Science.gov

Sample records for gallon water storage

  1. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.J.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  2. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  4. 40 Gallon Challenge issues a call to reduce residential water use 

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Fall 2013 Story by Katie Heinrich The ?? Gallon Challenge, a nationwide residential water-conservation program, is helping Texans save water in ways new to them. ?e continuing drought, coupled with increasing water demands due to population growth...

  5. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

  6. Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage 

    E-print Network

    Fiorino, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the 5.2 million gallon chilled water storage system installed at TI's Expressway manufacturing complex in Dallas, Texas. During the peak cooling season ending September 30, 1994, it provided 3,750 tons of additional peak cooling...

  7. Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

  8. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  9. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  10. The effectiveness of large household water storage tanks for protecting the quality of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; VanDerslice, James

    2007-06-01

    Many communities along the US-Mexico border remain without infrastructure for water and sewage. Residents in these communities often collect and store their water in open 55-gallon drums. This study evaluated changes in drinking water quality resulting from an intervention that provided large closed water storage tanks (2,500-gallons) to individual homes lacking a piped water supply. After the intervention, many of the households did not change the source of their drinking water to the large storage tanks. Therefore, water quality results were first compared based on the source of the household's drinking water: store or vending machine, large tank, or collected from a public supply and transported by the household. Of the households that used the large storage tank as their drinking water supply, drinking water quality was generally of poorer quality. Fifty-four percent of samples collected prior to intervention had detectable levels of total coliforms, while 82% of samples were positive nine months after the intervention (p < 0.05). Exploratory analyses were also carried out to measure water quality at different points between collection by water delivery trucks and delivery to the household's large storage tank. Thirty percent of the samples taken immediately after water was delivered to the home had high total coliforms (> 10 CFU/100 ml). Mean free chlorine levels dropped from 0.43 mg/l, where the trucks filled their tanks, to 0.20 mg/l inside the household's tank immediately after delivery. Results of this study have implications for interventions that focus on safe water treatment and storage in the home, and for guidelines regarding the level of free chlorine required in water delivered by water delivery trucks. PMID:17674578

  11. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  12. Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

  13. Fuel performance in water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  15. 124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  17. Thermal Storage Systems at IBM Facilities 

    E-print Network

    Koch, G.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, IBM commissioned its first large scale thermal storage system with a capacity of 2.7 million gallons of chilled water and 1.2 million gallons of reclaimed, low temperature hot water. The stored cooling energy represents approximately 27...

  18. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of each month of the year) excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The two figures show that 2010 was the driest year since 2003. The drought in the Amazon was largely responsible, but an excess of water in 2009 seems to have buffered that drought to some extent. The drying trend in the 25-55 deg S zone is a combination of Patagonian glacier melt and drought in parts of Australia.

  19. Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for monitoring higher level parameters such as fauna diversity. The regenerating rainforest environment presents a number of interesting challenges for wireless sensor networks related to energy harvesting and to reliable low-power wireless communications through dense and wet vegetation. Located downstream from the Springbrook plateau, the Little Nerang and Hinze dams are the two major water supply storages for the Gold Coast region. In September 2009 we fitted methane, light, wind, and sonar sensors to our autonomous electric boat platform and successfully demonstrated autonomous collection of methane flux release data on Little Nerang Dam. Sensor and boat status data were relayed back to a human operator on the shore of the dam via a small network of our Fleck™ nodes. The network also included 4 floating nodes each fitted with a string of 6 temperature sensors for profiling temperature at different water depths. We plan to expand the network further during 2010 to incorporate floating methane nodes, additional temperature sensing nodes, as well as land-based microclimate nodes. The overall monitoring system will provide significant data to understand the connected catchment-to-storage system and will provide continuous data to monitor and understand change trends within this world heritage area.

  20. ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

  1. Predicting product water quality from the 600-gallon-per-hour reverse-osmosis water-purification unit. Field water supply on the winter battlefield. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzoun, J.R.

    1988-02-01

    A preliminary equation for predicting the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the product water from the 600-gph ROWPU is presented. The equation requires the raw water temperature and TDS concentration as input data. Both of these variables can be easily measured in the field. The equation is presently limited to raw-water TDS concentrations in the range of 800-900 mg/L. As data become available for a greater range of raw-water TDS concentrations, including seawater, the equation will be modified. The standard error of the estimate is 3.4 mg/L.

  2. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  3. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  4. Water treatment considerations for thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    Traditional closed loop corrosion, fouling, and microbial control treatments are not always capable of providing effective treatment to Thermal Energy Storage systems. Typically, these systems experience a higher incidence of corrosion, corrosion related fouling and microbial problems than traditional closed loop applications. Customary corrosion control treatments like nitrite have yielded poor results due to microbial degradation. Microbial control is often harder due to the sheer volume of water needing treatment and inadequate distribution in the system. This paper will review the various water treatment needs for Thermal Energy Storage Systems and present data on a successfully operating Thermal Energy Storage system.

  5. Characteristic basin water storage behavior using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on internal basin hydrological behavior, and historically, various models and assumptions have been postulated to facilitate an operational relationship between runoff response and precipitation forcing. With NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are finally able to observe terrestrial water storage anomaly time series for large basins (>150,000 km^2) with monthly resolution. These data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in large-scale water storage behavior. Here we provide results of a frequency-domain analysis of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation. We calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing, and then parameterize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as ecosystem type and basin temperature. This results in a basin-independent model of scaled storage response to precipitation forcing as a function of temporal frequency and large-scale basin characteristics, quantifying fundamental global hydrology relationships that were previously unobservable. Results show that temperature and land cover type are the major controls on relative storage variability. At annual timescales, temperature variability dominates storage variability for basins with a mean temperature under 15 deg C, while land cover type controls storage variability for warmer basins. At interannual timescales, land cover type alone is the single largest influence on storage behavior in all basins, with forested basins showing a greater ``buffer effect`` to interannual variability in precipitation forcing. These relationships are used to validate our method by predicting storage anomaly outside the observed data range. Finally, we show a coupling of variability in vegetation and storage as a function of basin wetness. While the model presented does not account for nonlinear transitions between ecosystem types, within the limits of a stable ecosystem it offers the first reliable means for predicting a large-scale state variable forced by precipitation, temperature and land cover classification.

  6. 27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gallons and proof gallons by weight. 30.62 Section 30.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... § 30.62 Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight. The wine and proof gallon content by weight and proof of packages of distilled spirits usually found in actual practice will be...

  7. Continental water storage variations in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, Jean-Paul; Carabajal, Claudia; Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Sabaka, Terence

    2010-05-01

    We investigate temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from only KBRR (K-band range rate) data using a mascon approach. We compare our solutions to classical spherical harmonic solutions and also to different global hydrology models, and regional models in the African monsoon area (thanks to the ALMIP project). We compare mass estimates of major Africa lakes and reservoirs to volume estimates from laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. We investigate the improvement of our mass retrievals when hydrology (GLDAS/Noah model) is forward modeled, compared to the more classical approach when continental water storages variations are not taken into when processing GRACE data. We solve the water mass balance equations using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as ground rain gauge stations, using fresh water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from various atmospheric models (reanalysis and operational). As a result, our runoff are compared to river flux measurements. In addition to the comparison with the ALMIP models, we also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

  8. Continental water storage variations in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the temporal and spatial variations of continental water storage in Africa as recovered by the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Mass variations are directly inverted from the K-band range rate using the mascon approach. We compare our solution to global different hydrological models. We solve the water mass balance equation, using different precipitation datasets from remote sensing techniques, as well as meteorological stations, using water fluxes (precipitation minus evaporation) from different atmospheric models. As a result, our runoff estimates are compared to river fluxes measurements. We compare mass estimates of major African lakes to volume estimated from space Laser (ICESat) and radar altimetry. As our forward modeling includes the continental water storage variations (using GLDAS/Noah model), leaking effects are significantly reduced. We also pay a special attention to the Lake Chad and Niger river basins, where ground gravity variations are repetitively measured as part of the GHYRAF project in order to investigate seasonal water storage variations at small and larger spatial scales.

  9. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  10. WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

  11. Regional terrestrial water storage change and evapotranspiration from terrestrial and atmospheric water balance computations

    E-print Network

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Famiglietti, J. S

    2008-01-01

    Long-Term Drift in the Estimated Terrestrial Water Storage [STORAGE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION to check the accuracy of atmospheric water balance com- putations is through the comparison between the long-term

  12. Estimation of water withdrawal and distribution, water use, and wastewater collection and return flow in Cumberland, Rhode Island, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.; Craft, P.A.; Bratton, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Water-use data collected in Rhode Island by different State agencies or maintained by different public suppliers and wastewater- treatment facilities need to be integrated if these data are to be used in making water- resource management decisions. Water-use data for the town of Cumberland, a small area in northeastern Rhode Island, were compiled and integrated to provide an example of how the procedure could be applied. Integration and reliability assessment of water-use data could be facilitated if public suppliers, wastewater- treatment facilities, and State agencies used a number of standardized procedures for data collection and computer storage. The total surface water and ground water withdrawn in the town of Cumberland during 1988 is estimated to be 15.39 million gallons per day, of which 11.20 million gallons per day was exported to other towns. Water use in Cumberland included 2.51 million gallons per day for domestic use, 0.68 million gallons per day for industrial use, 0.27 million gallons per day for commercial use, and 0.73 million gallons per day for other use, most of which were unmetered use. Disposal of waste- water in Cumberland included 2.03 million gallons per day returned to the hydrologic system and 1.73 million gallons per day exported from Cumberland for wastewater treatment. Consumptive use during 1988 is estimated to be 0.43 million gallons per day.

  13. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  14. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  15. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on groundwater table observations, and with estimates of total water storage variations from the GRACE satellites mission. Due to the difficulty in estimating area-averaged seasonal groundwater storage variations from point observations of groundwater levels, it is uncertain whether WaterGAP underestimates actual variations or not. We conclude that WaterGAP possibly overestimates water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer where impact of human water use on water storage is readily discernible based on WaterGAP calculations and groundwater observations. No final conclusion can be drawn regarding the possibility of monitoring water withdrawals in the High Plains aquifer using GRACE. For the less intensively irrigated Mississippi basin, observed and modeled seasonal groundwater storage reveals a discernible impact of water withdrawals in the basin, but this is not the case for total water storage such that water withdrawals at the scale of the whole Mississippi basin cannot be monitored by GRACE.

  16. Wastewater treatment gallons of success

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, K.

    1993-03-01

    It has been over 20 years since the enactment of the Clean Water Act. Billions of dollars have been spent to upgrade sewer and wastewater management systems by industry and local governments to abate and prevent water pollution problems. Several accomplishments on remediation and pollution control activities are discussed.

  17. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  18. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  20. Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27?, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  2. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27?, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  3. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. 16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. Hondius Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  5. Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Li, B.; Bolten, J. D.; Houborg, R.; Velicogna, I.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East - North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

  6. Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

  7. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  8. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  9. Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE

    PubMed Central

    Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

    2013-01-01

    [1]?A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world’s largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54???Ef???0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation. PMID:24563556

  10. Ecohydrology of dry regions: storage versus pulse soil water dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauenroth, William K.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Although arid and semiarid regions are defined by low precipitation, the seasonal timing of temperature and precipitation can influence net primary production and plant functional type composition. The importance of precipitation seasonality is evident in semiarid areas of the western U.S., which comprise the Intermountain (IM) zone, a region that receives important winter precipitation and is dominated by woody plants and the Great Plains (GP), a region that receives primarily summer precipitation and is dominated by perennial grasses. Although these general relationships are well recognized, specific differences in water cycling between these regions have not been well characterized. We used a daily time step soil water simulation model and twenty sites from each region to analyze differences in soil water dynamics and ecosystem water balance. IM soil water patterns are characterized by storage of water during fall, winter, and spring resulting in relatively reliable available water during spring and early summer, particularly in deep soil layers. By contrast, GP soil water patterns are driven by pulse precipitation events during the warm season, resulting in fluctuating water availability in all soil layers. These contrasting patterns of soil water—storage versus pulse dynamics—explain important differences between the two regions. Notably, the storage dynamics of the IN sites increases water availability in deep soil layers, favoring the deeper rooted woody plants in that region, whereas the pulse dynamics of the Great Plains sites provide water primarily in surface layers, favoring the shallow-rooted grasses in that region. In addition, because water received when plants are either not active or only partially so is more vulnerable to evaporation and sublimation than water delivered during the growing season, IM ecosystems use a smaller fraction of precipitation for transpiration (47%) than GP ecosystems (49%). Recognizing the pulse-storage dichotomy in soil water regimes between the IM and GP regions may be useful for understanding the potential influence of climate changes on soil water patterns and resulting dominant plant functional groups in both regions.

  11. Rethinking Water Scarcity: The Role of Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Water scarcity, in its simplest sense, can be defined as a shortage in the availability of freshwater relative to demand. Freshwater shortages directly affect food security, access to safe drinking water, hygiene and public health, and environmental well-being. Water scarcity can also retard economic development and promote civil strife. Robust measures of water scarcity are therefore required to inform water policy and help allocate resources to mitigate these effects.

  12. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  13. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  14. Combined chilled water thermal energy storage and fire protection storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holness, G.V.R. )

    1992-05-01

    The re-emergence of thermal storage as a significant energy cost saving technology can be expected to continue as utility companies struggle to meet consumer energy needs without constructing new power plants. At the same time, the need for reliable water supplies for fire protection service can be expected to grow, with the requirement for sprinkler systems now imposed on most new construction. In many instances, particularly in rural areas, on-site fire protection water storage is required where local water supplies are inadequate for fire service. These trends create an obvious opportunity for combined technology: the use of chilled water thermal storage for fire protection service. This paper addresses the issues involved in integrating these systems and uses a recently completed truck assembly plant in South Carolina to illustrate the concept.

  15. Maroon & green: New Texas A&M buildings conserve energy, water and money 

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Total water cistern storage: over 350,000 gallons of water Texas A&M University?s buildings with RWH/AC condensate technology: ... 2013 Story by Katie Heinrich The Agriculture and Life Sciences Complex at Texas A&M University features four 9,000-gallon rainwater harvesting cisterns. Photo by Leslie Lee, Texas Water Resources Institute. Over the past three years, Texas A...

  16. Water, gravity and trees: Relationship of tree-ring widths and total water storage dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, B.; Heinrich, I.; Merz, B.; Blume, T.; Güntner, A.

    2012-04-01

    Water stored in the subsurface as groundwater or soil moisture is the main fresh water source not only for drinking water and food production but also for the natural vegetation. In a changing environment water availability becomes a critical issue in many different regions. Long-term observations of the past are needed to improve the understanding of the hydrological system and the prediction of future developments. Tree ring data have repeatedly proved to be valuable sources for reconstructing long-term climate dynamics, e.g. temperature, precipitation and different hydrological variables. In water-limited environments, tree growth is primarily influenced by total water stored in the subsurface and hence, tree-ring records usually contain information about subsurface water storage. The challenge is to retrieve the information on total water storage from tree rings, because a training dataset of water stored in the sub-surface is required for calibration against the tree-ring series. However, measuring water stored in the subsurface is notoriously difficult. We here present high-precision temporal gravimeter measurements which allow for the depth-integrated quantification of total water storage dynamics at the field scale. In this study, we evaluate the relationship of total water storage change and tree ring growth also in the context of the complex interactions of other meteorological forcing factors. A tree-ring chronology was derived from a Norway spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. Total water storage dynamics were measured directly by the superconducting gravimeter of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell for a 9-years period. Time series were extended to 63-years period by a hydrological model using gravity data as the only calibration constrain. Finally, water storage changes were reconstructed based on the relationship between the hydrological model and the tree-ring chronology. Measurement results indicate that tree-ring growth is primarily controlled by total water storage in the subsurface. But high uncertainties intervals of the correlation coefficient urges for the extension of the measurement period. This multi-disciplinary study, combining hydrology, dendrochronology and geodesy shows that temporal gravimeter measurements may give us the unique opportunity to retrieve the information of total water storage contained in tree-ring records to reconstruct total water storage dynamics. Knowing the relationship of water storage and tree-ring growth can also support the reconstruction of other climate records based on tree-ring series, help with hydrological model testing and can improve our knowledge of long-term variations of water storage in the past.

  17. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks...internal surface aging effects, fire water systems, atmospheric storage tanks...and Ducting Components,'' (c) flow blockage of water-based fire protection system...

  18. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment...

  19. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wood, B.D.; Ji, L.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

  20. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes of calculations...Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane...

  1. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes of calculations...Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane...

  2. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes of calculations...Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane...

  3. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes of calculations...Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane...

  4. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes of calculations...Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259 Hythane...

  5. EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

  6. WATER INFILTRATION AND STORAGE AFFECTED BY SUBSOILING AND SUBSEQUENT TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential benefits of subsoiling are difficult to predict. Objectives were to determine effect of subsoiling on water infiltration/storage and evaluate longevity of soil structure following tillage. Tillage treatments were no subsoiling (NoSS), subsoiled (SS), and subsoiled plus secondary tillage ...

  7. 25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT AND PUMP HOUSE No. 1 ON THE LEFT. THE HOT METAL BRIDGE IS IN THE FAR BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 26. WATER TOWER AND SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING WITH VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. WATER TOWER AND SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING WITH VIEW OF CARRIE FURNACES No. 6 AND No. 7 IN CENTER BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  9. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  10. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  11. 28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building on right, Minnesota Department of Transportation communication tower in center, and Minnesota Bureau of Mines wind tunnel on left, looking southwest toward launch pad area - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  12. 10 CFR 429.44 - Commercial water heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... thermal insulation (i.e., R-value) and the measured storage volume in gallons (gal). (c) Alternative... of minimum thermal efficiency or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for which... gas-fired and oil-fired storage water heaters: The minimum thermal efficiency in percent (%),...

  13. Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

    1993-03-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

  14. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  15. SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

  16. Solar water-heating performance evaluation-San Diego, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes energy saved by replacing domestic, conventional natural gas heater with solar-energy subsystem in single-family residence near San Diego, California. Energy savings for 6 month test period averaged 1.089 million Btu. Collector array covered 65 square feet and supplied hot water to both 66-gallon solar storage tank and 40-gallon tank for domestic use. Natural gas supplied house's auxiliary energy.

  17. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  18. A second law approach to characterizing thermally stratified hot water storage in solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengarten, G.; Morrison, G.; Behnia, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a method of characterizing the performance of hot water storage tanks in terms of their temperature distribution. The change in exergy from the stratified state to the delivery state depends on the stored energy and the stratification. It can thus be used to define the storage efficiency for sensible heat storage devices. The effect of temperature distribution, delivery temperature and tank cross section on exergy is investigated. The advantage that stratification offers over a mixed tank is examined in terms of the storage efficiency and overall solar water heating system performance. Exergy is used to assess the operation of mantle heat exchangers in solar water heating systems and it is shown that an exergy, rather than energy, should be used to ascertain the performance of such heat exchangers.

  19. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...-federal entities to acquire the rights to storage on a long-term or permanent basis via water supply... evaluate the long- term Missouri River main stem water storage reallocation need in order to respond to the... into agreements for long term or permanent storage at Corps reservoir projects. While water rights...

  20. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ``an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.`` It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research.

  1. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  2. WATER PROPERTIES IN FERN SPORES: SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS RELATING TO WATER AFFINITY, GLASSY STATES AND STORAGE STABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of ...

  3. Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

  4. Fuzzy Modeling of Continental Water Storage Changes Observed by GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Han, S.; Shum, C.

    2005-05-01

    The low-low satellite-to-satellite (SST) tracking mission, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), provides scientists an efficient and cost-effective way to map the Earth's static and monthly temporal gravity fields with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. One of the major objectives of GRACE is to measure the climate-sensitive signals generated by mass redistributions on Earth at spatial scales greater than several hundred km and temporal scales longer than 30 days. Studies including non-isotropic filtering of GRACE signals and alternate processing of GRACE data have enabled enhancement of temporal and spatial resolutions. Fuzzy logic based methods have been widely used by various disciplines for improving model prediction, control, classification etc. Its ability of providing linguistic description of the relations between the model components has made it a valuable tool for potential model improvements. In this study, fuzzy inference systems whose parameters are optimized by mathematical optimization algorithms, have been used to recover monthly or sub-monthly mean water storage anomalies (MWSA) in South America from the gravity variations observed by GRACE. To this end, regularly gridded MWSA was computed by averaging daily water storage anomalies derived from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) daily mean water storage (MWS) data. We tested the fuzzy logic algorithm on the GRACE Level 2 (L2) data products and the data products generated by processing Level 1B (L1B) data based on the energy conservation methods. Results from the obtained fuzzy model were tested with independent data that was not used for estimation of the model parameters. Performance of the resulting model was compared with those of other models previously used for detection of MWSA from GRACE observations.

  5. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  6. Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature 

    E-print Network

    Clayton, James Brent

    2012-07-16

    in drinking water storage with very little organic matter; they are referred to as opportunistic pathogens (Leclerc, et al., 2004). One such pathogen belongs to the genus Legionella. There are 19 species that cause human disease (Muder and Yu, 2002... Alkalinity 366 mg/L pH 8.3 Total Dissolved Solids 489 mg/L Sodium 200 mg/L Calcium 2.96 mg/L Copper 1.3 ppm Lead 15 ppb Temperature* 22.5 ?C *Measured on February 23, 2011. Each thermocouple was wired to an Omega? OM-320 Portable Data...

  7. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly underestimated (27 km3) if reservoir storage changes were assumed uniform in the basin. Consequently, estimated groundwater contribution from GRACE would have been largely overestimated in this region if the actual distribution of water was not explicitly taken into account. Effects of point masses on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating estimating groundwater storage changes from GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved by combining independent water mass spatial distribution information with GRACE observations, even when reservoir storage is not the dominant mechanism. In this regard, data from the upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission should be an especially important companion to GRACE-FO (Follow-On) observations.

  8. CSER 97-008: 327 Building hot cell and SERF one-gallon can criticality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.G.

    1997-10-22

    This CSER gives the limits for the storage of one-gallon cans in the hot cells and the SERF in the 327 Building. The 327 Building is used to perform post irradiation testing of fissionable materials in remotely manipulated hot cells. Historically, scrap pieces of fuel cladding, cleanup materials, and other items have been placed into one-gallon paint cans for storage and ultimately disposal. These cans of materials had been assumed to contain no (or essentially no) fissionable materials, and therefore were not specifically controlled for material accountability. Recently, eight cans with high radiation levels were selected to be assayed for content. These cans contained from 0 to 2.5 grams of fissionable material, with an average of 1 gram per can. Since several of the hot cells contained a significant quantity of the cans, concerns were raised as to whether a CPS nonconformance had occurred, and should the cans have some limits for operation placed on them. This analysis is a response to the concerns raised, and gives guidance for incorporating operating limits for the one-gallon waste cans.

  9. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Acceleration of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, R.; Chao, B. F.; Heki, K.

    2008-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite has been producing scientific results on mass variations since its launch in 2002, particularly land water storage on seasonal and inter-annual timescales as the soil moisture reflects the time integration of fluxes of precipitation, evapo-transpiration and runoff. For example, in Amazon Basin (e.g. Tapley et al., 2004), Alaska glacial melting (e.g. Tamisiea et al., 2005), ENSO precipitation anomalies (Morishita and Heki, 2008), and seasonal land water storage with global hydrological model (Syed et al., 2008). If climate changes have trends of time scale longer than inter-annual, we can expect to see quadratic trends in land water time series now that over six years have passed since GRACE"fs launch and the time span is becoming long enough to study such trends, which signify the temporal acceleration in gravity, and hence climatic, changes. To look for such accelerations, we compute time series of equivalent water thicknesses in global land regions from monthly GRACE data of gravity anomaly, and model the changes with quadratic functions in addition to seasonal components. We repeat similar calculations for the GLDAS global hydrological model data as well. We found that the geographic distribution of the quadratic trends shows good agreement between GRACE and GLDAS, prominent in East Africa, East Europe, Ural Mountains, eastern North America and southern South America. Amplitudes of the signals are generally larger in GRACE than the corresponding GLDAS model. We also compare and verify such acceleration terms with trends in meteorological data of precipitation and evapo-transpiration.

  11. Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model Guo snow water equivalent (SWE) product is critical for climate and hydrology studies in Arctic regions changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS), of which snow mass is the primary component in winter Arctic

  12. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental...NEPA), as amended and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended, the U.S. Army Corps...Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report and...

  13. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  14. Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs

    E-print Network

    Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs Gallon the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Cups, cups, cups of water, Running down the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Gallons, gallons, gallons of water Rushing

  15. Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

  16. Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

  17. Accuracy of scaled GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landerer, F. W.; Swenson, S. C.

    2012-04-01

    We assess the accuracy of global-gridded terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates derived from temporal gravity field variations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. The TWS data set has been corrected for signal modification due to filtering and truncation. Simulations of terrestrial water storage variations from land-hydrology models are used to infer relationships between regional time series representing different spatial scales. These relationships, which are independent of the actual GRACE data, are used to extrapolate the GRACE TWS estimates from their effective spatial resolution (length scales of a few hundred kilometers) to finer spatial scales (˜100 km). Gridded, scaled data like these enable users who lack expertise in processing and filtering the standard GRACE spherical harmonic geopotential coefficients to estimate the time series of TWS over arbitrarily shaped regions. In addition, we provide gridded fields of leakage and GRACE measurement errors that allow users to rigorously estimate the associated regional TWS uncertainties. These fields are available for download from the GRACE project website (available at http://grace.jpl.nasa.gov). Three scaling relationships are examined: a single gain factor based on regionally averaged time series, spatially distributed (i.e., gridded) gain factors based on time series at each grid point, and gridded-gain factors estimated as a function of temporal frequency. While regional gain factors have typically been used in previously published studies, we find that comparable accuracies can be obtained from scaled time series based on gridded gain factors. In regions where different temporal modes of TWS variability have significantly different spatial scales, gain factors based on the first two methods may reduce the accuracy of the scaled time series. In these cases, gain factors estimated separately as a function of frequency may be necessary to achieve accurate results.

  18. Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost

    E-print Network

    Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

    2008-01-01

    A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

  19. Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Irrigation Water in Federal Projects: El Paso County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Cornforth, G. C.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has approved a program for farmer storage of surface irrigation water in Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico. This program would allow individual farmers to store part of their annual surface water allotment...

  20. Monitoring effective use of household water treatment and safe storage technologies in Ethiopia and Ghana

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Matthew M

    2009-01-01

    Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) technologies dissemination is beginning to scale-up to reach the almost 900 million people without access to an improved water supply (WHO/UNICEF/JMP, 2008). Without well-informed ...

  1. Tree invasion effects on peat water storage capacity (La Guette peatland, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Stephane; Viel, Emelie; Gogo, Sebastien; Le Moing, Franck; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    In peatlands, carbon fluxes are mainly controlled by peat water saturation state, and this saturation state is an equilibrium between recharge/drainage fluxes and the peat storage capacity. The invasion of Sphagnum peatlands by vascular plants is a current problem in many peat-accumulating systems, raising the question of the relationships between vegetation changes and water storage capacity of peat horizons. To investigate this question, the water storage capacity of the "La Guette" peatland (France), invaded by Betula spp was monitored at the watershed scale since 2008 using a water balance approach and was estimated during the 20th century using historical photographs showing the drainage network and the land cover change. During this period, the site clearly experienced a vegetation change as the site was treeless in 1944. Two main results arise from this experimental device: (1) In this disturbed peatland, tree consumption amplifies the summer drought and the resulting water table drawdown allows an increase of air entrapment in the peat. Even if runoff flows occurred after this drought, the water storage capacity is affected, with about 30% of air that remains trapped in the peat porosity 6 months after the drought period. The effects of a single drought on peat water storage capacity are observed over more than a single hydrological cycle, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of droughts decreasing the peat water storage capacity. (2) Tree invasion is found to drive the drainage network morphology. Hydrological model calibrated for the study site suggested that the development of drainage network had reduced the water storage capacity of the peatland. These observations evidenced a positive feedback between vegetation dynamics and water storage capacity: tree invasion changes the drainage network geometry that decreases the peat water storage capacity, which in return may favor tree development. These two results highlight that the peat water storage capacity is indirectly reduced by tree invasion.

  2. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  3. The contribution of reservoirs to global land surface water1 storage variations2

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    land surface hydrological models do not24 represent the effects of water management activities. Here we snow water equivalent (SWE) and soil moisture storage. The global reservoir storage time34 series shorter retention40 times in rivers, lakes, seasonal snow, and soil moisture is the main contributor

  4. Effects of Frozen Soil on Snowmelt Runoff and Soil Water Storage at a Continental Scale

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    by the University of New Hampshire­Global Runoff Data Center and a terrestrial water storage changeEffects of Frozen Soil on Snowmelt Runoff and Soil Water Storage at a Continental Scale GUO-YUE NIU of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (Manuscript received 20 September 2005, in final form 14 January 2006

  5. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  7. Role of surface water and groundwater on terrestrial water storage variation in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Yeh, P. J.; Han, S.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) - which is composed of soil water, groundwater, snow and ice, surface water in lakes, swamps/wetlands, and biomass - plays an important role in the hydrological cycle, particularly by controlling the exchange of water and energy between land surface and the lower atmosphere. So, it is important to be able to realistically simulate the variation of TWS in land surface models (LSMs). In this study, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite measurements, we show that incorporating a prognostic groundwater scheme into an LSM can significantly increase the accuracy of TWS simulation. We conduct two simulations (GW: with groundwater and, FD: without groundwater, i.e., gravitational free drainage at the bottom soil layer) over the Amazon basin using a continental-scale coupled groundwater-surface water model (LEAF-Hydro-Flood) forced by ERA-Interim Reanalysis. Results indicate that the incorporation of groundwater dynamics produces a delayed TWS peak resulting in a better agreement with GRACE observations. TWS in FD simulation exhibits an early peak owing to quick drainage of soil water and the lack of groundwater buffering effect. In GW simulation, the total sub-surface water is partitioned into water in vadose zone and groundwater which compete with each other for space and evolve over time in opposite phase. When averaged over the entire Amazon basin, TWS variation is dominated by sub-surface water variation contributing to more than half of the total TWS; the rest of the total TWS is contributed by water on flood plains with a very small contribution from water stored in river channels. Contribution of different components spatially varies but sub-surface water dominates TWS in most regions except for floodplains and wetlands where TWS is dominated by the variation of surface water. This study highlights the importance of incorporating an explicit groundwater scheme into an LSM in order to realistically simulate TWS variation.

  8. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation potential in the presence of excess chlorine was measured. The role of mixing between injection water and ground water and the conservative or non-conservative behavior of trihalomethanes was studied by adding a conservative tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, to the injection water and monitoring its concentration in the extraction water. The potential for biodegradation of trihalomethanes by aquifer bacteria was assessed in laboratory experiments: Microcosms containing ground water or extraction water and sediment or concentrated bacteria were spiked with trihalomethanes, and the amount of trihalomethanes was monitored during an incubation period. The potential for sorption of trihalomethanes to aquifer sediments was assessed in laboratory experiments: Mixtures of sediment and water were spiked with trihalomethanes, and then the trihalomethane concentrations were measured after an equilibration period.

  9. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  11. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  12. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    LEWIS, M.E.

    2000-04-06

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

  13. Calibration analysis for water storage variability of the global hydrological model WGHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, S.; Güntner, A.

    2009-07-01

    This study contributes to an improved global simulation of continental water storage variations by calibrating the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) for 28 of the largest river basins worldwide. Five years (01/2003-12/2007) of satellite-based estimates of total water storage changes from the GRACE mission are combined with river discharge data in a multi-objective calibration framework of the most sensitive WGHM model parameters. The uncertainty and significance of the calibration results is analyzed with respect to errors in the observation data. An independent simulation period (01/2008-12/2008) is used for validation. The contribution of single storage compartments to the total water budget before and after calibration is analyzed in detail. A multi-objective improvement of the model states is obtained for most of the river basins, with mean error reductions up to 110 km3/month for discharge and up to 24 mm of a water mass equivalent column for total water storage changes, as for the Amazon basin. Errors in phase and signal variability of seasonal water mass changes are reduced. The calibration is shown to primarily affect soil water storage in most river basins. The variability of groundwater storage variations is reduced at the global scale after calibration. Structural model errors are identified from a small contribution of surface water storage including wetlands in river basins with large inundation areas, such as the Amazon or the Mississippi. The results demonstrate the value of GRACE data and the multi-objective calibration approach for improvements of large-scale hydrological simulations, as they constitute a starting-point for improvements of model structure. The integration of complimentary observation data to further constrain the simulation of single storage compartments is encouraged.

  14. Calibration analysis for water storage variability of the global hydrological model WGHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, S.; Güntner, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an improved global simulation of continental water storage variations by calibrating the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) for 28 of the largest river basins worldwide. Five years (January 2003-December 2007) of satellite-based estimates of the total water storage changes from the GRACE mission were combined with river discharge data in a multi-objective calibration framework that uses the most sensitive WGHM model parameters. The uncertainty and significance of the calibration results were analysed with respect to errors in the observation data. An independent simulation period (January 2008-December 2008) was used for validation. The contribution of single storage compartments to the total water budget before and after calibration was analysed in detail. A multi-objective improvement of the model states was obtained for most of the river basins, with mean error reductions of up to 110 km3/month for discharge and up to 24 mm of a water mass equivalent column for total water storage changes, such as for the Amazon basin. Errors in the phase and signal variability of seasonal water mass changes were reduced. The calibration is shown to primarily affect soil water storage in most river basins. The variability of groundwater storage variations was reduced on a global scale after calibration. Structural model errors were identified from a small contribution of surface water storage including wetlands in river basins with large inundation areas, such as the Amazon or the Mississippi. Our results demonstrate the value of both the GRACE data and the multi-objective calibration approach for improving large-scale hydrological simulations, and they provide a starting-point for improving model structures. The integration of complimentary observation data to further constrain the simulation of single storage compartments is encouraged.

  15. Integrated Modeling Approach for Verifying Water Storage Services for a Payment for Environmental Service Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, G.; Shukla, S.; Guzha, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic models have been used for improved understanding of how an ecosystem's hydrologic response to human intervention and may provide substantial insight into the viability of payment for environmental services (PES) programs. Little is currently known about how hydrologic models can contribute to the design and evaluation of PES programs. Increased water storage is a desired environmental service (ES) for the Florida Everglades' watershed to reduce nutrient loads and excessive flows to lakes and estuaries in the region. We present monitoring and modeling results to verify the water storage PES for two ranch sites (wetland and watershed scales) located in the Northern Everglades region located north of the Lake Okeechobee (LO). Verification of the water storage PES using at least 3 years of hydrologic data was inconclusive due to variable rainfall during pre- and post-PES periods. An integrated surface and groundwater model, MIKE-SHE/MIKE11, was used to help verify the water storage service as well as predict ecological responses for different water storage scenarios (different levels of storage). The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using field measurements and was able to effectively simulate the surface and groundwater levels for the watershed (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency, NSE = 0.54 to 0.82) and for surface water levels within wetlands (NSE = 0.54 to 0.84). Scenario analyses for storage levels showed an inverse relationship between board heights for water control structures and flows at the watershed outlet. Changes in flow were marginal when board heights approached a maximum indicating movement of water into subsurface storage. Combining simulation results with field measurements showed reduced flows and increased subsurface storage (2 cm/yr.), a desired outcome for protecting LO and estuarine systems from excessive flows. Simulated wetland water levels were combined with LIDAR-based topography to predict inundation for wetlands at the two PES sites for exploring the addition of biodiversity related ES. Simulations showed that effects of increased storage on enhanced hydro-periods and biodiversity was limited to the wetlands close to the drainage ditches. Results for a variety of water management scenarios showed that modeling can be used as an effective tool for optimizing the ES for a desired PES scheme. Measured and predicted surface flows from watershed and wetland water levels for different scenarios are currently being combined with ecological measurements to develop hydro-ecological models that predict the effects of enhanced water storage on ecological diversity.

  16. SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

  17. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  18. EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

  19. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  20. The role of groundwater in the Amazon water cycle: 3. Influence on terrestrial water storage computations and comparison with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Han, Shin-Chan

    2013-04-01

    explore the mechanisms whereby groundwater influences terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Amazon using GRACE observations and two contrasting versions of the LEAF-Hydro-Flood hydrological model: one with and the other without an interactive groundwater. We find that, first, where the water table is shallow as in northwestern Amazonia and floodplains elsewhere, subsurface stores (vadose zone and groundwater) are nearly saturated year-round, hence river and flooding dominate TWS variation; where the water table is deep as in southeastern Amazonia, the large subsurface storage capacity holds the infiltrated water longer before releasing it to streams, hence the subsurface storage dominates TWS variation. Second, over the whole Amazon, the subsurface water contribution far exceeds surface water contribution to total TWS variations. Based on LEAF-Hydro-Flood simulations, 71% of TWS change is from subsurface water, 24% from flood water, and 5% from water in river channels. Third, the subsurface store includes two competing terms, soil water in the vadose zone and groundwater below the water table. As the water table rises, the length of vadose zone is shortened and hence the change in groundwater store is accompanied by an opposite change in soil water store resulting in their opposite phase and contributions to total TWS. We conclude that the inclusion of a prognostic groundwater store and its interactions with the vadose zone, rivers, and floodplains in hydrological simulations enhances seasonal amplitudes and delays seasonal peaks of TWS anomaly, leading to an improved agreement with GRACE observations.

  1. A second law approach to characterizing thermally stratified hot water storage with application to solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengarten, G.; Morrison, G.; Behnia, M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents a method of characterizing and evaluating the performance of hot water storage systems in terms of their temperature distribution. The change in exergy from the stratified state to the delivery state depends on the stored energy and the stratification. It can thus be used to define the storage efficiency for sensible heat storage devices. A new parameter that isolates the stratification component of the exergy is defined and called the stratification efficiency. The effect of temperature distribution, delivery temperature and tank cross-section on exergy and stratification efficiency is investigated. The advantage that stratification offers over a mixed tank is examined in terms of the storage efficiency and overall solar water heating system performance. Exergy is used to assess the operation of mantle heat exchangers in solar water heating systems and it is shown that exergy and stratification efficiency, as well as energy, should be used to ascertain the performance of such heat exchangers.

  2. Methodology for Determining the Optimal Operating Strategies for a Chilled Water Storage System 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhiqin

    2011-08-08

    This dissertation proposed a new methodology for determining the optimal operating strategies for a chilled water storage system under a Time-of-Use electricity rate structure. It is based on a new classification of operating strategies...

  3. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  4. Water filtration problems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Fuel Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, A.B.; Childs, K.F.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The new fuel storage area (FSA) began operation at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in mid-1984. The FSA water treatment system is designed to provide a high standard of purity to the storage pool water. The filters, which are an important part of this system, have shown a tendency to foul during the last 4 yr. The cause of the filter fouling and the steps taken to prevent it are described in this paper.

  5. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Fountain, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  6. Development in myofibrillar water distribution of two pork qualities during 10-month freezer storage.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Andersen, Rikke Høll; Andersen, Henrik J

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fresh meat quality (PSE versus DFD), freezing temperature (-20°C versus -80C°) and duration of freezer storage on changes in water mobility and distribution were followed at intervals of 1-2 months during 10-month freezer storage of pork using low-field NMR T(2) relaxometry. Fresh meat quality was found to have a strong significant effect (P<0.0001) on the amount of loosely bound water (relaxation time >100ms) also after freezing, which was reflected in a significantly lower cooking yield in PSE meat compared with DFD meat (P<0.0001). While no significant changes in the cooking yield were observed with increasing length of freezer storage, NMR T(2) relaxation measurements revealed a significant increase in the amount of loosely bound water in PSE meat with increasing length of freezer storage. This finding indicates that NMR T(2) relaxation measurements are quite sensitive to freezing-induced changes in the meat structure, causing a shift in the distribution of water and possibly capable of detecting these before they are reflected in a reduced cooking yield. In addition, an interaction between fresh meat quality and effect of length of freezer storage on the amount of very mobile water easily lost as drip was observed, implying that PSE meat is more susceptible to freezer storage-induced deteriorative changes in the meat structure, causing a shift in the distribution of water, than DFD meat. PMID:22063420

  7. Influence of storage conditions on aluminum concentrations in serum, dialysis fluid, urine, and tap water.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Ohnesorge, F K

    1990-01-01

    The influence of storage temperature, vessel type, and treatment on alterations of aluminum (Al) concentrations in serum, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied at three different concentrations for each sample over an 18-month period. Furthermore, the influence of acidification on Al levels in tap water, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied over a four-month period. Al was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample storage in glass vessels was unsuitable, whereas only minor alterations of Al levels were observed with storage in polypropylene tubes, polystyrene tubes, and Monovettes. By using appropriate plastic containers, acid washing of the vessels showed no improvement. Frozen storage was superior compared with 4 degrees C, whereas storage at -80 degrees C offered no advantage compared with storage at -20 degrees C. Acidification of tap water samples was necessary to stabilize Al levels during storage. No striking effect of acidification on Al levels in urine and dialysis fluid samples was found. It is concluded that longterm storage of serum, urine, tap water, and dialysis fluid samples is possible if appropriate conditions are used. PMID:2395338

  8. Modeling the effect of antecedent soil water storage on water and heat status in seasonally freezing and thawing agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taking Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia's agricultural production as a background and based on field observation data and field measured meteorological data, the influence of antecedent soil water storage (ASWS) on water and heat conditions was simulated and analyzed using the SHAW model ...

  9. Water-storage capacity controls energy partitioning and water use in karst ecosystems on the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    E-print Network

    Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Water-storage capacity controls energy partitioning and water use in karst ecosystems are encroaching into grasslands and savannas of the karst Edwards Plateau, but their impacts on climate; available energy; woody encroachment; karst Received 10 July 2012; Revised 3 September 2012; Accepted 4

  10. Terrestrial water storage across scales: Applications of the GRACE satellite mission for global hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T.

    Terrestrial water storage is difficult to observe over large areas, and as a result, studies of the global water cycle under changing climate tend to focus on a few key methodologies: monitoring of the large-scale fluxes of precipitation, evaporation and discharge; modeling the relationship between runoff response and precipitation forcing; or applying limited in-situ data sets to generalize and scale behavior. With NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are finally able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2) with monthly time resolution, opening what was previously an unobservable 'black box' in land-surface water dynamics. GRACE data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in basin water storage behavior that are relevant for global climate studies. In this research we explore global to regional scale applications of GRACE data that highlight the novelty, functionality and importance of these groundbreaking observations. First, we present a new metric for the monitoring of global water cycle health and energy expenditure — the time-series of Total Global Ocean Mass Anomaly and Total Global Land Mass Anomaly from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment — and show that this metric is heavily influenced by highly variable regional water cycle dynamics in a few global "wet spots". Second, we provide results of a statistical model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation for the world's largest basins. Third, we combine new 1-degree GRACE storage observations with state-of-the-art global land-surface model representations of surface, canopy and snow water, to derive a 1-degree spatially variable sub-surface water storage anomaly time series with error estimates. We convolve this result with global estimates of porosity from FAO Harmonized Soil Database to estimate an effective global active soil depth range and changes during the GRACE record. Finally, terrestrial water storage anomaly from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and precipitation observations from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) are applied at the regional scale to show the usefulness of a remotely sensed, storage-based flood potential method.

  11. A recent assessment of terrestrial water storage depletion across the High Plains aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena, A.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    In semi-arid to arid regions, water storage in the unsaturated and saturated zones is the main source of water for ecosystems, crops, and human needs. Recent concerns about the sustainability of agricultural systems in the US central High Plains have increased after the on-going exceptional drought that started in 2011. This work investigates the impacts of this exceptional event on water storage anomalies across the High-Plains Aquifer (HPA). Observations of the terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) provide estimates of monthly soil moisture and groundwater anomalies from 2004 to 2012. Spatial and temporal patterns of anomalies during the 100-month observed period included the 1st phase of the recent drought. Results show a continuous negative trend of total water storage between September 2010 and April 2012. Spatial variability of soil moisture and groundwater anomalies revealed divergent patterns since March 2008. During the 1st phase of the drought, water storage depletion was more pronounced in the southern HPA while no depletion was observed in the northern HPA. The 2nd phase of the drought shows negative anomalies across the entire HPA, but higher depletion rates were evident in the central and northern parts of the HPA. We estimate that more than 15 km3 of water were lost from the unsaturated zone across the HPA since the beginning of the recent drought with regional depletion rates from 1 mm/year in the Northern HPA to 34 mm/year in the Southern HPA. Despite strong depletion rates, the change in saturated storage, estimated as the difference between total water storage and unsaturated storage varied considerably between observed soil moisture data and NLDAS products, especially during the recent drought. Such sources of bias can alter estimates of groundwater trends. Since irrigation practices were not accounted for in this preliminary study, the actual changes in in unsaturated zone storage are likely underestimates, especially in croplands with inefficient water management practices. The spatial extent and temporal duration of the current drought detected by GRACE revealed that total water storage has reached a 10-year minimum value across the HPA.

  12. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  13. Seasonal patterns of water storage as signatures of the climatological equilibrium between resource and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

    2014-09-01

    Water is accumulated in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the resource to various demands like hydropower production, irrigation, water supply or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively optimizes the use of the resource during a given time period. One of its by-products is the estimation of the marginal storage water value (MSWV), defined by the marginal value of the future goods and benefits obtained from an additional unit of storage water volume. Knowledge of the MSWV makes it possible to determine a posteriori the storage requirement scheme that would have led to the best equilibrium between the resource and the demand. The MSWV depends on the water level in the reservoir and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This study uses the inter-annual average of both the storage requirement scheme and the MSWV cycle as signatures of the best temporal equilibrium that is achievable in a given resource/demand context (the climatological equilibrium). For a simplified water resource system in a French mountainous region, we characterize how and why these signatures change should the climate and/or the demand change, mainly if changes are projected in the mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) as well as in the water demand for energy production and/or maintenance of a minimum reservoir level. Results show that the temporal equilibrium between water resource and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of MSWV changes when, for example, earlier water storage is required to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand. Finally, understanding how MSWV signatures change helps to understand changes in the storage requirement scheme.

  14. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d. PMID:25989554

  15. Household water treatment and safe storage product development in Ghana

    E-print Network

    Yang, Shengkun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Microbial and/or chemical contaminants can infiltrate into piped water systems, especially when the system is intermittent. Ghana has been suffering from aged and intermittent piped water networks, and an added barrier of ...

  16. Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, S.C.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Land Water Storage within the Congo Basin Inferred from GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2006-01-01

    GRACE satellite gravity data is used to estimate terrestrial (surface plus ground) water storage within the Congo Basin in Africa for the period of April, 2002 - May, 2006. These estimates exhibit significant seasonal (30 +/- 6 mm of equivalent water thickness) and long-term trends, the latter yielding a total loss of approximately 280 km(exp 3) of water over the 50-month span of data. We also combine GRACE and precipitation data set (CMAP, TRMM) to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Congo Basin. We find that the seasonal water storage tends to saturate for anomalies greater than 30-44 mm of equivalent water thickness. Furthermore, precipitation contributed roughly three times the peak water storage after anomalously rainy seasons, in early 2003 and 2005, implying an approximately 60-70% loss from runoff and evapotranspiration. Finally, a comparison of residual land water storage (monthly estimates minus best-fitting trends) in the Congo and Amazon Basins shows an anticorrelation, in agreement with the 'see-saw' variability inferred by others from runoff data.

  18. Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Donna

    2010-08-01

    Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

  19. Atmospheric storage tank inspection certification programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.L.; Mason, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, spectacular Atmospheric Storage Tank (AST) failures have attracted national attention. An AST near Pittsburgh leaked one million gallons of petroleum product into the Monongahela River which is a tributary of the Ohio River. Drinking water supplies for the towns down-river were disrupted. Incidents such as this sparked the development of American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 653 for Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction. The quality of a tank inspection is directly related to the education and experience of the inspector. API 653 references two qualification and certification programs based on specific education and experience requirements.

  20. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

  1. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  2. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  3. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  4. Solar-Heated Water at a Motel--Mobile, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-assisted hot-water system for a new 122-unit motor inn in Mobile, Alabama, generates more than half the energy needed for hot-water heating at motel each year. System consists of 93 flat-plate collectors, 2,500 gallon (9,500 1) insulated storage tank located outdoors, heat exchangers and controls. Electronic thermometers, measuring the temperatures at 22 locations monitor system performance.

  5. Motel solar-hot-water system--Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes system which meets 64 percent of hot water requirements of 120 room motel. Key system components include 1,000 square foot, roof-mounted collector array, 1,000 gallon storage tank, tube-in-shell heat exchanger, and three domestic hot-water tanks. Report contains calibration instructions for differential temperature controllers, shutdown procedures, and operation guidelines, performance analysis, and manufacturers' maintenance literature.

  6. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  7. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  8. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  9. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  10. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  11. Effects of water sample preservation and storage conditions on nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.C.; Alva, A.K.; Calvert, D.V.; Zhang, M.

    1995-12-31

    USEPA method 300 requires water samples should be stored at 4 C immediately after collection and NO{sub 3}-N concentration analyzed within 48 hr of sample collection. Many research and commercial laboratories find it is difficult to meet this holding time. Water samples are often stored for several days at 4 C or {minus}20 C until analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of groundwater sample pretreatment, storage temperatures, and holding times on concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N. The storage of samples at 25 C decreased concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N by 1.7% and 12.5% for 48 hr and 50 days, respectively. No significant changes were observed during the 50 days storage at 4 C or {minus}20 C. Acidification of water samples at 4 C had no significant effect on NO{sub 3}-N concentration up to 50-day holding time.

  12. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic ?-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) ?-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of ?-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

  13. Water Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing (Updated May 7, 2014)

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Water Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing (Updated May 7, 2014) Hydraulic require millions of gallons of water. In Pennsylvania, for example, hydraulic gallons of water over a 2 to 5 day period (SRBC). Natural gas industry

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  15. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003–2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes. PMID:26506230

  16. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003-2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes. PMID:26506230

  17. Non-linearities and thresholds in water partitioning, storage and release in different ecohydrological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Soulsby, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Water partitioning between transpiration, evaporation and runoff is controlled by climatic and water storage characteristics; yet our current knowledge of varying dominant retention and partitioning mechanisms remains limited. For some forested catchments with clear seasonal distinctions, recent work has revealed the existence of partitioned ecohydrological systems where plant - and stream-water are sourced from different subsurface water stores. It is still unclear what the roles of non-linearities are in different water-energy regimes and how soil and vegetation properties might influence such partitioning of water stores. This study aims to better understand the spatio-temporal controls on water residence times and hydrological responses at the catchment scale in a northern headwater catchment in Scotland. Here, the climate is usually consistently wet with low evapotranspiration rates. Within this context however, the study period involved an exceptionally dry summer. We explored non-linearities and thresholds in catchment input-output relationships and investigated the role of soil-water-vegetation interactions on water partitioning, storage, and release along different hillslopes during contrasting hydro-climatic conditions. Different ecohydrological units included poorly draining soils in riparian zones and freely draining soils on hillslopes, and both forested and non-forested sites were considered. Soil moisture dynamics and stable water isotope signatures of different waters (precipitation, stream-, soil -, and plant xylem-water) were examined throughout the year (winter and during the growing season that included the relatively dry summer) to identify plant water use, assess water movement, and explore vegetation-water linkages. The results indicate that threshold behaviour in runoff responses at the catchment scale can be linked to apparent differences between soil water dynamics and residence times of different hydropedological units. Linear input-output relationships exist when runoff is dominantly generated from the permanently wet riparian zones. In contrast, the freely draining hillslope soils show larger dynamic storage changes, and non-linear runoff generation processes can be related to temporary high soil wetness on the hillslopes. However, vegetation impacts are limited and the isotope data suggest that there is no strong evidence for the formation of two different ecohydrological subsurface water stores for either soil types at any time. Such contrasting results in relation to those of previous studies might be attributed to the overall relatively high subsurface storage, and the area's radiation energy-limited climate that lacks overall strong seasonality in high precipitation inputs. The results therefore suggest that the formation of different subsurface water stores might depend on thresholds in the water-energy balance, and as such depend on geographic and climatic conditions.

  18. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. PMID:24629940

  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Storage Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... * * * Except * * * 1. Storage tank with a design capacity ?40,000 gallons, storing liquid that contains organic..., and 1.e, as applicable. 3. Storage tank with a design capacity ?20,000 gallons, storing liquid that... Requirements for Storage Tanks 5 Table 5 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  20. Total water storage in Washington, Oregon, and California inferred from GPS observation of surface mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal vertical oscillations in the Pacific mountain system are observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study we invert such GPS measurements of surface mass loading for equivalent water thickness at a resolution of one-quarter degree latitude and longitude. Standard Green's functions based on PREM are used to specify the relationship between equivalent water thickness and the elastic response of solid Earth to the load. A Laplacian is used to limit the change in the value of equivalent water thickness from one pixel to the next. The resulting GPS determination of the seasonal oscillation in the total water thickness has been compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics California's physiographic provinces. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April 1 to October 1 is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. We conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system. Water storage inferred from GPS exceeds that in hydrology model NLDAS-Noah by up to 50%. This difference is likely due to more snow and reservoir water than in the hydrology model. Comparison between GPS inversed seasonal water storage and hydrology model (NLDAS) result for Washington and Oregon.

  1. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  2. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  3. Water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California inferred from GPS observation of loading deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Argus, D. F.; Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical loading deformation in the Pacific mountain system is observed with GPS to be large. The mountains subside up to more than 1 cm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain, and then rise during the spring and summer when the snow melts, rainwater runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. In this study, we invert such GPS measurements of loading deformation for surface water variations in Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), and study seasonal, interannual and long-term trend water storage variations in Washington, Oregon and California. The resulting GPS determination of the total water thickness change is compared with GRACE and hydrology results. The GPS inversed seasonal mass variation mimics different physiographic provinces of western U.S. The inferred seasonal change in water thickness from April to October is large (up to a half meter in EWT) in the Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Seasonal water storage decreases sharply east into the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau and west toward the Pacific coast. With GPS monthly time series, we infer surface water variation at higher temporal (monthly) interval. The current California drought since 2011 is precisely quantified with GPS inversed surface water change. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, our GPS results indicate ~14 Gigaton/year water loss between 2011 to 2014, and this rate is much larger than that of the previous drought event (~9 Gigaton/year) between 2006 to 2009. Our results inferred from GPS show that rapid near-surface water decrease is occurring in Sierra Nevada Mountain, Klamath Mountain. In the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon, there is no significant water loss there. Because the GPS network in the western U.S. is dense enough and GPS position solutions can be derived very quickly, we conclude that GPS provides an independent determination of water storage in the Pacific mountains system at high spatial resolution in near real time.

  4. WORD PROBLEMS 1. Suppose your car gets 25 miles per gallon of gasoline and the price of gas is $3.50 per gallon. Write

    E-print Network

    Koban, Nic

    WORD PROBLEMS 1. Suppose your car gets 25 miles per gallon of gasoline and the price of gas is $3.50 per gallon. Write your monthly gasoline cost C in terms of the distance D that you travel each month

  5. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  6. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  8. Effective Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

  9. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  10. Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container. PMID:23836571

  11. Multi-scale hydropedological controls on water storage, mixing and release in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Birkel, Christian; Soulsby, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Water storage, mixing and flux processes regulate the generation of stream flow and the time scales for the transport of solutes and contaminants. Understanding the space and time variant dominant mechanisms on these processes in different landscapes and climates remains a key challenge in water resource research. The scope of this presentation is to provide an overview of new insights into the multiscale and integrated spatio-temporal controls of hydropedology on water storage, mixing and release in low energy, humid headwater catchments. We provide some examples from the Bruntland Burn experimental catchment (3.2 km2) in the Scottish Highlands. This area is characterised by high precipitation inputs, low evapotranspiration rates and storage reservoirs which are typically close to the threshold of saturation for most of the time. We explored water storage, mixing, and flow processes in the soil matrix, at different soil-vegetation plots, and along a hillslope transect. Sites included two common soil types (Histosols in the riparian zone and Podzols on hillslopes) and both forested (with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)) and non-forested areas. We also explored the integrated effects of the spatio-temporal dynamics in these processes at the catchment scale, using high resolution hydrometric and stable water isotope analyses. By comparing stable water isotopes of soil water held at different soil water tensions, we found that water held at high tensions (i.e. in the smaller pores) had a longer residence time than that held at lower tensions. However, these variations were small in the context of the differences observed in soil water storage and flow dynamics between soil types and their integrated control at the catchment scale. Storage dynamics in the different hydropedological units controlled hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and the stream network, runoff generation, and the evolution of catchment transit time distributions. It was found that vegetation cover played a minor role and only locally during unusually dry conditions. We briefly reflect on the ecohydrological and management implications of these results at multiple scales and provide insights into future directions.

  12. Water storage and early hydrous melting of the Martian mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommier, A.; Grove, T. L.; Charlier, B.

    2012-06-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the near-solidus phase equilibria of a water-saturated analog of the Martian mantle. Experiments were performed at low temperatures (700-920 °C) and high pressure (4-7 GPa) using multi-anvil apparatus and piston cylinder device (4 GPa). The results of this study are used to explore the role of water during early melting and chemical differentiation of Mars, and to further our understanding of the near-solidus behavior in planetary mantle compositions at high pressure. Water has a significant effect on the temperature of melting and, therefore, on accretion and subsequent differentiation processes. Experiments locate the wet solidus at ?800 °C, and is isothermal between 4 GPa and 7 GPa. The Martian primitive mantle can store significant amounts of water in hydrous minerals stable near the solidus. Humite-group minerals and phase E represent the most abundant hydrous minerals stable in the 4-7 GPa pressure range. The amount of water that can be stored in the mantle and mobilized during melting ranges from 1 to up to 4 wt% near the wet solidus. We discuss thermal models of Mars accretion where the planet formed very rapidly and early on in solar system history. We incorporate the time constraint of Dauphas and Pourmand (2011) that Mars had accreted to 50% of its present mass in 1.8 Myr and include the effects of 26Al radioactive decay and heat supplied by rapid accretion. When accretion has reached 30% of Mars current mass (?70% of its present size), melting starts, and extends from 100 to 720 km depth. Below this melt layer, water can still be bound in crystalline solids. The critical stage is at 50% accretion (?80% of its size), where Mars is above the wet and dry solidi with most of its interior melted. This is earlier in the accretion process than what would be predicted from dry melting. We suggest that water may have promoted early core formation on Mars and rapidly extended melting over a large portion of Mars interior.

  13. Impact of water abstraction on storage and breakdown of coarse organic matter in mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Aristi, Ibon; Díez, Joserra; Martinez, Miren; Oyarzun, Gorka; Elosegi, Arturo

    2015-01-15

    Water abstraction is a prevalent impact in streams and rivers, which is likely to increase in the near future. Because abstraction reduces discharge, the dimensions of the wetted channel and water depth and velocity, it can have strong influence on stream ecosystem functioning. Although the impacts of large dams on stream and river ecosystems are pretty well known, the effects of diversion schemes associated with low dams are still poorly understood. Furthermore, the remote location of many diversion schemes and the lack of collaboration by power companies often make it difficult to know the volume of water diverted and its environmental consequences. To assess the impact of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of coarse particulate organic matter in streams we compared reaches upstream and downstream from five low dams that divert water to hydropower plants in mountain streams in N Spain. We measured the storage of organic matter and the breakdown of alder leaves in winter and spring, and calculated the results at the patch (i.e., per square meter of bed) and at the reach scale (i.e., per lineal meter of channel). Water diversion significantly reduced discharge, and the width and depth of the wetted channel, but did not affect water quality. Diversion significantly reduced the storage and breakdown of organic matter in winter but not in spring. The number of shredders colonizing litter bags was also significantly reduced. The results point to an important effect of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of organic matter in streams at least in some periods, which could affect downstream reaches, global carbon fluxes, and associated ecosystem services. PMID:25039020

  14. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (? = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (? = 0.35), forgetting (? = -0.22), and self-efficacy (? = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  15. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to translate a unique approach for the synthesis of self-assembled nanostructured carbon into industrially viable technologies for two important, large-scale applications: electrochemical double-layer capacitors (also referred to as ultracapacitors) for electrical energy storage, and capacitive deionization (CDI) systems for water treatment and desalination.

  16. Lower Mantle Storage of Water in "Anhydrous" High-Pressure Basalt Assemblages

    E-print Network

    Lower Mantle Storage of Water in "Anhydrous" High-Pressure Basalt Assemblages W. R. Panero, L. R into the perovskite + stishovite phase assemblage that is stable at lower-mantle pressures. Synchrotron- based infrared absorption (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with laser-heated diamond-cell experiments at pressures

  17. SPERTI Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER602) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER-602) under construction to its right. Control Building (PER-601) in background to right of tank. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: December 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-3575 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  19. An inversion approach for determining water storage changes from 3-D GPS

    E-print Network

    Stuttgart, Universität

    An inversion approach for determining water storage changes from 3-D GPS coordinates time series from GPS > 2 #12;Elastic responses of the Earth Mass-loading Green's function [Farrel, 1972] where h to direction PA . 3GPS >03.09.2013 0 1 ( ) (cos ) (cos ) ( ) u

  20. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

  1. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

  2. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20?cm) than in the deep layers (20~40?cm and 40~60?cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  3. Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a Chinese pine-oak mixed forest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  4. Total water storage dynamics in response to climate variability and extremes: Inference from long-term terrestrial gravity

    E-print Network

    Troch, Peter

    Total water storage dynamics in response to climate variability and extremes: Inference from long-term a strong depletion of water storage and a long-term recovery that extended over a period of several years long-term terrestrial gravity measurement, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D08112, doi:10.1029/2011JD016472. 1

  5. Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, Deborah S.

    1980-01-01

    The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

  6. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  7. Using Deuterium to trace movement and storage of water in Eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Wyczesany, Tomasz; Eamus, Derek; Pfautsch, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of trees to release water from storage compartments into the transpiration stream can mitigate damage to hydraulic functioning. However, the location and magnitude of these 'mobile' water sources still remains a topic of research. We conducted an experiment on two tree species that naturally grow in regions of high (Eucalyptus tereticornis) and low (E. sideroxylon) rates of annual precipitation. Deuterium enriched water (1350 ‰ label strength) was introduced into the transpiration stream of three trees per species for four consecutive days. Then the trees were felled and samples of all woody tissues were collected from different heights and positions of the stem. Water was extracted from all samples and the isotopic composition measured. Our results indicate that vertical water transport was more efficient in E. tereticornis while radial water transport was more pronounced in E. sideroxylon. The latter has a larger relative stem water storage capacity than E. tereticornis. This is probably related to differences in the hydraulic architecture across the two species, with a larger resistance of the xylem to cavitation in E. sideroxylon due to smaller vessel diameters, resulting in the trade-off of slower growth and lower tree height. Generally water in the phloem is a larger source for capacitance than water in the heartwood. Further integrative data analyses will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that allow trees to survive and adapt to drought.

  8. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  9. Estimate of ground water in storage in the Great Lakes basin, United States, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Sheets, Rodney A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data from Regional Aquifer System Analyses (RASA) studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Great Lakes Basin, United States, during 1978-95, were compiled and used to estimate the total volume of water that is stored in the many aquifers of the basin. These studies focused on six regional aquifer systems: the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana; the Silurian- Devonian aquifers in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; the surficial aquifer system (aquifers of alluvial and glacial origin) found throughout the Great Lakes Basin; and the Pennsylvanian sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers and the Mississippian sandstone aquifer in Michigan. Except for the surficial aquifers, all of these aquifer systems are capable of yielding substantial quantities of water and are not small aquifers with only local importance. Individual surficial aquifers, although small in comparison to the bedrock aquifers, collectively represent large potential sources of ground water and therefore have been treated as a regional system. Summation of ground-water volumes in the many regional aquifers of the basin indicates that about 1,340 cubic miles of water is in storage; of this, about 984 cubic miles is considered freshwater (that is, water with dissolved-solids concentration less than 1,000 mg/L). These volumes should not be interpreted as available in their entirety to meet water-supply needs; complete dewatering of any aquifer is environmentally undesirable. The amount of water that is considered available on the basis of water quality and environmental, economic, and legal constraints has not been determined. The effect of heavy pumping in the Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee, Wis., areas, which has caused the regional ground-water divide in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system to shift westward, has been included in the above estimates. This shift in the ground-water divide has increased the amount of water in storage in the deep-bedrock aquifers of the Great Lakes Basin by about 36 cubic miles; however, this water is removed by wells and, after use, is mostly discharged to the Mississippi River Basin rather than to the Great Lakes Basin. The corresponding decrease in ground-water storage that has resulted from lowering of the potentiometric surface due to this heavy pumping (0.059 cubic miles) is negligible compared to the total estimated storage.

  10. Diagnosing Land Water Storage Variations in Major Indian River Basins using GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Aarti; Syed, Tajdarul H.

    2015-10-01

    Scarcity of freshwater is one of the most critical resource issue the world is facing today. Due to its finite nature, renewable freshwater reserves are under relentless pressure due to population growth, economic development and rapid industrialization. Assessment of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS), as an unified measure of freshwater reserve, is vital to understand hydrologic and climatic processes controlling its availability. In this study, TWS variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are analyzed in conjuction with multi-platform hydrologic observations for the period of 2003-2012. Here, the primary objective is to quantify and attribute the observed short-term variability of TWS and groundwater storage in the largest river basins of India (Ganga, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi). Alongside commendable agreement between TWS variations obtained from GRACE and water balance computation, results highlight some of the important deficiencies between the two. While monthly changes in TWS are highly correlated with precipitation, monthly TWS anomalies reveal a 1-2 month lag in their concurrence. Analysis of groundwater storage estimates demonstrate significant decline in the Ganga basin (- 1.28 ± 0.20 mm/month) but practically no change in the Mahanadi basin. On the contrary, groundwater storage in Godavari and Krishna basins reveal notable increase at the rate of 0.74 ± 0.21 mm/month and 0.97 ± 0.21 mm/month respectively. Subsequently, in order to assess the influence of quasi-periodic, planetary scale, variations in the Earth's climate system, groundwater storage anomalies are evaluated with reference to ENSO variability. Results manifest that in all the basins, with the exception of Ganga, groundwater storage is dominantly influenced by ENSO, with large decrease (increase) during El Niño (La Niña) events. In the Ganga basin, groundwater storage variations refer to possible amalgamation of human intervention and natural climate variability.

  11. Integrating Stable Isotope Tracers with Rainfall-Runoff Models as Tools for Assessing Catchment-Scale Water Storage Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2012-12-01

    Water supplies and the ecohydrological function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are dependent on the storage and release of water from the unsaturated and saturated zone of catchments. Attempts to measure and estimate storage dynamics at operational catchment scales are hampered by spatial heterogeneity which makes interpolation of point measurements (e.g. of soil moisture and groundwater dynamics) difficult. Storage-discharge relationships from rainfall-runoff models can explicitly acknowledge that water storage is neither time nor space invariant and can be useful to assess catchment storage dynamics. However, input-output relationships of natural isotopic tracers such as oxygen-18 and deuterium usually show damping and time-lags in stream flow response to precipitation fluxes. Such damping behaviour implies large mixing volumes that are usually much greater than those suggested by dynamic storage changes estimated from water balance calculations in rainfall-runoff models. This larger volume is often referred to as "passive" storage or so-called "immobile" water available for mixing that hydraulically does not contribute to streamflow at least in the short-term. Thus, combining tracer based storage (passive) estimates with those inferred from dynamic model storage (active) estimates from runoff models has the potential to provide multi-proxy tools to investigate the concept of catchment storage in an integrated way. In this paper we explore the storage-discharge relationships of two nested (3.6 and 30 km2) montane catchments in Scotland using rainfall-runoff models: (a) a non-linear discharge sensitivity function and (b) a process-based conceptual model constrained by high resolution (daily), long-term (3 year) isotope time series. Both modelling approaches consistently simulated small seasonal storage fluctuations (ca. 40-50mm) in both catchments: consistent with the wet, cool climate. In contrast, input-output relationships of oxygen-18 tracer time series in both catchments were used to estimate the passive storage available for mixing and tracer damping in streams. This showed that minimal catchment storage is at least two magnitude greater (ca. 1000mm) than the dynamic storage estimated by both models. The passive storage inferred by the isotopes indicates that dynamic storage revealed by water balance considerations masks a much larger catchment storage which may in turn determine sensitivity to environmental change. We suggest that isotopic tracers have significant unrealised potential in assessing these storage dynamics.

  12. Water Storage Dynamics of Saturated and Unsaturated Zones and its Function in Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, M.; Song, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Subsurface water storage for hydrological processes can be divided into unsaturated soil moisture and saturated water storage (a shallow groundwater aquifer). Surface layer moisture content is a state variable that is either simulated or required as input in many hydrological models. The high or low of the shallow groundwater reservoir fast or slow of saturated flow and flow discharges from the catchment outlet. As a result of heterogeneity of soil properties, topography, land cover, evapotranspiration and precipitation, the soil moisture content and the shallow groundwater reservoir is highly variable in three-dimensional space and time (Engman, 1974; Wood et al., 1992). Expression of heterogeneity of soil moisture content and the shallow groundwater storage is critical for hydrological model development and success in hydrological simulation. In this study, we developed a new hydrological model with functions of water storage dynamics of saturated and unsaturated zones. A mathematical expression of topographic and soil controlled spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture holding capacity was derived in terms of Van Genuchten model and topographical index. The subsurface store and storage-discharge process is expressed by a horizontal Boussinesq equation with a power law hydraulic conductivity profile (Rupp and Selker, 2005). The "top-down" approach according to unsaturated accounting and the "bottom-up" approach according to baseflow separation were used to integrate both storage dynamics for developing the new model. The top-down and bottom-up methods enable the model parameters to be determined according to watershed soil, topography and flow discharge. Model testing was carried out in a number of nested sub-basins of a watershed (Huangnizhuang River in Huaihe basin) in the humid region in China. Simulation results show that the model is capable of describing spatial and temporal variations of water balance components, including soil moisture content, shallow groundwater storage, evapotranspiration and runoff, over the watershed. References: Engman, E.T., Rogowski, A.S. 1974. A partial area model for storm flow synthesis. Water Resources Research, 10: 464 - 472. Rupp D R, Selker J S. 2005. Drainage of a horizontal Boussinesq aquifer with a power law hydraulic conductivity profile.Water Resource Research, 41, W11422, doi:10.1029/2005WR004241. Wood, E.F., Lettenmaier, D.P., Zatarian, V.G. 1992. A land surface hydrology parameterization with subgrid variability for general circulation models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97: 2717 - 2728.

  13. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    PubMed

    Miotli?ski, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25399802

  14. Soil water storage, rainfall and runoff relationships in a tropical dry forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

    2014-12-01

    In forested catchments, the exceedance of rainfall and antecedent water storage thresholds is often required for runoff generation, yet to our knowledge these threshold relationships remain undescribed in tropical dry forest catchments. We, therefore, identified the controls of streamflow activation and the timing and magnitude of runoff in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During a 52 day transition phase from the dry to wet season, soil water movement was dominated by vertical flow which continued until a threshold soil moisture content of 26% was reached at 100 cm below the surface. This satisfied a 162 mm storage deficit and activated streamflow, likely through lateral subsurface flow pathways. High antecedent soil water conditions were maintained during the wet phase but had a weak influence on stormflow. We identified a threshold value of 289 mm of summed rainfall and antecedent soil water needed to generate >4 mm of stormflow per event. Above this threshold, stormflow response and magnitude was almost entirely governed by rainfall event characteristics and not antecedent soil moisture conditions. Our results show that over the course of the wet season in tropical dry forests the dominant controls on runoff generation changed from antecedent soil water and storage to the depth of rainfall.

  15. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  16. Storage selection functions: A coherent framework for quantifying how catchments store and release water and solutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Benettin, Paolo; Harman, Ciaran J.; Hrachowitz, Markus; McGuire, Kevin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-06-01

    We discuss a recent theoretical approach combining catchment-scale flow and transport processes into a unified framework. The approach is designed to characterize the hydrochemistry of hydrologic systems and to meet the challenges posed by empirical evidence. StorAge Selection functions (SAS) are defined to represent the way catchment storage supplies the outflows with water of different ages, thus regulating the chemical composition of out-fluxes. Biogeochemical processes are also reflected in the evolving residence time distribution and thus in age-selection. Here we make the case for the routine use of SAS functions and look forward to areas where further research is needed.

  17. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  18. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  19. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

  20. Terrestrial Water Storage Changes in the Tibetan Plateau in the Past Decade and the Possible Cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, F.; Su, F.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is the water stored on and below the land surface, which includes snow, ice, soil moisture, groundwater, and surface water. TWS is a fundamental component of the terrestrial hydrological cycle given that precipitation (P) reaching the land surface is balanced by evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and the change of terrestrial water storage (TWSC) [P=R+ET+TWSC]. As an integrated measure of surface and groundwater availability, TWS has significant implications for water resources management. The Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas (TP), which are characterized by high elevation, extensive glaciers, permafrost, snowpack, and mountain lakes, is known as the "roof of the world", the Third Pole, and also the water towers of Asia. Studies of meteorological observations, reanalysis data, and ice core records have suggested a warming trend over the TP in recent decades. Along with the rising temperature, the detected glacier melt, permafrost degradation, and lakes changes in the TP will thus affect the water storage changes and the hydrological cycle in the area. In this study, we examine the spatial-temporal variation of TWS change over the TP through the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data and the VIC land surface hydrologic model during 2004-2013. Meanwhile, the spatial-temporal characteristics of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and snow cover as well as the distribution of glaciers, lakes, and frozen soil are analyzed to examine the factors that might be responsible for the TWS changes in the TP. The objective of our study is to achieve a better understanding of the water balance change in the TP under the warming climate. Our work could provide a basis for conservation strategies and policy decisions for the fragile, invaluable eco-hydrological environment in the Tibet Plateau.

  1. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  2. Seasonal variation in total water storage in California inferred from GPS observations of vertical land motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Fu, Yuning; Landerer, Felix W.

    2014-03-01

    GPS is accurately recording vertical motion of Earth's surface in elastic response to seasonal changes in surface water storage in California. California's mountains subside up to 12 mm in the fall and winter due to the load of snow and rain and then rise an identical amount in the spring and summer when the snow melts, the rain runs off, and soil moisture evaporates. We invert the GPS observations of seasonal vertical motions to infer changes in equivalent water thickness. GPS resolves the distribution of change in total water across California's physiographic provinces at a resolution of 50 km, compared to 200 km resolution from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. The seasonal surface water thickness change is 0.6 m in the Sierra Nevada, Klamath, and southern Cascade Mountains and decreases sharply to about 0.1 m east into the Great Basin and west toward the Pacific coast. GPS provides an independent inference of change in total surface water, indicating water storage to be on average 50% larger than in the NLDAS-Noah hydrology model, likely due to larger changes in snow and reservoir water than in the model. Seismicity and land uplift produced by groundwater loss in California's Central Valley is also being evaluated.

  3. LifeCycle Water Consumption of

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Carbon Fuel Standard study · Scenarios: ­ Feedstock · Corn, Sugar beets, HighYield Biomass (HYB), Low Beets Low-Yield Biomass 12 #12;13 Peracre consumption (acft) Ethanol Embedded Water (gallons per gallon

  4. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  5. Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

  6. Ground water in the Piedmont Upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1980-01-01

    Aquifers in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland and Piedmont, are shown to be the sole or principal source of water. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The groundwater is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most groundwater occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in groundwater storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70% of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The groundwater quality is generally satisfactory without treatment and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on groundwater use are as follows; 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000 for commercial purposes; and 160,000 for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of those and other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the groundwater available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the groundwater conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province. (USGS)

  7. 27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,000 equals 82.03 pounds, weight of water required to reduce to desired proof. The slight variation... gallon contents of containers of spirits by multiplying the net weight of the spirits by the fractional... subtract from the quotient the net weight of the spirits before reduction. The remainder will be the...

  8. 27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...,000 equals 82.03 pounds, weight of water required to reduce to desired proof. The slight variation... gallon contents of containers of spirits by multiplying the net weight of the spirits by the fractional... subtract from the quotient the net weight of the spirits before reduction. The remainder will be the...

  9. Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

  10. Determinants of water circulation in a woody bamboo species: afternoon use and night-time recharge of culm water storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Goldstein, Guillermo; Sun, Mei; Ma, Ren-Yi; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-09-01

    To understand water-use strategies of woody bamboo species, sap flux density (Fd) in the culms of a woody bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland) was monitored using the thermal dissipation method. The daytime and night-time Fd were analyzed in the dry and rainy seasons. Additionally, diurnal changes in root pressure, culm circumference, and stomatal conductance (gs) were investigated to characterize the mechanisms used to maintain diurnal water balance of woody bamboos. Both in the dry and rainy seasons, daytime Fd responded to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in an exponential fashion, with a fast initial increase in Fd when VPD increased from 0 to 1 kPa. The Fd and gs started to increase very fast as light intensity and VPD increased in the morning, but they decreased sharply once the maximum value was achieved. The Fd response of this woody bamboo to VPD was much faster than that of representative trees and palms growing in the same study site, suggesting its fast sap flow and stomatal responses to changes in ambient environmental factors. The Fd in the lower and higher culm positions started to increase at the same time in the morning, but the Fd in the higher culm position was higher than that of the lower culm in the afternoon. Consistently, distinct decreases in its culm circumference in the afternoon were detected. Therefore, unlike trees, water storage of bamboo culms was not used for its transpiration in the morning but in the afternoon. Nocturnal sap flow of this woody bamboo was also detected and related to root pressure. We conclude that this bamboo has fast sap flow/stomatal responses to irradiance and evaporative demands, and it uses substantial water storage for transpiration in the afternoon, while root pressure appears to be a mechanism resulting in culm water storage recharge during the night. PMID:26232783

  11. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  12. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  13. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  14. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  15. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

  16. Simulated water-level responses, ground-water fluxes, and storage changes for recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, John P.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2005-01-01

    A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which derives boundary conditions from a basin-scale model, spans the 12-mile reach of Rillito Creek and extends 9 miles south into the Central Well Field. Recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek range from 5,000 to 60,000 acre-feet per year and are simulated to begin in 2005 and extend through 2225 to estimate long-term changes in ground-water level, ground-water storage, ground-water flux, and evapotranspiration. The base case for comparison of simulated water levels and flows, referred to as scenario A, uses a long-term recharge rate of 5,000 acre-feet per year to 2225. Scenario B, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 9,500 acre-feet per year, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 53 feet to 86 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 60 feet to 80 feet. More than half of these rises occur by 2050, and more than 95 percent occur by 2188. Scenario C, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 16,700 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 71 feet to 102 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 80 feet to 95 feet. More than half of the rises occur by 2036, and more than 95 percent occur by 2100. Scenario D, which initially increases the recharge rate by about 55,000 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, resulted in simulated water levels that rise to land surface along Rillito Creek. This rise in water level resulted in rejected recharge. As the water table continued to rise, the area of stream-channel surface intersected by the water table increased causing continual decline in the recharge rate until a long-term recharge rate of about 34,000 acre-feet per year was sustained. The long-term recharge rate for scenario D is about 29,000 acre-feet per year greater than the long-term recharge rate for scenario A. Simulated long-term water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek range from about 97 feet to 131 feet, resulting in water levels near or at the land surface. Shallow depths to water associated with this scenario have implications for contamination owing to the presence of landfills within or adjacent to Rillito Creek. Water-level rises for cells within the Central Well Field range from about 96 feet to 109 feet. More than half of the water-level rises occur by 2018 and more than 95 percent occur by 2041. Almost all the increased water added to the ground-water system in the recharge scenarios can be accounted for by a combination of increased storage near Rillito Creek, ground-water flux to the south, ground-water flux to the northwest, and increased discharge as evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek. The percentage of newly added water accounted for by storage changes is large relative to the percentage accounted for by changes in flux and evapotranspiration at the onset of each scenario; however, the changes in storage become smaller throughout the simulation, and the long-term component accounted for by storage is minimal. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the south increase by about 3,300, 4,840, and 7,500 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The percentage of increased recharge that flows south toward the Central Well Field, therefore, is 35, 29, and 26 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the northwest increase by about 3,100, 3,900, and 6,980 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The long-term percentage of increased recharge flowing northwestward is about 31, 25, and 21 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Shallow ground-water evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek incr

  17. Anthropogenic CO2 estimates in the Southern Ocean: storage partitioning in the different water masses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, P. C.; Pérez, F. F.; Velo, A.; Khatiwala, S.,; Ríos, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    One of the key issues in understanding the global carbon cycle and predicting future climate change is determining the role of the Southern Ocean (SO). Approximately, more than one third of the global anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) uptake occurs in the SO (18% of the global ocean area), where the coldest source waters involved in the meridional counterclockwise overturning circulation are formed. Nevertheless, the distributions of CANT in the SO obtained from models and data-based methods present huge differences. Little storage of CANT has usually been associated with Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which is in contradiction with significant concentrations of CFCs observed along the continental slope and in Antarctic deep and bottom waters. The lack of accurate ocean carbon measurements could be the cause for hampering more exact CANT estimates. Besides, there is compelling evidence that sinking and ventilation in the SO is not only associated to the AABW but also to various less dense Antarctic waters located at intermediate and deep levels of the water column. In this study, data south of 45° S were chosen from GLODAP (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap/Glodap_home.htm) and CARINA (http://store.pangaea.de/Projects/CARBOOCEAN/carina/index.htm) project databases (n=82792) in order to estimate CANT through different data-based methods. These methods go from the classical back-calculation methods (?C* and improved new ones taking into account the variability in the CO2 air-sea disequilibrium term) to TTD and TROCA methods. Results from an eOMP together with a volumetric census of the water masses within the SO serve as base for partitioning CANT storages in the more representative water masses of the SO. Thus, South Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water account for the CANT storage in intermediate layers while North Atlantic Deep Waters and Circumpolar Deep Water are responsible for injecting CANT at deep layers. The contributions of AABW and Shelf Waters to the CANT uptake and redistribution were also taken into account.

  18. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  19. Continental water storage inferred from 3-D GPS coordinates in Danube Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T. M.; Wang, L.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Tourian, M. J.; Chen, Q.; Sneeuw, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    GPS coordinates time series contain viable information about continental water storage (CWS) at global and regional scale. The permanent GPS network of GPS stations around the Earth recorded more than 15 years of data, which comprise the elastic response of the bed rock movements induced by mass loading. The inversion of the observed displacements, yields mass variations which can be interpreted as CWS under the condition that no other mass loading is interfering. GPS-derived CWS offers complimentary information to the widely used CWS determination by GRACE but is also able to mitigate a possible loss of data in case the GRACE mission ends before the launch of the GRACE Follow-On mission. GPS also allows increasing the temporal resolution (weekly from GPS versus monthly from GRACE) and the spatial resolution (especially in the regions with dense GPS networks). Here, we determine the weekly mass variations from GPS 3-D coordinates by using mass-loading Green's function in six Danube sub-basins. The results are validated against GRACE and hydro-meteorological models. We also demonstrate the contribution of GPS horizontals for regional water storage and provide insights into the benefits and limitations of 3-D GPS inversions for regional water storage.

  20. Monitoring and modeling of water storage in karstic area (Larzac, France) with a continuous supraconducting gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Fores; Cédric, Champollion; Nicolas, Lemoigne; Jean, Chéry

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the groundwater storage and transfer in karstic area is crucial for water resources management and protection. As the karst hydro-geological properties are highly heterogeneous and scale dependent, geophysical observations such as time dependant gravity could be helpful to fill the gap between local (based on boreholes, moisture sensors, …) and global (based on chemistry, river flow, …) studies. Since more than 2 years, the iGrav #002 supraconducting gravimeter is continuously operating in the French GEK observatory(Géodésie de l'Environnement Karstique, OSU OREME, SNO H+) in the Larzac karstic plateau (south of France). The observatory is surrounding more than 250m karstified dolomite, with an unsaturated zone of ~150m thickness. First, the evaluation of the iGrav data (calibration, steps and drift) will be presented. Then a careful analysis of the global, topographic and building effects will be done to evaluate the local water storage only. The gravity data will be integrated with the water level data in nearby boreholes and petrophysical data from core samples. Finally, simple hydrological models will be presented to help the interpretation on the karst groundwater storage and transfer and to merge the whole dataset.

  1. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstratemore »the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.« less

  2. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  3. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  4. Method of forming a solar collector or hot water storage tank and solar water heating apparatus using same

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.M.; Negley, M.E.

    1984-09-18

    The present invention relates to a method of forming a solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy. It also relates to articles of manufacture so formed and to solar water heating apparatus using said articles. Three methods of forming the panel or tank from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing such material around the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one form of the method, one of the sheets is coated with a layer of release agent, over all areas except the discrete areas and the peripheral areas so that only such uncoated areas will bond during cure. In another form, a sheet of non-adherent plastic slightly smaller than the two sheets and having holes or holidays to form the discrete areas is bonded between the two sheets. In a third form, the peripheral edges are first sealed to form a chamber, then the chamber is inflated and a forming die presses together the discrete areas only. Preferably, but not necessarily, reinforcing fibers may be employed or molded, into at least one of the uncured sheets. As articles of manufacture the absorber, or tank, each includes at least one inlet and one outlet at opposed edges of the so formed chamber. Further, the storage tank has a portion of the enclosed volume adapted to receive a heat exchanger. This is made possible by omission of the discrete bonded areas over about one-fourth of the area to the two sheets. In apparatus form, a solar absorption panel and a storage tank so formed (and interconnected inlet to outlet) are mounted back-to-back by an enclosing structure suitable for roof-top or ground-pad mounting and connection into a water system for solar heating of domestic water.

  5. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24 days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30 mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21 days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6 days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12 days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. PMID:26190604

  6. Effect of agitation and storage temperature on water sorption and solubility of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Argolo, Saryta; Mathias, Paula; Aguiar, Thaiane; Lima, Adriano; Santos, Sara; Foxton, Richard; Cavalcanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and flask agitation on the water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) of simplified adhesive systems. Seventy-two disc-shaped specimens were prepared according to the adhesive system (water/ethanol-based: Adper Single Bond 2; and water-based: One Coat Bond SL) and experimental conditions tested (mechanical agitation and storage temperature). Statistical analysis (3-way ANOVA, alpha=5%) found significantly greater WS and SL means for the water/ethanol-based system when compared to the water-based. Irrespective of factors studied, significant differences in WS and SL were noted between cold and room temperatures, with greater values been obtained at 1°C, and lower ones at 20°C. Agitation provided increased WS for both materials at all temperatures, but did not affect their SL. The mechanical agitation of the flask may negatively affect the dynamics of diffusion of simplified adhesive systems, even at extremely cold or warm temperatures. PMID:24998169

  7. Quantification of ebullitive and diffusive methane release to atmosphere from a water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew; Gale, Deborah; Udy, James

    2011-12-01

    Accurately quantifying total freshwater storage methane release to atmosphere requires the spatial-temporal measurement of both diffusive and ebullitive emissions. Existing floating chamber techniques provide localised assessment of methane flux, however, significant errors can arise when weighting and extrapolation to the entire storage, particularly when ebullition is significant. An improved technique has been developed that compliments traditional chamber based experiments to quantify the storage-scale release of methane gas to atmosphere through ebullition using the measurements from an Optical Methane Detector (OMD) and a robotic boat. This provides a conservative estimate of the methane emission rate from ebullition along with the bubble volume distribution. It also georeferences the area of ebullition activity across entire storages at short temporal scales. An assessment on Little Nerang Dam in Queensland, Australia, demonstrated whole storage methane release significantly differed spatially and throughout the day. Total methane emission estimates showed a potential 32-fold variation in whole-of-dam rates depending on the measurement and extrapolation method and time of day used. The combined chamber and OMD technique showed that 1.8-7.0% of the surface area of Little Nerang Dam is accounting for up to 97% of total methane release to atmosphere throughout the day. Additionally, over 95% of detectable ebullition occurred in depths less than 12 m during the day and 6 m at night. This difference in spatial and temporal methane release rate distribution highlights the need to monitor significant regions of, if not the entire, water storage in order to provide an accurate estimate of ebullition rates and their contribution to annual methane emissions.

  8. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  9. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  10. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001–2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth’s water...

  11. Effect of storage method and associated holding time on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in surface water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessments were conducted to determine the effect of sample storage method and associated holding time on surface water nutrient concentrations from field sites. Six surface water sites and two nutrient spiked, laboratory water samples were evaluated for nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, filtered orthop...

  12. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  13. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  14. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

  15. Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Antimony concentrations were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. Two of the brands were at or above the maximum allowable Sb concentration for drinking water in Japan (2 microg/L). Elevated concentrations of Sb in bottled waters are due mainly to the Sb2O3 used as the catalyst in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate (PET(E)). The leaching of Sb from PET(E) bottles shows variable reactivity. In 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. A mineral water from France in PET(E), purchased in Germany, yielded 725 ng/L when first tested, but 1510 ng/L when it was stored for 6 months at room temperature; the same brand of water, purchased in Hong Kong, yielded 1990 ng/L Sb. Pristine groundwater containing 1.7+/-0.4 ng/L Sb (n = 6) yielded 26.6+/-2.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) after storage in PET(E) bottles from Canada for 6 months versus 281+/-38 ng/L Sb (n = 3) in PET(E) bottles from Germany. Tap water bottled commercially in PET(E) in December 2005 contained 450+/-56 ng/L Sb (n = 3) versus 70.3+/-0.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) when sampled from a household faucet in the same village (Bammental, Germany), and 25.7+/-1.5 ng/L Sb (n = 3) from a local artesian flow. PMID:17396641

  16. Trends of anthropogenic CO2 storage in North Atlantic water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, F. F.; Vázquez-Rodríguez, M.; Mercier, H.; Velo, A.; Lherminier, P.; Ríos, A. F.

    2010-05-01

    A high-quality inorganic carbon system database, spanning over three decades (1981-2006) and comprising of 13 cruises, has allowed the applying of the ?C°T method and coming up with estimates of the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) stored in the main water masses of the North Atlantic. In the studied region, strong convective processes convey surface properties, like Cant, into deeper ocean layers and grants this region an added oceanographic interest from the point of view of air-sea CO2 exchanges. Generally, a tendency for decreasing Cant storage rates towards the deep layers has been observed. In the Iberian Basin, the North Atlantic Deep Water has low Cant concentrations and negligible storage rates, while the North Atlantic Central Water in the upper layers shows the largest Cant values and the largest annual increase of its average concentration (1.13 ± 0.14 ?mol kg-1 yr-1). This unmatched rate of change in the Cant concentration of the warm upper limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation decreases towards the Irminger basin (0.68 ± 0.06 ?mol kg-1 yr-1) due to the lowering of the buffering capacity. The mid and deep waters in the Irminger Sea show rather similar Cant concentration rates of increase (between 0.33 and 0.45 ?mol kg-1 yr-1), whereas in the Iceland basin these layers seem to have been less affected by Cant. Overall, the Cant storage rates in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre during the first half of the 1990s, when a high North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase was dominant, are ~48% higher than during the 1997-2006 low NAO phase that followed. This result suggests that a net decrease in the strength of the North Atlantic sink of atmospheric CO2 has taken place during the present decade. The changes in deep-water ventilation are the main driving processes causing this weakening of the North Atlantic CO2 sink.

  17. A method for assessing the effect of sprinkler water on the reactivity of storage arrays of fissile material

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.F.; Sheaffer, M.K.

    1993-05-01

    A model is developed that performs screening calculations to assess the reactivity added by sprinkler water in an air-spaced, storage array of fissile material that is surrounded by a water reflector. The purpose of the model is the expand the type of guidance given in ANSI/ANS-8.7, ``Guide for Nuclear Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Materials.`` The dimensions and densities of the storage vault with sprinkler water are changed with the constant optical thickness transformation to an equivalent system with water at a density of 1 g/cc surrounded by a superdense reflector. The validity of the model is demonstrated by comparison with Monte Carlo calculations made with KENO V.a on storage arrays of 93.2 wt % {sup 235}U metal.

  18. COST ESTIMATING MANUAL--COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW STORAGE AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements are presented for combined sewer overflow treatment plants ranging from 5 to 200 million gallons per day in capacity, and storage facilities ranging in size from 1 to 240 million gallons. Es...

  19. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730?mAh?g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials. PMID:25581319

  20. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil.

  1. Increases in the annual range of soil water storage at northern middle and high latitudes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Ying; Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-05-01

    Soil water storage is a fundamental signal in the land hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture can affect regional climate. In this study, we used simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to investigate changes in the annual range of soil water storage under global warming at northern middle and high latitudes. Results show that future warming could lead to significant declines in snowfall, and a corresponding lack of snowmelt water recharge to the soil, which makes soil water less available during spring and summer. Conversely, more precipitation as rainfall results in higher recharge to soil water during its accumulating season. Thus, the wettest month of soil water gets wetter, and the driest month gets drier, resulting in an increase of the annual range and suggesting that stronger heterogeneity in global water distribution (changing extremes) could occur under global warming; this has implications for water management and water security under a changing climate.

  2. Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

  3. 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage.

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage. 2. What is the storage in the dam (in cu.m.)? 3. What is the length and depth of the dam? What is its structure and cost? How much time did it take to build the dam? 4. Where

  4. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  5. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  6. Simulating floodplain extent and inland water storage in the Amazon basin from a multi LSM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getirana, A.; Dutra, E. N.; Decharme, B.; Guimberteau, M.; Li, H.; Beaudoing, H.; Kam, J.; Toure, A. M.; Zhang, Z.; Drapeau, G.; Papa, F.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Balsamo, G.; Rodell, M.; Ronchail, J.; Sheffield, J.; Xue, Y.; Arsenault, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Several modeling attempts have been conducted trying to improve the simulation of floods at several temporal and spatial scales worldwide. These attempts consider different modeling approaches and forcings, which can have a non-negligible impact on streamflows, inland water storage and floodplain extent. In the framework of the Global Land Water Cycle Benchmarking (GLWCB), the capability of simulating water and energy budgets by state-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs) and their impacts on predicting floods are evaluated. Fifteen LSMs were run for the 1980-2008 period using Princeton's meteorological forcings on a 3-hourly time step and at a 1° resolution. Three experiments are performed using Princeton's precipitation dataset rescaled to match monthly global GPCC and GPCP datasets and a daily dataset (HOP) specially developed for the basin. Surface and sub-surface runoffs derived from LSMs are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme (RRS) and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 146 gauges in the Amazon basin. Simulated floodplain extent and surface water storage are also compared against satellite-based products. Results show that simulated streamflows vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used. It is also noted that floodplain extent is highly dependent on RRS parameters and further calibration must be performed.

  7. The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2001-01-01

    One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

  8. Assessing Links Between Water and Carbon Storage in Indonesian Peatlands Using Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swails, E.; Reager, J. T., II; Randerson, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, K.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation and drainage of tropical peat swamp forests for conversion to other uses results in a loss of carbon storage through the clearing and burning of forest vegetation as well as decomposition of peat soils and increased frequency of fires following drainage. We used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage observations and a global forest cover change product to investigate trends in terrestrial water storage associated with land use conversion in Indonesian peatlands between 2002 and 2012. Our initial analysis indicated that secular trends in GRACE terrestrial water storage were consistent with the spatial distribution of peatlands drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations. A decreasing trend in GRACE terrestrial water storage measurements over the observation period indicated a substantial decrease in water table heights. Combining this information with measurements of bulk density and carbon content of surface peat layers, we estimated potential emissions from carbon stocks now vulnerable to oxidation. Independent measurements of fire carbon emissions were used to estimate the fraction of committed emission that was combusted. Our research represents the first known application of GRACE data to assess loss of soil carbon storage associated with depletion of soil water.

  9. Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during storm events. Depression storages are based on additional runoff obtained from CN calculation. Strategies mentioned in this study can be provided as references of climate change adaptions for related authorities.

  10. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  11. Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with a storage tank equipped with radial fins of rectangular profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using the package Fluent 6.3. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data of Chaouachi and Gabsi (Renew Energy Revue 9(2):75-82, 2006), an attempt to improve this solar system operating was made by equipping the storage tank with radial fins of rectangular profile. A second 3D CFD model was developed and a series of numerical simulations were conducted for various SWH designs which differ in the depth of this extended surface for heat exchange. As the modified surface presents a higher characteristic length for convective heat transfer from the storage tank to the water, the fins equipped storage tank based SWH is determined to have a higher water temperature and a reduced thermal losses coefficient during the day-time period. Regarding the night operating of this water heater, the results suggest that the modified system presents higher thermal losses.

  12. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  14. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria culture. PMID:22032822

  15. Identification of prominent spatio-temporal signals in GRACE derived terrestrial water storage for India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, C.; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2014-11-01

    Fresh water is a necessity of the human civilization. But with the increasing global population, the quantity and quality of available fresh water is getting compromised. To mitigate this subliminal problem, it is essential to enhance our level of understanding about the dynamics of global and regional fresh water resources which include surface and ground water reserves. With development in remote sensing technology, traditional and much localized in-situ observations are augmented with satellite data to get a holistic picture of the terrestrial water resources. For this reason, Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission was jointly implemented by NASA and German Aerospace Research Agency - DLR to map the variation of gravitational potential, which after removing atmospheric and oceanic effects is majorly caused by changes in Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS). India also faces the challenge of rejuvenating the fast deteriorating and exhausting water resources due to the rapid urbanization. In the present study we try to identify physically meaningful major spatial and temporal patterns or signals of changes in TWS for India. TWS data set over India for a period of 90 months, from June 2003 to December 2010 is use to isolate spatial and temporal signals using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), an extensively used method in meteorological studies. To achieve better disintegration of the data into more physically meaningful components we use a blind signal separation technique, Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  17. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  18. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  19. Effect of Water Stress and Storage Time on Anthocyanins and Other Phenolics of Different Genotypes of Fresh Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Luna, María C; Bekhradi, Farzaneh; Ferreres, Federico; Jordán, María J; Delshad, Mojtaba; Gil, María I

    2015-10-28

    This study describes the effect of water stress and storage time on the content of anthocyanins and other phenolics in different genotypes of fresh sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Purple and green Iranian cultivars and a Genovese variety were exposed to a control (100% of the field capacity, FC) and to water stress of mild and severe deficit irrigation treatments (25 and 50 DI corresponding to 75 and 50% FC, respectively). The individual characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and the MS fragmentation pathway of anthocyanins are described. A 50% increase in the anthocyanin content was observed in 50 DI after storage. Water stress markedly enhanced the content of phenolic acids after storage in the three genotypes. Water stress can be an efficient way to help the sustainability of water resources, enriching the content of phenolic compounds that may be beneficial to human health. PMID:26473474

  20. Effect of water storage of E-glass fiber-reinforced composite on adhesion of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Vallittu, P K; Söderling, E

    2001-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of water storage of fiber-reinforced composite on the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and its ability to stay adhered and multiply on the FRC. The materials (E-glass fibers and denture base polymer) were stored in water for 14 or 30 days or left dry. Water contact angles of the materials before and after water storage were determined. Test specimens, with or without parotid saliva or serum pellicle, were incubated in a suspension of S. mutans allowing initial adhesion to occur. Bacterial adhesion and multiplication was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Contact angles of both materials were significantly reduced after water storage indicating an increase in surface free energy. When studied without a surface pellicle, water storage significantly increased adhesion of S. mutans to both glass and polymer. Saliva coating of the materials resulted in higher degree of adhesion to glass fibers in comparison with polymer and after 14 days water storage glass bound over twice as much S. mutans cells than the polymer matrix. Bacterial growth and biofilm formation occurred equally on both materials. The results of this in vitro study suggest that in order to avoid the possible increase in S. mutans adhesion, the reinforcing glass fibers should be covered with the matrix polymer of the composite. PMID:11374462

  1. Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2010-06-01

    The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

  2. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

  3. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  4. Cool Storage Performance 

    E-print Network

    Eppelheimer, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    . This article covers three thermal storage topics. The first section catalogs various thermal storage systems and applications. Included are: load shifting and load leveling, chilled water storage systems, and ice storage systems using Refrigerant 22 or ethylene...

  5. The Mantle Transition-Zone Water Filter Model: Implications for Volatile Transport and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Karato, S.; Leahy, G.; Richard, G.; Jing, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The transition-zone water-filter model of mantle convection was proposed (Bercovici and Karato, Nature v425, p39, 2003) to reconcile geochemical observations of isolated chemical mantle reservoirs (evident in distinct chemical signatures of OIB and MORB) with geophysical, especially seismological evidence for whole mantle circulation and mixing. The model proposed that as the background ambient mantle upwelling (rising in response to the downward flux of subducting slabs) moves out of the high-water-solubility transition zone into the less-solubile upper mantle above 410km, it undergoes water supersaturation and partial melting that filters out incompatible elements. The remaining solid phase continues to ascend and supplies relatively dry and depleted materials to the MORB source region; however, in contrast to recent "bulk water storage capacity" arguments, the water transported up by the solid phase is less than solidus water limit which is itself considerably less than the sub-eutectic solubility limit. The residual melt is presumed denser than the surrounding solid and is thus trapped at the 410km boundary until slab entrainment recirculates the enriched material back into the deeper mantle. The filtering effect is suppressed for hotter mantle plumes because of their greater ascent rates, allowing plumes to generate more enriched OIBs. Experimental data implies that while melting is likely under a broad range of conditions, the presence of a dense melt likely requires dense volatiles, such as K2O, in addition to water. Theoretical models of a melt layer structure and the circulation of volatiles suggests a relatively thin melt-rich layer that can be efficiently entrained by reaction with ambient downgoing mantle (mantle dragged down by slabs). Moreover, circulation of entrained water is focussed in the transition zone by slabs lingering at the 660km, thereby providing a mechanism to keep the transition zone hydrated and water concentration well mixed.

  6. Performance of Four Experimental High-btu-per-gallon Fuels in a Single Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonash, Edmund R; Metzler, Allen; Butze, Helmut F

    1955-01-01

    Performance characteristics of four hydrocarbon fuels having high Btu per gallon were determined in a single turbojet combustor. At simulated low-altitude operating conditions, the fuels with high Btu per gallon generally produced more carbon than did JP-4 and JP-5 fuels. The deposits were reduced appreciably with a fuel-oil additive. At high-altitude conditions, the high Btu-per-gallon fuels gave lower efficiencies than did JP-4 or JP-5 fuels. No attempts were made to improve performance by combustor design modification.

  7. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  8. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  9. Effects of water storage of E-glass fiber reinforced denture base polymers on residual methyl methacrylate content.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Gulsen; Duran, Ozlem; Bural, Canan; Guvener, Bora

    2004-07-15

    This study investigated the effect of water storage on residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) content of continuous E-glass fiber (Wetrotex International) reinforced denture base polymers. Heat-polymerization (short- and long-term boiling and conventional curing cycle using Meliodent), autopolymerization (processed in air at room temperature and in water at 60 degrees C with the use of Meliodent Rapid Repair), and microwave-polymerization (3 min at 500 W with the use of Acron MC) were employed. The residual MMA contents of 120 specimens were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at deflasking (control) and after water (37 degrees C) storage of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Bonferroni's pairwise comparison test was used for statistical analysis. Significant reduction were determined only in the long-term terminal boiled heat-polymerized test group at the end of 1 day (p < 0.01), 1 week (p < 0.05) and also 1 month of water storage (p < 0.01). Significant reduction in autopolymerized test groups started even after 1 week of water storage (p < 0.05). Microwave-polymerized test groups did not show a significant residual MMA reduction in all time intervals (p > 0.05). The polymerization methods and cycles applied to the glass fiber reinforced denture base polymers influence both the content and the reduction of residual MMA after water storage. PMID:15199597

  10. Water-Soluble Electrospun Nanofibers as a Method for On-Chip Reagent Storage

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Minhui; Jin, Shengquan; Nugen, Sam R.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform. PMID:25586029

  11. Water-soluble electrospun nanofibers as a method for on-chip reagent storage.

    PubMed

    Dai, Minhui; Jin, Shengquan; Nugen, Sam R

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform. PMID:25586029

  12. Determination of root-zone water storage in a desert woodland using a two-layer moisture balance model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-zone water storage (RWS) is a fundamental component of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. In the lower reaches of arid river basins in inland China, low water recharge and hence low RWS have been associated with a series of ecological and environmental problems. Developing an improved unders...

  13. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001–2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

  14. Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)

    SciTech Connect

    Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G.

    2008-04-15

    Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

  15. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  16. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  17. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  18. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan.

  19. Space flight micro-fungi after 27 years storage in water and in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Parent, S L

    1998-01-01

    Four species of micro-fungi were selected for study in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) mycology experiments. Trichophyton terrestre, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetomium globosum were selected from a series of preflight test fungi for the MEED mycology studies during the 2 years prior to the actual flight (Volz, 1971a, 1972b). Conidia of T. terrestre, ascospores of C. globosum and yeast cells of R. rubra and S. cerevisiae were suspended in sterile distilled water and loaded into wet and dry cuvettes for exposure to specific space flight parameters according to the filters built into the space flight hardware (Volz, 1971b). Living cells were found in the original inocula and phenotype water storage after 27 years. Colony cells were also examined after 27 years of continuous culture. PMID:10093232

  20. Water storage changes and climate variability within the Nile Basin between 2002 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awange, J. L.; Forootan, E.; Kuhn, M.; Kusche, J.; Heck, B.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding water storage changes within the Nile's main sub-basins and the related impacts of climate variability is an essential step in managing its water resources. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides a unique opportunity to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) of large river basins such as the Nile. Use of GRACE-TWS changes for monitoring the Nile is, however, difficult since stronger TWS signals over the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) and the Red Sea obscure those from smaller sub-basins making their analysis difficult to undertake. To mitigate this problem, this study employed Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to extract statistically independent TWS patterns over the sub-basins from GRACE and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model. Monthly precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over the entire Nile Basin are also analysed by ICA. Such extraction enables an in-depth analysis of water storage changes within each sub-basin and provides a tool for assessing the influence of anthropogenic as well as climate variability caused by large scale ocean-atmosphere interactions such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our results indicate that LVB experienced effects of both anthropogenic and climate variability (i.e., a correlation of 0.56 between TWS changes and IOD at 95% confidence level) during the study period 2002-2011, with a sharp drop in rainfall between November and December 2010, the lowest during the entire study period, and coinciding with the drought that affected the Greater Horn of Africa. Ethiopian Highlands (EH) generally exhibited a declining trend in the annual rainfall over the study period, which worsened during 2007-2010, possibly contributing to the 2011 drought over GHA. A correlation of 0.56 was found between ENSO and TWS changes over EH indicating ENSO's dominant influence. TWS changes over Bar-el-Ghazal experienced mixed increase-decrease, with ENSO being the dominant climate variability in the region during the study period. A remarkable signal is noticed over the Lake Nasser region indicating the possibility of the region losing water not only through evaporation, but also possibly through over extraction from wells in the Western Plateau (Nubian aquifer).

  1. 27 CFR 1.71 - Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less. 1...DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS...spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less. Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one wine gallon or...

  2. 27 CFR 1.71 - Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less. 1...DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS...spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less. Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one wine gallon or...

  3. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

  4. Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4?·?2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4?·?7H2O with no FeSO4?·?2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions. PMID:24682481

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  6. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data into a Land Surface Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system of satellites provides observations of large-scale, monthly terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In. this presentation we describe a land data assimilation system that ingests GRACE observations and show that the assimilation improves estimates of water storage and fluxes, as evaluated against independent measurements. The ensemble-based land data assimilation system uses a Kalman smoother approach along with the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). We assimilated GRACE-derived TWS anomalies for each of the four major sub-basins of the Mississippi into the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Compared with the open-loop (no assimilation) CLSM simulation, assimilation estimates of groundwater variability exhibited enhanced skill with respect to measured groundwater. Assimilation also significantly increased the correlation between simulated TWS and gauged river flow for all four sub-basins and for the Mississippi River basin itself. In addition, model performance was evaluated for watersheds smaller than the scale of GRACE observations, in the majority of cases, GRACE assimilation led to increased correlation between TWS estimates and gauged river flow, indicating that data assimilation has considerable potential to downscale GRACE data for hydrological applications. We will also describe how the output from the GRACE land data assimilation system is now being prepared for use in the North American Drought Monitor.

  7. Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

    2002-10-10

    Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

  8. Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

  9. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-03-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing.

  10. Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1gallon paint can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1-gallon paint can labeling machine (Standard-Knapp of Portland). Note spiral attachment on floor. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  11. Process Waste Assessment for inorganic solid waste and empty containers <30 gallons

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-12-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the two largest hazardous waste streams generated on-site at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)/California -- ``Other Inorganic Solid Waste`` and ``Empty Containers <30 Gallons.``

  12. DESCRIPTION OF THE FRESH AND SALT WATER SUPPLY AND PUMPING PLANTS USED FOR THE AQUARIUM.

    E-print Network

    with water ends of hard rubber, having a capacity of about 4,000 gallons of water per hour each at 90 strokes capacity of about 68,000 gallons. The bottom of the reservoir was of concrete and the surface of asphalt,5i)O gallons,into wliicli the pumps delivered their water through hard-rubber piping

  13. The relationship of increasing trends in GRACE observed total water storage to landscape changes in the Southern Taiga Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Huang, J.; Chasmer, L.; Ambadan, J. T.; Connon, R.; Stone, L.

    2014-12-01

    The southern margin of discontinuous permafrost in Canada is highly sensitive to climate change. Warming to this region causes rapid thaw and disappearance of permafrost resulting in large changes to ecological and hydrological processes. Changes in hydrology result from permafrost thaw induced subsidence and conversion of tree-covered peat plateaus into bogs and channel fens. . Bogs, fens and plateaus have contrasting hydrological functions. The elevated plateaus with their shallow root zone due to frozen soils convert a relatively high proportion of hydrological input to runoff which they convey to adjacent channel fens and bogs. Bogs are largely water storage features and are typically surrounded by raised peat plateaus, while channel fens transmit water to streams and rivers. In the Scotty Creek watershed, within the southern Taiga Plains regions of Canada's Northwest Territories, numerous researchers have documented the decline of peat plateaus as a proxy for areal loss of permafrost terrain, and concomitant increases of wetland coverage. Analysis of spatial trends in global total water storage as measured by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites suggest a increasing trend of 6+/-1 mm/year water equivalent units over this region during the period 2003-2013. Analysis of a water budget constructed for the Scotty Creek watershed suggest that this long term trend is only weakly associated to the moderate increases to precipitation while the statistically significant increasing trends observed in discharge in this watershed would likely result in opposite sign. Further, seasonal trend analysis of the GRACE total water storage observations suggest that much of the increase in total water mass over this region occurs over the warm season suggesting that larger snowpacks are not driving the mass increase. In this presentation the changes to total water storage are compared to the trends of landscape change over this region to corroborate the rates of total water mass increase with changes in area of storage features.

  14. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  15. Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L.; Sohn, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

  16. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  17. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  18. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance carbon sequestration. Despite global recognition of wetlands as carbon sinks, information regarding carbon dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating carbon sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve carbon storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC), carbon sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of carbon sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective management of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance carbon sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.

  19. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute VolgNIIGiM situated at a left bank of Volga River of Saratov Region of Russia (N51.384650°, E46.0558

  20. Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment on the reduction of nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Huiying; Wan, Yangfang; Liu, Haijie

    2015-03-01

    Leafy vegetables are the major source of nitrite intake in the human diet, and technological processing to control nitrite levels in harvested vegetables is necessary. In the current work, the effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the nitrite and nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage was studied. EOW treatment, including slightly acidic electrolyzed water and acidic electrolyzed water, was found to effectively reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage; levels in the late period were 30 to 40% lower than that of the control. However, the nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage were not influenced by EOW treatment. The reduction of nitrite levels in EOW-treated fresh spinach during storage can be attributed to the inactivation of nitrate reductase directly and to the reduction of bacterial populations. Our results suggest that treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water may be a better choice to control nitrite levels in fresh vegetables during storage. This study provided a useful method to reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach. PMID:25719879

  1. Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.H. ); Cosgrove, D.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

  2. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  3. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across the landscape.

  4. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Brooks, J R; Domec, J C; Gartner, B L; Warren, J M; Woodruff, D R; Bible, K; Shaw, D C

    2006-01-01

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2)) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. The trees used in this study spanned a broad range of height (13.5-58 m) and diameter (0.14-1.43 m). Sap flow was monitored continuously with heat dissipation probes near the base of the trunk prior to, during and following injection of D2O. The transit time for D2O transport from the base of the trunk to the upper crown and the tracer residence time were determined by measuring hydrogen isotope ratios in water extracted from leaves sampled at regular intervals. Transit times for arrival of D2O in the upper crown ranged from 2.5 to 21 d and residence times ranged from 36 to 79 d. Estimates of maximum sap velocity derived from tracer transit times and path length ranged from 2.4 to 5.4 m d(-1). Tracer residence time and half-life increased as tree diameter increased, independent of species. Species-independent scaling of tracer velocity with sapwood-specific conductivity was also observed. When data from this study were combined with similar data from an earlier study of four tropical angiosperm trees, species-independent scaling of tracer velocity and residence time with sapwood hydraulic capacitance was observed. Sapwood capacitance is an intrinsic tissue-level property that appears to govern whole-tree water transport in a similar manner among both tracheid- and vessel-bearing species. PMID:17086757

  5. Validation of scale-4 for LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuel in transportation and storage cask conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V. ); Bierman, S.R. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of criticality calculations performed to validate the recently released SCALE-4 modular code system for light water reactor (LWR) fuel under various conditions typical of transportation and storage casks. The modifications in SCALE-4 include NITAWL-II, an updated version of the NITAWL code that performs resonance self-shielding calculations using the Nordeim Integral Treatment. In order to validate SCALE-4 with the new resonance self-shielding treatment, the CSAS4 control module was used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) via the BONAMI{sup 3}, NITAWL-II, and KENO V.a{sup 4} codes. The cross section library used was the 27 group ENDF/B-IV library, which has been updated for use with NITAWL-II. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Terrestrial water storage anomalies of Yangtze River Basin droughts observed by GRACE and connections with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zizhan; Chao, B. F.; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, C. R.

    2015-03-01

    Two severe drought events occurred in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) of China in the summer of 2006 and the spring of 2011. We examine terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in the YRB for these events using time-variable gravity data from the GRACE satellite mission, in combination with observations made by TRMM satellite and in situ river gauges, along with hydrological models GLDAS and WGHM. GRACE TWS deficit estimates clearly quantify these YRB droughts, and a normalized GRACE-based TWS anomaly provides an alternative and useful hydro-climatological index in the YRB. We find that an El Niño (La Niña) event is significantly correlated with high (low) TWS in the YRB with a phase lead of ~ 7-8 months, and the lower YRB is more sensitive to ENSO variability than the upper basin. The possible linkage between TWS anomaly and ENSO is raised in terms of physical mechanisms of influencing the precipitation over the YRB.

  7. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

  8. Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Water in Federal Projects: Elephant Butte Irrigahon District, Dona Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, J. R.; Teague, P. W.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Water in Federal Projects: Elephant Butte Irrigation District, Dona Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico J.R. Ellis P.W. Teague R.D. Lacewell Texas Water Resources Institute...

  9. Collection and representation of GIS data to aid household water treatment and safe storage technology implementation in the northern region of Ghana

    E-print Network

    VanCalcar, Jenny E. (Jenny Elizabeth)

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, a start-up social business called Pure Home Water (PHW) was begun in Ghana to promote and sell household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) technologies. The original aim of the company was to offer a variety ...

  10. Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, H.G., Jr.; Olmsted, F.H.; LeRoux, E.F.

    1960-01-01

    The area described is confined largely to the valley-floor and foothill lands of Solano County, which lies directly between Sacramento, the State capital, and San Francisco. The area is considered in two subareas: The Putah area, which extends from Putah Creek southward to the Montezuma Hills and from the foothills of the Coast Ranges eastward to the west edge of the Yolo Bypass; and the Suisun-Fairfield area, which is to the southwest in the notch in the Coast Ranges through which the waters of the Great Central Valley of California reach San Francisco Bay. There are no known hydrologic interconnections between the two subareas, through either surface streams or underground aquifers. The climate of the area is characterized by warm, rainless summers and by cool winters in which temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. The rainfall ranges from about 17 inches per year along the east side to perhaps 24 inches in the foothills to the west, and irrigation is necessary for all crops except dry-farmed grains, pastures, and some orchards. PUTAH AREA The Putah area occupies the southwestern corner of the Sacramento Valley, a topographic and structural basin underlain by a thick accumulation of sediments eroded from the surrounding hills and mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The eastern Coast Ranges and foothills lying west of the Sacramento Valley are a generally northward-trending belt of eastward-dipping sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Successively younger strata are exposed eastward, and the essentially undeformed deposits of late Pleistocene and Recent age that immediately underlie the valley lap onto the tilted sediments of the foothills. Most of the streams of the Putah area rise east of the high ridge of Cretaceous rocks marking the western boundaries of Solano and Yolo Counties, but Putah Creek, the largest stream in the area, rises far west of that ridge and flows across it in a deep, narrow canyon. Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

  11. Variations in the total water storage in the major river basins of India from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Swenson, S.

    2008-12-01

    We present an estimate of total water storage variations of the major river basins of India during the period of 2002 to mid 2008 from modelling of time-variable gravity field observed by GRACE satellite by utilising the scheme of Swenson and Wahr, (2002). The largest annual volume change is observed over the upper Ganga basin, followed by the lower Gnaga basin and the Yamuna basin of northern India. Basins of northern India show a declining trend of water storage over this time period, whereas the Godavari basin, the largest basin of central south India, as well as basins in central India show similar seasonal variations but increasing trends. It is interesting to note that these trends are prevalent over a decadal time period of ground water level and therefore the trend observed from GRACE data can be extrapolated backward. If these trends are sustained over a long time period, northern India and Bangladesh will lead to a major water crisis

  12. Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from Accepted 9 May 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate Antimony Bisphenol A Release of antimony (Sb) and bisphenol A (BPA) from 16 brands of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) drinking water

  13. COST ESTIMATING MANUAL COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW STORAGE AND TREATMENT (EPA/600/2-76/286)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenancerequirements are presented for combined sewer overflow treatment plants ranging from about 5 to 200 million gallons per day in capacity, and storage facilities ranging in size from I to 240 million gallon...

  14. Solar vacuum alcohol still. Final report. [50 gallons per day

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-04

    This project constructed a six-inch diameter solar vacuum alcohol still. The column was constructed with steel pipe and commercial packing was used to increase condensation surface area. A used automobile air compressor and a small electric motor were used to fabricate a vacuum pump capable of 25 inches of mercury. Flat plate commercial type solar collectors were used to heat the wine before it entered the distillation column. This resulted in a considerable reduction in fuel required. Additional heat was still needed from a propane fueled reboiler which utilized a closed loop copper coil to circulate water into the base of the column. Future research should focus on using solar panels to provide this heat source and reduce energy needs even further. The unit is capable of producing 135 proof alcohol in one pass. This unit or one of similar design could be utilized by a farm operation for supplemental fuels needs. 12 references, 7 figures.

  15. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  17. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  18. Global spaceborne assessment of the relationship between terrestrial water storage and evaporative demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, P. A.; De Linage, C.; Velicogna, I.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Feedbacks between terrestrial water storage (TWS) and the atmosphere can impact climatic extremes such as droughts and heat waves. High evaporative demand (high temperature and/or low humidity) removes more water by evapotranspiration, leading to lower TWS. At the same time, low TWS availability limits evapotranspiration, which increases evaporative demand by reducing the ratio of latent to sensible heat fluxes from the land surface. Studies using coupled land-atmosphere models have explored the strength of these relationships, and have been validated using local observational data, but global-scale observational studies are limited by data availability. We quantified these relationships globally using TWS data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), surface air temperature and relative humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Our approach demonstrated a strong relationship between antecedent TWS and subsequent evaporative demand in certain key regions of the globe. These regions are consistent with the "hot spots" of land-atmosphere coupling found in modeling studies, and represent semi-arid transitional areas where TWS strongly limits evapotranspiration. We also found a strong relationship between antecedent evaporative demand and subsequent TWS throughout most of the global land surface. These observational relationships provide a benchmark for comparison with climate model simulations. We found good agreement between the satellite-derived relationships and the equivalent relationships calculated with output from the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5.

  19. Changes in elastic modulus of adhesive and adhesive-infiltrated dentin during storage in water.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Genta; Inage, Hirohiko; Kawamoto, Ryo; Shimamura, Yutaka; Takubo, Chikako; Tamura, Yukie; Koga, Kensaku; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the elastic modulus of components at the resin-dentin interface with the use of an ultrasound device. Dentin slabs were obtained from freshly extracted bovine incisors shaped into a rectangular form. After demineralization, the dentin specimens were immersed in adhesives and polymerized. Adhesives were also polymerized and trimmed into the same shape as the dentin slabs. The specimens were then immersed in distilled water at 37 degrees C for up to one year. The ultrasound equipment employed in this study was a Pulser-Receiver, transducers and an oscilloscope. By measuring the longitudinal and shear wave sound velocities, the elastic modulus was determined. When the elastic modulus of adhesive resin-infiltrated demineralized dentin was compared with that of adhesives, slightly but significantly lower values were found for adhesives used in a self-etching primer system. On the other hand, a higher elastic modulus was observed for resin-infiltrated dentin than for an adhesive used in an etch and rinse system. The elastic modulus of the resin-infiltrated dentin prepared with the etch and rinse system was affected by long-term storage in distilled water. PMID:19106478

  20. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Petroleum Product Storage 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

    1997-08-29

    This publication focuses on safe storage of gasoline, diesel, kerosene and liquid heating fuels. It includes information about storage tank location, tank design and installation, tank monitoring, and tank closure....

  1. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

  2. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the San Gorgonio Pass area. The water-bearing deposits were divided into three aquifers: (1) the perched aquifer, (2) the upper aquifer, and (3) the lower aquifer based on lithologic and downhole geophysical logs. Natural recharge in the San Gorgonio Pass area was estimated using INFILv3, a deterministic distributed- parameter precipitation-runoff model. The INFILv3 model simulated that the potential recharge of precipitation and runoff in the Beaumont and Banning storage units was about 3,710 acre-feet per year and that the potential recharge in 28 sub-drainage basins upstream of the storage units was about 6,180 acre-feet per year. The water supply for the Beaumont and Banning storage units is supplied by pumping ground water from wells in the Canyon (Edgar and Banning Canyons), Banning Bench, Beaumont, and Banning storage units. Total annual pumpage from the Beaumont and Banning storage units ranged from about 1,630 acre-feet in 1936 to about 20,000 acre-feet in 2003. Ground-water levels declined by as much as 100 feet in the Beaumont storage unit from 1926-2003 in response to ground-water pumping of about 450,160 acre-feet during this period. Since ground-water development began in the San Gorgonio Pass area, there have been several sources of artificial recharge to the basin including return flow from applied water on crops, golf courses, and landscape; septic-tank seepage; and infiltration of storm runoff diversions and imported water into recharge ponds. Return flow from applied water and septic-tank seepage was estimated to reach a maximum of about 8,100 acre-feet per year in 2003. Owing to the great depth of water in much of study area (in excess of 150 feet), the return flow and septic-tank seepage takes years to decades to reach the water table. Stable-isotope data indicate that the source of ground-water recharge was precipitation from storms passing through the San Gorgonio Pass as opposed to runoff from the higher altitudes of the San Bernar

  3. Quantifying spatio-temporal variability of soil water storage and their controls at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asim

    2014-05-01

    Soil water is the primary limiting factor in semiarid ecosystems and determinant of environmental health. The distribution of soil water in space and time has important hydrologic applications. However, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water is a major challenge in hydrology as their distribution in the landscape is controlled many factors and processes acting in different intensities over a variety of scales. Quantification of these variability and their dominant controls at multiple scales can only lead to a better understanding on the soil water dynamics in space and time and on the underlying processes causing the variability. In order to quantify spatio-temporal variability, soil water content (later converted to soil water storage, SWS) was measured down to 1.4 m (0.2 m depth interval) at 128 regularly spaced locations along a transect of 576 m over a five-year period from the Hummocky landscape of central Canada. The spatial pattern of SWS was very similar (large values of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) over the entire study period and was almost a mirror image of the spatial pattern of the relative elevation. The similarity was stronger within a season (intra-season) than the same season from different years (inter-annual) and between seasons (inter-season). The variability at multiple scales was quantified using the wavelet transform. The strongest large scale (>72 m) variability contributed from the macro-topography and a moderate medium scale (18-72 m) variability contributed from the landform elements were persistent over the entire measurement period (time stability). The locations and the scales of the most persistent spatial patterns over time and depth were quantified using the wavelet coherency. The changes in the persistent patterns indicated the changes in the scales and locations of underlying hydrological processes, which can be used to identify change in sampling domain. The similarities/dissimilarities in the spatial pattern between the surface and sub-surface measurements at different scales and locations were used to infer the whole profile hydrological dynamics (depth persistence). The variability in SWS spatial patterns was controlled by different factors at different scales. Scale specific dominant controls were identified after separating the variance contribution of each scale towards the overall variance using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The large scale macro-topographical control and medium scale landform control were much stronger than very large scale soil textural control on SWS. The scale-specific relationship with controlling factors improved the prediction of SWS.

  4. Statistical separation and forecast of water storage patterns over West Asia using GRACE data and climate indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Schumacher, Maike; Anyah, Richard; Awange, Joseph; Mostafaie, Abdorrahman

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that large parts of West Asia, specifically the arid Middle East region, exhibited a rapid loss of freshwater reserves during the past decade. A reliable estimation of large scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) changes and the ability of forecasting them, with respect to climate variability and change, are therefore essential for West Asia. This study first implemented a least squares inversion approach to separate the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived total water storage products over West Asia. Time series of separated terrestrial water and groundwater storage changes were then generated over the region, covering the period of 2003 to 2013. Forecasting scenarios were generated to predict TWS and GWS changes by applying low-degree autoregressive models which relate basin averaged TWS and GWS changes to input values of precipitation and evaporation as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation index as the remote controller of the region's climate. Dry, normal, and wet scenarios were designed to forecast West Asia's TWS and GWS variations over the period of 2013 to 2015. Our separated results over 2003 to 2013 indicated a decline in TWS and GW over the Middle East. A strong correlation was found between the NAO index and variability of water storage over West Asia, specifically during the period of 2005 to 2008. Dry forecasting scenarios indicated continuous GWS decline over the northwest part of Iran, entire Iraq and Syria, which have been already facing challenges of limited water resources. Key words: Forecsting GRACE-TWS; Groundwater; Signal Separation; Middle East

  5. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  6. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  7. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

  8. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2012-10-26

    The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. PMID:22608116

  10. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Seasonal Water Storage Variations as Impacted by Water Abstractions: Comparing the Output of a Global Hydrological Model with GRACE and GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, Petra; Fritsche, Mathias; Eicker, Annette; Müller Schmied, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Better quantification of continental water storage variations is expected to improve our understanding of water flows, including evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge as well as human water abstractions. For the first time, total water storage (TWS) on the land area of the globe as computed by the global water model WaterGAP (Water Global Assessment and Prognosis) was compared to both gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. The GRACE satellites sense the effect of TWS on the dynamic gravity field of the Earth. GPS reference points are displaced due to crustal deformation caused by time-varying TWS. Unfortunately, the worldwide coverage of the GPS tracking network is irregular, while GRACE provides global coverage albeit with low spatial resolution. Detrended TWS time series were analyzed by determining scaling factors for mean annual amplitude ( f GRACE) and time series of monthly TWS ( f GPS). Both GRACE and GPS indicate that WaterGAP underestimates seasonal variations of TWS on most of the land area of the globe. In addition, seasonal maximum TWS occurs 1 month earlier according to WaterGAP than according to GRACE on most land areas. While WaterGAP TWS is sensitive to the applied climate input data, none of the two data sets result in a clearly better fit to the observations. Due to the low number of GPS sites, GPS observations are less useful for validating global hydrological models than GRACE observations, but they serve to support the validity of GRACE TWS as observational target for hydrological modeling. For unknown reasons, WaterGAP appears to fit better to GPS than to GRACE. Both GPS and GRACE data, however, are rather uncertain due to a number of reasons, in particular in dry regions. It is not possible to benefit from either GPS or GRACE observations to monitor and quantify human water abstractions if only detrended (seasonal) TWS variations are considered. Regarding GRACE, this is mainly caused by the attenuation of the TWS differences between water abstraction variants due to the filtering required for GRACE TWS. Regarding GPS, station density is too low. Only if water abstractions lead to long-term changes in TWS by depletion or restoration of water storage in groundwater or large surface water bodies, GRACE may be used to support the quantification of human water abstractions.

  12. Influence of cement shade and water storage on the final color of leucite-reinforced ceramics.

    PubMed

    Karaagaclioglu, Lale; Yilmaz, Burak

    2008-01-01

    Leucite-reinforced ceramics have a translucent structure, which may have an advantage when fabricating esthetic restorations. However, the different shades of cement and water storage may adversely affect the final color of translucent restorations. Over time, the final color of a restoration may be significantly affected by the shade of the cement. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different cement shades (Vita A1 and A3) and water storage on the final color of leucite-reinforced ceramics over time. Twenty disks of standardized thickness (0.8 mm), diameter (5 mm) and color (shade 110, Chromascope) were prepared from leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (IPS Empress). Ten freshly extracted human molars were used as the underlying structure, and both the buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth were prepared with a diamond rotary cutting instrument and flat surfaces were created. Initially, all of the disks were bonded to the flat surfaces of the teeth with a thin layer of bonding agent (Single Bond, 3M Dental Products) to ensure immobilization of the specimens (baseline). The teeth and ceramic specimens were not etched and silanated for easy removal of the specimens. The color of the ceramic specimens was measured with a colorimeter. All disks were gently removed from the tooth surfaces, and 10 specimens (Group A1) were luted to the buccal surfaces of teeth using a dual-polymerizing resin composite cement (Vita A1, Rely X ARC), while the remaining 10 specimens (Group A3) were luted to the lingual surfaces of the teeth with a different shade (Vita A3, Rely X ARC) of the same cement. The final color of the specimens was measured immediately after cementation and at 3-, 30- and 90-day intervals after cementation. Color coordinates L*, a*, b* were recorded. The teeth were stored in 37 degrees C saline solution during measurement intervals. The Mann-Whitney U-test (post-hoc test) was performed to compare the results (alpha=0.05). The color difference of specimens luted with the two cements with different shades was not perceivable (DeltaE<3.7) for AC (after cementation), AC/3, AC/30 and AC/90 measurements. The color alteration between baseline and immediately after cementation (AC) was not perceivable for each cement group. However, after water storage, color differences between the baseline and AC/3, AC/30 and AC/90 were above this limit in bo th cement groups. The shade of the luted 0.8 mm IPS Empress porcelain specimens became darker after cementation, particularly on the third day, regardless of the cement shade tested. When the final color of ceramics luted with cements in two different shades was compared, it was observed that the final color differences were not perceivable for each measurement session. PMID:18666495

  13. Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.

    PubMed

    Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation. PMID:21284300

  14. Effects of air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit on storage of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2012-10-01

    To determine the optimum air temperature and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for the storage of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, 3-day-old mated females were stored at air temperatures of 0, 5, 10, or 15 °C and VPDs of 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 kPa for 10, 20, or 30 days. At 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, 83 % of females survived after 30 days of storage; this percentage was the highest among all conditions. VPDs of 0.3 and 0.5 kPa regardless of air temperature, and an air temperature of 0 °C regardless of VPD were detrimental to the survival of the females during storage. Since the highest survival was observed at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa, the effect of the storage duration on the post-storage quality of the stored females and their progeny was investigated at 25 °C to evaluate the effectiveness of the storage condition. The oviposition ability of the stored females, hatchability, and sex ratio of their progeny were not affected even when the storage duration was extended to 30 days. Although a slight decrease in the survival during the immature stages of progeny was observed when the storage duration was ?20 days, the population growth of N. californicus may not be affected when individuals stored in these conditions are applied to greenhouses and agricultural fields. The results indicate that mated N. californicus females can be stored at 10 °C and 0.1 kPa VPD for at least 30 days. PMID:22527835

  15. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, O.; Stenchikov, G.; Missimer, T. M.

    2014-07-01

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions.

  16. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

  17. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

  18. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts. PMID:25764851

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  1. The effect of fiber reinforcement type and water storage on strength properties of a provisional fixed partial denture resin.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Gülay; Keyf, Filiz

    2003-04-01

    Fracture resistance of provisional restorations is an important clinical concern. This property is directly related to transverse strength. Strengthening of provisional fixed partial dentures may result from reinforcement with various fiber types. This study evaluated the effect of fiber type and water storage on the transverse strength of a commercially available provisional resin under two different conditions. The denture resin was reinforced with either glass or aramid fiber or no reinforcement was used. Uniform samples were made from a commercially available autopolymerizing provisional fixed partial denture resin. Sixteen bar-shaped specimens (60 x 10 x 4 mm) were reinforced with pre-treated epoxy resin-coated glass fibers, with aramid fibers, or with no fibers. Eight specimens of each group, with and without fibers, were tested after 24 h of fabrication (immediate group), and after 30-day water storage. A three-point loading test was used to measure the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, and the modulus of elasticity. The Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance was used to examine differences among the three groups, and then the Mann-Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were applied to determine pair-wise differences. The transverse strength and the maximal deflection values in the immediate group and in the 30-day water storage group were not statistically significant. In the group tested immediately, the elasticity modulus was found to be significant (P = 0.042). In the 30-day water storage group, all the values were statistically insignificant. The highest transverse strength was displayed by the glass-reinforced resin (66.25MPa) in the immediate group. The transverse strength value was 62.04MPa for the unreinforced samples in the immediate group. All the specimens exhibited lower transverse strength with an increase in water immersion time. The transverse strength value was 61.13 MPa for the glass-reinforced resin and was 61.24 MPa for the unreinforced resin. The aramid-reinforced resin decreased from 62.29 to 58.77 MPa. The addition of fiber reinforcement enhanced the physical properties (the transverse strength, the maximal deflection, the modulus of elasticity) of the processed material over that seen with no addition of fiber. Water storage did not statistically affect the transverse strength of the provisional denture resin compared to that of the unreinforced resin. The transverse strength was lowered at water storage but it was not statistically significant. The transverse strength was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. The glass fiber was superior to the other fiber. Also the modulus of elasticity was enhanced by fiber addition compared to the unreinforced resin. PMID:12797420

  2. Effect of water content and temperature on seed longevity of seven Brassicaceae species after 5 years of storage.

    PubMed

    Mira, S; Estrelles, E; González-Benito, M E

    2015-01-01

    Maximising seed longevity is crucial for genetic resource preservation and longevity of orthodox seeds is determined by environmental conditions (water content and temperature). The effect of water content (down to 0.01 g·H?O·g(-1) ) on seed viability was studied at different temperatures for a 5-year storage period in taxonomically related species. Seeds of seven Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Eruca vesicaria, Malcolmia littorea, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium runcinatum) were stored at 48 environments comprising a combination of eight water contents, from 0.21 to 0.01 g·H?O·g(-1) DW and six temperatures (45, 35, 20, 5, -25, -170 °C). Survival curves were modelled and P50 calculated for those conditions where germination was reduced over the 5-year assay period. Critical water content for storage of seeds of six species at 45 °C ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 g·H?O·g(-1) . The effect of extreme desiccation at 45 °C showed variability among species: three species showed damaging effects of drying below the critical water content, while for three species it was neither detrimental nor beneficial to seed longevity. Lipid content could be related to longevity, depending on the storage conditions. A variable seed longevity response to water content among taxonomically related species was found. The relative position of some of the species as long- or short-lived at 45 °C varied depending on the humidity at which storage behaviour was evaluated. Therefore, predictions of survival under desiccated conditions based on results obtained at high humidity might be problematic for some species. PMID:24804799

  3. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    González-Uribe, Catalina; Cortés, Sebastian; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot) and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information. Results Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3). The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins) is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking. Conclusions It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation. PMID:26061628

  4. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would likely be minor if the upward flux was smaller than a few tenths of the magnitude of recharge, according to the 2D analyses. The 3D analyses also show that upward flux could occur without a significant increase in the risk categories. The major contribution of this work is that it shows how a large increase in diffuse upward flux from a basin could cause significant problems, but a small increase in upward flux may occur without significantly affecting risks to the shallow freshwater flow system. This heightens the importance of understanding interactions between shallow and deep hydrologic systems when characterizing CO2 storage projects.

  5. 27 CFR 27.57 - Containers in excess of 1 gallon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Labeling of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Containers in excess of 1 gallon. 27.57 Section 27.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND...

  6. 27 CFR 27.58 - Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this volume and at www.fdsys.gov... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less. 27.58 Section 27.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...

  7. 27 CFR 27.58 - Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this volume. Marking and Labeling of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less. 27.58 Section 27.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...

  8. 27 CFR 27.57 - Containers in excess of 1 gallon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Labeling of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers in excess of 1 gallon. 27.57 Section 27.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND...

  9. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  10. Global terrestrial water storage connectivity revealed using complex climate network analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Chen, J.; Donges, J.

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) exerts a key control in global water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Although certain causal relationships exist between precipitation and TWS, the latter also reflects impacts of anthropogenic activities. Thus, quantification of the spatial patterns of TWS will not only help to understand feedbacks between climate dynamics and hydrologic cycle, but also provide new model calibration constraints for improving the current land surface models. In this work, the connectivity of TWS is quantified using the climate network theory, which has received broad attention in the climate modeling community in recent years. Complex networks of TWS anomalies are built using two global TWS datasets, a remote-sensing product that is obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and a model-generated dataset from the global land data assimilation system's NOAH model (GLDAS-NOAH). Both datasets have 1 ° × 1 ° resolutions and cover most global land areas except for permafrost regions. TWS networks are built by first quantifying pairwise correlation among all valid TWS anomaly time series, and then applying a statistical cutoff threshold to retain only the most important features in the network. Basinwise network connectivity maps are used to illuminate connectivity of individual river basins with other regions. The constructed network degree centrality maps show TWS hotspots around the globe and the patterns are consistent with recent GRACE studies. Parallel analyses of networks constructed using the two datasets indicate that the GLDAS-NOAH model captures many of the spatial patterns shown by GRACE, although significant discrepancies exist in some regions. Thus, our results provide important insights for constraining land surface models, especially in data sparse regions.

  11. Global terrestrial water storage connectivity revealed using complex climate network analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Chen, J.; Donges, J.

    2015-07-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) exerts a key control in global water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Although certain causal relationship exists between precipitation and TWS, the latter quantity also reflects impacts of anthropogenic activities. Thus, quantification of the spatial patterns of TWS will not only help to understand feedbacks between climate dynamics and the hydrologic cycle, but also provide new insights and model calibration constraints for improving the current land surface models. This work is the first attempt to quantify the spatial connectivity of TWS using the complex network theory, which has received broad attention in the climate modeling community in recent years. Complex networks of TWS anomalies are built using two global TWS data sets, a remote sensing product that is obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and a model-generated data set from the global land data assimilation system's NOAH model (GLDAS-NOAH). Both data sets have 1° × 1° grid resolutions and cover most global land areas except for permafrost regions. TWS networks are built by first quantifying pairwise correlation among all valid TWS anomaly time series, and then applying a cutoff threshold derived from the edge-density function to retain only the most important features in the network. Basinwise network connectivity maps are used to illuminate connectivity of individual river basins with other regions. The constructed network degree centrality maps show the TWS anomaly hotspots around the globe and the patterns are consistent with recent GRACE studies. Parallel analyses of networks constructed using the two data sets reveal that the GLDAS-NOAH model captures many of the spatial patterns shown by GRACE, although significant discrepancies exist in some regions. Thus, our results provide further measures for constraining the current land surface models, especially in data sparse regions.

  12. Solar collector heat exchanger or hot water storage tank and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, B. S.

    1985-06-25

    A solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy is formed from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one form one of the sheets is coated with a layer of release agent, over all areas except the discrete areas and the peripheral areas so that only such uncoated areas will bond during cure. In another form, a sheet of non-adherent plastic, slightly smaller than the two sheets and having holes or holidays to form the discrete areas, is bonded between the two sheets. In a third form, the peripheral edges are first sealed to form a chamber, then the chamber is inflated and a forming die presses together the discrete areas only. Reinforcing fibers are employed or molded, into at least one of the uncured sheets. Woven fabric sheets may be stitched or fastened together, coated with a thermosetting plastic and then formed into a panel or tank chamber as above. In the solar collector panel embodiment, at least one of the reinforcing fibers is metal, most preferably, in a metal screen to equalize temperatures between the bonded discrete areas and areas overlying liquid carrying volumes of the panel.

  13. Global analysis of approaches for deriving total water storage changes from GRACE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Di; Longuevergne, Laurent; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing interest in use of GRACE satellites and a variety of new products to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) underscores the need to assess the reliability of output from different products. The objective of this study was to assess skills and uncertainties of different approaches for processing GRACE data to restore signal losses caused by spatial filtering based on analysis of 1° × 1° grid-scale data and in 60 river basins globally. Results indicate that scaling factors from six LSMs, including GLDAS-1 four models (Noah2.7, Mosaic, VIC, and CLM 2.0), CLM 4.0, and WGHM, are similar over most of humid, subhumid, and high-latitude regions but can differ by up to 100% over arid and semiarid basins and areas with intensive irrigation. Temporal variability in scaling factors is generally minor at the basin scale except in arid and semiarid regions, but can be appreciable at the 1° × 1° grid scale. Large differences in TWS anomalies from three processing approaches (scaling factor, additive, and multiplicative corrections) were found in arid and semiarid regions, areas with intensive irrigation, and relatively small basins (e.g., ?200,000 km2). Furthermore, TWS anomaly products from gridded data with CLM4.0 scaling factors and the additive correction approach more closely agree with WGHM output than the multiplicative correction approach. This comprehensive evaluation of GRACE processing approaches should provide valuable guidance on applicability of different processing approaches with different climate settings and varying levels of irrigation.

  14. Land Water Storage Changes from Ground and Space Geodesy: First Results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, J.; Pfeffer, J.; Boucher, M.; Nahmani, S.; De Linage, C.; Boy, J.-P.; Genthon, P.; Seguis, L.; Favreau, G.; Bock, O.; Descloitres, M.

    2012-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the first results from the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) experiment conducted since 2008 in West Africa and is aimed at investigating the changes in water storage in different regions sampling a strong rainfall gradient from the Sahara to the monsoon zone. The analysis of GPS vertical displacement in Niamey (Niger) and Djougou (Benin) shows that there is a clear annual signature of the hydrological load in agreement with global hydrology models like GLDAS. The comparison of GRACE solutions in West Africa, and more specifically in the Niger and Lake Chad basins, reveals a good agreement for the large scale annual water storage changes between global hydrology models and space gravity observations. Ground gravity observations done with an FG5 absolute gravimeter also show signals which can be well related to measured changes in soil and ground water. We present the first results for two sites in the Sahelian band (Wankama and Diffa in Niger) and one (Djougou in Benin) in the Sudanian monsoon region related to the recharge-discharge processes due to the monsoonal event in summer 2008 and the following dry season. It is confirmed that ground gravimetry is a useful tool to constrain local water storage changes when associated to hydrological and subsurface geophysical in situ measurements.

  15. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high-resolution isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Dick, J.; Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-09-01

    To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time-variant stream water ages, we used a new long-term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ˜1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ˜1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments.

  16. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a lake for the storage of reclaimed water before and after usage as cooling water.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu-Chen; Xi, Jin-Ying; Li, Guo-Qiang; Shi, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse is a promising way to relieve water scarcity by substituting for natural water consumption by industrial cooling. However, health concerns regarding cooling water originating from reclaimed water are increasing because an abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been detected in reclaimed water. To assess the potential increase of ARB risks in reclaimed water after reuse for industrial cooling, the prevalence of six types of ARB was investigated in water and sediment samples from Lake Gaobeidian, which serves as an artificial circular storage reservoir for reclaimed water for cooling reuse. The effect of treated wastewater and cooling water drainage on the ARB distribution in water and sediment samples was also studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of six types of ARB in lake water samples were as high as those in treated wastewater. The annual median concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria (HPC) and ARB in discharged cooling water after usage were 0.6-log and 0.4-log higher than those in treated wastewater and the cooling water intake site, respectively, indicating that the process of cooling water usage enhanced the proliferation of HPC and consequently increased the concentrations of ARB. Furthermore, the percentages of penicillin-, ampicillin-, and cephalothin-resistant bacteria in water were 30-57%, 36-48%, and 23-40% higher than those in sediment, respectively. However, the proportions of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in water were 35-85% lower than those in sediment. Quantitative evaluation of antibiotic resistance showed that HPC in water had a significant tolerance to penicillin and chloramphenicol, with 50% inhibitory concentrations reaching 22.90 mg L(-1) and 29.11 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:25997982

  17. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Helium and LN2 Storage Requirements for D-Zero Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-04-04

    Calculations were done to determine a recommended size for the liquid helium storage dewar, gas helium storage tanks, and liquid nitrogen dewar requirements. I recommend a Liquid helium storage dewar with a nominal size of at least 2500 liters (660 gallons), preferably 3000 liters (792 gallons). I recommend obtaining gas helium storage tanks with a maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) of 250 psig or greater. Combined volume to be at least 5880 cubic feet (44,000 gallons). I recommend obtaining a second liquid nitrogen dewar at D-Zero, dedicated to the refrigerator, solenoid and VLPC systems. The ideal dewar would have a volume of around 16,000 gallons. It's MAWP needs to be greater than 55 psig.

  18. Coupling Power Generation, Geologic CO2 Storage and Saline Groundwater Desalination to Address Growing Energy Needs in Water Constrained Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, C. L.; Wurstner, S. K.; Fortson, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    As humanity works to both minimize climate change and adapt to its early impacts, co-management of energy and water resources will become increasingly important. In some parts of the US, power plants have been denied permits, in part because of the significant burden placed on local water supplies by assigning new water rights for the facility’s entire design life. Water resources may be allocated 30 to 50 years into a future where water availability and quality are uncertain due to supply impacts associated with climate change and increased demand from growing populations, agriculture and industry. In many areas, particularly those with access to seawater, desalination is being employed with increasing frequency to augment conventional sources of fresh water. At the same time, many of the world’s developed nations are moving to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One key technological option for addressing emissions from the power generation sector is CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS). This process is both water and energy intensive for many power and industrial facilities, compounding the impact of declining water availability for plants faced with deploying CCS in a CO2-constrained future. However, a unique opportunity may exist to couple power generation and CCS by extracting and desalinating brine from the CO2 storage formation to produce fresh water. While this coupled approach is unlikely to be attractive for most CCS projects, it may represent a viable option in areas where there is demand for additional electricity but conventional water supplies are unable to meet the needs of the power generation and CO2 capture systems, or in areas where brine produced from CCS projects can be desalinated to supplement strained municipal supplies. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the factors impacting the feasibility of coupled CCS-desalination projects. Several injection / extraction scenarios have been examined via the STOMP geochemical flow model resulting in key outputs including extraction wellhead conditions, in situ CO2 plume behavior and reservoir pressure. Economic modeling for the water extraction and desalination portion of these coupled CCS / desalination scenarios suggests that -- while some scenarios yield costs far in excess of most existing desalination projects -- depending on the specific storage formation characteristics and desalination technology employed, fresh water could be produced at costs competitive with seawater desalination facilities, bolstering local water supplies and enabling deployment of industrial projects that might otherwise have been infeasible.

  19. Differences in Drainage Network Incision and Expansion Associated with Aspect-Related Variability in Soil Water Storage and Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Benner, S. G.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    Aspect-related variability in soil water storage, vegetation type and density, and snow melt dynamics appears to dramatically influence drainage incision and expansion. The semi-arid Dry Creek watershed contains two ~1.2 km wide west-draining valleys with side slopes comprised of broad north and south-facing land surfaces into which lower-order catchments have been incised. North-facing land surfaces exhibit thicker, finer-grained soils with more organic soil carbon that support coniferous forest. South-facing land surfaces have thinner, coarser-grained soils with less organic carbon that support sagebrush-steppe vegetation. The drainages and landforms associated with these surfaces contrast starkly. North-facing catchments (n=10) exhibit lower-order (single channel), steeper, shallowly incised, less dense drainages, that have a linear form in both profile and map view, with linear ridges between. They resemble debris chutes in scree dominated areas. Whereas, south-facing drainages (n=11), are higher order (dendritic), gentler, more deeply incised, and concave-up in profile, with undulous ridgelines between. The association of differences in drainage form with differences in soil properties and vegetation suggests that the greater soil water storage capacity of northern aspects, in conjunction with greater vegetative stabilization, inhibits fluvial and mass-wasting related erosion, as northern aspects are less likely to reach a saturated state, and limits the incision and expansion of north-facing catchments. Soils and vegetation affect the ability to reach a saturated state by altering the pedon-scale water-balance. Soil thickness affects the volume of the soil water reservoir. Soil texture and organic carbon affect the amount of water a given volume of soil retains. Thicker, finer-grained soils require more precipitation to satisfy their storage demands before reaching a saturated state. Coniferous forest may also increase storage as interception and increase transpiration losses, further reducing water inputs to soils and limiting drainage development on northern aspects. South-facing land surfaces are also greater in length, despite similar vertical relief, suggesting that differences in drainage expansion have caused ridgeline and/or basal streams to migrate, lengthening south-facing land surfaces and shortening north-facing land surfaces. This would induce a positive feedback, as larger south-facing catchments with lower storage capacities capture and route more water through their outlets than the smaller north-facing catchments, further exacerbating differences in drainage incision and expansion.

  20. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1995. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G.; Purtymun, W.D.; Maes, M.N.

    1997-04-01

    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1995 totaled about 1,356.1 million gallons from wells in the Guaje and Pajarito well fields. Wells in the Otowi field were not operational during 1995. The nonpotable water supply for industrial use was about 1.6 million gallons from the spring gallery in Water Canyon, and another 1.6 million gallons from Los Alamos Reservoir was used for lawn irrigation. There was no water used from Guaje Reservoir in 1995. The total water usage in 1995 was about 1,359.3 million gallons. Groundwater pumpage during 1995 was the lowest on record since 1966.

  1. Gigawatt-year nuclear-geothermal energy storage for light-water and high-temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C. W.; Lee, Y.; Kulhanek, M.; Driscoll, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    Capital-intensive, low-operating cost nuclear plants are most economical when operated under base-load conditions. However, electricity demand varies on a daily, weekly, and seasonal basis. In deregulated utility markets this implies high prices for electricity at times of high electricity demand and low prices for electricity at times of low electricity demand. We examined coupling nuclear heat sources to geothermal heat storage systems to enable these power sources to meet hourly to seasonal variable electricity demand. At times of low electricity demand the reactor heats a fluid that is then injected a kilometer or more underground to heat rock to high temperatures. The fluid travels through the permeable-rock heat-storage zone, transfers heat to the rock, is returned to the surface to be reheated, and re-injected underground. At times of high electricity demand the cycle is reversed, heat is extracted, and the heat is used to power a geothermal power plant to produce intermediate or peak power. When coupling geothermal heat storage with light-water reactors (LWRs), pressurized water (<300 deg. C) is the preferred heat transfer fluid. When coupling geothermal heat storage with high temperature reactors at higher temperatures, supercritical carbon dioxide is the preferred heat transfer fluid. The non-ideal characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide create the potential for efficient coupling with supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles. Underground rock cannot be insulated, thus small heat storage systems with high surface to volume ratios are not feasible because of excessive heat losses. The minimum heat storage capacity to enable seasonal storage is {approx}0.1 Gigawatt-year. Three technologies can create the required permeable rock: (1) hydro-fracture, (2) cave-block mining, and (3) selective rock dissolution. The economic assessments indicated a potentially competitive system for production of intermediate load electricity. The basis for a nuclear geothermal system with LWRs exists today; but, there is need for added research and development before deployment. There are significantly greater challenges for geothermal heat storage at higher temperatures. Such systems are strongly dependent upon the local geology. (authors)

  2. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in...

  3. 27 CFR 27.56 - Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. 27.56...56 Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. Bottled...spirits imported into the United States for sale shall be bottled in liquor...

  4. 27 CFR 27.56 - Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. 27.56...56 Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. Bottled...spirits imported into the United States for sale shall be bottled in liquor...

  5. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  6. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow...

  7. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. (a) You must comply...

  20. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  1. Copula-based estimation of large-scale water storage changes: exploiting the dependence structure between hydrological and GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modiri, Sadegh; Lorenz, Christof; Sneeuw, Nico; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has significantly improved our knowledge of the terrestrial water cycle. With the availability of GRACE data from 2002, we are now able to even perform climate change studies with respect to water storage variations. However, as GRACE is already after its lifetime, we have to find methods for filling the gaps of both past data and also until the launch of GRACE Follow On. In this study, we therefore analyze the potential of Copula based methods for simulating GRACE data from other hydrological data sources. The method exploits linear and non-linear relationships between two or more variables by fitting a theoretical Copula function into an empirical bivariate or multivariate distribution function. Finally, new data, which is then consistent with the previously derived dependence structure, can be simulated by evaluating the conditional distribution function which given by the theoretical Copula. First, we want to analyze the applicability of the proposed method to spherical harmonic data from GRACE. As the approach involves several drawings of random data, we are interested if this random nature has any impact on the results. We therefore generate filtered out of unfiltered GRACE coefficients, based on the previously derived dependence structure. The comparison between this simulated and the filtered data shows very good agreement with negligible differences in both the spatial and spectral domain. We also want to evaluate if copula based methods are able to estimate reliable water storage changes from independent hydrological data. Therefore, we derive the dependence structure between filtered water storage changes from GRACE and global gridded precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre GPCC. Based on the fitted theoretical Copula, we then simulate water storage changes from precipitation data. The Copula based estimates are compared with filtered GRACE data in both the spectral and spatial domain. We also perform a catchment-based analysis between area-aggregated time-series of simulated and GRACE-derived water storage change. The analysis shows that our estimates and the original filtered GRACE data are in very good agreement. Thus, we conclude that the proposed method is indeed able to fill the missing months in the GRACE-dataset and to even extend the time-series until the launch of GRACE Follow On.

  2. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750?mW?cm(-2) at 750?°C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2?h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons. PMID:24798121

  3. Effects of increasing forest plantation area and management practices on carbon storage and water use in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.; Tian, H.

    2013-12-01

    Planted forest area in the United States gradually increased during the last half century, and by 2007 accounted for about 20% of the total forest area in the southern United States and about 13% in the entire country. Intensive plantation management activities - such as slash burning, thinning, weed control, fertilization and the use of genetically improved seedlings - are routinely applied during the forest rotation. However, no comprehensive assessments have been made to examine the impacts of this increased forest plantation area and associated management practices on ecosystem function. In this study, we integrated field measurement data and process-based modeling to quantitatively estimate the changes in carbon storage, nitrogen cycling and water use as influenced by forest plantations in the United States from 1925 to 2007. The results indicated that forest plantations and management practices greatly increased forest productivity, vegetation carbon, and wood product carbon storage in the United States, but slightly reduce soil carbon storage at some areas; however, the carbon sink induced by forest plantations was at the expense of more water use as represented by higher evapotranspiration. Stronger nitrogen and water limitations were found for forest plantations as compared to natural or naturally-regenerated forests.

  4. Storage of milk powders under adverse conditions. 2. Influence on the content of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ford, J E; Hurrell, R F; Finot, P A

    1983-05-01

    Storage of milk powder under unfavourable conditions accelerates the normally slow deterioration in nutritional quality. The effects of such storage on the water-soluble vitamin composition were examined. (a) Spray-dried whole milk containing 25 g water/kg was stored at 60 degrees and 70 degrees and sampled weekly to 9 weeks. (b) Spray-dried whole milk and skimmed milk were adjusted to contain 40 and 100 g water/kg and stored at 37 degrees in nitrogen and in oxygen. Samples were taken for analysis at intervals during storage. The samples were analysed for eight B-complex vitamins and ascorbic acid, and also for total lysine, 'reactive lysine' and 'lysine as lactulosyl-lysine'. Storage at 60 degrees caused rapid destruction of folic acid (53% loss at 4 weeks) and slower loss of thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid (18% at 8 weeks). There was no change in the content of riboflavin, biotin, nicotinic acid and vitamin B12. At 70 degrees the rate of destruction of the four labile vitamins was much increased; 18% or less survived at 4 weeks. At 37 degrees and 40 g water/kg there was little change in total and 'reactive' lysine during storage for 57 d. Lactulosyl-lysine was demonstrably present but at low concentration. There was considerable loss of folate (72%) and ascorbate (91%) during storage for 30 d in O2, but no significant loss in N2. Thiamin fell by approximately 12% in 57 d, equally in O2 and N2. The content of the remaining vitamins was unchanged. At 100 g water/kg there were progressive Maillard changes. During 27 d in N2 the colour changed from cream to pale brown, but in O2 there was no perceptible colour change. Total lysine fell by 20% in 27 d, and 'reactive lysine' by 30%. Folate was stable during 16 d in N2, but largely (94%) destroyed in O2. Ascorbic acid was also destroyed in N2 as in O2. Thiamin fell by 41% in 27 d, equally in O2 and N2. Vitamin B6 was more labile, especially in N2, falling by 71% in 16 d. With skimmed-milk powder containing 100 g water/kg, storage at 37 degrees in O2 and N2 gave much the same results as for the corresponding whole-milk powder. The presence of milk fat had no marked effect on the stability of the water-soluble vitamins. Destruction of vitamins was clearly linked to the progress of Maillard-type reactions and was strongly influenced by time and temperature of storage, moisture content and, in some instances, by the presence of O2. PMID:6407521

  5. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstrate the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (<5000 m3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.

  6. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF FLUSH AND DRINKING WATER OR DRINKING WATER SAMPLES FOR METALS AND ARSENIC BY EPA METHOD 200.8 (RTI/

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol describes the procedures for the collection, storage, and shipping of flush and drinking water samples to be analyzed by EPA Method 200.8 (version 5.4). Samples of flush water, defined as tap water that is collected after water flows through the tap for a specified ...

  7. The effects of an intermittent piped water network and storage practices on household water quality in Tamale, Ghana

    E-print Network

    Vacs Renwick, Deborah Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include a target to halve the number of people without access to "improved" water sources, which include piped water supply. However, an "improved" source of water does not ...

  8. Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

    1991-12-31

    The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers` desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

  9. Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers' desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

  10. Experimental study on latent heat storage characteristics of W/O emulsion -Supercooling rate of dispersed water drops by direct contact heat exchange-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Shin-ichi; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Inaba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to investigate the latent heat storage system. Using of ice heat storage system brings an equalization of electric power demand, because it will solved the electric -power-demand-concentration on day-time of summer by the air conditioning. The flowable latent heat storage material, Oil/Water type emulsion, microencapsulated latent heat material-water mixture or ice slurry, etc., is enable to transport the latent heat in a pipe. The flowable latent heat storage material can realize the pipe size reduction and system efficiency improvement. Supercooling phenomenon of the dispersed latent heat storage material in continuous phase brings the obstruction of latent heat storage. The latent heat storage rates of dispersed water drops in W/O (Water/Oil) emulsion are investigated experimentally in this study. The water drops in emulsion has the diameter within 3 ˜ 25?m, the averaged water drop diameter is 7.3?m and the standard deviation is 2.9?m. The direct contact heat exchange method is chosen as the phase change rate evaluation of water drops in W/O emulsion. The supercooled temperature and the cooling rate are set as parameters of this study. The evaluation is performed by comparison between the results of this study and the past research. The obtained experimental result is shown that the 35K or more degree from melting point brings 100% latent heat storage rate of W/O emulsion. It was clarified that the supercooling rate of dispersed water particles in emulsion shows the larger value than that of the bulk water.

  11. Characterization of surface-water quality in the S-Line Canal and potential geochemical reactions from storage of surface water in the Basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lico, Michael S.; McCormack, John K.

    2005-01-01

    The Fallon basalt aquifer serves as the sole source of municipal water supply for the Lahontan Valley in west-central Nevada. Principal users include the City of Fallon, Naval Air Station Fallon, and the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. Pumpage from the aquifer increased from about 1,700 acre-feet per year in the early 1970's to more than 3,000 acre-feet per year in the late 1990's, and has been accompanied by declines in water levels and changes in water quality. Storage of surface water in the basalt may mitigate the effects of pumpage, but may cause undesirable changes in water chemistry. In May 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study, in cooperation with the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, to characterize the surface-water quality of the S-Line Canal, a likely source of water for augmenting recharge. Because arsenic concentrations in ground water of the basalt aquifer exceed drinking water standards, the potential for arsenic release to artificial recharge was explored by using geochemical modeling. Model results suggest that arsenic release may increase concentrations to levels that could limit the use of artificial recharge. Field-based experiments are needed to evaluate the underlying model assumptions.

  12. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  13. Geophysics in the Critical Zone: Constraints on Deep Weathering and Water Storage Potential in the Southern Sierra CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W.; Riebe, C. S.; Hayes, J. L.; Reeder, K.; Harry, D. L.; Malazian, A. I.; Dosseto, A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the depth and degree of subsurface weathering in landscapes is crucial for quantitative understanding of the biogeochemistry of weathering, the mechanics of hillslope sediment transport, and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon over both short and long timescales. Although the degree of weathering can be readily measured from geochemical and physical properties of regolith and rock, many distributed samples are needed to measure it over broad spatial scales. Moreover, quantifying the thickness of subsurface weathering has remained challenging, in part because the interface between altered and unaltered rock is often buried at difficult to access depths. To overcome these challenges, we combined seismic refraction and resistivity surveys to estimate regolith thickness and generate representative hillslope-scale images of subsurface weathering and water storage at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Inferred seismic velocities and electrical resistivities of the subsurface provide evidence for a weathering zone with thickness ranging from 10 to 35 m (average = 23 m) along one intensively studied transect. This weathering zone consists of roughly equal thicknesses of saprolite (P-velocity < 2 km/s) and moderately weathered bedrock (P-velocity < 4 km/s). We use a rock physics model of seismic velocities, based on Hertz-Mindlin contact theory, to estimate lateral and vertical variations in porosity as a metric of water storage potential along the transect. Inferred porosities are as high as 55% near the surface and decrease to zero at the base of weathered rock. Model-predicted porosities are broadly consistent with values measured from physical properties of saprolite, suggesting that our analysis of the geophysical data provides realistic estimates of subsurface water storage potential. A major advantage of our geophysical approach is that it quickly and non-invasively quantifies porosity over broad vertical and lateral scales. Our results indicate that saprolite is a crucial reservoir of water, potentially storing an average of 3 m of water along a forested slope in the headwaters of the SSCZO.

  14. Impact of Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures on interannual and decadal variations of GRACE land water storage in tropical South America

    E-print Network

    de Linage, Caroline; Kim, Hyungjun; Famiglietti, James S; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    future deforestation on the stream ?ow of the Amazon River—the highest deforestation portion in 2011 (In the Amazon,deforestation leading to increased runoff and groundwater recharge, expressed by increased water storage in southern Amazon

  15. Combined effect of storage temperature and water activity on the antiglycoxidative properties and color of dehydrated apples.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera

    2009-12-23

    Phytochemical contents, color, and inhibition efficacy toward oxidative and glycoxidative reactions were studied in dehydrated apples following storage in the water activity range from 0.1 to 0.7 at 20, 30, and 40 degrees C, which can be considered as room conditions. Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different temperatures and time intervals, and nonenzymatic browning was modeled according to pseudo-zero-order kinetics. The effect of temperature on the browning rate followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy of 64000 J/mol, which was not affected by the water activity level. The phytochemical contents, inhibition efficacy of protein glycation, and antioxidant properties were then analyzed in the products stored under selected "equivalent" conditions in terms of browning effects, namely, 120 days/20 degrees C, 50 days/30 degrees C, and 22 days/40 degrees C. After storage for 120 days/20 degrees C, the retention percentages of hydroxycinnamic acids, phloridzin, and epicatechin were >86%, but ascorbic acid, catechin, and procyanidins were less stable; concurrently dehydrated apples retained about 80% of the radical scavenging activity and 70% of the ability to inhibit protein glycation. Following storage at higher temperatures the expected browning effect occurred in a shorter time scale; however, the patterns of product degradation were different. A sharp increase in the degradation rates of all antioxidants, relative to browning rate, was observed at temperatures >or=30 degrees C, and this trend was accelerated with concurrent increase in water activity at >0.3 levels. The application of low-temperature/long-time conditions for storage of dehydrated apples corresponded to maximum retention of their efficacy to counteract oxidative and glycoxidative reactions, which have been linked to human chronic diseases. PMID:19911808

  16. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B? (AFB?), B? (AFB?), G? (AFG?) and G? (AFG?) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p < 0.001) affected the total fungal count and aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB? content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B? increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG? and AFG? contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed. PMID:25290990

  17. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

  18. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  19. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2014-01-01

    By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for selected segments of five perennial streams (Cottonwood, North Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, and South Arkansas River) in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin for calendar year 2011. Differences between reported diversions and estimated crop irrigation requirements were used to estimate groundwater recharge in the areas irrigated by water supplied from the diversions. The amount of groundwater recharge in all the basins varied monthly; however, the greatest amount of recharge was during June and July for Cottonwood, North Cottonwood, and Chalk Creeks and South Arkansas River. The greatest amount of recharge in 2011 in Browns Creek occurred in July and August. The large seasonal fluctuations of groundwater near irrigated areas in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin indicate that the increased groundwater storage resulting from infiltration of surface-water diversions has dissipated by the following spring. Areas within the Buena Vista-Salida Basin with the potential for underground storage were identified using geographic information system data, including topographic, geologic, and hydrologic data, excluding the mountainous areas that border the Buena Vista-Salida Basin and igneous and metamorphic rock outcrop areas. The areas that met the selection criteria for underground water storage are located on terrace deposits near the Arkansas River and adjacent to its major tributaries. The selected areas also contain much of the irrigated land within the basin; consequently, irrigation ditches and canals could provide a means of conveying water to potential recharge sites.

  20. Effect of Chitin Isolated from Crustaceans and Cephalopods on Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein and the State of Water during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo Romero, Eduardo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashita, Yasumitsu; Ichikawa, Hisashi; Goto, Shingi; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Nozaki, Yukinori

    From the point of view of utilization of shells as a waste product of fishery industry, the cryoprotective effect of chitin made from shell of crustaceans (Japanese fan lobster and Japanese swimming crab) and cartilage of cephalopods (spear squid) are studied. Chitin from the shells and cartilage were added to lizard fish myofibrils, and the changes of unfrozen water in myofibrils and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein were observed during frozen storage at -250°C for 120days. The amount of unfrozen water were increased by addition of three kinds of chitin, and decreased moderately during forzen storage. Whereas, in the chitin free sample, the amount of unfrozen water were decreased rapidly during frozen storage. Changes of ATPase activity of samples showed similar tendency to that of the amount of unfrozen water. The present moderate cryoprotective effect of chitin and data of unfrozen water and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein suggest the importance of the amount of unfrozen water in frozen matrix.

  1. Effects of storage temperature on tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 ?g/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 ?g/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures. PMID:25285502

  2. Development of a Procedure for the Predictive Control Strategy of a Chilled Water Storage System 

    E-print Network

    Wei, G.; Sakuri, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems store the thermal energy produced by the chiller plant in periods of off-peak electrical demand or when cheaper electricity is available. The stored thermal energy is then withdrawn from the reservoir to satisfy...

  3. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  4. Biosand filtration of high turbidity water : modified filter design and safe filtrate storage

    E-print Network

    Collin, Clair

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of water-related diseases that predominantly affect people living in developing countries. The most prevalent water-related disease is diarrhea, estimated to kill 1.8 million children ...

  5. Evaluation of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) alternatives in Ghana

    E-print Network

    Wong, TengKe

    2014-01-01

    Ghana's water quality and sanitation condition are very poor. Pure Home Water (PHW), a local non-profit organization has been successfully improving the supply of safe drinking water in the northern region by producing and ...

  6. Safe water storage in Kenya's modified clay pot : standardization, tap design, and cost recovery

    E-print Network

    Young, Suzanne E

    2005-01-01

    One of the main components necessary for providing safe drinking water for users who lack piped water in the home is the ability to safely store it in the home. Users in the Nyanza Province of Kenya frequently carry water ...

  7. Water Supply at Los Alamos during 1997

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Maes; S. G. McLin; W. D. Purtymun

    1998-12-01

    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1997 totaled about 1,285.9 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1997. About 2.4 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used to irrigate public parks and recreational lands. The total water usage in 1997 was about 1,288.3 million gallons, or about 135 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was down about 82.2 million gallons in 1997 compared with the pumpage in 1996. Four new replacement wells were drilled and cased in Guaje Canyon between October 1997 and March 1998. These wells are currently being developed and aquifer tests are being performed. A special report summarizing the geological, geophysical, and well construction logs will be issued in the near future for these new wells.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage System [OCRWM PER REV2

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-12-20

    As part of the decommissioning of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells there is a need to remove commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presently stored in these hot cells. To enable fuel removal from the hot cells, the commercial LWR SNF will be packaged and shipped to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) in a manner that satisfies site requirements for SNF interim storage. This document identifies the criteria that the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cell Clean-out Project must satisfy for acceptance of the LWR SNF by the SNF Project at the 200 Area ISA. In addition to the acceptance criteria identified herein, acceptance is contingent on adherence to applicable Project Hanford Management Contract requirements and procedures in place at the time of work execution.

  9. Effects of sodium caseinate concentration and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    O' Dwyer, Sandra P; O' Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O' Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative stability of various oils (sunflower, camelina and fish) and 20% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, were examined. The mean particle size decreased from 1179 to 325 nm as sodium caseinate (emulsifier) concentration was increased from 0.25% to 3% in O/W emulsions (P<0.05). Increasing the microfluidisation pressure from 21 to 138 MPa, resulted in a particle size decrease from 289 to 194 nm (P<0.05). Emulsified oils had lower detectable lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values than their corresponding bulk oils (P<0.05). The lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values of emulsions generally decreased as sodium caseinate concentration increased, and similarly decreased as microfluidisation pressure increased (P<0.05). Increasing storage temperature of the emulsions from 5 to 60°C, resulted in lower detectable lipid oxidation products during storage (P<0.05). PMID:23411225

  10. Stress Variation Caused by the Terrestrial Water Storage Inferred from GRACE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H.; Wen, L.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate stress variation caused by the terrestrial water storage (TWS) change from 2003 to 2013. We first infer the TWS change from the monthly gravity field change in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We then estimate the stress change at the Earth's surface caused by elastic loading of mass change associated with the inferred TWS change.The monthly spherical harmonics of the GRACE gravity solutions are processed using a decorrelation filter and Gaussian smoothing, to suppress the noise in high degree and order, following the approach of Swenson and Wahr [2006] and Chen et al. [2007]. The gravity variation associated with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is further removed from the GRACE solutions based on a geodynamical model by Paulson et al. [2007]. The inferred TWS changes exhibit a trend of increase from 2003 to 2013 in Amazon basin, southern Africa, the northern United State America (USA) and Queen Maud Land of Antarctica, and a trend of decrease in the same period in central Argentina, southern Chile, northern India, northern Iran, Alaska of the USA, Greenland and Marie Byrd Land of Antarctica.Surface stress variation due to the TWS loading is calculated, assuming an incompressible and self-gravitating Earth, with an elastic crust and a viscoelastic mantle overlying an inviscid core based on PREM model. We will present the geographical distribution of the stress variation caused by the TWS loading and discuss its possible implications. Chen, J. L., C. R. Wilson, B. D. Tapley, and S. Grand (2007), GRACE detects coseismic and postseismic deformation from the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, Geophys Res Lett, 34(13), doi:10.1029/2007GL030356. Paulson, A., S. J. Zhong, and J. Wahr (2007), Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data, Geophys J Int, 171(2), 497-508, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03556.x. Swenson, S., and J. Wahr (2006), Post-processing removal of correlated errors in GRACE data, Geophys Res Lett, 33(8), doi:10.1029/2005GL025285.

  11. Predictive Time Series Analysis Linking Bengal Cholera with Terrestrial Water Storage Measured from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Sensors.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Akanda, Ali; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, including cholera, are related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. However, availability of data on water scarcity and abundance in transnational basins, are a prerequisite for developing cholera forecasting systems. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, conditions favorable for predicting cholera occurrence may now be determined. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during spring and autumn seasons, two separate logistical models between TWS and disease time series (2002-2010) were developed. TWS representing water availability showed an asymmetrical, strong association with cholera prevalence in the spring (? = -0.53; P < 0.001) and autumn (? = 0.45; P < 0.001) up to 6 months in advance. One unit (centimeter of water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% (confidence interval [CI] = 20-31%; P < 0.05) in the spring, while an increase in regional water by 1 unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% (CI = 22-33%; P < 0.05). PMID:26526921

  12. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  13. Isotopic composition of transpiration and rates of change in leaf water isotopologue storage in response to environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Roddy, Adam B; Link, Percy; Apodaca, Randy; Tu, Kevin P; Hu, Jia; Dawson, Todd E; Barbour, Margaret M

    2013-12-01

    During daylight hours, the isotope composition of leaf water generally approximates steady-state leaf water isotope enrichment model predictions. However, until very recently there was little direct confirmation that isotopic steady-state (ISS) transpiration in fact exists. Using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) and leaf gas exchange systems we evaluated the isotope composition of transpiration and the rate of change in leaf water isotopologue storage (isostorage) when leaves were exposed to variable environments. In doing so, we developed a method for controlling the absolute humidity entering the gas exchange cuvette for a wide range of concentrations without changing the isotope composition of water vapour. The measurement system allowed estimation of (18)O enrichment both at the evaporation site and for bulk leaf water, in the steady state and the non-steady state. We show that non-steady-state effects dominate the transpiration isoflux even when leaves are at physiological steady state. Our results suggest that a variable environment likely prevents ISS transpiration from being achieved and that this effect may be exacerbated by lengthy leaf water turnover times due to high leaf water contents. PMID:23647101

  14. Characterization of vegetative storage protein (VSP) and low molecular proteins induced by water deficit in stolon of white clover.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bok-Rye; Lee, Dong-Gi; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    In stolon of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), the 17.3 kDa protein has been newly identified as a vegetative storage protein (VSP) which has preponderant roles in N accumulation and mobilization to sustain growth when capacity of N uptake is strongly reduced. To characterize the water deficit effect on this protein, the kinetic pattern of soluble protein, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and proteomic analysis was studied in the stolon of white clover during 28 days of water-deficit. Water deficit led to decrease protein concentration. SDS-PAGE revealed that two major proteins of 17.3 and 16 kDa were accumulated to high level in response to water stress. These proteins cross-reacted positively with antibodies raised against the 17.3 kDa VSP, a protein which shared biochemical features with stress proteins implied in dehydration tolerance. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis, it was demonstrated that 19.5 and 17.3 kDa protein spots were up-regulated by water stress, and both spots were identical to nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), respectively. These results suggest that low molecular proteins induced by water-deficit in the stolon of white clover act as an alternative N reserves or play significant roles in plant protection against water-deficit stress. PMID:24299955

  15. Solar process water heat for the Iris Images Custom Color Photo Lab. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar facility locted at Iris Images Custom Photo Laboratory in Mill Valley, California. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100/sup 0/F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxiliary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Freeze protection in this mild climate was originally provided by closed-loop circulation of hot water from the storage tank. Later this was changed to a drain-down system due to a freeze when electrical power failed. This system has been relatively successful with little or no scheduled maintenance. The site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are included.

  16. Monitoring of soil water storage along elevation transech on morphological diverse study-sites affected by soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Fer, Miroslav; Klement, Ales; Kratina, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Soil water availability is one of the key factors determining plant growth. Spatial distribution of soil water content is influenced by many factors. For the field-scale, one of the most important factors is terrain and its shape. The goal of our study was to characterize soil water storage within the soil profile with respect to terrain attributes. Two morphologically diverse study sites were chosen, in order to monitor soil water storage during vegetation season. The first site Brumovice in located in the Southern Moravian Region. The original soil unit was Haplic Chernozem developed on loess, which was gradually degraded by soil erosion. In the steepest parts, due to substantial loss of soil material, soil is transformed to Regosol. As a result of consequently sedimentation of previously eroded material in toe slopes and terrain depressions colluvial soils are formed. The second site Vidim is placed in the Central Bohemia. Dominant soil unit in wider area is Haplic Luvisol on loess loam. Similar process of progressive soil transformation was identified. On each study site, two elevation transects were delimited, where each consists of 5 monitoring spots. Access tubes were installed in order to measure soil moisture in six different depths (10, 20, 30 40, 60 a 100 cm) using Profile Probe PR2. The monitoring was conducted during vegetation season: April - July 2012 in Brumovice and May - July 2013 in Vidim. The average soil water contents were calculated for following three layers: topsoil A (0-20 cm), subsoil B (20-40cm), and substrate (40-100cm). The soil water storage within the soil profile was also expressed. Sensors TMS3 were also used for continual soil water content monitoring in the depth of 0-15 cm. In addition undisturbed soil samples were taken from topsoil to measure soil hydraulic properties using the multistep outflow experiment. Data were used to assess retention ability of erosion affected soils. The soil water storage and particularly average soil water content of the topsoil layers were dominantly affected by evapotranspiration (which apparently depended on aspect of the slope) and secondary by soil properties change due to soil erosion especially on steep slopes. Both transects in Brumovice a one transect in Vidim were located on north-facing slopes, while one transect in Vidim was located on south-facing slope. As result higher soil water contents were observed at the steepest part of all 3 transects (north aspects). We found strong significant relationship between slope and average soil moisture for both transects in Brumovice. In the case of the south-facing transect no apparent trend of soil water content with respect to terrain position was observed. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319).

  17. Water-quality analysis of an intensively used on-farm storage reservoir in the northeast Arkansas delta.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew T; Pierce, Jon R; Farris, Jerry L

    2015-07-01

    The use of farm reservoirs for supplemental irrigation is gaining popularity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP). Due to depletions of several aquifers, many counties within the MAP have been designated as critical-use groundwater areas. To help alleviate stress on these aquifers, many farmers are implementing storage reservoirs for economic and conservation benefits. When used in tandem with a tailwater recovery system, reservoirs have the potential to trap and transform potential contaminants (e.g., nutrients and pesticides) rather than releasing them through drainage into receiving systems such as lakes, rivers, and streams. Roberts Reservoir is an intensively used, 49-ha on-farm storage reservoir located in Poinsett County, Arkansas. Water-quality analyses and toxicity assessments of the reservoir and surrounding ditches indicated a stable water-quality environment with no observed toxicity present in collected samples. Results of this study suggest that water released into a local receiving stream poses no contaminant risk and could be maintained for irrigation purposes, thereby decreasing the need for additional groundwater depletion. PMID:25912809

  18. Effect of microwave irradiation and water storage on the viscoelastic properties of denture base and reline acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Carlos Eduardo Leão; Canevarolo, Sebastião Vicente; Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Machado, Ana Lucia; Pavarina, Ana Claudia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of microwave irradiation and water storage on the viscoelastic properties of two denture base resins (Lucitone 550-L and Vipi Wave-VW) and two reline resins (Kooliner-K and Tokuyama Rebase Fast II-TR II). Eight specimens (40×10×3.3 mm) of each material were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) after processing, water storage for 7 days (WS), one (MW1) and 7 cycles of microwave irradiation (MW7). For each specimen, DMTA runs were carried out within different temperature intervals. Values of storage modulus (E(')) and loss tangent (tan ?) at 37 °C were obtained from the first and last runs. From the last run, values of E(') at the glass transition temperature (Tg) and maximum tan ? were also recorded. Data were analyzed by a 2-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test (?=0.05). Measurements of the inside temperature of each specimen during microwave irradiation (650 W/3 min) were conducted using a fiber optic temperature sensor. Six specimens of each material were evaluated. During microwave irradiation, all specimens reached the boiling temperature of water at approximately 130 s. From the first DMTA run, MW1 and WS significantly increased the E(') and decreased the tan ? of K at 37 °C (P<0.05). From the last run, the tan ? of K and TR II was significantly decreased after MW 1 (P<0.05). MW 7 decreased the tan ? of K (P<0.05). The E(') of L and VW was similar and higher than K and TR II (P<0.05). At Tg, K produced the lowest E(') and its maximum tan ? was increased after MW1 (P<0.05). The Tg mean values were arranged as: L>V W>TR II>K (P<0.05). Microwave irradiation and WS did not detrimentally affect the viscoelastic properties of the denture base and reline resins evaluated. PMID:22100079

  19. Water resources of Randolph and Lawrence Counties, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamonds, A.G.; Hines, Marion S.; Plebuch, Raymond O.

    1969-01-01

    Water is used at an average rate of almost 27 million gallons per day in Randolph and Lawrence Counties, and quantities sufficient for any foreseeable use are available. Supplies for the large uses--municipal, industrial, and irrigation--can best be obtained from wells in .he Coastal Plain part of the counties and from streams in the Interior Highlands part. The counties have abundant supplies of hard but otherwise good-quality surface water, particularly in the Interior Highlands and along the western boundary of the Coastal Plain. Minimum recorded flows of four streams (Black, Current, Eleven Point, and Spring Rivers) exceeded 200 cubic feet per second, or 129 million gallons per day. Five other streams have flows in excess of 13 cubic feet per second 95 percent of the time. Water supplies can be obtained without storage from the larger streams in the area. Many of the smaller streams in the Interior Highlands also have large water-supply potential because of the excellent impoundment possibilities. Most of the water used in the .two counties is obtained from ground-water reservoirs in the Coastal Plain. Wells that tap alluvial deposits of Quaternary age commonly yield 1,000 gallons per minute. However, the water often is unsuitable for many uses unless treated to remove hardness, iron, and manganese. Water possibly may be obtained in the southeastern part of the area from the Wilcox Group of Tertiary age and the Nacatoch Sand of Cretaceous age, but these formations have not been explored in the report area. Wells in the Interior Highlands generally are less than 200 feet deep and yield 10 gallons per minute, or less. It may be possible to obtain greater amounts of ground water from two unexplored formations, the Roubidox and the Gunter Sandstone Member of the Van Buren Formation, in the Interior Highlands. Ground water in the Interior Highlands is very hard and is more susceptible to local bacterial contamination than is ground water in the Coastal Plain. However, with proper sanitary safeguards against contamination and with treatment for reduction of hardness, ground water in the Interior Highlands is suitable for most uses.

  20. LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions is presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a Dump-type because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

  1. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Pesticide Storage and Handling 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29

    . The distance from the well should be greater if the site has sandy soils or fractured bed- rock near the soil surface. The risk of pes- ticides contaminating ground water is influenced by properties of both the pesti- cide and the soil on which it is spilled... are important points to remember for existing storage facilities. The least expensive alternative you may have is to reduce the amounts and types of pes- ticides stored. If that is not practical, consider how stored pesticides can be protected. Sound containers...

  2. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  3. Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

  4. VOL. 12, NO. 6 WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH DECEMBER 1976 Heat Storage and Advection in Lake Erie

    E-print Network

    long-term monthly heat storage changes and net advection in Lake Erie. The results presented. Michigan 48104 Heat content and net advection based on long-term monthly mean input data covering 17 yr increasingly available, but sim- ilar long-term information is extremely sparse. The long-term heat content

  5. Control of degradation of spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel during dry storage in an inert atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Simonen, E.P.; Allemann, R.T.; Levy, I.S.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1987-10-01

    Dry storage of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in inert gas (referred to as inerted dry storage or IDS) is being developed as an alternative to water pool storage of spent fuel. The objectives of the activities described in this report are to identify potential Zircaloy degradation mechanisms and evaluate their applicability to cladding breach during IDS, develop models of the dominant Zircaloy degradation mechanisms, and recommend cladding temperature limits during IDS to control Zircaloy degradation. The principal potential Zircaloy cladding breach mechanisms during IDS have been identified as creep rupture, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and delayed hydride cracking (DHC). Creep rupture is concluded to be the primary cladding breach mechanism during IDS. Deformation and fracture maps based on creep rupture were developed for Zircaloy. These maps were then used as the basis for developing spent fuel cladding temperature limits that would prevent cladding breach during a 40-year IDS period. The probability of cladding breach for spent fuel stored at the temperature limit is less than 0.5% per spent fuel rod. 52 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Tracer-aided modelling to assess how the interplay of catchment storage and hydrological connectivity controls non-stationary stream water age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkel, Christian; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of how water and solutes move through catchments and the associated transit times remains a key research frontier in hydrology. The storage dynamics of different landscape units (e.g. hillslope vs. riparian zones) regulate both mixing processes and the strength of hydrological connectivity that govern water and solute fluxes to streams determine catchment transit times. This paper integrates 6 years of empirical field observations in a tracer-aided modelling approach to provide fresh insights into the complex interrelationships between catchment storage dynamics, hillslope connectivity and resulting non-stationary water transit times. We show that in a wet Scottish upland catchment dominated by runoff generation from riparian peats (histosols) with high water storage capacity, the frequency and longevity of hydrological connectivity and the associated relative importance of dynamic flow paths control the contribution of younger or older waters to the stream. Water and solute transport is facilitated by overland flow from saturated histosols connected to the stream network even during smaller events. However, during prolonged dry periods near-surface runoff "switches off" and stream water is dominated by older groundwaters. Generally, the saturated riparian soils represent large mixing zones that buffer the time variance of water age and integrate catchment-scale partial mixing processes. Although simulations depend on model performance, which is influenced by stochastic variation in isotope inputs, a longer-term storage analysis of using the model allowed us to examine the sensitivity of the catchment response and transit times to extreme hydroclimatic variability.

  7. Effect of Chitin Isolated from Crustaceans and Cephalopods on Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein and the State of Water during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yasumitsu; Zhang, Nong; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The effect of chitin hydrolysate made from shell of crustaceans and cartilage of cephalopods on the denaturation and the state of water of lizard fish myofibrillar protein (Mf) during frozen storage at -250°C for 120 days were investigated. 5.0% chitin hydrolysate (dried matter) added Mf samples were frozen at -25°C and storage for 120 days, and the change of inactivation of Mf Ca-ATPase and the change of unfrozen water in Mf were examined during the frozen storage. The decrease of Mf Ca-ATPase during frozen storage were slow by addition of chitin hydrolysate. The amount of unfrozen water in Mf were increased by addition of chitin hydrolysate, and decreaced gradually during frozen storage. On the other hand, the amount of unfrozen water of the control were decreaced suddenly during frozen storage. Above results suggest that chitin hydrolysate has cryoprotective effect on Mf. It is guessed that the mechanism of cryoprotective effect of chitin hydrolysate may be caused by an interaction between hydration sphere of Mf and equatorial OH groups in the molecular structure of chitin hydrolysate.

  8. Ceramic filter manufacturing in Northern Ghana : water storage and quality control

    E-print Network

    Kleiman, Shanti Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Pure Home Water (PHW), a Ghana based non-profit organization working to provide affordable and safe drinking water to people in the Northern Region of Ghana, began the construction of a ceramic pot filter (CPF) ...

  9. Bedrock infiltration estimates from a catchment water storage-based modeling approach in the rain snow transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos, Patrick R.; McNamara, James P.; Seyfried, Mark S.; Marshall, Hans Peter; Marks, Danny; Flores, Alejandro N.

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of bedrock infiltration from mountain catchments in the western U.S. are essential to water resource managers because they provide an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. On smaller scales, bedrock infiltration is an important term in water mass balance studies, which attempt to estimate hydrologic states and fluxes in watersheds with fractured or transmissive bedrock. We estimate the a daily time series of bedrock infiltration in a small catchment in the rain snow transition zone in southwest Idaho, using the difference between measured stream discharge and modeled soil drainage. The accuracy of spatial patterns in soil water storage are optimized, rather than the more common approach of minimizing error in integrated quantities such as streamflow. Bedrock infiltration is estimated to be 289 mm ± 50 mm for the 2011 water year, which is 34% ± 12% of the precipitation (95% confidence). Soils on the southwest facing slope drain more often throughout the snow season, but the northeast facing slope contributes more total soil drainage for the water year. Peaks in catchment soil drainage and bedrock infiltration coincide with rain on snow events.

  10. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  11. High frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J. C.; Visser, A.; Borren, W.; Winegram, M.; van der Velde, Y.; Klein, J.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-06-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. We designed a small scale (1 ha) field experiment to investigate the hydrological and chemical changes after introducing controlled drainage. Precipitation rates and the response of water tables and drain fluxes were measured in the periods before the introduction of controlled drainage (2007-2008) and after (2009-2011). For the N and P concentration measurements, we combined auto-analysers for continuous records with passive samplers for time-average concentrations at individual drain outlets. Our experimental setup yielded continuous time series for all relevant hydrological and chemical parameters, which enabled us to quantify changes in the field water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. We concluded that controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field. The introduction of controlled drainage did not have clear positive effects on nutrient losses to surface water.

  12. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  13. Variability of basin-scale terrestrial water storage from a novel application of the water budget equation: the Amazon and the Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Mariotti, A.; Swenson, S.

    2007-12-01

    In an approach termed the P-E-R (or simply PER) method, we apply the basin water budget equation to diagnose the long-term variability of the total terrestrial water storage (TWS). The key input variables are observed precipitation (P) and runoff (R), and estimated evaporation (E). Unlike typical offline land-surface model estimate where only atmospheric variables are used as input, the direct use of observed runoff in the PER method imposes an important constraint on the diagnosed TWS. Although there lack basin-scale observations of evaporation, the tendency of E to have significantly less variability than the difference between precipitation and runoff (P-R) minimizes the uncertainties originating from estimated evaporation. Compared to the more traditional method using atmospheric moisture convergence (MC) minus R (MCR method), the use of observed precipitation in PER method is expected to lead to general improvement, especially in regions atmospheric radiosonde data are too sparse to constrain the atmospheric model analyzed MC such as in the remote tropics. TWS was diagnosed using the PER method for the Amazon (1970-2006) and the Mississippi Basin (1928-2006), and compared with MCR method, land-surface model and reanalyses, and NASA's GRACE satellite gravity data. The seasonal cycle of diagnosed TWS over the Amazon is about 300 mm. The interannual TWS variability in these two basins are 100-200 mm, but multi-dacadal changes can be as large as 600-800 mm. Major droughts such as the Dust Bowl period had large impact with water storage depleted by 500 mm over a decade. Within the short period 2003-2006 when GRACE data was available, PER and GRACE show good agreement both for seasonal cycle and interannual variability, providing potential to cross-validate each other. In contrast, land-surface model results are significantly smaller than PER and GRACE, especially towards longer timescales. While we currently lack independent means to verify these long-term changes, simple error analysis using 3 precipitation datasets and 3 evaporation estimates suggest that the multi-decadal amplitude can be uncertain up to a factor of 2, while the agreement is high on interannual timescales. The large TWS variability implies the remarkable capacity of land-surface in storing and taking up water that may be under-represented in models. The results also suggest the existence of water storage memories on multi-year time scales, significantly longer than typically assumed seasonal timescales associated with surface soil moisture.

  14. Using Enhanced Grace Water Storage Data to Improve Drought Detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew; Lawrimore, Jay; Li, Bailing; Reichle, Rolf; Heim, Richard; Rosencrans, Matthew; Tinker, Rich; Famiglietti, James S.; Svoboda, Mark; Wardlow, Brian; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors by filling this observational gap. GRACE TWS data were assimilating into the Catchment Land Surface Model using an ensemble Kalman smoother enabling spatial and temporal downscaling and vertical decomposition into soil moisture and groundwater components. The Drought Monitors combine several short- and long-term drought indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence. To be consistent, we generated a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on a 60-year Catchment model simulation, which was used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into drought indicator percentiles. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of the GRACE assimilated moisture and indicator fields.

  15. Place fruit in a microwaveable container and fill with water until fruit are covered.

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    tray. · Crush berries with the back of a spoon and pour some cold water over the crushed berries crush the berries · Mix up a salt water solution (1 cup salt, 1 gallon water) and add enough salt water a microscope. Brown Sugar Test: · Place fruit in a gallon Ziplock bag and lightly crush the berries. · Mix up

  16. Water-Induced Morphology Changes in BaO/gamma-Al2O3 NOx Storage Materials: an FTIR, TPD, and Time-Resolved Synchrotron XRD Study

    SciTech Connect

    Szanyi,J.; Kwak, J.; Kim, D.; Wang, X.; Chimentao, R.; Hanson, J.; Epling, W.; Peden, C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water on the morphology of BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based NO{sub x} storage materials was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of this multispectroscopy study reveal that in the presence of water surface Ba-nitrates convert to bulk nitrates and water facilitates the formation of large Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} particles. The conversion of surface to bulk Ba-nitrates is completely reversible (i.e., after the removal of water from the storage material a significant fraction of the bulk nitrates reconverts to surface nitrates). NO{sub 2} exposure of a H{sub 2}O-containing (wet) BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample results in the formation of nitrites and bulk nitrates exclusively (i.e., no surface nitrates form). After further exposure to NO{sub 2}, the nitrites completely convert to bulk nitrates. The amount of NO{sub x} taken up by the storage material, however, is essentially unaffected by the presence of water regardless of whether the water was dosed prior to or after NO{sub 2} exposure. On the basis of the results of this study, we are now able to explain most of the observations reported in the literature on the effect of water on NO{sub x} uptake on similar storage materials.

  17. Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials: an FTIR, TPD, and time-resolved synchrotron XRD study

    SciTech Connect

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Wang, Xianqin; Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Hanson, Jonathan; Epling, William S.; Peden, Charles HF

    2007-03-29

    The effect of water on the morphology of BaO/Al2O3-based NOx storage materials was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of this multi-spectroscopy study reveal that, in the presence of water, surface Ba-nitrates convert to bulk nitrates, and water facilitates the formation of large Ba(NO3)2 particles. This process is completely reversible, i.e. after the removal of water from the storage material a significant fraction of the bulk nitrates re-convert to surface nitrates. NO2 exposure of a H2O-containing (wet) BaO/Al2O3 sample results in the formation of nitrites and bulk nitrates exclusively, i.e. no surface nitrates form. After further exposure to NO2, the nitrites completely convert to bulk nitrates. The amount of NOx taken up by the storage material is, however, essentially unaffected by the presence of water, regardless of whether the water was dosed prior to or after NO2 exposure. Based on the results of this study we are now able to explain most of the observations reported in the literature on the effect of water on NOx uptake on similar storage materials.

  18. Preconcentration technique for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in natural waters using on-site extraction and long-term storage of diethyldithiocarbamate extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    An extraction method was developed for the preconcentration and atomic spectrometric analysis of several trace metals from natural waters. The procedure incorporates on-site sample preparation and long-term storage of the extracts to reduce sample contamination, improve precision, and add convenience to the procedure. The extraction of manganese with dialkyldithiocarbamates (DTC's) was examined in greatest detail. Various factors affecting extraction efficiency and extract stability were studied. A re-extraction technique using sodium sulfite and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDE) was developed which allows quantitative recovery of Mn after lengthy storage of extracts. The re-extraction technique was also applied to Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Samples of deionized water, tap water, well water, river water and sea water were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The solubility of n-butyl acetate (nBA) in aqueous solutions was also examined and its use as an extracting solvent evaluated.

  19. Water quality requirements for sustaining aquifer storage and recovery operations in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Page, Declan; Miotli?ski, Konrad; Dillon, Peter; Taylor, Russel; Wakelin, Steve; Levett, Kerry; Barry, Karen; Pavelic, Paul

    2011-10-01

    A changing climate and increasing urbanisation has driven interest in the use of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes as an environmental management tool to supplement conventional water resources. This study focuses on ASR with stormwater in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer and the selection of water treatment methods to prevent well clogging. In this study two different injection and recovery phases were trialed. In the first phase ~1380 m(3) of potable water was injected and recovered over four cycles. In the second phase ~3300 m(3) of treated stormwater was injected and ~2410 m(3) were subsequently recovered over three cycles. Due to the success of the potable water injection cycles, its water quality was used to set pre-treatment targets for harvested urban stormwater of ? 0.6 NTU turbidity, ? 1.7 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and ? 0.2 mg/L biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. A range of potential ASR pre-treatment options were subsequently evaluated resulting in the adoption of an ultrafiltration/granular activated carbon system to remove suspended solids and nutrients which cause physical and biological clogging. ASR cycle testing with potable water and treated stormwater demonstrated that urban stormwater containing variable turbidity (mean 5.5 NTU) and organic carbon (mean 8.3 mg/L) concentrations before treatment could be injected into a low transmissivity fractured rock aquifer and recovered for irrigation supplies. A small decline in permeability of the formation in the vicinity of the injection well was apparent even with high quality water that met turbidity and DOC but could not consistently achieve the BDOC criteria. PMID:21652142

  20. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  1. Water use in Ohio, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, R. Michael; Eberle, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The estimated water use in Ohio for all purposes in 1975 was 16 ,431 million gallons per day. Of this total, 15,321 were taken from surface water while the remaining 1,110 represent ground-water withdrawals. Totals by category are as follows (in million gallons per day): Thermoelectric power generation, 12 ,404; self-supplied industrial use, 2,362: public water supplies , 1,423; rural domestic and livestock, 201; and irrigation, 40. Per capita water use was calculated to be 1,528 gallons per day for an Ohio population of 10,751,000 in 1975. Jefferson County led all Ohio counties in total water use with 3,447 million gallons per day. This was nearly three times the usage of second-ranking Gallia County where withdrawals were 1,242 million gallons per day. The heavy water use in both of these Ohio River counties is due to large withdrawals for thermoelectic power generation. Cuyahoga, Lorain, and Lake Counties, all in the Cleveland metropolitan area, rank third, fourth, and fifth in the State with respective totals of 1,061, 1,047, and 1,030 million gallons per day. Water use is more diverse in this area, with public supplies, industrial use, and thermoelectric power all making significant impacts. (USGS)

  2. Temporal dynamics of patterns and structure of electrical conductivity and water storage along three transects irrigated with water at different salinity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Ali; Ajeel, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the role of local scale soil heterogeneities on water and salinity distribution in the soil. The study used a large spatial and temporal dataset of Electromagnetic Induction (EMI), Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Diviner 2000 sensor readings collected at regularly spaced monitoring sites and in several time campaigns along three transects irrigated with water at different salinity levels. The experiment was carried out in a 558m2 field at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, south-eastern coast of Italy. The experimental field consisted of three adjacent transects, 30 m long and 4.2 m wide, with a distance between transects of 3.0 m. The three transects were irrigated with irrigation water at three different salinity levels (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). The irrigation volumes were calculated according to the time-dynamics of water storage measured by the Diviner 2000 capacitance sensor. For each transect, thirteen access tubes, 2 m apart, were installed along the middle line at 60 cm depth to monitor water content in the soil before and after irrigation. A Fourier's analysis was applied to explore the different patterns and structures of variability of the original TDR data series. The analysis was also applied to filter the original data series, in order to extract the predominant, high-variance signal after removing the noise of both the EMI and TDR data series. It is our opinion that identifying the predominant patterns of variability should reveal specific features of the space-time variability of soil water content and salinity to be explicitly used for upscaling water flow and salt transport processes from local to field scale.

  3. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and recharge increasing by more than 40 %. Finally, while water from the tanks directly satisfies ~40 % of the crop water requirement across the northeast monsoon season via surface water irrigation, a large fraction of the tank water is "wasted," and more efficient management of sluice outflows could lead to tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  4. Estimating Water Storage Capacity of Existing and Potentially Restorable Wetland Depressions in a Subbasin of the Red River of the North

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Kermes, Kevin E.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Concern over flooding along rivers in the Prairie Pothole Region has stimulated interest in developing spatially distributed hydrologic models to simulate the effects of wetland water storage on peak river flows. Such models require spatial data on the storage volume and interception area of existing and restorable wetlands in the watershed of interest. In most cases, information on these model inputs is lacking because resolution of existing topographic maps is inadequate to estimate volume and areas of existing and restorable wetlands. Consequently, most studies have relied on wetland area to volume or interception area relationships to estimate wetland basin storage characteristics by using available surface area data obtained as a product from remotely sensed data (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory). Though application of areal input data to estimate volume and interception areas is widely used, a drawback is that there is little information available to provide guidance regarding the application, limitations, and biases associated with such approaches. Another limitation of previous modeling efforts is that water stored by wetlands within a watershed is treated as a simple lump storage component that is filled prior to routing overflow to a pour point or gaging station. This approach does not account for dynamic wetland processes that influence water stored in prairie wetlands. Further, most models have not considered the influence of human-induced hydrologic changes, such as land use, that greatly influence quantity of surface water inputs and, ultimately, the rate that a wetland basin fills and spills. The goals of this study were to (1) develop and improve methodologies for estimating and spatially depicting wetland storage volumes and interceptions areas and (2) develop models and approaches for estimating/simulating the water storage capacity of potentially restorable and existing wetlands under various restoration, land use, and climatic scenarios. To address these goals, we developed models and approaches to spatially represent storage volumes and interception areas of existing and potentially restorable wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin within Grant County, Minn. We then developed and applied a model to simulate wetland water storage increases that would result from restoring 25 and 50 percent of the farmed and drained wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin. The model simulations were performed during the growing season (May-October) for relatively wet (1993; 0.79 m of precipitation) and dry (1987; 0.40 m of precipitation) years. Results from the simulations indicated that the 25 percent restoration scenario would increase water storage by 21-24 percent and that a 50 percent scenario would increase storage by 34-38 percent. Additionally, we estimated that wetlands in the subbasin have potential to store 11.57-20.98 percent of the total precipitation that fell over the entire subbasin area (52,758 ha). Our simulation results indicated that there is considerable potential to enhance water storage in the subbasin; however, evaluation and calibration of the model is necessary before simulation results can be applied to management and planning decisions. In this report we present guidance for the development and application of models (e.g., surface area-volume predictive models, hydrology simulation model) to simulate wetland water storage to provide a basis from which to understand and predict the effects of natural or human-induced hydrologic alterations. In developing these approaches, we tried to use simple and widely available input data to simulate wetland hydrology and predict wetland water storage for a specific precipitation event or a series of events. Further, the hydrology simulation model accounted for land use and soil type, which influence surface water inputs to wetlands. Although information presented in this report is specific to the Mustinka subbasin, the approaches

  5. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives

    E-print Network

    Y. Wei; D. J. Durian

    2014-02-10

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  6. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18 percent less than withdrawals for irrigation in 1974. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer for irrigation in 2000 were 21 million acre-feet (McGuire, 2007). Water-level changes in the aquifer result from an imbalance between discharge and recharge. Discharge is primarily ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. Discharge also includes evapotranspiration, where the water table is near the land surface, and seepage to streams and springs, where the water table intersects with the land surface. Recharge is primarily from precipitation. Other sources of recharge are irrigation return flow and seepage from streams, canals, and reservoirs. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for ground-water withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Water-level declines also can affect ground-water availability, surface-water flow, and near-stream (riparian) habitat areas (Alley and others, 1999).

  7. Integration of altimetric lake levels and GRACE gravimetry over Africa: Inferences for terrestrial water storage change 2003-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.

  8. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Savannah, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar System was designed to provide 50 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Liquid Flat Plate Collectors (900 square feet) are used for the collector subsystem. The collector subsystem is closed loop, using 50 percent Ethylene Glycol solution antifreeze for freeze protection. The 1,000 gallon fiber glass storage tank contains two heat exchangers. One of the heat exchangers heats the storage tank with the collector solar energy. The other heat exchanger preheats the cold supply water as it passes through on the way to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tank heaters. Electrical energy supplements the solar energy for the DHW. The Collector Mounting System utilizes guy wires to structurally tie the collector array to the building.

  9. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Savannah, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The Solar System was designed to provide 50 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Liquid Flat Plate Collectors (900 square feet) are used for the collector subsystem. The collector subsystem is closed loop, using 50 percent Ethylene Glycol solution antifreeze for freeze protection. The 1,000 gallon fiber glass storage tank contains two heat exchangers. One of the heat exchangers heats the storage tank with the collector solar energy. The other heat exchanger preheats the cold supply water as it passes through on the way to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tank heaters. Electrical energy supplements the solar energy for the DHW. The Collector Mounting System utilizes guy wires to structurally tie the collector array to the building.

  10. Integrating Enhanced Grace Terrestrial Water Storage Data Into the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations nf the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including ground water. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors are two of the premier drought monitoring products available to decision-makers for assessing and minimizing drought impacts, but they rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors hy filling this observational gap. Horizontal, vertical and temporal disaggregation of the coarse-resolution GRACE TWS data has been accomplished by assimilating GRACE TWS anomalies into the Catchment Land Surface Model using ensemble Kalman smoother. The Drought Monitors combine several short-term and long-term drought indices and indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence for the location and time of year in question. To be consistent, we are in the process of generating a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on m 60-year Catchment model simulation which will subsequently be used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into soil moisture and groundwater percentiles. for systematic incorporation into the objective blends that constitute Drought Monitor baselines. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of GRACE assimilated Catchment model output against independent datasets including soil moisture observations from Aqua AMSR-E and groundwater level observations from the U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Climate Response Network.

  11. Annual water resources review, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-water data were collected in 1980 at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico. The total water pumped at White Sands Missile Range in 1980 was 725,053,000 gallons, which was 32.5 million gallons more than in 1979. The Post Headquarters well field, which produces more than 98 percent of the water used at White Sands Missile Range, pumped 712,909,000 gallons, which was 31.1 million gallons more in 1980 than in 1979. Data were collected for specific Range areas north of the Post Headquarters area that might have potential for future water-supply development. (USGS)

  12. Ecohydrology of petrocalcic horizons: water storage, ecological potential, and hydrologic models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1) Background/Question/Methods In water-limited ecosystems, soil profile characteristics can control plant community composition and production through their influence on spatial and temporal patterns of plant available water (PAW). Cemented parts of the soil profile typically are overlooked when e...

  13. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  15. Comprehensive, Process-based Identification of Hydrologic Models using Satellite and In-situ Water Storage Data: A Multi-objective calibration Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo Yassin, Fuad; Wheater, Howard; Razavi, Saman; Sapriza, Gonzalo; Davison, Bruce; Pietroniro, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The credible identification of vertical and horizontal hydrological components and their associated parameters is very challenging (if not impossible) by only constraining the model to streamflow data, especially in regions where the vertical processes significantly dominate the horizontal processes. The prairie areas of the Saskatchewan River basin, a major water system in Canada, demonstrate such behavior, where the hydrologic connectivity and vertical fluxes are mainly controlled by the amount of surface and sub-surface water storages. In this study, we develop a framework for distributed hydrologic model identification and calibration that jointly constrains the model response (i.e., streamflows) as well as a set of model state variables (i.e., water storages) to observations. This framework is set up in the form of multi-objective optimization, where multiple performance criteria are defined and used to simultaneously evaluate the fidelity of the model to streamflow observations and observed (estimated) changes of water storage in the gridded landscape over daily and monthly time scales. The time series of estimated changes in total water storage (including soil, canopy, snow and pond storages) used in this study were derived from an experimental study enhanced by the information obtained from the GRACE satellite. We test this framework on the calibration of a Land Surface Scheme-Hydrology model, called MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology), for the Saskatchewan River basin. Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS) is used as the multi-objective optimization engine. The significance of using the developed framework is demonstrated in comparison with the results obtained through a conventional calibration approach to streamflow observations. The approach of incorporating water storage data into the model identification process can more potentially constrain the posterior parameter space, more comprehensively evaluate the model fidelity, and yield more credible predictions.

  16. Availability and Quality of Water from Underground Coal Mines in Johnson and Martin Counties, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Cordivio1a, Steven; Risser, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides water users with detailed information on the location, quantity, and quality of water available from underground coal mines in the Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age in part of eastern Kentucky. The principal coal seams mined are the Van Lear in Johnson County and the Alma in Martin County. Coal mines that contained water were located by field inventory and coal-mine maps. The principal factors that affect the occurrence of water in coal mines are the size of the recharge area overlying the mine, the intensity and duration of precipitation, and the altitude of the mine relative to that of the nearest perennial stream. Ten above-drainage mines (that is, mines at higher elevations than that of the nearest perennial stream) are considered potential sources of water. Discharge from these mines ranged from 12 to 1,700 gallons per minute. The highest sustained discharge from a mine ranged from 750 to 1,200 gallons per minute. The water in coal mines is part of the hydrologic system and varies seasonally with precipitation. Annual discharge from most above-drainage mines ranged from 3 to 10 percent of annual precipitation on the 1and-surface area above the mine. Eight below-drainage mines are considered potential sources of water. Two were test-pumped at rates of 560 to 620 gallons per minute for as long as 6 hours. After test pumping the Warfield Mining No. 1 mine during September 1977 and March 1978, the recovery (or recharge) rates were significantly different. In September, the recharge rate was about 1,150 gallons per minute, but in March the recharge rate was 103,500 gallons per minute. This difference reflects the seasonal variations in the amount of water available to the ground-water system. Estimates of water stored in below-drainage mines ranged from 22 to 1,462 million gallons. This storage represents a safety factor sufficient to provide water through periods of limited recharge to the mine. Most mine water is of the calcium magnesium sulfate type. In general, water from below-drainage mines had lower concentrations of dissolved constituents and higher pH than water from mines above drainage. The hardness of water ranged from soft to very hard and pH ranged -from 3.1 to 8.0 units. Dissolved iron ranged from 0.01 to 64 milligrams per liter. Phenol concentrations in water from eight coal mines ranged from 0 to 5 micrograms per liter. There seems to be a significant difference in the chemical quality of water from above- and below-drainage mines. The concentration of most constituents was lower in water from below-drainage mines than it was from above-drainage mines. The better quality water from below-drainage mines may reflect (1) lower mineralization resulting from less atmospheric oxygen available to react with pyrite or, (2) the result of sampling only the upper zones of water in below-drainage mines where the water has been diluted by less mineralized surface water or inflow or recharge.

  17. Changes in Soil Water Storage under Global Warming in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. Y.; Lan, C. W.; Lo, M. H.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global hydrological cycle play an important role in the Earth's climate system. In this study, we use simulations from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) model archives to estimate changes in seasonal cycle of terrestrial soil water under global warming (with the RCP8.5 scenario). Our preliminary results show that future global warming is leading to declines in snow fall and snow amount in most models and a lack of snow melt during spring and summer results in less recharge of soil moisture, which makes soil water less during the dry season over most of the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, decreases in the soil ice also play an important role in modifying the seasonal variations of soil water via affecting the infiltration and runoff rates, which might cause the soil dry out faster. The increase in annual cycle of the global soil water under global warming found in this study has important implications for water management and water security under climate changes due to an increase in the water distribution heterogeneity.

  18. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their criticality safety prior to their deployment and implementation.

  19. Surface gravity and deformation effects of water storage changes in China's Three Gorges Reservoir constrained by modeled results and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linsong; Chen, Chao; Zou, Rong; Du, Jinsong

    2014-09-01

    The water impoundment of China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), with the largest dam in the world, makes a large mass concentrated and thus influences the surface gravity field and crustal deformation field. In the TGR area, water impoundment began in 2003, and the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of water storage. These responses can be investigated using the gravimeter and the GPS. In this paper, using a water load model derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and elastic loading Green's function, we modeled the surface gravity and displacement changes in the front area of TGR caused by water storage variations. Predictive results are compared with the measurements derived from absolute gravity by A10, continuous gravity by gPhone and GPS time series at the sites of front area in TGR. The observations agree well with the prediction spatially and temporally. The quantitative comparison and analysis indicate that the ground gravity and the vertical displacement are more sensitive to water storage changes than the horizontal displacement. The predictions from the water load model are consistent with the in situ measurements reported in this work and therefore can be utilized for water effect corrections for exacting the further signals related to lithospheric dynamics and geological hazards, such as abnormal deformation of active faults and landslides.

  20. Impact of Coupled Heat Transfer and Water Flow on Soil Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (SBTES) Systems: Experimental and Modeling Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A.; Smits, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    A promising energy storage option to compensate for daily and seasonal energy offsets is to inject and store heat generated from renewable energy sources (e.g. solar energy) in the ground, oftentimes referred to as soil borehole thermal energy storage (SBTES). Nonetheless in SBTES modeling efforts, it is widely recognized that the movement of water vapor is closely coupled to thermal processes. However, their mutual interactions are rarely considered in most soil water modeling efforts or in practical applications. The validation of numerical models that are designed to capture these processes is difficult due to the scarcity of experimental data, limiting the testing and refinement of heat and water transfer theories. A common assumption in most SBTES modeling approaches is to consider the soil as a purely conductive medium with constant hydraulic and thermal properties. However, this simplified approach can be improved upon by better understanding the coupled processes at play. Consequently, developing new modeling techniques along with suitable experimental tools to add more complexity in coupled processes has critical importance in obtaining necessary knowledge in efficient design and implementation of SBTES systems. The goal of this work is to better understand heat and mass transfer processes for SBTES. In this study, we implemented a fully coupled numerical model that solves for heat, liquid water and water vapor flux and allows for non-equilibrium liquid/gas phase change. This model was then used to investigate the influence of different hydraulic and thermal parameterizations on SBTES system efficiency. A two dimensional tank apparatus was used with a series of soil moisture, temperature and soil thermal properties sensors. Four experiments were performed with different test soils. Experimental results provide evidences of thermally induced moisture flow that was also confirmed by numerical results. Numerical results showed that for the test conditions applied here, moisture flow is more influenced by thermal gradients rather than hydraulic gradients. The results also demonstrate that convective fluxes are higher compared to conductive fluxes indicating that moisture flow has more contribution to the overall heat flux than conductive fluxes.

  1. Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Low, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.

  2. Comparison of Measured and Simulated Water Storage in Dryland Terraces of the Loess Plateau, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mountainous regions of China, developing sustainable agriculture requires implementing conservation management practices that prevent soil erosion and conserve soil and water resources. In the semiarid northwest Loess Plateau, the primary conservation management practice is terracing, which ...

  3. IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE STORAGE OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of volatile organic analytes from water samples by the Teflon septum surface used with standard glass 40-ml sample collection vials was investigated. Analytes tested included alkanes, isoalkanes, olefins, cycloalkanes, a cycloalkene, monoaromatics, a polynuclear arom...

  4. Water stress, shoot growth and storage of non-structural carbohydrates along a tree height gradient in a tall conifer.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, David R; Meinzer, Frederick C

    2011-11-01

    We analysed concentrations of starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose in upper branch wood, foliage and trunk sapwood of Douglas-fir trees in height classes ranging from ~2 to ~57 m. Mean concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) for all tissues were highest in the tallest height class and lowest in the lowest height class, and height-related trends in NSC were most pronounced in branches. Throughout a 17-month sampling period, mean values of branch NSC from the 57 m trees ranged between 30 and 377% greater than the 2 m trees. Branch NSC was inversely correlated with midday shoot water potential (?(l)), shoot osmotic potential at full turgor (?) and shoot extension. Temporal fluctuation in branch NSC was inversely correlated with height, and positively correlated with midday ?(l) , ? and shoot extension. The positive correlation between height and storage of NSC, and the negative correlation between NSC storage and shoot extension provide evidence that size-related growth decline in trees is not strongly associated with constraints on photosynthesis. The negative correlation between height and fluctuation in NSC suggests that mobilization of photosynthate in taller trees is constrained by some factor such as reductions in turgor-driven cell expansion or constraints on phloem transport. PMID:21722142

  5. H{sub 2}OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH){sub 3}[a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO{sub 2}) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO{sub 2} precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  6. H[sub 2]OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH)[sub 3][a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO[sub 2]) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO[sub 2] precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  7. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) subsystems and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs.

  8. Effect of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Subcritical Water Processing on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patty during Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) addition on the quality characteristics of pork patties. The SPHs was prepared by subcritical water process (SWP) at 180? without holding time and mixed with the pork patty components at varying concentrations (0-3%), and the patties were stored at 4? for 14 d. As quality parameters, instrumental color, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force were measured at the end of storage. Regardless of SPHs concentration, the addition of SPHs significantly manifested low L* and high a* values compared to those of untreated control (p<0.05). For b* value, addition of SPHs in the 0.5-1.5% was unaffected, while >2.0% of SPHs caused significantly lower b* than control (p<0.05). The color changes in pork patties with and without SPHs were also identified in visual appearance where the pork patties containing 0.5-2.0% showed bright red color which was comparable to brownish color of control and patties containing >2.5% SPHs. Lipid oxidation was delayed by the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs, while it was accelerated by the addition of 3% SPHs. The pH of patties increased with increasing concentration of SPHs, whereas there were no significant differences in WHC and shear force of patties. Consequently, the results indicated that the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs had a potential advantage in suppressing oxidative deterioration of fat-containing meat products during chilled storage.

  9. Expression of two soybean vegetative storage protein genes during development and in response to water deficit, wounding, and jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Mullet, J E

    1990-06-01

    The expression of vspA and vspB genes encoding soybean vegetative storage proteins was studied during seedling development and in response to water deficit, tissue wounding, and jasmonic acid treatment. vspA and vspB encode VSP-alpha and VSP-beta, 28-kilodalton and 31-kilodalton vacuole-localized polypeptides that are 80% homologous. vspA and vspB mRNAs could be distinguished on RNA blots using 3'-end probes. vspA mRNA was threefold to sevenfold more abundant than vspB mRNA in leaves, about equal expression was observed in stems, and vspB mRNA exceeded vspA in roots. Transcripts were not detected in dry seeds but appeared in intact or excised seedling axes between 12 hr and 24 hr after initiation of imbibition. Both transcripts were highly abundant in the meristematic region of seedling stems and in developing leaves but were rare in mature stems, leaves, and roots. In situ localization showed that vsp transcripts were found throughout the hypocotyl hook but were concentrated in cells associated with the epidermis and vascular bundles. Water deficit caused increased vsp mRNA levels in leaves and stems, which suggests that inhibition of growth necessitates temporary storage of amino acids. Wounding induced primarily vspB mRNA in etiolated seedlings, whereas both vspA and vspB mRNA levels increased in wounded leaves. Jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate were potent inducers of vsp gene expression in cell cultures, developing axes, leaves, and roots. We hypothesize that jasmonic acid levels modulate vsp mRNA abundance in vivo. PMID:2152178

  10. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of residence time and storage volume of subsurface water evaluated by multi-tracers approach in mountainous headwater catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, Maki; Yano, Shinjiro; Abe, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Yoshizawa, Ayumi; Watanabe, Ysuhito; Ikeda, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Headwater catchments in mountainous region are the most important recharge area for surface and subsurface waters, additionally time and stock information of the water is principal to understand hydrological processes in the catchments. However, there have been few researches to evaluate variation of residence time and storage volume of subsurface water in time and space at the mountainous headwaters especially with steep slope. We performed an investigation on age dating and estimation of storage volume using simple water budget model in subsurface water with tracing of hydrological flow processes in mountainous catchments underlain by granite, Paleozoic and Tertiary, Yamanashi and Tsukuba, central Japan. We conducted hydrometric measurements and sampling of spring, stream and ground waters in high-flow and low-flow seasons from 2008 through 2012 in the catchments, and CFCs, stable isotopic ratios of oxygen-18 and deuterium, inorganic solute constituent concentrations were determined on all water samples. Residence time of subsurface water ranged from 11 to 60 years in the granite catchments, from 17 to 32 years in the Paleozoic catchments, from 13 to 26 years in the Tertiary catchments, and showed a younger age during the high-flow season, whereas it showed an older age in the low-flow season. Storage volume of subsurface water was estimated to be ranging from 10 ^ 4 to 10 ^ 6 m3 in the granite catchments, from 10 ^ 5 to 10 ^ 7 m3 in the Paleozoic catchments, from 10 ^ 4 to 10 ^ 6 m3 in the Tertiary catchments. In addition, seasonal change of storage volume in the granite catchments was the highest as compared with those of the Paleozoic and the Tertiary catchments. The results suggest that dynamic change of hydrological process seems to cause a larger variation of the residence time and storage volume of subsurface water in time and space in the granite catchments, whereas higher groundwater recharge rate due to frequent fissures or cracks seems to cause larger storage volume of the subsurface water in the Paleozoic catchments though the variation is not so considerable. Also, numerical simulation results support these findings.

  12. Preparation of LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) spent fuel for shipment to ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) for long term storage (LWBR Development Program). [Shippingport Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, B.W.

    1987-10-01

    After successfully operating for 29,047 effective full power hours, the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core was defueled prior to total decommissioning of the Shippingport facility. All nuclear fuel and much of the reactor internal hardware was removed from the reactor vessel. Non-fuel components were prepared for shipment to disposal sites, and the fuel assemblies were partially disassembled and shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) in Idaho. At ECF, the fuel modules underwent further disassembly to provide fuel rods for nondestructive testing to establish the core's breeding efficiency and to provide core components for examinations to assess their performance characteristics. This report presents a basic description of the processes and equipment used to prepare and to ship all LWBR nuclear fuel to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for long-term storage. Preparation processes included the underwater loading of LWBR fuel into storage liners, the sealing, dewatering and drying of the storage liners, and the final pressurization of the storage liners with inert neon gas. Shipping operations included the underwater installation of the fuel loaded storage liner into the Peach Bottom shipping cask, cask removal from the waterpit, cask preparations for shipping, and cask shipment by tractor trailer to the ICPP facility for long-term storage. The ICPP facility preparations for LWBR fuel storage and the ICPP process for discharge of the fuel into underground silos are presented. 10 refs., 42 figs.

  13. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species are less shade tolerant than evergreen species. PMID:25428825

  14. Storage and recycling of water and carbon dioxide in the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Bernard J.

    1994-01-01

    The stabilities and properties of water- and carbon-bearing phases in the earth have been determined from phase equilibrium measurements, combined with new data on the equations of state of water, carbon dioxide, carbonates and hydrates. The data have then been used to predict the fate of calcite and hydrous phases in subducting oceanic lithosphere. From the compositions of MORB's one can estimate concentrations of water and carbon of around 200 ppm and 80 ppm respectively in the upper mantle. Lower mantle estimates are very uncertain, but 1900 ppm water and 2000 ppm C are plausible concentrations. Measurements of the density of supercritical water to 3 GPa demonstrate that this phase is less compressible than anticipated from the equations of state of Haar et al. or Saul and Wagner and is closer to predictions based on molecular dynamics simulations. Conversely, fugacity measurements on carbon dioxide to 7 GPa show that this fluid is more compressible than predicted from the MRK equation of state. The results imply that hydrates are relatively more stable and carbonates less stable at pressures greater than 5 GPa than would be predicted from simple extrapolation of the low pressure data. Nevertheless, carbonates remain extremely refractory phases within both the upper and lower mantle.

  15. Geologic features and ground-water storage capacity of the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Davis, G.H.

    1961-01-01

    The Sacramento Valley constitutes the northern and smaller arm of the Central Valley of California. It is about 150 miles long by about 30 miles wide; and its area is about 5,000 square miles. The Sacramento Valley is drained by the Sacramento River, the largest in California, which rises west of Mount Shasta and flows southward to join the San Joaquin River near Suisun Bay and discharges through San Francisco Bay to the Pacific. Most of the valley floor is suitable for growing crops, and under irrigation the land is highly productive. The Sacramento Valley is underlain by sediments transported from the surrounding mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The floor of the valley slopes southward from about 300 feet above sea level at the north end near Red Bluff to sea level at Suisun Bay. The Sutter Buttes, which are erosional remnants of an old volcano rise to 2,132 feet above sea level near the center of the valley. The valley floor is not a featureless plain but is characterized by various types of topography, which have been assigned to four principal groups: 1, low hills and dissected alluvial uplands; 2, low alluvial plains and fans; 3, flood plains and natural levees; and 4, flood basins; a fifth and relatively minor group consists of the tidal Islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which are south of the principal area of investigation. The rocks that underlie the Sacramento Valley and the bordering mountains range from crystalline rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age to unconsolidated alluvium of Recent age. These rocks have been subdivided into 20 geologic units which may be assigned to 2 broad categories: rocks that yield little water and rocks that yield water freely. The rocks of the first category are chiefly marine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Early Tertiary age and a basement complex of pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks. The rocks of the second category consist predominantly of nonmarine valley-filling sediments of late Tertiary and Quaternary age, which constitute the principal ground-water reservoir in the Sacramento Valley. The rocks that yield little or no water includes the following geologic units: 1, Basement complex of the Sierra Nevada (pre-Tertiary); 2, Shasta series (Lower Cretaceous); 3, Chico formation (Upper Cretaceous); 4, Paleocene series; 5, Eocene series (in part, water yielding); 6, basalt (Tertiary); 7, sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin on the west side of the Sacramento Valley (Tertiary, in part water yielding) ; 8, intrusive rhyolite and andesite and vent tuff of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene); and 9, tuff-breccia of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene, in part water yielding). The rocks that yield water freely, comprises the following geologic units: 1, Volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada (Eocene to Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 2, Tuscan formation (Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 3, Tehama formation (Pliocene); 4, Tehama formation and related continental sediments, undifferentiated (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 5, Laguna formation and related continental sediments (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 6, fanglomerate from the Cascade Range (Pleistocene); 7, Red Bluff formation (Pleistocene); 8, Victor formation and related deposits (Pleistocene); 9, alluvial-fan deposits (Pleistocene and Recent); 10, river deposits (Recent); and 11, flood-basin deposits (Recent). The volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada consist chiefly of andesitic and rhyolitic detritus. Most of these volcanic rocks are fragmental and were deposited either as mudflows or by streams. Their permeability is extremely variable, the poorly consolidated sandstone and conglomerate strata locally yield water copiously to wells, but the interbedded fine-grained and cemented strata are virtually impermeable and act as confining layers. The Tuscan formation, which occurs in the northeastern part of the valley, consists of fragmental andesitic and basaltic mate

  16. Effects of prolonged restriction in water supply on photosynthesis, shoot development and storage root yield in sweet potato.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Philippus Daniel Riekert; Laurie, Robert

    2008-09-01

    Besides the paucity of information on the effects of drought stress on photosynthesis and yield in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], available reports are also contradictory. The aim of this study was to shed light on the effects of long-term restricted water supply on shoot development, photosynthesis and storage root yield in field-grown sweet potato. Experiments were conducted under a rainout shelter where effects of restricted water supply were assessed in two varieties (Resisto and A15). Large decreases in stomatal conductance occurred in both varieties after 5 weeks of treatment. However, continued measurements revealed a large varietal difference in persistence of this response and effects on CO(2) assimilation. Although restricted water supply decreased leaf relative water content similarly in both varieties, the negative effects on stomatal conductance disappeared with time in A15 (indicating high drought acclimation capacity) but not in Resisto, thus leading to inhibition of CO(2) assimilation in Resisto. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, and the relationship between stomatal conductance, intercellular CO(2) concentration and CO(2) assimilation rate, indicated that drought stress inhibited photosynthesis primarily through stomatal closure. Although yield loss was considerably larger in Resisto, it was also reduced by up to 60% in A15, even though photosynthesis, expressed on a leaf area basis, was not inhibited in this variety. In A15 yield loss appears to be closely associated with decreased aboveground biomass accumulation, whereas in Resisto, combined effects on biomass accumulation and photosynthesis per unit leaf area are indicated, suggesting that research aimed at improving drought tolerance in sweet potato should consider both these factors. PMID:18494734

  17. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles.

    PubMed

    Greifenstein, Michael; White, Duvel W; Stubner, Alex; Hout, Joseph; Whelton, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0mg/L and <0.05 ?g/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 ?g/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 ?g/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 ?g/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 ?g/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 ?g/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 ?g/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. PMID:23624011

  18. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  19. Aspect influences on soil water retention and storage I. J. Geroy,1

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    D. G. Chandler,4 S. G. Benner3 and J. P. McNamara3 * 1 United States Forest Service, Durango, CO, 81301 2 Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, water stored in the soil profile can be the primary bio-available reservoir. Topographic indexing

  20. CALORIMETRIC PROPERTIES OF WATER AND TRIACYLGLYCEROLS IN FERN SPORES RELATING TO STORAGE AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at -15 degrees C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We us...

  1. Residue management impacts on field-scale snow distribution and soil water storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial variation of available soil water has important environmental and economic effects and implications by affecting crop yield and quality and effective fertilization recommendation. Studies show that no-tillage (NT) practices, compared to conventional tillage (CT), can result in more soil wate...

  2. The effects of water storage changes in China's Three Gorges Reservoir on in situ gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Wahr, J. M.; Chen, C.

    2013-12-01

    The gravity field at locations near China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) changes primarily because of variations in the reservoir's water level. Those variations also give rise to surface vertical displacements, level plane changes, fluctuations in groundwater, and secondary geological hazards. Since 2008 there have been four consecutive years of experimental impoundment in TGR, with the lake surface reaching an elevation of 175 m at full capacity. The reservoir's water level varies seasonally between 145 m and 175 m from summer to winter. When the water level is near its 175 m maximum, there are also irregular water level variations of the order of 1 meter, that occur at characteristic periods of a few weeks. Here, we describe the use of in situ measurements from gravimeters near the TGR, to detect gravity field variations caused by these various changes in TGR water impoundment. The gravitational effects caused by a lake level change can be separated into the direct gravitational attraction of the water, and secondary effects caused by the Earth's deformation in response to the change in surface loading. We model the direct attraction by dividing the lake into a large number of thin, vertical columns of water, and finding the gravitational acceleration caused by each column. We model the contributions related to the Earth's deformation by using elastic loading Green functions as described by Farrell (1972). The lake level variations are determined from tide gauge measurements at each end of the TGR. The modelled results show that the gravity along the edge of the lake can vary seasonally by up to a few hundred micro-gals if the gravimeter is situated well above the lake surface. The predicted variations caused by the ~1 meter fluctuations in lake level can be on the order of a few to 10 micro-gals. We use data from two years of repeat absolute gravity (A10) campaigns at several locations, and from roughly 5 months of continuous relative gravity (gPhone) measurements at a single site near the lake, to compare with the model predictions. For the seasonal variation, the agreement between the modelled and observed amplitudes is good, but there are not yet enough data to assess the agreement in phase. For the ~1 meter variability that can occur near maximum lake level, the observed signal has a somewhat larger amplitude than the predicted signal, and shows a consistent phase lag of a few days. We propose that these latter differences could indicate variability in the underlying groundwater beneath the instrument.

  3. Measurement of ground-water storage change and specific yield using the temporal-gravity method near Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Donald R.; Schmidt, Werner

    1997-01-01

    The temporal-gravity method was used to estimate ground-water storage change and specific -yield values at wells near Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona, between early December 1992 and early January 1994. The method applies Newton's Law of Gravitation to measure changes in the local gravitational field of the Earth that are caused by changes in the mass and volume of ground water. Gravity at 50 stations in a 6-square-mile area was measured repeatedly relative to gravity at two bedrock stations. Ephemeral recharge through streamflow infiltration during the winter of 1992-93 resulted in water-level rises and gravity increases near Rillito Creek as the volume of ground water in storage increased. Water levels in wells rose as much as 30 feet, and gravity increased as much as 90 microgals. Water levels declined and gravity decreased near the stream after the last major winter flow but continued to rise and increase, respectively, in downgradient areas. Water levels and gravity relative to bedrock were measured at 10 wells. Good linear correlations between water levels and gravity values at five wells nearest the stream allowed for the estimation of specific-yield values for corresponding stratigraphic units assuming the mass change occurred in an infinite horizonal slab of uniform thickness. Specific-yield values for the stream-channel deposits at three wells ranged from 0.15 to 0.34, and correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.99. Specific-yield values for the Fort Lowell Formation at three wells ranged from 0.07 to 0.18, and correlation coefficients ranged from 0.82 to 0.93. Specific-yield values were not calculated for the five wells farthest from the stream because of insufficient water-level and gravity change or poor correlations between water level and gravity. Poor correlations between water levels and gravity resulted from ground-water storage change in perched aquifers and in the unsaturated zone near ephemeral streams. Seasonal distributions of ground-water storage change since early December 1992 were evaluated from gravity change at all stations using Gauss's Law. Changes in the distribution of gravity are caused by the flow of water into or out of ground-water storage. Gravity along two profiles was measured frequently to evaluate spatial and temporal distributions of gravity change. Gravity variations indicated preferential ground-water flow to the south in the western part of the study area where the saturate thickness of the aquifer is greatest. Storage changes from December 1992 through early March 1993, mid-May 1993, late August 1993, and early January 1994 were calculated as increases of 7,900, 8,000, 6,300, and 3,700 acre-feet, respectively. Seasonal variations in storage were caused by ground-water withdrawlas, ground-water flow across the boundaries of the gravity-station network, and streamflow infiltration from December 1992 through late April 1993. Most of the estimated recharge of 10,900 acre-feet occurred before mid-May 1993.

  4. Surface and subsurface water storage changes over the central Congo Basin revealed by integrating GRACE, Envisat altimetry, and PALSAR ScanSAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Jung, H.; Yuan, T.; Beighley, E.; Duan, J.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Raoufi, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (~3.7 million km2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (~40,200 m3 s-1 annual average). The impact and connections of this hydrologic flux with the regional and global climate, biogeochemical cycles, and terrestrial water storages are clearly of great importance. However, little is known about the hydrology and hydraulics of the Congo Basin. The Congo Basin has not experienced the same degree of new research compared to the Amazon in spite of its enormous size because the lack of in situ has limited our hydrologic understanding of the basin. In this study, we integrate multiple satellite measurements; terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE, water level changes from radar altimeter, and inundated extents from PALSAR ScanSAR imagery to characterize and quantify TWS change and its surface and subsurface components over the central Congo Basin. Our results indicate that the annual variations of the TWS changes during the period of 2007 - 2010 range between 21 km3 and 31 km3, and mostly controlled by surface storage changes. Our result is in contrast with a study over another large tropical basin, the Negro River Basin, where the amplitude of the subsurface storage changes represents more than a third of the amplitude of TWS changes. Our findings will contribute to provide a basis for determining and predicting the impacts of climate change and deforestations on the distribution of terrestrial water stores and fluxes in the Congo Basin.

  5. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  6. Comparison of Soil Phosphorus Storage in the Ridge and Slough Landscape in Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA3A) of the Everglades

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Comparison of Soil Phosphorus Storage in the Ridge and Slough Landscape in Water Conservation Area analyzed in 2 cm increments for Total Phosphorus (TP) and five metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Al, and K). The ridge of the historic Everglades landscape. Ridge soils, known as Everglades peat, are comprised of brownish black

  7. A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

  8. Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

  9. Seasonal, Episodic and Periodic Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Recorded By DEEP Piezometric Monitoring in the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna DELTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, W. G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Ahmed, K. M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.; Zahid, A.

    2014-12-01

    Piezometric monitoring in vertical profile at sites across the southern and coastal floodplains of the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna (GBM) delta confirms gravitational flow in sediments of the Bengal Aquifer System (BAS) to a depth of at least 320 m (the maximum depth of measurement). Individual and paired records of groundwater head indicate seasonal recovery and recession of water storage, periodic and episodic ground surface loading, and earth tide responses. Lunar periodicity in groundwater head fluctuation coincident with tide height at one coastal site is consistent with tidal surface loading/unloading. Diurnal tidal fluctuations in the same record change amplitude and shift phase with depth, also indicative of surface loading/unloading. Transience in the surface loading signals with depth is governed by the vertically integrated hydraulic properties of the thick BAS sedimentary sequence. Inland, earth tide responses of smaller amplitude and lacking phase shift with depth are ubiquitous in the background signal. Most records include clearly resolvable episodic deflections in the order of 0.1 m water head and up to 0.5 m water head, near simultaneous with depth, corresponding to individual episodes of rainfall. The episodic head deflections provide a record of change in terrestrial water storage (?TWS) comprising undifferentiated surface water flooding, soil moisture and shallow groundwater recharge - a direct land-based equivalent of satellite estimates of ?TWS. Enigmatic short-term recession from individual deflection peaks may be related to elastic deformation and ground surface lowering under terrestrial water storage loading.

  10. Examination of CO2-SO2 solubility in water by SAFT1. Implications for CO2 transport and storage.

    PubMed

    Miri, R; Aagaard, P; Hellevang, H

    2014-08-28

    Removal of toxic gases like SO2 by cosequestration with CO2 in deep saline aquifers is a very attractive suggestion from environmental, human health and economic point of view. Examination of feasibility of this technique and forecasting the underlying fluid-rock interactions requires precise knowledge about the phase equilibria of the ternary mixture of SO2-CO2-H2O at conditions relevant to carbon capture and storage (CCS). In this study, a molecular-based statistical association fluid theory (SAFT1) model is applied to estimate the phase equilibria and aqueous phase density of mixtures. The molecules are modeled as associating segments while self-association is not allowed. The model is tested for different SO2 concentrations and for temperatures and pressures varying between 30-100 °C and ?6-30 MPa, respectively. Comparison of the results of this model against the available experimental data of binary systems demonstrates the capability of this equation of state, although, in contrast to the previous works, no temperature dependent binary interaction coefficient is applied. The results show that the total solubility of SO2 + CO2 in water varies exponentially with respect to SO2 concentrations, i.e., at low concentrations of SO2, total changes in solubility of the CO2 in water is negligible. PMID:25026002

  11. Sustainability and scale-up of household water treatment and safe storage practices: Enablers and barriers to effective implementation.

    PubMed

    Ojomo, Edema; Elliott, Mark; Goodyear, Lorelei; Forson, Michael; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) provides a solution, when employed correctly and consistently, for managing water safety at home. However, despite years of promotion by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), governments and others, boiling is the only method to achieve scale. Many HWTS programs have reported strong initial uptake and use that then decreases over time. This study maps out enablers and barriers to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices. Interviews were carried out with 79 practitioners who had experience with HWTS programs in over 25 countries. A total of 47 enablers and barriers important to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices were identified. These were grouped into six domains: user guidance on HWTS products; resource availability; standards, certification and regulations; integration and collaboration; user preferences; and market strategies. Collectively, the six domains cover the major aspects of moving products from development to the consumers. It is important that each domain is considered in all programs that aim to sustain and scale-up HWTS practices. Our findings can assist governments, NGOs, and other organizations involved in HWTS to approach programs more effectively and efficiently. PMID:25865927

  12. Case Study of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Utilization for Comfort and Process Cooling in a Hot, Humid Climate 

    E-print Network

    Bahnfleth, W. P.; Musser, A.

    1998-01-01

    compromising system reliability increases the importance of thermal storage as back-up capacity. In an industrial setting, operating cost savings due to thermal storage go directly to the bottom line of a manufacturing process and the avoidance of lost...

  13. Wintertime storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L. S.; Lampkin, D. J.; Montgomery, L. N.; Hamilton, S. L.; Turrin, J. B.; Joseph, C. A.; Moutsafa, S. E.; Panzer, B.; Casey, K. A.; Paden, J. D.; Leuschen, C.; Gogineni, P.

    2015-07-01

    Increased surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is now estimated to account for half or more of the ice sheet's total mass loss. Here, we show that some meltwater is stored, over winter, in buried supraglacial lakes. We use airborne radar from Operation IceBridge between 2009 and 2012 to detect buried supraglacial lakes, and we find that they were distributed extensively around the GrIS margin through that period. Buried supraglacial lakes can persist through multiple winters and are, on average, ~ 1.9 + 0.2 m below the surface. Most buried supraglacial lakes exist with no surface expression of their occurrence in visible imagery. The few buried supraglacial lakes that do exhibit surface expression have a unique visible signature associated with a darker blue color where subsurface water is located. The volume of retained water in the buried supraglacial lakes is likely insignificant compared to the total mass loss from the GrIS, but the water may have important implications locally for the development of the englacial hydrologic system and ice temperatures. Buried supraglacial lakes represent a small but year-round source of meltwater in the GrIS hydrologic system.

  14. Stream-water storage in the ocean using an impermeable membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabayashi, E. T.; Asuka, M.; Yamada, R.; Fok, Y. S.; Gee, H. K.

    1983-05-01

    The conceptual feasibility of storing fresh water in the ocean was investigated using a plastic membrane as the reservoir liner. In the initial phase, two physical hydraulic models were constructed to test the concept. The first was a water-filled, glass-sided box to observe the movement and reaction of the membrane to various simulated effects of currents, waves, and sediment deposition. The second was a 1:400-scale model (6.7 x 6.1 m) of West Loch, Pearl Harbor (a potential field application site), with 1:24 vertical exaggeration for similitude. The curtain method was used because it can enclose a large water body. The effect of wind, waves, tides, and currents on the curtain were simulated and the reactions observed. Although modeling is a useful tool for investigating initial concepts, its direct field application is limited because of scaling. Curtains, floating reservoirs, and bags were constructed of polyethylene sheets and deployed. All worked well after modifications were made following initial testing.

  15. Thermodynamics of water sorption on PuO 2: Consequences for oxide storage and solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschke, John M.

    2005-09-01

    Gibbs energies for sorption of water on plutonium dioxide are derived from equilibrium pressure-surface composition data at 298-358 K. Sorption occurs in well-defined initial steps that form variable-composition surface phases by successive addition of H 2O layers and ultimately in a continuum. ?G0 values vary from -24.6 to -16.1 kJ per mol H 2O as y in the initial PuO 2- y(OH) 2 y product increases from 0 to 1 and from -16.1 to -11.0 kJ per mol H 2O during formation of PuO(OH) 2 · nH 2O ( n = 0 to 1) in the second step. These results are consistent with dissociative chemisorption at 298 K and with desorption near 575 K. Gibbs energies for higher sorption steps at 298 K asymptotically approach ?G0 for condensation of water (-8.56 kJ mol -1) and are consistent with reversible physisorption. Respective ?Gf2980 and ?Hf2980 are -1247 and -1338 kJ mol -1 for PuO(OH) 2; corresponding values are -1488 and -1608 kJ mol -1 for PuO(OH) 2 · H 2O. Results do not support claims that all water is reversibly desorbed at 350-500 K or that dioxide solubility is enhanced by formation of Pu(OH) 4(am) on the surface.

  16. Evaluation of hydrological balance in the eastern Amazon using a terrestrial ecosystem model, and satellite-based evapotranspiration (MODIS) and terrestrial water storage (GRACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, P. K.; Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Beck, P.

    2013-12-01

    High historical deforestation rates and a rapidly changing agricultural landscape may dramatically alter the energy and water balance of the eastern Amazon basin. Understanding the surface water dynamics and hydrological balance of the region is critical for accurately assessing the historical and potential future impacts of deforestation, land-use change, and land management practices. We examine the water balance of the Xingu river basin by combining the IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator) terrestrial ecosystem model with satellite-based models of evapotranspiration (MOD16) and terrestrial water storage (GRACE). IBIS simulations were forced with prescribed climate to produce modeled evapotranspiration and runoff, which were then compared with MODIS evapotranspiration and observed discharge at Altamira (PA, Brazil). Results from both satellite observations and model simulations support earlier studies demonstrating that dry-season evapotranspiration is higher than wet-season evapotranspiration in the wetter forests of the northern Xingu basin, while the contrary is true in the seasonally dry forests of the southern Xingu. Seasonal variation in modeled soil water storage agrees with the GRACE measurements in both timing and magnitude. Soil moisture anomalies averaged over the Xingu basin suggest that annual changes in soil water storage account for a large part of the interannual variation in observed discharge. Field measurements of discharge and soil moisture in the southern Xingu also support the findings that changes in soil water storage drive inter-annual variations in river discharge. Figure 1. Comparison of observed discharge at Altamira (Pará, Brazil) against MODIS- derived P-E (PCRU-MODISET), IBIS simulated discharge, IBIS (PCRU-ETIBIS), and IBIS (PCRU-ETIBIS- ? Soil moisture IBIS). The bottom panel shows annual basin precipitation from Climatic Research Unit (CRU) climatological data for the 2000-2008 period

  17. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; McLin, S.G.; Stoker, A.K.; Maes, M.N.

    1995-09-01

    Municipal potable water supply during 1992 was 1,516 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons from wells in the Guaje and Pajarito well fields. About 13 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons were pumped from the Los Alamos Well Field and used in the construction of State Road 501 adjacent to the Field. The last year the Las Alamos Field was used for municipal supply was 1991. The nonpotable water supply used for steam plant support was about 0.12 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons from the spring gallery in Water Canyon. No nonpotable water was used for irrigation from Guaje and Los Alamos Reservoirs. Thus, the total water usage in 1992 was about 1,529 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons. Neither of the two new wells in the Otowi Well Field were operational in 1992.

  18. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 9: Farmington River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Haeni, F. Peter; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1986-01-01

    The Farmington River basin covers 435 square miles in north-central Connecticut upstream from Tariffville and downstream of the Massachusetts state line. Most water in the basin is derived from precipitation, which averages 48 inches (366 billion gallons) per year. An additional 67 billion gallons of water per year enters the basin from Massachusetts in the West Branch of the Farmington River, Hubbard River, Valley Brook and some smaller streams. Of the total 433 billion gallons, 174 billion gallons returns to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. 239 billion gallons flows out of the study area in the Farmington River at Tariffville, and 20 billion gallons is diverted for Hartford water supply. Variations in streamflow at 23 continuous-record gaging stations are summarized in standardized graphs and tables that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics at other sites. For example, mean flow and low-flow characteristics such as the 7-day annual minimum flow for 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals, have been determined for many partial-record stations from the data for the 23 continuous-record stations. Of the 31 principal lakes, ponds, and reservoirs in the basin, eight have usable storage capacities of more than 1 billion gallons. Two of the largest, Colebrook River Lake and Barkhamsted Reservoir, have more than 30 billion gallons usable storage. Floods have occurred in the area in every month of the year. The greatest known flood on the Farmington River was in August 1955, which had a peak flow of 140,000 cubic feet per second at Collinsville. Since then, three major floodcontrol reservoirs have been constructed to reduce the hazards of high streamflow. The major aquifers underlying the basin are composed of unconsolidated materials (stratified drift and till) and bedrock (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic). Stratified drift overlies till and bedrock in valleys and lowlands; it averages about 90 feet in thickness, and is capable of large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Based on hydrologic characteristics and available recharge, sixteen stratified-drift areas are selected as the most favorable for large-scale development. Potential yields can be estimated by several methods. Small water supplies can be obtained from all aquifers. Wells in bedrock yield at least one to two gallons per minute at most sites. The probability of adequate yields for domestic supply is greater from sedimentary than from crystalline bedrock and is also greater from stratified-drift overburden than from till. The quality of water from all sources in the basin is good except where adversely affected by swamp drainage, aquifer composition or human activities. The water is generally low in dissolved-solids concentration and is soft to moderately hard. Surface water is less mineralized than ground water, especially during high-flow conditions when it is primarily direct runoff. Samples of water collected from 20 streams during high flow had 34 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 16 mg/L median hardness. Samples collected from the same sites at low flow had 52 mg/L median dissolved solids and 28 mg/L median hardness. In contrast, water from wells had 112 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 60 mg/L median hardness. Iron and manganese occur in objectionable concentrations ~n a few parts of the basin where streams drain swamps and aquifers are rich in iron- and manganese-bearing minerals. Five percent of streams at high flow, 21 percent at low flow, and 7 percent of ground-water samples contained iron in sufficient concentration to cause stains on plumbing fixtures and laundry. Human activities have modified the quality of water in parts of the basin. The high bacterial content of the Pequabuck River. and the high nitrate and chloride concentrations in some ground-water samples, are evidence of man’s influence. The quantity and quality of water in the basin’s streams and aquifers are satisfactory for a wide variety of uses. and, with suitable treatment, may be used for most

  19. An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B; Hoober-Burkhardt, L; Wang, F; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-05-21

    We introduce a novel Organic Redox Flow Battery (ORBAT), for Meeting the demanding requirements of cost, eco-friendliness, and durability for large-scale energy storage. ORBAT employs two different water-soluble organic redox couples on the positive and negative side of a flow battery. Redox couples such as quinones are particularly attractive for this application. No precious metal catalyst is needed because of the fast proton-coupled electron transfer processes. Furthermore, in acid media, the quinones exhibit good chemical stability. These properties render quinone-based redox couples very attractive for high-efficiency metal-free rechargeable batteries. We demonstrate the rechargeability of ORBAT with anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid on the negative side, and 1,2-dihydrobenzoquinone- 3,5-disulfonic acid on the positive side. The ORBAT cell uses a membrane-electrode assembly configuration similar to that used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Such a battery can be charged and discharged multiple times at high faradaic efficiency without any noticeable degradation of performance. We show that solubility and mass transport properties of the reactants and products are paramount to achieving high current densities and high efficiency. The ORBAT configuration presents a unique opportunity for developing an inexpensive and sustainable metal-free rechargeable battery for large-scale electrical energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.orgilicenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water bottles of China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying-Ying; Zheng, Jian-Lun; Ren, Jing-Hua; Luo, Jun; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-09-01

    We investigated effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony (Sb) and bisphenol A (BPA) from 16 brands of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) drinking water bottles in China. After 1-week storage, Sb release increased from 1.88-8.32 ng/L at 4 °C, to 2.10-18.4 ng/L at 25 °C and to 20.3-2604 ng/L at 70 °C. The corresponding releases for BPA were less at 0.26-18.7, 0.62-22.6, and 2.89-38.9 ng/L. Both Sb and BPA release increased with storage duration up to 4-week, but their releasing rates decreased with storage time, indicating that Sb and BPA release from PET bottles may become stable under long term storage. Human health risk was evaluated based on the worst case, i.e., storage at 70 °C for 4-week. Chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by BPA release was below USEPA regulation, Sb release in one brand exceeded USEPA regulated CDI (400 ng/kg bw/d) with values of 409 and 1430 ng/kg bw/d for adult and children. PMID:24907857