organic carbon, ion exchange, dissolution of calcite and precipitation of ferrihydrite and siderite. We use the calibrated model to analyze the individual and the combined effects of the physical and chemical heterogeneities on the chemical composition of the recovered water during ASR.

  6. Evaluating soil water storage distribution in a tempo-spatial domain with a new statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hu, wei; si, bing

    2013-04-01

    Time stability of soil water storage (SWS) was usually used to infer overall SWS distribution, assuming the spatial pattern of SWS was the same at different time. However, temporal change of SWS usually varies spatially, resulting in the changes of spatial pattern of SWS. In addition, controlling factors of SWS has been extensively explored. However, most of controlling factors are identified by their correlations to the spatial distribution of SWS, and few focused on the spatial distribution of temporal changes in SWS. The objective of this study was to develop a statistical model which considers both time-invariant spatial pattern of SWS and spatial variability of temporal change in SWS. Specific attentions were given to (1) the controlling factors of the spatial structure of temporal change in SWS and (2) estimation and prediction of SWS distribution with the new model. The model divides spatial SWS series into time-invariant spatial pattern, space-invariant temporal change, and space- and time-dependent redistribution term. The redistribution term is responsible for the temporal change in spatial pattern of SWS. Empirical orthogonal function was used to separate the total variations of redistribution term into the sum of product of spatial structures (EOFs) and temporally-varying coefficients (ECs). Model performance was evaluated using SWS data of 0-1.0 m layer from St. Denis National Wildlife Area at the Canadian Prairie (SDNWA) and LaoYeManQu watershed on the Chinese Loess Plateau (LYMQ). Two significant EOFs (EOF1 and EOF2) were found in both areas, which explained 70.8% and 78.4%, respectively, of the total variations of redistribution terms. EOF1 resulted in more changes (recharge or discharge) of SWS at wetter locations, while the role of EOF2 varied with time irrespective of soil water conditions in both areas. The EOF1 of redistribution term was mainly controlled by depth to CaCO3 layer, organic carbon content, and curvature in SDNWA and by silt content, total biomass yield, and organic carbon content in LYMQ. The weight of EOF1 was greater at more extreme soil water conditions, and EC1 was significantly linearly correlated with the spatial mean SWS. The roles of EOF1 resulted in more change (recharge or discharge) of SWS at wetter locations in both areas. The measured soil water storage distribution can be simulated very well by the model. If only EOF1 was considered, reasonable SWS distribution estimation with high NSCE values (from 0.77 to 0.98 in SDNWA, and from 0.95 to 0.99 in LYMQ) was obtained. With SWS measurement at the most time-stable location, mean SWS at unobserved date can be well predicted, with NSCE values from 0.69 to 0.79 in SDNWA and from 0.60 to 0.82 in LYMQ. This model combined with time stability analysis showed a great potential in downscaling of soil moisture distribution in the landscape. The two study areas have drastically different soil, vegetation, climate, topography, and cultivation history. The good performance of this model in both areas may indicate its general applicability to most climatic regions, which need to be verified.

  7. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would likely be minor if the upward flux was smaller than a few tenths of the magnitude of recharge, according to the 2D analyses. The 3D analyses also show that upward flux could occur without a significant increase in the risk categories. The major contribution of this work is that it shows how a large increase in diffuse upward flux from a basin could cause significant problems, but a small increase in upward flux may occur without significantly affecting risks to the shallow freshwater flow system. This heightens the importance of understanding interactions between shallow and deep hydrologic systems when characterizing CO2 storage projects.

  8. The effect of fiber reinforcement type and water storage on strength properties of a provisional fixed partial denture resin.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Gülay; Keyf, Filiz

    2003-04-01

    Fracture resistance of provisional restorations is an important clinical concern. This property is directly related to transverse strength. Strengthening of provisional fixed partial dentures may result from reinforcement with various fiber types. This study evaluated the effect of fiber type and water storage on the transverse strength of a commercially available provisional resin under two different conditions. The denture resin was reinforced with either glass or aramid fiber or no reinforcement was used. Uniform samples were made from a commercially available autopolymerizing provisional fixed partial denture resin. Sixteen bar-shaped specimens (60 x 10 x 4 mm) were reinforced with pre-treated epoxy resin-coated glass fibers, with aramid fibers, or with no fibers. Eight specimens of each group, with and without fibers, were tested after 24 h of fabrication (immediate group), and after 30-day water storage. A three-point loading test was used to measure the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, and the modulus of elasticity. The Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance was used to examine differences among the three groups, and then the Mann-Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were applied to determine pair-wise differences. The transverse strength and the maximal deflection values in the immediate group and in the 30-day water storage group were not statistically significant. In the group tested immediately, the elasticity modulus was found to be significant (P = 0.042). In the 30-day water storage group, all the values were statistically insignificant. The highest transverse strength was displayed by the glass-reinforced resin (66.25MPa) in the immediate group. The transverse strength value was 62.04MPa for the unreinforced samples in the immediate group. All the specimens exhibited lower transverse strength with an increase in water immersion time. The transverse strength value was 61.13 MPa for the glass-reinforced resin and was 61.24 MPa for the unreinforced resin. The aramid-reinforced resin decreased from 62.29 to 58.77 MPa. The addition of fiber reinforcement enhanced the physical properties (the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, the modulus of elasticity) of the processed material over that seen with no addition of fiber. Water storage did not statistically affect the transverse strength of the provisional denture resin compared to that of the unreinforced resin. The transverse strength was lowered at water storage but it was not statistically significant. The transverse strength was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. The glass fiber was superior to the other fiber. Also the modulus of elasticity was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. PMID:12797420

  9. Globally gridded terrestrial water storage variations from GRACE satellite gravimetry for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Globally gridded estimates of monthly-mean anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) are estimated from the most recent GRACE release 05a of GFZ Potsdam in order to provide non-geodetic users a convenient access to state-of-the-art GRACE monitoring data. We use an ensemble of five global land model simulations with different physics and different atmospheric forcing to obtain reliable gridded scaling factors required to correct for spatial leakage introduced during data processing. To allow for the application of this data-set for large-scale monitoring tasks, model validation efforts, and subsequently also data assimilation experiments, globally gridded estimates of TWS uncertainties that include (i) measurement, (ii) leakage, and (iii) re-scaling errors are provided as well. The results are generally consistent with the gridded data provided by Tellus, but deviate in some basins which are largely affected by the uncertainties of the model information required for re-scaling, where the approach based on the median of a small ensemble of global land models introduced in this paper leads to more robust results.

  10. High temperature postirradiation materials performance of spent pressurized water reactor fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Pasupathi, V.; Stellrecht, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Postirradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well-characterized pressurized water reactor rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510, and 571/sup 0/C in limited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding, which decreases the internal rod pressure. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal fuel-cladding chemical interaction layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized alpha-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress corrosion cracking, or fuel pellet degradation. If irradiation hardening does not reduce the stress rupture properties of Zircaloy, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C based on a stress-rupture mechanism is recommended to ensure a 1000-yr cladding lifetime.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water.

    PubMed

    Chung, Han Young; Na, Eun Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Yoon, Hyunjin; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, Heebal; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticusis a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in humans who consumeV. parahaemolyticus-contaminated seafood.The FORC_023 strain was isolated from raw fish storage water, containing live fish at a sashimi restaurant. Here, we aimed to sequence and characterize the genome of the FORC_023 strain. The genome of the FORC_023 strain showed two circular chromosomes, which contained 4227 open reading frames (ORFs), 131 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. Although the genome of FORC_023 did not include major virulence genes, such as genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), it contained genes encoding other hemolysins, secretion systems, iron uptake-related proteins and severalV. parahaemolyticusislands. The highest average nucleotide identity value was obtained between the FORC_023 strain and UCM-V493 (CP007004-6). Comparative genomic analysis of FORC_023 with UCM-V493 revealed that FORC_023 carried an additional genomic region encoding virulence factors, such as repeats-in-toxin and type II secretion factors. Furthermore,in vitrocytotoxicity testing showed that FORC_023 exhibited a high level of cytotoxicity toward INT-407 human epithelial cells. These results suggested that the FORC_023 strain may be a food-borne pathogen. PMID:27073252

  12. Influence of annealing temperature of WO3 in photoelectrochemical conversion and energy storage for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charlene; Ng, Yun Hau; Iwase, Akihide; Amal, Rose

    2013-06-12

    The current work demonstrates the importance of WO3 crystallinity in governing both photoenergy conversion efficiency and storage capacity of the flower structured WO3 electrode. The degree of crystallinity of the WO3 electrodes was varied by altering the calcination temperature from 200 to 600 C. For the self-photochargeability phenomenon, the prevailing flexibility of the short-range order structure at low calcination temperature of 200 C favors the intercalation of the positive cations, enabling more photoexcited electrons to be stored within WO3 framework. This leads to a larger amount of stored charges that can be discharged in an on-demand manner under the absence of irradiation for H2 generation. The stability of the electrodes calcined at 200 C, however, is compromised because of the structural instability caused by the abundance insertion of cations. On the other hand, films that were calcined at 400 C displayed the highest stability toward both intercalation of the cations and photoelectrochemical water splitting performance. Although crystallinty of WO3 was furthered improved at 600 C heat treatment, the worsened contact between the WO3 platelets and the conducting substrate as induced by the significant sintering has been more detrimental toward the charge transport. PMID:23731030

  13. Predicting Agricultural Drought using NOAH Land Surface Model, MODIS Evapotranspiration and GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wu, J.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a major natural hazard in the world which costs 6-8 billion per year in the United States. Drought monitoring and prediction are difficult because it usually develops slowly and it is hard to be recognized until it becomes severe. The severity of agricultural drought was estimated by using Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI) based on soil moisture simulated by Noah land surface model. Based on general water balance and delayed response of soil moisture to the forcing of climate variables, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model for agricultural drought prediction was developed, the inputs of which included data at the previous one and two months of precipitation from Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), evapotranspiration from MODIS MOD 16 product and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). The stability of the MLR model is tested using different training datasets from 2003 to 2009 with time spans of one year to six years and the results indicated that the model is stable, with very limited changes in estimated parameters between different datasets. A sensitivity analysis shows that evapotranspiration is the most significant variable affecting soil moisture change compared to precipitation and TWS. The predicted SMDI was compared with U.S. drought monitor products to evaluate its performance for the period of 2010-2012 when a severe drought occurred in the U.S. (Fig.1). The predicted SMDI successfully forecasted the severe drought in the southern U.S. in early 2012 and its expansion in the following summer. The MLR model has a high predictive skill with short-term forecast (1-2 months), while less accuracy is observed for the long-term forecast (3-6 months) (Fig.2).

  14. Global terrestrial water storage connectivity revealed using complex climate network analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Chen, J.; Donges, J.

    2015-07-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) exerts a key control in global water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Although certain causal relationship exists between precipitation and TWS, the latter quantity also reflects impacts of anthropogenic activities. Thus, quantification of the spatial patterns of TWS will not only help to understand feedbacks between climate dynamics and the hydrologic cycle, but also provide new insights and model calibration constraints for improving the current land surface models. This work is the first attempt to quantify the spatial connectivity of TWS using the complex network theory, which has received broad attention in the climate modeling community in recent years. Complex networks of TWS anomalies are built using two global TWS data sets, a remote sensing product that is obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and a model-generated data set from the global land data assimilation system's NOAH model (GLDAS-NOAH). Both data sets have 1° × 1° grid resolutions and cover most global land areas except for permafrost regions. TWS networks are built by first quantifying pairwise correlation among all valid TWS anomaly time series, and then applying a cutoff threshold derived from the edge-density function to retain only the most important features in the network. Basinwise network connectivity maps are used to illuminate connectivity of individual river basins with other regions. The constructed network degree centrality maps show the TWS anomaly hotspots around the globe and the patterns are consistent with recent GRACE studies. Parallel analyses of networks constructed using the two data sets reveal that the GLDAS-NOAH model captures many of the spatial patterns shown by GRACE, although significant discrepancies exist in some regions. Thus, our results provide further measures for constraining the current land surface models, especially in data sparse regions.

  15. Six oil/water separators reduce runoff contamination from storage terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Castelucci, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    The Gordon Terminal Service Company operates a 30-acre facility adjacent to the Ohio River for the custom-packing of oils and chemicals. During transfer and maintenance operations, oil had been occasionally spilled within diked retaining areas. Spilled material is collected in the retaining areas and, together with rain and snow drainage, flows to the plant's sewer system and then, after crude separation of oily waste, to Allegheny County Sanitary Authority (ACSA) facilities. To meet effluent standards set by the ACSA, Gordon was required to limit its plant effluent to a maximum of 15 ppm. Typical oil content had been in the less than 200 ppm range. To remove the tramp oil from the predominantly aqueous effluent stream, Gordon initially installed one corrugated plate oil/water separator at an in-ground location. The unit consists of an epoxy-coated steel tank that contains a pack of corrugated separator plates installed at a 45/sup 0/ angle. Since the initial oil/water separator was installed in 1974, Gordon Terminal Service Company has added five more units - four at the terminal and one at the jet fuel storage facility near the Pittsburgh International Airport which is also operated by Gordon Terminal. By strategically placing the separators, the company has been able to eliminate the potential for contaminating the municipal sewer facilities, keeping effluent from the plant to below 15 ppm oil. Plant effluent has been and is periodically monitored by the ACSA and has met effluent standards. All the units have proven to be relatively maintenance free, requiring only periodic inspection and flushing. Since the separators require no power or chemicals, operating costs have been virtually non-existent.

  16. Seasonal Water Storage Variations as Impacted by Water Abstractions: Comparing the Output of a Global Hydrological Model with GRACE and GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, Petra; Fritsche, Mathias; Eicker, Annette; Müller Schmied, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Better quantification of continental water storage variations is expected to improve our understanding of water flows, including evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge as well as human water abstractions. For the first time, total water storage (TWS) on the land area of the globe as computed by the global water model WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) was compared to both gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. The GRACE satellites sense the effect of TWS on the dynamic gravity field of the Earth. GPS reference points are displaced due to crustal deformation caused by time-varying TWS. Unfortunately, the worldwide coverage of the GPS tracking network is irregular, while GRACE provides global coverage albeit with low spatial resolution. Detrended TWS time series were analyzed by determining scaling factors for mean annual amplitude ( f GRACE) and time series of monthly TWS ( f GPS). Both GRACE and GPS indicate that WaterGAP underestimates seasonal variations of TWS on most of the land area of the globe. In addition, seasonal maximum TWS occurs 1 month earlier according to WaterGAP than according to GRACE on most land areas. While WaterGAP TWS is sensitive to the applied climate input data, none of the two data sets result in a clearly better fit to the observations. Due to the low number of GPS sites, GPS observations are less useful for validating global hydrological models than GRACE observations, but they serve to support the validity of GRACE TWS as observational target for hydrological modeling. For unknown reasons, WaterGAP appears to fit better to GPS than to GRACE. Both GPS and GRACE data, however, are rather uncertain due to a number of reasons, in particular in dry regions. It is not possible to benefit from either GPS or GRACE observations to monitor and quantify human water abstractions if only detrended (seasonal) TWS variations are considered. Regarding GRACE, this is mainly caused by the attenuation of the TWS differences between water abstraction variants due to the filtering required for GRACE TWS. Regarding GPS, station density is too low. Only if water abstractions lead to long-term changes in TWS by depletion or restoration of water storage in groundwater or large surface water bodies, GRACE may be used to support the quantification of human water abstractions.

  17. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  19. Surface water storage variations in Anatolia and Surrounding Territories observed by GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Mercan, H.

    2012-04-01

    NASA/GFZ's joint satellite-to-satellite tracking mission GRACE has the primary science objective of measuring climate-sensitive signals generated by mass redistributions on Earth including the oceans and land at spatial scales greater than several hundred km and temporal scales longer than 30 days. Its main science data include the monthly time series of global geopotential models in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients (SHC) which is one of the so-called L2 data products. As the well-known effects on the orbital perturbations such as the planetary bodies, ocean tides, solid Earth tides and other high-frequency variations in ocean and atmosphere are forward modeled prior to the estimation of monthly SHC, the difference between the SHC mainly represents the changes of climate sensitive signals such as hydrology, ice sheet mass balance and ocean mass change. Although the SHC still include the residual effects of tides and atmosphere due to imperfect models and temporal aliasing, recent studies have shown that the hydrology signal can be estimated with an accuracy of several cm in equivalent water tickness and a resolution of several hundred km. One other way to estimate the hydrology signal is the regional inversion method where we use the in situ intersatellite potential difference observations computed based on the energy conservation principle (Jekeli, 1999). To this end, we use the GRACE L1B data products such as range rate, accelerometer and star camera data for the energy integral of the satellites. The well known effects, N-body tides, ocean and solid Earth tides, the high frequency atmospheric mass variations and barotropic ocean response due to atmospheric forcing are forward modeled based on best current models and ancillary data and removed from the in-situ potential differences. The remaining in-situ potential differences are then used as observations based on Newton's law of gravitation to estimate the surface water mass changes with respect to a reference geopotential field, e.g., GGM01C. In this study, the surface water mass changes over Anatolia and the surrounding region located between 20-47 degree East longitudes and 30-48 degree North latitudes are computed based on the monthly SHC model and the regional inversion of the in situ potential difference observations. Two distinct solutions have different temporal and spatial resolutions even though the estimated accuracies are similar. The former is computed with a temporal resolution of one month and a spatial resolution of 300 km. The regional solution has computed with monthly and sub-monthly intervals with a spatial resolution as fine as 165 km. Both solutions have accuracies of 2-3 cm in terms of water column height. In addition, the results have been compared with the water level heights observed by Envisat tracks at the Ataturk dam reservoir between the years 2003-2009. Even though the GRACE monthly water storage estimates and the observed water level heights have different amplitudes, both follow a similar seasonal pattern.

  20. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

  1. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Assessment of deterioration in water quality from source to household storage in semi-urban settings of developing countries.

    PubMed

    John, Viji; Jain, Priyanka; Rahate, Manish; Labhasetwar, Pawan

    2014-02-01

    This study has investigated the common risks associated with the water quality changes from the source to the consumer households and the associated disease burden in the piped water supplies. Samples from the source to the household storage from Nagpur City were collected and analysed for heavy metals, nutrient and microbial parameters. Sanitary risks were identified at the households during the socio-economic and sanitary survey. The water quality deterioration was the most at household storage around 30.3% indicating that measures need to be taken to safeguard the water quality at the consumer level. Then, 31.2% of the samples collected from public standposts and handpumps were positive for faecal contamination which implies that it is the weaker sections of the society who suffer the consequences of drinking unsafe water the most. On the basis of the laboratory results, risk analysis by surveying the WTPs, point-of-use behaviour at households and sanitary status at different socio-economic strata, the Water Safety Plan for Nagpur City was structured. The aim was to ensure that safe and improved water is reached to the individual household. PMID:24048880

  3. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Helium and LN2 Storage Requirements for D-Zero Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-04-04

    Calculations were done to determine a recommended size for the liquid helium storage dewar, gas helium storage tanks, and liquid nitrogen dewar requirements. I recommend a Liquid helium storage dewar with a nominal size of at least 2500 liters (660 gallons), preferably 3000 liters (792 gallons). I recommend obtaining gas helium storage tanks with a maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) of 250 psig or greater. Combined volume to be at least 5880 cubic feet (44,000 gallons). I recommend obtaining a second liquid nitrogen dewar at D-Zero, dedicated to the refrigerator, solenoid and VLPC systems. The ideal dewar would have a volume of around 16,000 gallons. It's MAWP needs to be greater than 55 psig.

  4. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  5. Land Water Storage Changes from Ground and Space Geodesy: First Results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, J.; Pfeffer, J.; Boucher, M.; Nahmani, S.; De Linage, C.; Boy, J.-P.; Genthon, P.; Seguis, L.; Favreau, G.; Bock, O.; Descloitres, M.

    2012-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the first results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) experiment conducted since 2008 in West Africa and is aimed at investigating the changes in water storage in different regions sampling a strong rainfall gradient from the Sahara to the monsoon zone. The analysis of GPS vertical displacement in Niamey (Niger) and Djougou (Benin) shows that there is a clear annual signature of the hydrological load in agreement with global hydrology models like GLDAS. The comparison of GRACE solutions in West Africa, and more specifically in the Niger and Lake Chad basins, reveals a good agreement for the large scale annual water storage changes between global hydrology models and space gravity observations. Ground gravity observations done with an FG5 absolute gravimeter also show signals which can be well related to measured changes in soil and ground water. We present the first results for two sites in the Sahelian band (Wankama and Diffa in Niger) and one (Djougou in Benin) in the Sudanian monsoon region related to the recharge-discharge processes due to the monsoonal event in summer 2008 and the following dry season. It is confirmed that ground gravimetry is a useful tool to constrain local water storage changes when associated to hydrological and subsurface geophysical in situ measurements.

  6. Identification and dating of indigenous water storage reservoirs along the Rio San Jos at Laguna Pueblo, western New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huckleberry, Gary; Ferguson, T.J.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Banet, Chris; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into indigenous water storage on the Rio San Jos in western New Mexico was conducted in support of efforts by the Pueblo of Laguna to adjudicate their water rights. Here we focus on stratigraphy and geochronology of two Native American-constructed reservoirs. One reservoir located near the community of Casa Blanca was formed by a ?600 m (2000 feet) long stone masonry dam that impounded ?1.6 106 m3 (?1300 acre-feet) of stored water. Four optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages obtained on reservoir deposits indicate that the dam was constructed prior to AD 1825. The other reservoir is located adjacent to Old Laguna Pueblo and contains only a small remnant of its former earthen dam. The depth and distribution of reservoir deposits and a photogrammetric analyses of relict shorelines indicate a storage capacity of ?6.5 106 m3 (?5300 ac-ft). OSL ages from above and below the base of the reservoir indicate that the reservoir was constructed sometime after AD 1370 but before AD 1750. The results of our investigation are consistent with Laguna oral history and Spanish accounts demonstrating indigenous construction of significant water-storage reservoirs on the Rio San Jos prior to the late nineteenth century.

  7. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high-resolution isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Dick, J.; Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-09-01

    To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time-variant stream water ages, we used a new long-term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ˜1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ˜1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments.

  8. Multivariate Prediction of Total Water Storage Changes Over West Africa from Multi-Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Loth, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Awange, Joseph; Longuevergne, Laurent; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, C. K.

    2014-07-01

    West African countries have been exposed to changes in rainfall patterns over the last decades, including a significant negative trend. This causes adverse effects on water resources of the region, for instance, reduced freshwater availability. Assessing and predicting large-scale total water storage (TWS) variations are necessary for West Africa, due to its environmental, social, and economical impacts. Hydrological models, however, may perform poorly over West Africa due to data scarcity. This study describes a new statistical, data-driven approach for predicting West African TWS changes from (past) gravity data obtained from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE), and (concurrent) rainfall data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) and sea surface temperature (SST) data over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The proposed method, therefore, capitalizes on the availability of remotely sensed observations for predicting monthly TWS, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for measuring regional energy balance, as well as for agricultural, and water resource management. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified using independent component analysis and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework. After a learning phase of 72 months, our approach predicted TWS from rainfall and SST data alone that fitted to the observed GRACE-TWS better than that from a global hydrological model. Our results indicated a fit of 79 % and 67 % for the first-year prediction of the two dominant annual and inter-annual modes of TWS variations. This fit reduces to 62 % and 57 % for the second year of projection. The proposed approach, therefore, represents strong potential to predict the TWS over West Africa up to 2 years. It also has the potential to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of 1 month about each 162 days as well as a—hopefully—limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE follow-on mission over West Africa. The method presented could also be used to generate a near-real-time GRACE forecast over the regions that exhibit strong teleconnections.

  9. Measurements of Water and B4C Content of Rackable Can Storage Boxes for HEU Storage at the HEUMF at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, JS

    2003-03-24

    Extensive measurements at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with BoroBond{trademark} blocks of varying thickness, natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) content, and water content, and with a simplified mockup of the Rackable Can Storage Box (RCSB) of fixed natural B{sub 4}C and water content, have led to a method of quantifying the water content of RCSBs by fast neutron time-of-flight transmission measurements (NMIS)* and quantifying the B{sub 4}C content with gamma ray spectrometry assuming the water content is known. The time-of-flight transmission measurements results can also be used to assess the uniformity of the BoroBond{trademark} in the RCSB. The data from both measurements will be stored for future comparisons to initial measurements. These methods can also be implemented at the RCSB production site, or subsequently at the Y-12 National Security Complex during the operating lifetime of the RCSBs at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility.

  10. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    González-Uribe, Catalina; Cortés, Sebastian; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot) and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information. Results Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3). The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins) is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking. Conclusions It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation. PMID:26061628

  11. Mechanical properties and microstructure of frozen carrots during storage as affected by blanching in water and sugar solutions.

    PubMed

    Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Raw carrots and carrots blanched in water and in 4% trehalose and maltose solutions at 75°C for 3 (A) and 10 min (C) and at 90°C for 3 (B) and 10 min (D) were frozen and stored at -18°C for eight months. The effects of heating conditions and exogenous added sugars on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the vegetable after blanching and during frozen storage were studied. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis no significant differences were observed among samples A and B water-blanched and raw carrot while a thermo-protective effect due to the sugars addition was evidenced in sample D, undergone to the most severe thermal treatment. Freezing and frozen storage determined several fractures on both raw and blanched carrots due to ice crystals formation and re-crystallisation. The cryo-protective effect of the sugars on the vegetable microstructure was observed only in the 'over-blanched' sample D. The mechanical properties of carrots were affected by blanching which caused a hardness decrease but after freezing and one month of frozen storage, all samples showed a further dramatic reduction of hardness. Only samples characterised by a pectinesterase residual activity showed a softening also after one month of frozen storage likely for a competitive effect of the thermo-protective ability of trehalose on this enzyme. The exogenous trehalose was able to limit the hardness loss of carrots undergone to B, C and D blanching pre-treatments. PMID:24099543

  12. Estimating long-term changes in actual evapotranspiration and water storage using a one-parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Asha N.; Walter, M. Todd

    2014-11-01

    Estimations of long-term regional trends in evapotranspiration (E) and water storage are key to our understanding of hydrology in a changing environment. Yet they are difficult to make due to the lack of long-term measurements of these quantities. Here we use a simple one-parameter model in conjunction with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to estimate long-term E and storage trends in the Missouri River Basin. We find that E has increased in the river basin over the period 1929-2012, consistent with other studies that have suggested increases in E with a warming climate. The increase in E appears to be driven by an increase in precipitation and water storage because potential E has not changed substantially. The simplicity of the method and its minimal data requirements provide a transparent approach to assessing long-term changes in hydrological fluxes and storages, and may be applicable to regions where meteorological and hydrological data are scarce.

  13. Coupling Power Generation, Geologic CO2 Storage and Saline Groundwater Desalination to Address Growing Energy Needs in Water Constrained Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, C. L.; Wurstner, S. K.; Fortson, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    As humanity works to both minimize climate change and adapt to its early impacts, co-management of energy and water resources will become increasingly important. In some parts of the US, power plants have been denied permits, in part because of the significant burden placed on local water supplies by assigning new water rights for the facility’s entire design life. Water resources may be allocated 30 to 50 years into a future where water availability and quality are uncertain due to supply impacts associated with climate change and increased demand from growing populations, agriculture and industry. In many areas, particularly those with access to seawater, desalination is being employed with increasing frequency to augment conventional sources of fresh water. At the same time, many of the world’s developed nations are moving to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One key technological option for addressing emissions from the power generation sector is CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS). This process is both water and energy intensive for many power and industrial facilities, compounding the impact of declining water availability for plants faced with deploying CCS in a CO2-constrained future. However, a unique opportunity may exist to couple power generation and CCS by extracting and desalinating brine from the CO2 storage formation to produce fresh water. While this coupled approach is unlikely to be attractive for most CCS projects, it may represent a viable option in areas where there is demand for additional electricity but conventional water supplies are unable to meet the needs of the power generation and CO2 capture systems, or in areas where brine produced from CCS projects can be desalinated to supplement strained municipal supplies. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the factors impacting the feasibility of coupled CCS-desalination projects. Several injection / extraction scenarios have been examined via the STOMP geochemical flow model resulting in key outputs including extraction wellhead conditions, in situ CO2 plume behavior and reservoir pressure. Economic modeling for the water extraction and desalination portion of these coupled CCS / desalination scenarios suggests that -- while some scenarios yield costs far in excess of most existing desalination projects -- depending on the specific storage formation characteristics and desalination technology employed, fresh water could be produced at costs competitive with seawater desalination facilities, bolstering local water supplies and enabling deployment of industrial projects that might otherwise have been infeasible.

  14. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a lake for the storage of reclaimed water before and after usage as cooling water.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu-Chen; Xi, Jin-Ying; Li, Guo-Qiang; Shi, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse is a promising way to relieve water scarcity by substituting for natural water consumption by industrial cooling. However, health concerns regarding cooling water originating from reclaimed water are increasing because an abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been detected in reclaimed water. To assess the potential increase of ARB risks in reclaimed water after reuse for industrial cooling, the prevalence of six types of ARB was investigated in water and sediment samples from Lake Gaobeidian, which serves as an artificial circular storage reservoir for reclaimed water for cooling reuse. The effect of treated wastewater and cooling water drainage on the ARB distribution in water and sediment samples was also studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of six types of ARB in lake water samples were as high as those in treated wastewater. The annual median concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria (HPC) and ARB in discharged cooling water after usage were 0.6-log and 0.4-log higher than those in treated wastewater and the cooling water intake site, respectively, indicating that the process of cooling water usage enhanced the proliferation of HPC and consequently increased the concentrations of ARB. Furthermore, the percentages of penicillin-, ampicillin-, and cephalothin-resistant bacteria in water were 30-57%, 36-48%, and 23-40% higher than those in sediment, respectively. However, the proportions of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in water were 35-85% lower than those in sediment. Quantitative evaluation of antibiotic resistance showed that HPC in water had a significant tolerance to penicillin and chloramphenicol, with 50% inhibitory concentrations reaching 22.90 mg L(-1) and 29.11 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:25997982

  15. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

  16. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

  17. Gigawatt-year nuclear-geothermal energy storage for light-water and high-temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C. W.; Lee, Y.; Kulhanek, M.; Driscoll, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    Capital-intensive, low-operating cost nuclear plants are most economical when operated under base-load conditions. However, electricity demand varies on a daily, weekly, and seasonal basis. In deregulated utility markets this implies high prices for electricity at times of high electricity demand and low prices for electricity at times of low electricity demand. We examined coupling nuclear heat sources to geothermal heat storage systems to enable these power sources to meet hourly to seasonal variable electricity demand. At times of low electricity demand the reactor heats a fluid that is then injected a kilometer or more underground to heat rock to high temperatures. The fluid travels through the permeable-rock heat-storage zone, transfers heat to the rock, is returned to the surface to be reheated, and re-injected underground. At times of high electricity demand the cycle is reversed, heat is extracted, and the heat is used to power a geothermal power plant to produce intermediate or peak power. When coupling geothermal heat storage with light-water reactors (LWRs), pressurized water (<300 deg. C) is the preferred heat transfer fluid. When coupling geothermal heat storage with high temperature reactors at higher temperatures, supercritical carbon dioxide is the preferred heat transfer fluid. The non-ideal characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide create the potential for efficient coupling with supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles. Underground rock cannot be insulated, thus small heat storage systems with high surface to volume ratios are not feasible because of excessive heat losses. The minimum heat storage capacity to enable seasonal storage is {approx}0.1 Gigawatt-year. Three technologies can create the required permeable rock: (1) hydro-fracture, (2) cave-block mining, and (3) selective rock dissolution. The economic assessments indicated a potentially competitive system for production of intermediate load electricity. The basis for a nuclear geothermal system with LWRs exists today; but, there is need for added research and development before deployment. There are significantly greater challenges for geothermal heat storage at higher temperatures. Such systems are strongly dependent upon the local geology. (authors)

  18. Global analysis of approaches for deriving total water storage changes from GRACE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Di; Longuevergne, Laurent; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing interest in use of GRACE satellites and a variety of new products to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) underscores the need to assess the reliability of output from different products. The objective of this study was to assess skills and uncertainties of different approaches for processing GRACE data to restore signal losses caused by spatial filtering based on analysis of 1° × 1° grid-scale data and in 60 river basins globally. Results indicate that scaling factors from six LSMs, including GLDAS-1 four models (Noah2.7, Mosaic, VIC, and CLM 2.0), CLM 4.0, and WGHM, are similar over most of humid, subhumid, and high-latitude regions but can differ by up to 100% over arid and semiarid basins and areas with intensive irrigation. Temporal variability in scaling factors is generally minor at the basin scale except in arid and semiarid regions, but can be appreciable at the 1° × 1° grid scale. Large differences in TWS anomalies from three processing approaches (scaling factor, additive, and multiplicative corrections) were found in arid and semiarid regions, areas with intensive irrigation, and relatively small basins (e.g., ≤200,000 km2). Furthermore, TWS anomaly products from gridded data with CLM4.0 scaling factors and the additive correction approach more closely agree with WGHM output than the multiplicative correction approach. This comprehensive evaluation of GRACE processing approaches should provide valuable guidance on applicability of different processing approaches with different climate settings and varying levels of irrigation.

  19. Interfacial integrity of bonded restorations with self-etching adhesives: Water storage and thermo-mechanical cycling

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Gislaine Cristine; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; D’Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln; Gomes, João Carlos; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Objective: To evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC) on the microleakage (μL) and axial gap width (AG) of Class V bonded restorations in premolars using self-etching adhesive systems. The bond strength of composite restorations to dentin (μTBS) using the same adhesives was also evaluated in third molars after water storage: 24 h and 6 months. The research hypotheses were tested for the results of two self-etching adhesives in comparison when a conventional two-step adhesive was used: (1) the μL and AG would be lower, regardless of TMC; (2) the μTBS of self-etching adhesives would be higher, irrespective of evaluation times. Methods: Sixty Class V composite restorations were made in 30 premolars and bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB2), AdheSE (ASE), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APL-P) (n=20). Dentin μL and AG were immediately measured for half of the sample. The other half was evaluated after TMC. Eighteen third molars were also selected and bonded using the same adhesives to test the μTBS to dentin. Specimens were evaluated after 24 h and 6 months of water storage. Results: No differences in μL and AG were found among the groups (P>.05). The μTBS mean values were: ASB2>ASE>APL-P (P<.05); only Adper Single Bond 2 presented a significantly lower μTBS after water storage (P<.05). Conclusions: The bonding approach does not influence the microleakage and interfacial gap extension. Despite the decrease in the mean values, the bond strength to dentin of the conventional, two-step adhesive remains high after 6 months of water storage. PMID:22509120

  20. An experimental study of influence of hot