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Sample records for gallus gallus association

  1. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree. PMID:23055799

  2. Lateralization of social cognition in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Daisley, Jonathan Niall; Mascalzoni, Elena; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the ongoing work in our laboratories on the effect of lateralization produced by light exposure in the egg on social cognition in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). The domestic chick possesses a lateralized visual system. This has effects on the chick's perception towards and interaction with its environment. This includes its ability to live successfully within a social group. We show that there is a tendency for right brain hemisphere dominance when performing social cognitive actions. As such, chicks show a left hemispatial bias for approaching a signalled target object, tend to perceive gaze and faces of human-like masks more effectively when using their left eye, are able to inhibit a pecking response more effectively when viewing a neighbour tasting a bitter substance with their left eye, and are better able to perform a transitive inference task when exposed to light in the egg and when forced to use their left eye only compared to dark-hatched or right eye chicks. Some of these effects were sex specific, with male chicks tending to show an increased effect of lateralization on their behaviours. These data are discussed in terms of overall social cognition in group living. PMID:19064355

  3. One subspecies of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus) suffices as the matriarchic ancestor of all domestic breeds.

    PubMed

    Fumihito, A; Miyake, T; Sumi, S; Takada, M; Ohno, S; Kondo, N

    1994-12-20

    The noncoding control region of the mitochondrial DNA of various gallinaceous birds was studied with regard to its restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequences of the first 400 bases. Tandem duplication of the 60-base unit was established as a trait unique to the genus Gallus, which is shared neither by pheasants nor by quails. Unlike its close ally Gallus varius (green junglefowl), the red junglefowl Gallus gallus is a genetically very diverse species; the 7.0% sequence divergence was seen between those from Thailand (G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus) and the other from the Indonesian island of Java (G. g. Bankiva). Furthermore, the divergence increased to 27.83% if each transversion is regarded as an equivalent of 10 transitions. On the other hand, a mere 0.5-3.0% difference (all transitions) separated various domestic breeds of the chicken from two G. g. gallus of Thailand, thus indicating a single domestication event in the area inhabited by this subspecies of the red junglefowl as the origin of all domestic breeds. Only transitions separated six diverse domesticated breeds. Nevertheless, a 2.75% difference was seen between RFLP type I breeds (White Leghorn and Nagoya) and a RFLP type VIII breed (Ayam Pelung). The above data suggested that although the mitochondrion of RFLP type V was the main contributor to domestication, hens of other RFLP types also contributed to this event. PMID:7809067

  4. Maintenance of syntenic groups between Cathartidae and Gallus gallus indicates symplesiomorphic karyotypes in new world vultures

    PubMed Central

    Tagliarini, Marcella M.; O'Brien, Patricia C.M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes). However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids) in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis) onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C. aura, but probably also the general gene order, suggesting that New World vultures share chromosomal symplesiomorphies with most bird lineages. PMID:21637548

  5. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E P Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; Dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  6. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  7. Genetic benefits of mate choice separated from differential maternal investment in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Parker, Timothy H

    2003-09-01

    Females may choose more attractive mates to obtain better viability or attractiveness genes for their offspring. A number of studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. However, this pattern could be due to inheritance of paternal genes and/or it could be due to increased maternal investment in the offspring of more attractive males. To isolate female responses to male appearance from paternal genetic effects, I housed female red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) with vasectomized (sterile) males and artificially inseminated them. Male junglefowl with larger combs are more attractive to females. Females laid more eggs when housed with a large-combed, as opposed to a small-combed, vasectomized mate. Neither egg volume nor offspring body condition was associated with comb size of the mother's vasectomized mate. Paternal genetics appeared important. Body condition and comb size were greater for the sons of large-combed sperm donor males. This is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic benefits to offspring maintain female preference for the most ornate males. It is possible that greater body condition and comb size in sons of large-combed sires was not caused by genetic differences, but instead was due to compounds in the ejaculate of large-combed sperm donors inducing greater reproductive investment from females. However, females artificially inseminated by large-combed males did not produce more or larger eggs than females artificially inseminated by small-combed males, and thus there is no other evidence consistent with ejaculate-induced differential investment. Furthermore, only in older chicks was body condition significantly related to sire comb size, suggesting genetic rather than differential investment mechanisms. PMID:14575335

  8. Ontogeny of chick responses to maternal food calls in the Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus).

    PubMed

    Moffatt, C A; Hogan, J A

    1992-03-01

    Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) chicks were reinforced at 5 days old with a mealworm at the end of a runaway in the presence of a maternal food call. Two food calls were used, one made to a highly preferred food item (a mealworm) and one made to a less preferred food item (chick crumbs). Chicks initially approached the food call made to the mealworm faster regardless of reinforcement contingencies, but by the 3rd day of training chicks responded faster to the call that was reinforced. These results indicate that functional experience can modify preexisting response tendencies to food-calling stimuli. We discuss the implications of these results for the interpretation of published accounts that chickens use food calls deceptively. PMID:1555403

  9. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls. PMID:21074323

  10. Molecular evidence for hybridization of species in the genus Gallus except for Gallus varius.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Shimogiri, T; Hayashi, T; Yasue, H

    2005-10-01

    A phylogenetic tree for fowl including chicken in the genus Gallus and based on mitochondrial D-loop analysis further supports the hypothesis developed from morphology and progeny production that red junglefowl (RJF) is the direct ancestor of the chicken. The phylogenetic positions of the chicken and the other fowl species in the genus Gallus are of great importance when considering maintenance and improvement of chicken breeds through introgression of genetic variation from wild-type genomes. However, because the phylogenetic analysis based on the DNA sequences is not sufficient to conclude the phylogenetic positions of the fowls in the genus, in the present study, we have determined sequences of whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and two segments of the nuclear genome (intron 9 of ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and four chicken repeat 1 elements) for the species in the genus Gallus. The phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences revealed that two grey junglefowls (GyJF) were clustered in a clade with RJFs and chicken, and that one GyJF was located in a remote position close to Ceylon junglefowl (CJF). The analyses based on the nuclear sequences revealed that alleles of GyJFs were alternatively clustered with those of CJF and with those of RJFs and chicken. Alternative clustering of RJF and chicken alleles were also observed. These findings taken together strongly indicate that inter-species hybridizations have occurred between GyJF and RJF/chicken and between GyJF and CJF. PMID:16167978

  11. Reactions catalyzed by 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylases from Escherichia coli and Gallus gallus: a case for divergent catalytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Firestine, S M; Poon, S W; Mueller, E J; Stubbe, J; Davisson, V J

    1994-10-01

    A comparative investigation of the substrate requirements for the enzyme 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) carboxylase from E. coli and G. gallus has been conducted using in vivo and in vitro studies. In Escherichia coli, two enzymes PurK and PurE are required for the transformation of AIR to 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR). The Gallus gallus PurCE is a bifunctional enzyme containing AIR carboxylase and 4-[(N-succinylamino)carbonyl]-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (SAICAR) synthetase. The E. coli PurE and the C-terminal domain of the G. gallus PurCE protein maintain a significant degree of amino acid sequence identity and also share CAIR as a product of their enzymatic activities. The substrate requirements of AIR carboxylases from E. coli and G. gallus have been compared by a series of in vitro experiments. The carbamic acid, N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (N5-CAIR) is a substrate for the E. coli PurE (Mueller et al., 1994) but not for the G. gallus AIR carboxylase. In contrast, AIR and CO2 are substrates for the G. gallus AIR carboxylase. The recognition properties of the two proteins were also compared using inhibition studies with 4-nitro-5- aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (NAIR). NAIR is a tight-binding inhibitor of the G. gallus AIR carboxylase (K(i) = 0.34 nM) but only a steady-state inhibitor (K(i) = 0.5 microM) of the E. coli PurE. These data suggest significant differences in the transition states for the reactions catalyzed by these two evolutionarily related enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7918411

  12. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  13. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance. PMID:26765747

  14. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance.

  15. Validation of the Aging Hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) as an Animal Model for Uterine Leiomyomas1

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Sergio A.; Bahr, Janice M.; Hales, D. Buck; Braundmeier, Andrea G.; Quade, Bradley J.; Nowak, Romana A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most frequent gynecological tumors in premenopausal women with as many as 65% of women becoming clinically symptomatic. Uterine fibroids are benign myometrial tumors that produce large quantities of extracellular matrix proteins. Despite its high morbidity, the molecular basis underlying the development of uterine leiomyomas is not well understood. Domestic hens of Gallus gallus domesticus develop oviductal leiomyomas similar to those found in humans. We investigated the natural history of chicken leiomyomas, in vivo expression of protein biomarkers, and in vitro expression of ovarian steroid receptors. Based on the analysis of 263 hens, tumor prevalence, tumor number per hen, and tumor size increased as the hens aged. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin confirmed the smooth muscle phenotype of the chicken leiomyomas. Intense collagen expression was detected in these oviductal leiomyomas by Mason's trichrome, and the tumors also showed increased expression of TGFB3 and collagen type I mRNAs. Consistent with human leiomyomas, chicken fibroids displayed increased BCL2 and estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) receptor expression. Chicken leiomyomas were dissociated for in vitro culture. Cells from explants were positive for SMA, desmin, and E and P receptors until the fourth passage. These cells also displayed a response similar to human cells when challenged with halofuginone, an antifibrotic agent. Our findings indicate that the chicken is an excellent complementary model for studies involving the pathophysiology of human uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22811571

  16. Validation of the aging hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) as an animal model for uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio A; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, D Buck; Braundmeier, Andrea G; Quade, Bradley J; Nowak, Romana A

    2012-10-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most frequent gynecological tumors in premenopausal women with as many as 65% of women becoming clinically symptomatic. Uterine fibroids are benign myometrial tumors that produce large quantities of extracellular matrix proteins. Despite its high morbidity, the molecular basis underlying the development of uterine leiomyomas is not well understood. Domestic hens of Gallus gallus domesticus develop oviductal leiomyomas similar to those found in humans. We investigated the natural history of chicken leiomyomas, in vivo expression of protein biomarkers, and in vitro expression of ovarian steroid receptors. Based on the analysis of 263 hens, tumor prevalence, tumor number per hen, and tumor size increased as the hens aged. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin confirmed the smooth muscle phenotype of the chicken leiomyomas. Intense collagen expression was detected in these oviductal leiomyomas by Mason's trichrome, and the tumors also showed increased expression of TGFB3 and collagen type I mRNAs. Consistent with human leiomyomas, chicken fibroids displayed increased BCL2 and estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) receptor expression. Chicken leiomyomas were dissociated for in vitro culture. Cells from explants were positive for SMA, desmin, and E and P receptors until the fourth passage. These cells also displayed a response similar to human cells when challenged with halofuginone, an antifibrotic agent. Our findings indicate that the chicken is an excellent complementary model for studies involving the pathophysiology of human uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22811571

  17. Genetic variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in wild Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Phuc, Hoa; Fulton, Janet E; Berres, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multi-family gene cluster that encodes proteins with immuno-responsive function. While studies of MHC in domesticated poultry are relatively common, very little is known about this highly polymorphic locus in wild Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), the natural progenitor of domestic chickens. We investigated the diversity of MHC within and among four wild Red Junglefowl populations across diversified natural habitats in South Central Vietnam. Based on a SNP panel of 84 sites spanning 210 Kb of the MHC-B locus, we identified 310 unique haplotypes in 398 chromosomes. None of these haplotypes have been described before and we did not observe any of the wild Red Junglefowl haplotypes in domesticated chickens. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 94.51% of observed haplotype variation was accounted for at the within individual level. Little genetic variance was apportioned within and among populations, the latter accounting only for 0.83%. We also found evidence of increased recombination, including numerous hotspots, and limited linkage disequilibrium among the 84 SNP sites. Compared to an average haplotype diversity of 3.55% among seventeen lines of domestic chickens, our results suggest extraordinarily high haplotype diversity remains in wild Red Junglefowl and is consistent with a pattern of balancing selection. Wild Red Junglefowl in Vietnam, therefore, represent a rich resource of natural genomic variation independent from artificial selection. PMID:26839415

  18. Quantitative genetics of ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Parker, T H; Garant, D

    2005-11-01

    We studied phenotypic patterns and underlying quantitative genetics of development of sexual size dimorphism in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). Using a multigenerational pedigree and the 'animal model' technique, we found significant heritability for many of the size and growth-related traits we examined, as well as significant genetic correlations among them. Despite sexual size dimorphism throughout posthatching ontogeny, the genetic correlation between males and females for all size measurements and growth parameters remained high. Significant positive phenotypic and genetic correlations between the fastest rate of growth and mass at week 26 (near asymptote) indicate that faster growth when young promotes larger adult size. However, age at which peak growth is reached does not appear to be phenotypically or genetically correlated with adult size. Positive genetic correlations within traits among ages were common, demonstrating that the genetic variance important to growth is relatively consistent among ages. However, male mass and tarsus length showed no genetic correlation between week 0 values and those from later ages. The body size traits of mass and tarsus length were genetically correlated with each other in females, but this pattern was not significant in males. Thus, despite striking sexual dimorphism in size and growth trajectories, size dimorphic traits in junglefowl show, with some exceptions, genetic integration between the sexes, among ages, and between traits. PMID:16118659

  19. Cryptic preference for MHC-dissimilar females in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Mark A F; Richardson, David S; Løvlie, Hanne; Moynihan, Anna; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tom

    2009-03-22

    An increasing number of studies test the idea that females increase offspring fitness by biasing fertilization in favour of genetically compatible partners; however, few have investigated or controlled for corresponding preferences in males. Here, we experimentally test whether male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, prefer genetically compatible females, measured by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a key gene complex in vertebrate immune function. Theory predicts that because some degree of MHC heterozygosity favours viability, individuals should prefer partners that carry MHC alleles different from their own. While male fowl showed no preference when simultaneously presented with an MHC-similar and an MHC-dissimilar female, they showed a 'cryptic' preference, by allocating more sperm to the most MHC-dissimilar of two sequentially presented females. These results provide the first experimental evidence that males might respond to the MHC similarity of a female through differential ejaculate expenditure. By revealing that cryptic male behaviours may bias fertilization success in favour of genetically compatible partners, this study demonstrates the need to experimentally disentangle male and female effects when studying preferences for genetically compatible partners. PMID:19129124

  20. The in vitro antioxidant properties of alcalase hydrolysate prepared from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood protein.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Lai, I-Chun; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    Two types of proteins including blood plasma protein and blood cell protein were isolated from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood and hydrolyzed using alcalase for 0, 2, 4 and 6 h. The blood plasma protein hydrolysate (BPH) and blood cell protein hydrolysate (BCH) were analyzed for pH value, peptide content and antioxidative properties. The significantly higher peptide contents were observed in BPH than that of BCH, which showed that blood plasma protein was more suitable to hydrolysis by alcalase than blood cell protein. Both BPH and BCH showed strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+) chelating ability. BPH at 4 h of hydrolysis (BPH4) demonstrated significantly higher antioxidant capacity than those treated by alcalase in most of the assays. The BPH4 was separated using ultra-filtration and assessment of the fractions and indicated that low molecular weight of peptides (< 3 kDa) possessed greater DPPH scavenging activity, Fe(2+) chelating ability and inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation. These results show that BPH has the potential to be ingredients in the food industry as a replacement of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26556592

  1. Ontogenetic development of magnetic compass orientation in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-08-15

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) can be trained to search for a social stimulus in a specific magnetic direction, and cryptochrome 1a, found in the retina, has been proposed as a receptor molecule mediating magnetic directions. The present study combines immuno-histochemical and behavioural data to analyse the ontogenetic development of this ability. Newly hatched chicks already have a small amount of cryptochrome 1a in their violet cones; on day 5, the amount of cryptochrome 1a reached the same level as in adult chickens, suggesting that the physical basis for magnetoreception is present. In behavioural tests, however, young chicks 5 to 7 days old failed to show a preference of the training direction; on days 8, 9 and 12, they could be successfully trained to search along a specific magnetic axis. Trained and tested again 1 week later, the chicks that had not shown a directional preference on days 5 to 7 continued to search randomly, while the chicks tested from day 8 onward preferred the correct magnetic axis when tested 1 week later. The observation that the magnetic compass is not functional before day 8 suggests that certain maturation processes in the magnetosensitive system in the brain are not yet complete before that day. The reasons why chicks that have been trained before that day fail to learn the task later remain unclear. PMID:23661773

  2. [The action of insulin in the morphogenesis of Gallus gallus domesticus embryos].

    PubMed

    Dias, P F; Müller, Y M

    1999-05-01

    Aspects concerned with morphogenesis of Gallus gallus domesticus, avail studies related to the action of the insulin in the topography and embryonic structures. At the temperature of 37.5 degrees C, eggs were incubated during 24 h, injected with 5 ml of swine insulin in three concentrations and reincubated for more 72 h. The morphological characteristics of 80 embryos were evaluated and, according to the presented organization, classified in 5 morphogenetic levels. It was registered generalized dysmorphism (4th level) in 21 embryos that went through the tests with insulin. Standard morphogenesis (1st level) and located dysmorphism (3rd level) were verified among those from the control experiments. Those individuals concerned with the 4th level, showed reduced dimension of the body and were characterized by anterior-dorsal limits organized in a cephalic projection, and also presented alterations in the posterior-ventral region. These features evidence a pattern of abnormality in the determination of the cephalic-caudal axis and indicate a specific action of the insulin in the embryonic morphogenesis, in the period of 96 hours of incubation. PMID:10488593

  3. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals’ ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts. PMID:27465742

  4. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts. PMID:27465742

  5. Distribution of the vasotocin type 4 receptor throughout the brain of the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Rajamani; Jurkevich, Alexander; Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2015-02-01

    The vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) has been shown to have a wide distribution throughout the mammalian brain and pituitary gland and mediates a number of physiological functions as well as social behavior following the binding of its agonist, vasopressin. The avian receptor homologous to the V1aR is the vasotocin 4 receptor (VT4R). Its mRNA distribution has been documented in brain regions of two species of songbird; however, its complete protein distribution in the brain has not been published to date for any avian species. The present work utilizes an antibody made to a sequence of the chicken VT4R to map its distribution from the olfactory bulbs to the caudal end of the brainstem in Gallus gallus. Unexpectedly, immunoreactivity (ir) for the VT4R was found not only in neurons but also in glia located in 10 circumventricular organs (CVOs), olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, and septum. Use of a second antibody made against vimentin provided evidence that some dual-labeled glial cells were tanycytes and radial glia. Additionally, the VT4R was identified in nuclei related to motor function, including the oculomotor complex and motor nucleus of the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, tenth, and twelfth cranial nerves. Possible functions for the VT4R are suggested that should have relevance not only to avian species but to other vertebrates because most classes, except for mammals, use vasotocin as the natural ligand for that receptor. PMID:25262821

  6. Reorienting strategies in a rectangular array of landmarks by domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Pecchia, Tommaso; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Spatial reorientation in a rectangular array of four landmarks located in the center of a circular enclosure was investigated in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus). One of the landmark possessed unique visual features, indicating the location of a food reward. After training, chicks were tested (a) with the same array as during the training; (b) with four identical landmarks of the type previously nonrewarded, of the type previously rewarded, or of a new type; (c) after having transformed one of the landmarks located at the geometric incorrect location into the type of landmark previously rewarded; or (d) with a fifth landmark of the rewarded type at a new location. Chicks encoded information provided by local featural cues but not the geometric information provided by the shape of the array. Moreover, when trained in a rectangular array of identical landmarks chicks failed to reorient. In a second series of experiments, the array was located in correspondence to the corners of a rectangular enclosure. This time chicks successfully learned to locate the reward using geometric information. However, when the rectangular array was located in the center of a larger rectangular enclosure, chicks failed to reorient, indicating that the geometric information given by the macroscopic layout of arena surfaces was not used to specify different locations. These results suggest that chicks reorient on the basis of a local representation of single landmarks and that encoding of the global aspects of geometry only occurs with respect to the large, extended surfaces of an enclosure. PMID:20476814

  7. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Song; Pan, Jin-Ming; Ying, Yi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Lu, Min-Si; Chen, Xian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance. PMID:26765747

  8. Transition from ectothermy to endothermy: the development of metabolic capacity in a bird (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Schwartz, Tonia S; Thompson, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of endothermy is one of the most significant events in vertebrate evolution. Adult mammals and birds are delineated from their early ontogenetic stages, as well as from other vertebrates, by high resting metabolic rates and consequent internal heat production. We used the embryonic development of a bird (Gallus gallus) as a model to investigate the metabolic transition between ectothermy and endothermy. Increases in aerobic capacity occur at two functional levels that are regulated independently from each other: (i) upregulation of gene expression; and (ii) significant increases in the catalytic activity of the main oxidative control enzymes. Anaerobic capacity, measured as lactate dehydrogenase activity, is extremely high during early development, but diminishes at the same time as aerobic capacity increases. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase activity are independent from its gene expression. The regulatory mechanisms that lead to endothermic metabolic capacity are similar to those of ectotherms in their response to environmental change. We suggest that the phylogenetic occurrence of endothermy is restricted by its limited selective advantages rather than by evolutionary innovation. PMID:16537127

  9. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  10. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Harmat, P; Literák, I

    2008-04-15

    One hundred and sixty chickens (Gallus gallus) from 31 small, private backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). At least one species of chewing lice was found on every bird examined. Seven species of chewing lice were identified in all; they had the following prevalences and mean intensities: Goniocotes gallinae (100%; 110 lice), Menopon gallinae (88%; 50), Menacanthus stramineus (48%; 17), Lipeurus caponis (35%; 12), Menacanthus cornutus (12%; 9), Cuclotogaster heterographus (1%; 4) and Goniocotes microthorax (1%; 3). Just two birds from a single flock were heavily infested with the ischnoceran species G. gallinae. PMID:18280661

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of 100 Salmonella strains isolated from Gallus gallus in 4 wilayas of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bounar-Kechih, S; Hamdi, T M; Mezali, L; Assaous, F; Rahal, K

    2012-05-01

    This study aims at identifying serotypes and surveying the antimicrobial resistance and plasmid support of resistance of 100 Salmonella strains, which were isolated from 96 out of 506 (18.97%) samples taken from different production farms in the wilayas (i.e., Algerian states) of Tizi-Ouzou, Bouira, Bejaïa, and Boumerdes in 2007. The highest percentage of Salmonella (48%) was recorded in Bouira. Thirteen serotypes were identified among the 100 Salmonella strains used in this study. The most prevalent ones were Salmonella Heidelberg (24%), Salmonella Enteritidis (20%), Salmonella Albany (16%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (9%). The strains showed resistance to 8 of the 34 antibiotics tested. Fifty-three percent of strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, among which 15.09% were multiresistant. The most frequently observed resistance was to quinolones (58.49%), with a contribution of 94.74% of Salmonella Heidelberg resistant strains. The plasmid transfer performed on 53 strains showed that only 11 exhibited one or more markers of resistance, the most frequent being ampicillin, followed by tetracycline, then cotrimoxazole, sulphonamides, and kanamycin, in that order. The tetracycline characteristics were present in 72.72% of transconjugants, those of the β-lactams and sulphonamides in 27.27% each and those of the aminosides in 9.09%. The incompatibility groups of plasmids belong to the F1me and Com1 classes, and the molecular weight of the plasmid DNA was greater than 100 kb. The phenotypic and genotypic results indicate a clonal dissemination in the Gallus gallus species in this particular study; this phenomenon could generate resistant bacteria and transferable genes of resistance to humans. PMID:22499877

  12. Dioxin activation of CYP1A5 promoter/enhancer regions from two avian species, common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and chicken (Gallus gallus): Association with aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 and 2 isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Kim, Eun-Young Iwata, Hisato

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on the molecular mechanism and interspecies differences in susceptibility of avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) signaling pathway. By the cloning of 5'-flanking regions of CYP1A5 gene from common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and chicken (Gallus gallus), seven putative xenobiotic response elements (XREs) were identified within 2.7 kb upstream region of common cormorant CYP1A5 (ccCYP1A5), and six XREs were found within 0.9 kb of chicken CYP1A5 (ckCYP1A5). Analysis of sequential deletion and mutagenesis of the binding sites in avian CYP1A5 genes by in vitro reporter gene assays revealed that two XREs at -613 bp and -1585 bp in ccCYP1A5, and one XRE at -262 bp in ckCYP1A5 conferred TCDD-responsiveness. The binding of AHR1 with AHR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) to the functional XRE in a TCDD-dependent manner was verified with gel shift assays, suggesting that avian CYP1A5 is induced by TCDD through AHR1/ARNT1 signaling pathway as well as mammalian CYP1A1 but through a distinct pathway from mammalian CYP1A2, an ortholog of the CYP1A5. TCDD-EC{sub 50} for the transcriptional activity in both cormorant AHR1- and AHR2-ccCYP1A5 reporter construct was 10-fold higher than that in chicken AHR1-ckCYP1A5 reporter construct. In contrast, chicken AHR2 showed no TCDD-dependent response. The TCDD-EC{sub 50} for CYP1A5 transactivation was altered by switching AHR1 between the two avian species, irrespective of the species from which the regulatory region of CYP1A5 gene originates. Therefore, the structural difference in AHR, not the CYP1A5 regulatory region may be a major factor to account for the dioxin susceptibility in avian species.

  13. Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.

    PubMed

    Toledo Fonseca, Erika; De Oliveira Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Alcântara, Dayane; Carvalho Cardoso, Rafael; Luís Franciolli, André; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Fratini, Paula; José Piantino Ferreira, Antônio; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-12-01

    Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development. PMID:24019213

  14. Differential sex-specific walking kinematics in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for different body size.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kayleigh A; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-08-15

    The differing limb dynamics and postures of small and large terrestrial animals may be mechanisms for minimising metabolic costs under scale-dependent muscle force, work and power demands; however, empirical evidence for this is lacking. Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly dimorphic: males have greater body mass and relative muscle mass than females, which are permanently gravid and have greater relative intestinal mass. Furthermore, leghorns are selected for standard (large) and bantam (small) varieties and the former are sexually dimorphic in posture, with females having a more upright limb. Here, high-speed videography and morphological measurements were used to examine the walking gaits of leghorn chickens of the two varieties and sexes. Hindlimb skeletal elements were geometrically similar among the bird groups, yet the bird groups did not move with dynamic similarity. In agreement with the interspecific scaling of relative duty factor (DF, the proportion of a stride period with ground contact for any given foot) with body mass, bantams walked with greater DF than standards, and females walked with greater DF than males. Greater DF in females than in males was achieved via variety-specific kinematic mechanisms, associated with the presence/absence of postural dimorphism. Females may require greater DF in order to reduce peak muscle forces and minimise power demands associated with lower muscle to reproductive tissue mass ratios and smaller body size. Furthermore, a more upright posture observed in the standard, but not bantam, females, may relate to minimising the work demands of being larger and having proportionally larger reproductive tissue volume. Lower DF in males relative to females may also be a work-minimising strategy and/or due to greater limb inertia (as a result of greater pelvic limb muscle mass) prolonging the swing phase. PMID:27296046

  15. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Measuring Puberty Onset in Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yijun; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Wang, Kehua; Zou, Jianmin; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    There are still no highly sensitive and unique biomarkers for measurement of puberty onset. Circulating miRNAs have been shown to be promising biomarkers for diagnosis of various diseases. To identify circulating miRNAs that could be served as biomarkers for measuring chicken (Gallus gallus) puberty onset, the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the miRNA expression profiles in serum and plasma of hens from two different pubertal stages, before puberty onset (BO) and after puberty onset (AO). 197 conserved and 19 novel miRNAs (reads > 10) were identified as serum/plasma-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. The common miRNA amounts and their expression changes from BO to AO between serum and plasma were very similar, indicating the different treatments to generate serum and plasma had quite small influence on the miRNAs. 130 conserved serum-miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P < 0.05) from BO to AO, with 68 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated. 4829 putative genes were predicted as the targets of the 40 most differentially expressed miRNAs (|log2(fold-change)|>1.0, P < 0.01). Functional analysis revealed several pathways that were associated with puberty onset. Further quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) test found that a seven-miRNA panel, including miR-29c, miR-375, miR-215, miR-217, miR-19b, miR-133a and let-7a, had great potentials to serve as novel biomarkers for measuring puberty onset in chicken. Due to highly conserved nature of miRNAs, the findings could provide cues for measurement of puberty onset in other animals as well as humans. PMID:27149515

  16. Effect of microgravity on primordial germ cells (PGCs) in silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Li, Zandong

    2011-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of germline cells, display a variety of antigens during their migration to target gonads. Here, we used silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos subjected to space microgravity to investigate the influence of microgravity on PGCs. The ShenZhou-3 unmanned spaceship carried nine fertilized silk chicken eggs, named the flight group, returned to Earth after 7 days space flight. And the control group has the same clan with the flight group. PGCs from flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos were examined during migration by using two antibodies (2C9 and anti-SSEA-1), in combination with the horseradish peroxidase detection system, and using periodic acid-Schiff's solution (PAS) reaction. After incubation for about 30 h, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in the germinal crescent of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 2-2.5 days, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in embryonic blood vessels of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 5.5 days, PGCs in the dorsal mesentery and gonad could also be identified in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos by using SSEA-1 and 2C9 antibodies. Based on location and PAS staining, these cells were identified as PGCs. Meanwhile, at the stage of PGCs migration and then becoming established in the germinal ridges, no difference in SSEA-1 or 2C9 staining was detected between female and male PGCs in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. Although there were differences in the profiles of PGC concentration between male and female embryos during the special circulating stage, changing profile of PGCs concentration was similar in same sex between flight and control group offspring embryos. We concluded that there is little effect on PGCs in offspring embryos of microgravity-treated chicken and that PGC development appears

  17. Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W

    2012-01-01

    Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using

  18. Effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD on F1 generation adult chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Alonso, K R; Peden-Adams, M M; Liu, J Y; Charbonneau, C; Henshel, D; Dickerson, R L

    1998-01-01

    White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus) were used as surrogate species for the resident wild turkeys found on the Times Beach, Missouri, Superfund site. Parental chickens were injected with concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD which modeled soil concentrations before (200 ppb) and after remediation (1ppb)[1]. Offspring were followed through development to assess alterations in reproductive maturity through the use of a four-way breeding study. F1 adult females exposed to a maternal dose of 8.6 ng/day began egg production approximately two weeks later than did F1 control adult females. By week eight, however, egg production between groups was equivalent. No differences were observed in eggshell gland estrogen or progesterone receptor levels. PMID:9828316

  19. The origin and genetic variation of domestic chickens with special reference to junglefowls Gallus g. gallus and G. varius.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Hiromi; Kim, Hie Lim; Kuno, Kaori; Suzuki, Sayaka; Gotoh, Hideo; Takada, Masaru; Takahata, Naoyuki; Satta, Yoko; Akishinonomiya, Fumihito

    2010-01-01

    It is postulated that chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) became domesticated from wild junglefowls in Southeast Asia nearly 10,000 years ago. Based on 19 individual samples covering various chicken breeds, red junglefowl (G. g. gallus), and green junglefowl (G. varius), we address the origin of domestic chickens, the relative roles of ancestral polymorphisms and introgression, and the effects of artificial selection on the domestic chicken genome. DNA sequences from 30 introns at 25 nuclear loci are determined for both diploid chromosomes from a majority of samples. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the DNA sequences of chickens, red and green junglefowls formed reciprocally monophyletic clusters. The Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation further reveals that domestic chickens diverged from red junglefowl 58,000+/-16,000 years ago, well before the archeological dating of domestication, and that their common ancestor in turn diverged from green junglefowl 3.6 million years ago. Several shared haplotypes nonetheless found between green junglefowl and chickens are attributed to recent unidirectional introgression of chickens into green junglefowl. Shared haplotypes are more frequently found between red junglefowl and chickens, which are attributed to both introgression and ancestral polymorphisms. Within each chicken breed, there is an excess of homozygosity, but there is no significant reduction in the nucleotide diversity. Phenotypic modifications of chicken breeds as a result of artificial selection appear to stem from ancestral polymorphisms at a limited number of genetic loci. PMID:20502703

  20. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  1. Ontogeny of sex differences in the energetics and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Rose, K A; Bates, K T; Nudds, R L; Codd, J R

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in locomotor performance may precede the onset of sexual maturity and/or arise concomitantly with secondary sex characteristics. Here, we present the first study to quantify the terrestrial locomotor morphology, energetics and kinematics in a species, either side of sexual maturation. In domestic leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) sexual maturation brings about permanent female gravidity and increased male hind limb muscle mass. We found that the sexes of a juvenile cohort of leghorns shared similar maximum sustainable speeds, while in a sexually mature cohort maximum sustainable speeds were greater by 67% (males) and 34% (females). Furthermore, relative to that in juveniles of the same sex, the absolute duration of leg swing was longer in mature males and shorter in mature females. Consequently, the proportion of a stride that each limb was in contact with the ground (duty factor) was higher in sexually mature females compared to males. Modulation of the duty factor with the development of secondary sex characteristics may act to minimize mechanical work in males; and minimise mechanical power and/or peak force in females. A greater incremental response of mass-specific metabolic power to speed in males compared to females was common to both age cohorts and, therefore, likely results from physiological sexual dimorphisms that precede sexual maturation. PMID:27068682

  2. Analysis of the expression of p53 during the morphogenesis of the gastroesophageal mucosa of Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ventura, Adriana; do Nascimento, Aparecida Alves; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; Vieira-Lopes, Danielle Alcantara; Sales, Armando; Pinheiro, Nadja Lima

    2014-01-01

    Ontogenesis comprises a series of events including cell proliferation and apoptosis and resulting in the normal development of the embryo. Protein p53 has been described as being involved in the development of several animal species. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of protein p53 during the morphogenesis of the gastroesophageal mucosa of Gallus gallus domesticus and to correlate it with the histogenesis of structures present in this tissue. We used 24 embryos (at 12-20 days of incubation) and the thymus of two chickens. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with the ABC indirect method. The expression of p53 in the gastroesophageal mucosa increased during the formation of the organ, mainly at the stages during which tissue remodeling and cell differentiation began. In the esophagus at stages 42 and 45, we observed immunoreactive (IR) cells in the surface epithelium and in early esophageal glands. In the proventriculus at stages 39-45, IR cells were present in the epithelial mucosa and rarely in the proventricular glands. In the gizzard after stage 42, we found IR cells mainly in the medial and basal epithelial layers of the mucosa and especially within the intercellular spaces that appeared at this phase and formed the tubular gland ducts. Thus, protein p53 occurs at key stages of development: in the esophagus during the remodeling of esophageal glands, in the proventriculus during the differentiation of the epithelium of the mucosa and in the gizzard during the formation of tubular glands. PMID:24068480

  3. Ontogeny of sex differences in the energetics and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Rose, K. A.; Bates, K. T.; Nudds, R. L.; Codd, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in locomotor performance may precede the onset of sexual maturity and/or arise concomitantly with secondary sex characteristics. Here, we present the first study to quantify the terrestrial locomotor morphology, energetics and kinematics in a species, either side of sexual maturation. In domestic leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) sexual maturation brings about permanent female gravidity and increased male hind limb muscle mass. We found that the sexes of a juvenile cohort of leghorns shared similar maximum sustainable speeds, while in a sexually mature cohort maximum sustainable speeds were greater by 67% (males) and 34% (females). Furthermore, relative to that in juveniles of the same sex, the absolute duration of leg swing was longer in mature males and shorter in mature females. Consequently, the proportion of a stride that each limb was in contact with the ground (duty factor) was higher in sexually mature females compared to males. Modulation of the duty factor with the development of secondary sex characteristics may act to minimize mechanical work in males; and minimise mechanical power and/or peak force in females. A greater incremental response of mass-specific metabolic power to speed in males compared to females was common to both age cohorts and, therefore, likely results from physiological sexual dimorphisms that precede sexual maturation. PMID:27068682

  4. Arsenic species in broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter, soils, maize (Zea mays L.), and groundwater from litter-amended fields.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Elisa; Zeigler, Georgia; Beck, E Glenn; Grove, John; Sikora, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Manure and bedding material (litter) generated by the broiler industry (Gallus gallus domesticus) often contain high levels of arsenic (As) when organoarsenical roxarsone and p-arsanilic acid are included in feed to combat disease and improve weight gain of the birds. This study was conducted to determine As levels and species in litter from three major broiler producing companies, and As levels in soils, corn tissue (Zea mays L.), and groundwater in fields where litter was applied. Total As in litter from the three different integrators ranged between <1 and 44 mg kg(-1). Between 15 and 20% of total As in litter consisted of mostly of arsenate, with smaller amounts of roxarsone and several transformation products that were extractable with phosphate buffer. Soils amended with litter had higher levels of bioavailable As (extractable with Mehlich 3 solution and taken up by corn leaves). Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue and groundwater, however, were below the World Health Organization thresholds, which was attributed to strong sorption/precipitation of arsenate in Fe- and Al-rich soils. Ecological impacts of amending soils with As-laden litter depend on the As species in the litter, and chemical and physical properties of soil that strongly affect As mobility and bioavailability in the environment. PMID:23010102

  5. Age-specific oxidative status and the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Jose C; Dean, Rebecca; Isaksson, Caroline; Velando, Alberto; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is emerging as a key factor underpinning life history and the expression of sexually selected traits. Resolving the role of oxidative stress in life history and sexual selection requires a pluralistic approach, which investigates how age affects the relationship between oxidative status (i.e., antioxidants and oxidative damage) and the multiple traits contributing to variation in reproductive success. Here, we investigate the relationship between oxidative status and the expression of multiple sexually selected traits in two-age classes of male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, a species which displays marked male reproductive senescence. We found that, irrespective of male age, both male social status and comb size were strongly associated with plasma oxidative status, and there was a nonsignificant tendency for sperm motility to be associated with seminal oxidative status. Importantly, however, patterns of plasma and seminal antioxidant levels differed markedly in young and old males. While seminal antioxidants increased with plasma antioxidants in young males, the level of seminal antioxidants remained low and was independent of plasma levels in old males. In addition, old males also accumulated more oxidative damage in their sperm DNA. These results suggest that antioxidant allocation across different reproductive traits and somatic maintenance might change drastically as males age, leading to age-specific patterns of antioxidant investment. PMID:23139875

  6. Sexually dimorphic immunoreactivity of galanin and colocalization with arginine vasotocin in the chicken brain (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine; Jurkevich, Aleksandr; Grossmann, Roland

    2006-12-10

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis medialis (BSTM) of adult chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was previously shown to synthesize arginine vasotocin (AVT) in males only and coincides spatially and temporally with steroid activity regulating male reproductive behavior. Galanin has been shown to be a potent modulator of the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses in the mammalian BSTM and in other sexually dimorphic brain regions. In the present study of adult chickens the morphological relationship of AVT and galanin was examined by immunohistochemical analysis of two limbic structures, the BSTM and the lateral septum (SL). The analysis also included the hypothalamic nuclei supraopticus (SON) and paraventricularis (PVN). In males galanin and AVT were both synthesized in the BSTM, while in females neither galanin nor AVT was present. Furthermore, in the males galanin and AVT were colocalized in the majority of neurons within BSTM and in fibers of the SL. In both sexes galanin neurons in the PVN were scattered between the distinct clusters of AVT neurons and there was no colocalization of galanin and AVT in single PVN neurons. Furthermore, AVT immunoreactivity was significantly higher in the SON than in the PVN in both sexes. In the SON, galanin was colocalized with AVT in significantly more neurons in hens than in males (P

  7. Intraspecific scaling of the minimum metabolic cost of transport in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus): links with limb kinematics, morphometrics and posture

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kayleigh A.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The minimum metabolic cost of transport (CoTmin; J kg−1 m−1) scales negatively with increasing body mass (∝Mb−1/3) across species from a wide range of taxa associated with marked differences in body plan. At the intraspecific level, or between closely related species, however, CoTmin does not always scale with Mb. Similarity in physiology, dynamics of movement, skeletal geometry and posture between closely related individuals is thought to be responsible for this phenomenon, despite the fact that energetic, kinematic and morphometric data are rarely collected together. We examined the relationship between these integrated components of locomotion in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for large and bantam (miniature) varieties. Interspecific allometry predicts a CoTmin ∼16% greater in bantams compared with the larger variety. However, despite 38% and 23% differences in Mb and leg length, respectively, the two varieties shared an identical walking CoTmin, independent of speed and equal to the allometric prediction derived from interspecific data for the larger variety. Furthermore, the two varieties moved with dynamic similarity and shared geometrically similar appendicular and axial skeletons. Hip height, however, did not scale geometrically and the smaller variety had more erect limbs, contrary to interspecific scaling trends. The lower than predicted CoTmin in bantams for their Mb was associated with both the more erect posture and a lower cost per stride (J kg−1 stride−1). Therefore, our findings are consistent with the notion that a more erect limb is associated with a lower CoTmin and with the previous assumption that similarity in skeletal shape, inherently linked to walking dynamics, is associated with similarity in CoTmin. PMID:25657211

  8. Variety, sex and ontogenetic differences in the pelvic limb muscle architectural properties of leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their links with locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kayleigh A; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2016-06-01

    Leghorn (layer) chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) differ in locomotor morphology and performance due to artificial selection for standard (large) and bantam (small) varieties, sexual dimorphisms and ontogenetic stage. Here, the hind limb skeletal muscle architectural properties of mature and juvenile standard breeds and mature bantams are compared and linked to measures of locomotor performance. Mature males possessed greater relative muscle physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) than their conspecific females, indicative of greater force-generating capacity, and in line with their greater maximum sustainable speeds compared with females. Furthermore, some of the relative fascicle lengths of the pennate muscles were greater in mature males than in mature females, which may permit greater muscle contractibility. Immature standard leghorns, however, did not share the same dimorphisms as their mature forms. The differences in architectural properties between immature and mature standard males indicate that with the onset of male sexual maturity, concomitant with increasing muscle mass in males, the relative fascicle lengths of pennate muscles and the relative PCSAs of the parallel-fibred muscles also increase. The age-related differences in standard breed male muscle architecture are linked to the presence and absence of sex differences in maximum aerobic speeds. Males of bantam and standard varieties shared similar muscle proportions (% body mass), but exhibited intrinsic muscle differences with a tendency for greater force-generating capabilities in bantams and greater contractile capabilities in standards. The metabolic costs associated with the longer fascicle lengths, together with more crouched limbs in standard than in bantam males may explain the lack of allometry in the minimum metabolic cost of transport between these birds of different size. PMID:26969917

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel aryl hydrocarbon receptor isoform, AHR1β, in the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Iwabuchi, Kohei; Nomaru, Koji; Nagahama, Nobumasa; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato

    2013-12-01

    Dioxins including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) cause toxic effects through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated signaling pathway. Our previous studies have investigated the function of 2 AHR isoforms (AHR1 and AHR2) in avian species and identified a third AHR in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. Knowledge of multiple avian AHRs is indispensable to understand molecular mechanisms of AHR-mediated toxic effects and establish risk assessment framework for environmental AHR ligands in avian species. In this study, we successfully isolated a third novel AHR1-like cDNA from chicken and designated it as chicken AHR1 beta (ckAHR1β). The mRNA expression of ckAHR1β was primarily detected in the liver, and the hepatic protein expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Although mRNA expression of ckAHR1β was not altered by in ovo TCDD exposure, ckAHR1β exhibited specific binding to [(3)H]TCDD, TCDD-dependent nuclear translocation, and interaction with xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs) and AHR nuclear translocators (ARNTs). In vitro XRE-driven reporter gene assays revealed ckAHR1β-mediated transactivation of TCDD in a dose-dependent manner, showing a 10-fold reduced sensitivity (high EC50) compared with that mediated by ckAHR1. The mutation of Val(371) to Ser(371) in the ligand-binding domain of ckAHR1β shifted the TCDD-EC50 toward the value observed in ckAHR1, indicating the critical roles of the amino acid in sensitivity. Furthermore, ckAHR1β-mediated transactivation of TCDD was enhanced by 17β-estradiol (E2)-activated chicken estrogen receptor α (ckERα), suggesting a positive cross talk between ckERα and ckAHR1β signaling pathway. Both TCDD-induced and its enhanced activities by E2 were suppressed by the ckAHR repressor in a manner similar to ckAHR1. Collectively, our findings discover the role of ckAHR1β in dioxin toxicity and give an insight into the evolutionary history of the AHR signaling pathway. PMID:23997109

  10. Polytetrafluoroethylene Toxicosis in Recently Hatched Chickens (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Katherine A; Brock, Kristie L; Dysko, Robert C; DiRita, Victor J; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of chickens (Gallus domesticus; White Leghorn; age, 4 d and 2 wk) housed in a university research vivarium were found dead or moribund without prior signs of illness. The overall mortality rates were 92.3% (60 of 65 birds) for the 4-d-old birds and 80% (8 of 10) for the 2-wk-old birds. All chicks were housed in brooders with heat lamps in a temperature- and humidity-controlled room. Primary gross findings were mild to moderate dehydration and hepatic lipidosis. The most consistent histologic findings were pulmonary hemorrhage and edema in all 7 of the 4-d-old birds evaluated and in all 4 of the 2-wk-old birds assessed. In addition, 1 of the 4-d-old birds had multifocal centrilobular hepatic necrosis. These findings suggested an inhaled toxicant and hypoxia, respectively. Inspection of the animal room revealed that approximately 50% of the heat lamp bulbs in the brooder cage were coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Two published case reports detail similar experiences in birds exposed to PTFE-coated heat-lamp bulbs. Birds are highly sensitive to inhaled toxicants owing to the high efficiency of their respiratory systems, and PTFE toxicosis is known to cause pulmonary edema and hemorrhage in pet birds after exposure to overheated nonstick cookware. In the present case, the bulbs were replaced, and no similar problems subsequently have been noted. This case illustrates the sensitivity of avian species to respiratory toxicants and serves as a reminder that toxicosis can be encountered even in the controlled environment of a laboratory vivarium. PMID:22330651

  11. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections. PMID:26518645

  12. Quantitative genetics of sexually dimorphic traits and capture of genetic variance by a sexually-selected condition-dependent ornament in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Parker, T H; Garant, D

    2004-11-01

    We studied the quantitative genetics of sexually selected traits in a captive population of red junglefowl (Gallus gallus L.) using a multi-generational 'animal model' approach. We found significant heritability of mass, tarsus length (both strongly sexually dimorphic), residual mass, and male comb (a fleshy head ornament) length. Residual mass has a genetic correlation between the sexes smaller than unity and so could show partially independent responses to selection in the two sexes. In males, tarsus length and mass were not genetically correlated, and this produced a negative genetic correlation between tarsus length and residual mass. The male red junglefowl's comb, an ornament influencing female choice, is highly condition dependent. We show that expression of this ornament is heritable, however, and shows strong genetic correlation with a condition index, residual mass. Because residual mass is partly influenced by various aspects of condition, it appears that comb size has 'captured' genetic variability in condition. PMID:15525412

  13. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Deping; Wang, Shuxiang; Hu, Yanxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xianggui; Yang, Zu; Wang, Jiankui; Li, Junying; Deng, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    The Silky Fowl (SF) is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs). The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte. PMID:26047316

  14. Social predisposition dependent neuronal activity in the intermediate medial mesopallium of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Lorenzi, Elena; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Species from phylogenetically distant animal groups, such as birds and primates including humans, share early experience-independent social predispositions that cause offspring, soon after birth, to attend to and learn about conspecifics. One example of this phenomenon is provided by the behaviour of newly-hatched visually-naïve domestic chicks that preferentially approach a stimulus resembling a conspecific (a stuffed fowl) rather than a less naturalistic object (a scrambled version of the stuffed fowl). However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying this behaviour are mostly unknown. Here we analysed chicks' brain activity with immunohistochemical detection of the transcription factor c-Fos. In a spontaneous choice test we confirmed a significant preference for approaching the stuffed fowl over a texture fowl (a fowl that was cut in small pieces attached to the sides of a box in scrambled order). Comparison of brain activation of a subgroup of chicks that approached either one or the other stimulus revealed differential activation in an area relevant for imprinting (IMM, intermediate medial mesopallium), suggesting that a different level of plasticity is associated with approach to naturalistic and artificial stimuli. c-Fos immunoreactive neurons were present also in the intermediate layers of the optic tectum (a plausible candidate for processing early social predispositions) showing a trend similar to the results for the IMM. PMID:27173429

  15. Parasites influence social rank and morphology, but not mate choice, in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Zuk; Kim; Robinson; Johnsen

    1998-08-01

    Parasites can profoundly affect host morphology and behaviour, but previous work has focused on the effects of parasites on males. In the present study, we assessed the effects of infection with the nematode Ascaridia galli on the morphology and behaviour, including mate choice, of female red junglefowl. Hens infected with A. galli had lower mass and smaller combs than unparasitized birds when sexually mature. Parasite status had a significant effect on social rank in all-female flocks, with high-ranking birds being less likely to be parasitized. Larger females had higher social rank, but comb size was unrelated to social status. Neither parasite status nor social rank had any effect on mate choice. These results differ from those found for male red junglefowl, and suggest that males and females may allocate resources differently to comb versus growth. The low cost of choice in the red junglefowl mating system may also contribute to the lack of an effect of parasites and social status on mate choice Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9787041

  16. Tick fauna of Malaysian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) in Bangi, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Konto, M.; Fufa, G. I.; Zakaria, A.; Tukur, S. M.; Watanabe, M.; Ola-Fadunsin, S. D.; Khan, M. S.; Shettima, Y. M.; Babjee, S. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. Results: 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63%) for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. Conclusion: This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick. PMID:27047012

  17. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  18. High spatial resolution Mg/Al maps of the western Crisium and Sulpicius Gallus regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1982-01-01

    High spatial resolution Mg/Al ratio maps of the western Crisium and Sulpicius Gallus regions of the moon are presented. The data is from the X-ray fluorescence experiment and the image enhancement technique in the Laplacian subtraction method using a special least-squares version of the Laplacian to reduce noise amplification. In the highlands region west of Mare Crisium several relatively small patches of smooth material have high local Mg/Al ratio similar to values found in mare sites, suggesting volcanism in the highlands. In the same highland region there were other smooth areas with no high Mg/Al local values and they are probably Cayley Formation material produced by impact mass wasting. The Sulpicius Gallus region has variable Mg/Al ratios. In this region there are several high Mg/Al ratio spots, two of which occur at the highland-mare interface. Another high Mg/Al ratio area corresponds to the Sulpicius Gallus Rima I region. The high Mg/Al ratio material in the Sulpicius Gallus region is probably pyroclastic.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Addis Adaba, Ethiopa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the environmental contamination with oocysts because chickens become infected mainly by feeding from ground/feed/soil contaminated with oocysts. The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 125 free-r...

  20. Learning of Monotonic and Nonmonotonic Sequences in Domesticated Horses ("Equus Callabus") and Chickens ("Gallus Domesticus")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundey, Shannon M. A.; Strandell, Brittany; Mathis, Heather; Rowan, James D.

    2010-01-01

    (Hulse and Dorsky, 1977) and (Hulse and Dorsky, 1979) found that rats, like humans, learn sequences following a simple rule-based structure more quickly than those lacking a rule-based structure. Through two experiments, we explored whether two additional species--domesticated horses ("Equus callabus") and chickens ("Gallus domesticus")--would…

  1. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment. PMID:26895726

  2. Fungi predatory activity on embryonated Toxocara canis eggs inoculated in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and destruction of second stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Emy; Del Carmen Garcia Lopes, Aline; da Paz, Jeanne Saraiva; Gava, Maylla Garschagen; Flecher, Mayra Cunha; Colares, Manuela; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; da Fonseca, Leandro Abreu; Lacerda, Tracy; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs after interacting with isolated nematophagous fungi of the species Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4), and test the predatory activity of the isolated AC001 on T. canis second stage larvae after 7 days of interaction. In assay A, 5000 embryonated T. canis eggs previously in contact with the AC001 and VC4 isolated for 10 days were inoculated into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), and then these animals were necropsied to collect material (digested liver, intestine, muscles and lungs) at 3-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day intervals after inoculation. In assay A, the results demonstrated that the prior interaction of the eggs with isolated AC001 and VC4 decreases the amount of larvae found in the collected organs. Difference (p < 0.01) was observed in the medium larvae counts recovered from liver, lung, intestine, and muscle of animals in the treated groups when compared to the animals in the control group. At the end of assay A, a percentage reduction of 87.1 % (AC001) and 84.5 % (VC4) respectively was recorded. In the result of assay B, the isolated AC001 showed differences (p < 0.01) compared to the control group, with a reduction of 53.4 % in the recovery of L2. Through these results, it is justified to mention that prior interaction of embryonated T. canis eggs with the tested fungal isolates were efficient in reducing the development and migration of this parasite, in addition to the first report of proven predatory activity on L2. PMID:26032943

  3. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) selected for different body size.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kayleigh A; Nudds, Robert L; Butler, Patrick J; Codd, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) of standard breed (large) and bantam (small) varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax) were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin) were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number), CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics). Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat. PMID:26405047

  4. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  5. Indirect Genetic Effects for Survival in Domestic Chickens (Gallus gallus) Are Magnified in Crossbred Genotypes and Show a Parent-of-Origin Effect

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, K.; Eppink, T. T.; Ellen, E. D.; Visscher, J.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Through social interactions, individuals can affect one another’s phenotype. The heritable effect of an individual on the phenotype of a conspecific is known as an indirect genetic effect (IGE). Although IGEs can have a substantial impact on heritable variation and response to selection, little is known about the genetic architecture of traits affected by IGEs. We studied IGEs for survival in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus), using data on two purebred lines and their reciprocal cross. Birds were kept in groups of four. Feather pecking and cannibalism caused mortality, as beaks were kept intact. Survival time was shorter in crossbreds than in purebreds, indicating outbreeding depression and the presence of nonadditive genetic effects. IGEs contributed the majority of heritable variation in crossbreds (87 and 72%) and around half of heritable variation in purebreds (65 and 44%). There was no evidence of dominance variance, neither direct nor indirect. Absence of dominance variance in combination with considerable outbreeding depression suggests that survival is affected by many loci. Direct–indirect genetic correlations were moderately to highly negative in crossbreds (−0.37 ± 0.17 and −0.83 ± 0.10), but low and not significantly different from zero in purebreds (0.20 ± 0.21 and −0.28 ± 0.18). Consequently, unlike purebreds, crossbreds would fail to respond positively to mass selection. The direct genetic correlation between both crosses was high (0.95 ± 0.23), whereas the indirect genetic correlation was moderate (0.41 ± 0.26). Thus, for IGEs, it mattered which parental line provided the sire and which provided the dam. This indirect parent-of-origin effect appeared to be paternally transmitted and is probably Z chromosome linked. PMID:22851648

  6. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Hypothalamic MicroRNAs as Novel Partners Involved in Timing the Rapid Development of Chicken (Gallus gallus) Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Zou, Jianmin; Wang, Kehua; Su, Yijun; Zhu, Yunfen; Song, Chi; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Liu, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Onset of the rapid gonad growth is a milestone in sexual development that comprises many genes and regulatory factors. The observations in model organisms and mammals including humans have shown a potential link between miRNAs and development timing. To determine whether miRNAs play roles in this process in the chicken (Gallus gallus), the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the profiles of miRNA expression in the hypothalamus of hens from two different pubertal stages, before onset of the rapid gonad development (BO) and after onset of the rapid gonad development (AO). 374 conserved and 46 novel miRNAs were identified as hypothalamus-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. 144 conserved miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P < 0.05) during the transition from BO to AO. Five differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method. 2013 putative genes were predicted as the targets of the 15 most differentially expressed miRNAs (fold-change > 4.0, P < 0.01). Of these genes, 7 putative circadian clock genes, Per2, Bmal1/2, Clock, Cry1/2, and Star were found to be targeted multiple times by the miRNAs. qRT-PCR revealed the basic transcription levels of these clock genes were much higher (P < 0.01) in AO than in BO. Further functional analysis suggested that these 15 miRNAs play important roles in transcriptional regulation and signal transduction pathways. The results provide new insights into miRNAs functions in timing the rapid development of chicken gonads. Considering the characteristics of miRNA functional conservation, the results will contribute to the research on puberty onset in humans. PMID:26061962

  7. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) selected for different body size

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kayleigh A.; Nudds, Robert L.; Butler, Patrick J.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) of standard breed (large) and bantam (small) varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax) were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin) were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number), CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics). Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat. PMID:26405047

  8. Dietary Zinc Deficiency Affects Blood Linoleic Acid: Dihomo-γ-linolenic Acid (LA:DGLA) Ratio; a Sensitive Physiological Marker of Zinc Status in Vivo (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P.; Tako, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn(+) (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn(−) (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn(+) control versus Zn(−) group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn(+) control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ6 desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn(+) group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn(−) group compared to the Zn(+) group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation. PMID:24658588

  9. Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a sensitive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn⁺ (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn⁻ (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn⁺ control versus Zn⁻ group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn⁺ control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ⁶ desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn⁺ group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn⁻ group compared to the Zn⁺ group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation. PMID:24658588

  10. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  11. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T.; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. Principal Findings The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. Significance This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk. PMID:26201090

  12. A genome-wide approach to screen for genetic variants in broilers (Gallus gallus) with divergent feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Namrata V; Patel, Anand B; Upadhyay, Maulik R; Mohapatra, Amitbikram; Singh, Krishna M; Deshpande, Sunil D; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2016-08-01

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in broilers and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in broiler production. To explore the contribution of functional variants to FCR trait, we analyzed coding and non-coding single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the genome by exome sequencing in seven pairs of full-sibs broilers with divergent FCR and with a sequence coverage at an average depth of fourfold. We identified 192,119 high-quality SNVs, including 30,380 coding SNVs (cSNVs) in the experimental population. We discovered missense SNVs in PGM2, NOX4, TGFBR3, and TMX4, and synonymous SNVs in TSNAX, ITA, HSP90B1, and COL18A1 associated with FCR. Haplotype analyses of genome-wide significant SNVs in PGM2, PHKG1, DGKZ, and SOD2 were also observed with suggestive evidence of haplotype association with FCR. Single-variant and FCR QTL-related genes-based association analyses of SNVs identified newly associated genes for FCR in the regions subjected to targeted exome sequencing. The top seven SNVs were next evaluated in independent replication data sets where SNV chr. 3: 13,990,160 (c. 961G>C) at TMX4 was replicated (p < 0.05). Collectively, we have detected SNVs associated with FCR in broiler as well as identification of SNVs in known FCR QTL region. These findings should facilitate the discovery of causative variants for FCR and contribute to marker-assisted selection. PMID:27174137

  13. The effects of age and previous experience on social rank in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus spadiceus.

    PubMed

    Kim; Zuk

    2000-08-01

    Social rank can influence lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We examined the effects of morphology, age, previous social experience and aggressiveness on social rank in all-female flocks of red junglefowl. None of the morphological characters measured (mass, tarsus length, comb height or comb length) appeared to play a role in determining rank. Older females were not more likely to be dominant, while previous social experience and aggression levels were both important in dominance determination. Flock-experienced hens were more likely to be dominant as were more aggressive individuals. Red junglefowl females most likely use a combination of characters to establish social order in a newly formed flock. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10973726

  14. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring.

    PubMed

    Agnvall, B; Ali, A; Olby, S; Jensen, P

    2014-09-01

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected. PMID:24910136

  15. In vitro Effects of Albendazole on Raillietina echinobothrida, the Cestode of Chicken, Gallus domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Lalchhandama, K

    2010-01-01

    Albendazole, a member of benzimidazole group of compounds, has been shown to have a broad spectrum activity against all classes of helminth parasites. Although it has also been experimentally proven to be effective against cestode infection of poultry, the actual effects of the drug are not yet described. The present in vitro study demonstrated that the commercial prescription drug Zentel® was significantly effective against adult Raillietina echinobothrida Mégnin, the major cestode parasite of domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus Linnaeus. It clearly exhibited dose-dependent lethal activity at the different concentrations that were tested. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the drug caused extensive structural alterations on the body surface of the cestode. Severe contraction and shrinkage were evident throughout the entire length of the body. The suckers on the scolex became invaginated due to shrinkage. The distinct body segments, the proglottides, were completely distorted. The fine hairy microtriches on the tegument were obliterated and in its place were formed abnormal clumps of tissues. The results of this investigation are in favor of the use of albendazole as a drug of choice in the management of poultry helminthiasis. PMID:21264097

  16. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes. PMID:25623149

  17. Study of Stress Induced Failure of the Blood-gas Barrier and the Epithelial-epithelial Cells Connections of the Lung of the Domestic Fowl, Gallus gallus Variant Domesticus after Vascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Maina, John N; Jimoh, Sikiru A

    2013-01-01

    Complete blood-gas barrier breaks (BGBBs) and epithelial-epithelial cells connections breaks (E-ECCBs) were enumerated in the lungs of free range chickens, Gallus gallus variant domesticus after vascular perfusion at different pressures. The E-ECCBs surpassed the BGBBs by a factor of ~2. This showed that the former parts of the gas exchange tissue were structurally weaker or more vulnerable to failure than the latter. The differences in the numbers of BGBBs and E-ECCBs in the different regions of the lung supplied with blood by the 4 main branches of the pulmonary artery (PA) corresponded with the diameters of the blood vessels, the angles at which they bifurcated from the PA, and the positions along the PA where they branched off. Most of the BGBBs and the E-ECCBs occurred in the regions supplied by the accessory- and the caudomedial branches: the former is the narrowest branch and the first blood vessel to separate from the PA while the latter is the most direct extension of the PA and is the widest. The E-ECCBs appeared to separate and fail from tensing of the blood capillary walls, as the perfusion- and intramural pressures increased. Compared to the mammalian lungs on which data are available, i.e., those of the rabbit, the dog, and the horse, the blood-gas barrier of the lung of free range chickens appears to be substantially stronger for its thinness. PMID:25288905

  18. Endemic avian toxoplasmosis on a farm in Illinois: clinical disease, diagnosis, biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus), and a goose (Anser anser)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical toxoplasmosis in chickens (Gallus domesticus) has been rarely reported in literature. Here we report that three chickens on a farm in Illinois developed neurological signs . One of these chickens was examined postmortem and it had non-suppurative encephalitis with numerous Toxoplasma gondi...

  19. Alterations in Hematological Profile of Experimentally Induced Subchronic Thiacloprid Toxicosis in Gallus domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Saloni; Sandhu, Harpal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Thiacloprid, a novel neonicotinoid insecticide is chiefly used as a crop protectant therefore it is likely to cause indirect exposure to poultry through contaminated feed and water because this species is occasionally supplied with feed that is, declared unfit for human consumption. The current study was performed to explore the nonlethal toxic effects of thiacloprid in Gallus domesticus on hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two birds were randomly divided into nine groups. Groups I to IV of four birds each were kept as healthy control. The Groups V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X contained six birds each and were administered thiacloprid at 1 mg/kg/day for 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days, respectively. Results: Thiacloprid caused variable changes in the hematological parameters. There was a significant decline in the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and total erythrocyte count (TEC). The PCV declined to the extent of 23.33 ± 0.76% on day 90 from the 0 day value of 29.75 ± 1.26% of experiment. The Hb concentration decreased from 9.93 ± 0.57 g/dl (0 day) to 7.52 ± 0.62 g/dl (90 days). The TEC declined from the 0 day value of 2.41 ± 0.08 × 106/mm3 to 90 days value of 2.08 ± 0.05 × 106/mm3. The total leukocyte count on 0 day was 12.50 ± 0.76 × 103/mm3 and it showed a significant increase from day 45 (17.80 ± 2.67 × 103/mm3) to day 90 (21.33 ± 1.48 × 103/mm3) of thiacloprid treatment. There was a significant rise in value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate to 19.25 ± 1.22 mm/24 h on day 90 of treatment from the 14.42 ± 1.09 mm/24 h on 0 day. The long-term oral administration of thiacloprid produced no significant alterations in the values of erythrocytic indices. Conclusions: The repeated oral toxicity on thiacloprid in present investigation suggested that it has an adverse effect on health of birds and is moderately risk insecticide in G. domesticus. PMID:26862276

  20. Mitochondrial DNA-based analysis of genetic variation and relatedness among Sri Lankan indigenous chickens and the Ceylon junglefowl (Gallus lafayetti).

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Guan, X; Ho-Shing, O; Jones, J; Xu, J; Hui, D; Notter, D; Smith, E

    2009-02-01

    Indigenous chickens (IC) in developing countries provide a useful resource to detect novel genes in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here, we investigated the level of genetic diversity in IC from five distinct regions of Sri Lanka using a PCR-based resequencing method. In addition, we investigated the relatedness of IC to different species of junglefowls including Ceylon (CJF; Gallus lafayetti), a subspecies that is endemic to Sri Lanka, green (Gallus varius), grey (Gallus sonneratii) and red (Gallus gallus) junglefowls. A total of 140 birds including eight CJF were used to screen the control region of the mitochondrial DNA sequence for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other variants. We detected and validated 44 SNPs, which formed 42 haplotypes and six haplogroups in IC. The SNPs observed in the CJF were distinct and the D-loop appeared to be missing a 62-bp segment found in IC and the red junglefowl. Among the six haplogroups of IC, only one was region-specific. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.901 to 0.965 and from 0.011 to 0.013 respectively, and genetic divergence was generally low. Further, variation among individuals within regions accounted for 92% of the total molecular variation among birds. The Sri Lankan IC were more closely related to red and grey junglefowls than to CJF, indicating multiple origins. The molecular information on genetic diversity revealed in our study may be useful in developing genetic improvement and conservation strategies to better utilize indigenous Sri Lankan chicken resources. PMID:18945292

  1. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  2. Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Hervé, Jessica C; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Yang, Yinfei; Jones, Paul D; Wan, Yi; Collins, Brian; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Egg injection studies were performed to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of birds to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In this model, species are classified as belonging to one of three categories of sensitivity based on amino acid substitutions in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Embryo lethality and relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) were compared with TCDD for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; least sensitive), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; moderately sensitive), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus; most sensitive). Doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 pmol/g egg (0.015-12 ng/g egg) were injected into the air cell of eggs prior to incubation. LD(50) (95% confidence intervals) values, based on rate of hatching for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, were 30 (25-36), 4.9 (2.3-9.2), and 15 (11-24) pmol/g egg for the quail, 3.5 (2.3-6.3), 0.61 (0.28-1.2), and 1.2 (0.62-2.2) pmol/g egg for pheasant, and 0.66 (0.47-0.90), 0.75 (0.64-0.87), and 0.33 (0.23-0.45) pmol/g egg for chicken, respectively. LD(50)-based relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF were 6.1 and 2.0 for quail, 5.7 and 2.9 for pheasant, and 0.88 and 2.0 for chicken, respectively. TCDD was not the most potent compound among the species tested, with PeCDF and TCDF being more potent than TCDD in the quail and pheasant. TCDF was the most potent in chicken. Species sensitivity was as expected for TCDD and TCDF, whereas for PeCDF, the chicken and pheasant were similar in sensitivity and both were more sensitive than the quail. Results from companion in vitro studies are generally similar to those reported here with a few exceptions. PMID:20861070

  3. Changes in the cellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva

    2014-04-25

    In this work, the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was determined in different cell subpopulations in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to one-month-old chickens by immunohistochemistry. Results revealed positive ER-α immunostaining in both ovaries during development, but the percentage, staining intensity, and cellular distribution of ER-α immunostaining changes according to whether it is the left or right ovary and with the animal's age. In the left ovary, the ER-α was localized in the nuclei of the germinal epithelium and in germ cells of the ovarian cortex, as well as in the interstitial cells, undifferentiated cells, and epithelial cells of the lacunar channels of the ovarian medulla in all ages. In contrast, in the right ovary from 13-day-old chicken embryos to one-week-old chickens, only the epithelial cells of lacunar channels were ER-α immunoreactive, but in the right ovary of one-month-old chickens both the epithelial cells of lacunar channels and the interstitial cells presented ER-α. These results demonstrate differential expression of ER-α in both chicken ovaries during development in a cell type-specific distribution, suggesting that these differences may be regarded as an important cause in the process of asymmetric ovarian development in the chicken. PMID:24704443

  4. Distribution of α-transducin and α-gustducin immunoreactive cells in the chicken (Gallus domesticus) gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Bombardi, C; Vallorani, C; Sirri, F; De Giorgio, R; Caio, G; Grandis, A; Sternini, C; Clavenzani, P

    2016-07-01

    The expression and distribution patterns of the taste signaling molecules, α-gustducin (Gαgust) and α-transducin (Gαtran) G-protein subunits, were studied in the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken (Gallus domesticus) using the immunohistochemical method. Gαgust and Gαtran immunoreactive (-IR) cells were observed in the mucosal layer of all examined segments, except the esophagus, crop, and the saccus cranialis of the gizzard. The highest numbers of Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells were found in the proventriculus glands and along the villi of the pyloric, duodenum, and rectal mucosa. Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells located in the villi of the jejunum, ileum, and cloaca were much less numerous, while only a few Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells were detected in the mucosa of the proventriculus and cecum. In the crypts, IR cells were observed in the small and large intestine as well as in the cloaca. Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells displayed elongated ("bottle-" or "pear-like") or rounded shape. The demonstration of Gαgust and Gαtran expression provides evidence for taste receptor mediated mucosal chemosensitivity in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26957624

  5. Diencephalic and septal structures containing the avian vasotocin receptor (V1aR) involved in the regulation of food intake in chickens, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Gurueswar; Jurkevich, Alexander; Kang, Seong W; Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2016-10-01

    Recently, it was found that the avian central vasotocin receptor (V1aR) is associated with the regulation of food intake. To identify V1aR-containing brain structures regulating food intake, a selective V1aR antagonist SR-49059 that induced food intake was administrated intracerebroventricularly in male chickens followed by detection of brain structures using FOS immunoreactivity. Particularly, the hypothalamic core region of the paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, a subnucleus of the central extended amygdalar complex [dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis], medial septal nucleus and caudal brainstem [nucleus of the solitary tract] showed significantly increased FOS-ir cells. On the other hand, the supraoptic nucleus of the preoptic area and the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure of the septum showed suppressed FOS immunoreactivity in the V1aR antagonist treatment group. Further investigation revealed that neuronal activity of arginine vasotocin (AVT-ir) magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, preoptic periventricular nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus and most likely corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH-ir) neurons in the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure were reduced following the antagonist treatment. Dual immunofluorescence labeling results showed that perikarya of AVT-ir magnocellular neurons in the preoptic area and hypothalamus were colabeled with V1aR. Within the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure, CRH-ir neurons were shown in close contact with V1aR-ir glial cells. Results of the present study suggest that the V1aR plays a role in the regulation of food intake by modulating neurons that synthesize and release anorectic neuropeptides in the avian brain. PMID:27317836

  6. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  7. Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor γ (mPRγ) and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPRγ was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-α was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-α content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds

  8. Plumage color and feather pecking--behavioral differences associated with PMEL17 genotypes in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Nätt, Daniel; Kerje, Susanne; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2007-03-01

    An F (5) generation of an advanced inter-cross between red junglefowl (wild-type) and White Leghorn (domesticated) was used to investigate earlier findings suggesting that a mutation in the plumage color gene PMEL17 protects against victimization to feather pecking (FP). F (4) parents were selected according to genotype to produce PMEL17 homozygous offspring (i/i and I/I respectively). Birds were raised and their behavior recorded in groups of either two wild-type i/i (dark colored) and one white I/I, or two I/I and one i/i. In addition each bird was tested for feather preference, reaction to novelty, open-field activity, fear for humans, and tonic-immobility. In the home-pens, i/i birds were more feather pecked and had poorer feather condition than I/I birds. No pecking preference for immobile dark colored feathers was observed. In the open-field test i/i birds vocalized more and earlier than I/I birds, and in the fear-for-human test I/I birds had higher activity at 21 weeks of age. No other behavior differences were observed, but clearly, genotypes of PMEL17 affected some aspects of behavior. Such behavioral differences might be important aspects of the mechanism which predispose i/i individuals for being victims of FP. PMID:17106652

  9. Developmental and posthatch effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF, and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    An egg injection study was conducted to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of three avian species to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals. It was previously reported that the order of species sensitivity to in ovo exposure to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 picomoles (pmol)/g egg was the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) based on embryo mortality and hepatic enzyme induction. In the present study, the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses, and organ pathology of hatchlings as additional indicators of species sensitivity were assessed; in addition, embryo mortality in the three species was categorized by stage of development. Embryo mortality varied temporally with significant increases generally occurring after organogenesis and just prior to hatching. A significant increase in the percentage of developmental deformities was observed only in Japanese quail exposed to TCDF. Body and relative organ masses of quail, pheasants, and chickens dosed in ovo with TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF were not consistently affected. Chemical-related pathology occurred only in livers of quail at the greatest doses of each compound. These results indicated that the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses and organ pathology could not be used as indicators of species sensitivity or chemical potency. PMID:21509806

  10. Maternal transfer of contaminants: case study of the excretion of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and technical-grade endosulfan into eggs by white Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Bargar, T A; Scott, G I; Cobb, G P

    2001-01-01

    Reported avian maternal transfer rates of organochlorine contaminants range from 1% to as much as 20% of maternal body burdens. However, to our knowledge, no investigation of factors governing maternal transfer has been reported. Here, we report an investigation of maternal transfer of 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 156), 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 189), and technical-grade endosulfan into eggs by white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). Two experiments were performed to evaluate individual chemical excretion into eggs when hens were injected with each chemical individually (experiment one) or with a mixture of all four chemicals (experiment two). Each hen was injected subcutaneously every 4 d during a 21-d period with 100 microliters of the dosing solution during both experiments. The mass of each chemical excreted into the egg was compared among eggs and with the mass injected into hens to determine the influence of chemical structure (experiment one) and interaction (experiment two) on maternal transfer of those chemicals into eggs. Maternal transfer of PCBs was inversely related to congener chlorination. The congener mass in eggs, as a percentage of the mass injected into hens, was 0.42% for PCB 189, 0.54% for PCB 156, and 0.61% for PCB 105. In experiment two, absolute excretion of only PCB 189 and alpha-endosulfan into eggs was affected by the presence of other chemicals. Excretion of PCB 189 (0.51%) and alpha-endosulfan (0.03%) increased and decreased, respectively, compared with when they were individually injected into hens during experiment one. Lastly, much less of the more metabolically susceptible endosulfan (0.04-0.12% of the mass injected) was excreted into the egg relative to PCBs, despite being injected into the hens at concentrations comparable with those of PCBs, suggesting, at least in avian species, lower maternal transfer of more metabolically susceptible

  11. Distribution of the Vasotocin Subtype Four Receptor (VT4R) in the Anterior Pituitary Gland of the Chicken, Gallus gallus, and its Possible Role in the Avian Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Selvam, R; Jurkevich, A; Kang, S W; Mikhailova, M V; Cornett, L E; Kuenzel, W J

    2013-01-01

    The neurohormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) in non mammalian vertebrates is homologous to arginine vasopressin (AVP) in mammals. Its actions are mediated via G protein-coupled receptors that belong to the vasotocin/mesotocin family. Because of the known regulatory effects of nonapeptide hormones on anterior pituitary functions, receptor subtypes in that family have been proposed to be located in anterior pituitary cells. Recently, an avian vasotocin receptor subtype designated VT4R has been cloned, which shares 69% sequence homology with a human vasopressin receptor, the V1aR. In the present study, a polyclonal antibody to the VT4R was developed and validated to confirm its specificity to the VT4R. The antibody was used to test the hypothesis that the VT4R is present in the avian anterior pituitary and is specifically associated with certain cell types, where its expression is modulated by acute stress. Western blotting of membrane protein extracts from pituitary tissue, the use of HeLa cells transfected with the VT4R and peptide competition assays all confirmed the specificity of the antibody to the VT4R. Dual-labelling immunofluorescence microscopy was utilised to identify pituitary cell types that contained immunoreactive VT4R. The receptor was found to be widely distributed throughout the cephalic lobe but not in the caudal lobe of the anterior pituitary. Immunoreactive VT4R was associated with corticotrophs. Approximately 89% of immunolabelled corticotrophs were shown to contain the VT4R. The immunoreactive VT4R was not found in gonadotrophs, somatotrophs or lactotrophs. To determine a possible functional role of the VT4R and previously characterised VT2R, gene expression levels in the anterior pituitary were determined after acute immobilisation stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed a significant increase in plasma corticosterone levels (three- to four-fold), a significant reduction of VT4R mRNA and an

  12. Differential effects of prenatal chronic high-decibel noise and music exposure on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of the auditory cortex analog in developing chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Nag, T C; Sharma, U; Jagannathan, N R; Wadhwa, S

    2014-06-01

    Proper development of the auditory cortex depends on early acoustic experience that modulates the balance between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) circuits. In the present social and occupational environment exposure to chronic loud sound in the form of occupational or recreational noise, is becoming inevitable. This could especially disrupt the functional auditory cortex development leading to altered processing of complex sound and hearing impairment. Here we report the effects of prenatal chronic loud sound (110-dB sound pressure level (SPL)) exposure (rhythmic [music] and arrhythmic [noise] forms) on the molecular components involved in regulation of the E/I balance in the developing auditory cortex analog/Field L (AuL) in domestic chicks. Noise exposure at 110-dB SPL significantly enhanced the E/I ratio (increased expression of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit and glutamate with decreased expression of GABA(A) receptor gamma 2 subunit and GABA), whereas loud music exposure maintained the E/I ratio. Expressions of markers of synaptogenesis, synaptic stability and plasticity i.e., synaptophysin, PSD-95 and gephyrin were reduced with noise but increased with music exposure. Thus our results showed differential effects of prenatal chronic loud noise and music exposures on the E/I balance and synaptic function and stability in the developing auditory cortex. Loud music exposure showed an overall enrichment effect whereas loud noise-induced significant alterations in E/I balance could later impact the auditory function and associated cognitive behavior. PMID:24721732

  13. Generalization of visual regularities in newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Santolin, Chiara; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of learning and generalization of visual regularities in a newborn organism is provided in the present research. Domestic chicks have been trained to discriminate visual triplets of simultaneously presented shapes, implementing AAB versus ABA (Experiment 1), AAB versus ABB and AAB versus BAA (Experiment 2). Chicks distinguished pattern-following and pattern-violating novel test triplets in all comparisons, showing no preference for repetition-based patterns. The animals generalized to novel instances even when the patterns compared were not discriminable by the presence or absence of reduplicated elements or by symmetry (e.g., AAB vs. ABB). These findings represent the first evidence of learning and generalization of regularities at the onset of life in an animal model, revealing intriguing differences with respect to human newborns and infants. Extensive prior experience seems to be unnecessary to drive the process, suggesting that chicks are predisposed to detect patterns characterizing the visual world. PMID:27287627

  14. Molecular diagnosis of Eimeria species affecting naturally infected Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Teixeira, M; Albuquerque, G R

    2011-01-01

    We used PCR to test various protocols and define a technique for DNA extraction directly from chicken-shed stool samples for the identification of Eimeria species that parasitize birds. It was possible to extract and amplify DNA of seven Eimeria species from field stool samples, using both protocols tested; extractions made with phenol/chloroform protocols gave the best results. The primers were specific and sensitive, allowing amplification of samples containing as few as 20 oocysts, both in individual and in a multiplex PCR. Individualized PCR with the phenol/chloroform DNA extraction protocol detected a larger number of Eimeria species. Molecular diagnosis was found to be practical and precise, and can be used for monitoring and epidemiological studies of Eimeria. PMID:21710449

  15. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2015-10-01

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones. PMID:26423439

  16. Proteins of insoluble matrix of avian (gallus gallus) eggshell.

    PubMed

    Miksík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedláková, Pavla; Mikulikova, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    The protein composition of the insoluble avian eggshell matrix was studied. The determination of these proteins insoluble in water (EDTA-insoluble) was carried out using enzymatic cleavage followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The influence of various enzymes on the protein splitting also was studied. The distribution of proteins depends on the type of layer (localization within the eggshell): ovocalyxin-32 was found mainly in the outer layer (the cuticle); ovocleidin-116 and 17 and ovocalyxin-36 were found throughout the whole eggshell, whereas ovalbumin was only found in the inner layer, the mammillary. The pigment (protoporphyrin IX) was mainly found in the cuticle and is incorporated into the protein network. PMID:17364661

  17. Metastatic melanomas in young broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Williams, S M; Zavala, G; Hafner, S; Collett, S R; Cheng, S

    2012-03-01

    Four young broiler chickens affected by multiple melanotic tumors are described. Grossly, there were multiple tumors composed of melanocytes within the skin, skeletal muscle, and multiple visceral organs. Tumors ranged from flattened macules to masses that extensively replaced viscera. Microscopically, melanocytes were often well pigmented, and while there was moderate nuclear anisokaryosis, mitotic rates were low. Immunohistochemical staining of some melanomas with antibodies to S100 proteins, Melan-A, vimentin, or neuron-specific enolase after bleaching of tumor cells with potassium permanganate revealed lack of immunostaining of tumor cells with antibodies to S100, strong positive staining of tumor cells for neuron-specific enolase, moderate staining with antibodies to vimentin, and faint staining for Melan-A. Only neuron-specific enolase staining was evident in unbleached tumor cells. Attempts to identify exogenous avian leukosis viruses in these tumors were unsuccessful. PMID:21825310

  18. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B.; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones. PMID:26423439

  19. Changes in hepatic lipid parameters and hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid expression following estradiol administration in laying hens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Lee, B K; Kim, J S; Ahn, H J; Hwang, J H; Kim, J M; Lee, H T; An, B K; Kang, C W

    2010-12-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is characterized by increased hepatic triacylglycerol content associated with liver hemorrhages and results in a sudden decline in egg production. Genetic, environmental, nutritional, and hormonal factors have all been implicated in the etiology of FLHS, but the exact cause of FLHS is still unknown. Estrogens have been implicated in the development of excess fat content of the liver and in the etiology of FLHS. This study investigated estradiol (E(2)) administration in hens and its effect on lipid metabolism. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were intramuscularly injected with E(2) on a daily basis for 3 wk. The dosages were 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg of BW, with corn oil injections used as a control. Egg production and quality were measured among the groups, with no significant difference seen in egg production. Liver weights of hens treated with E(2) were greater than those of control hens, but the increase was not statistically significant. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and E(2) plasma concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner, with plasma concentration of E(2) increasing from 6,900 to 19,000 pg/mL. No significant differences in free cholesterol or phospholipids were observed, but there was a significant increase in hepatic triacylglycerol levels. Injection with E(2) showed an increased expression of mRNA for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (23-fold), but not for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. A statistically significant increase was seen for fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein B, and adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase, but not for acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, apolipoprotein VLDL-II, microsomal triglyceride transport protein, or malic enzyme. For proteins involved in the oxidation of E(2), only cytochrome P450 3A37 showed a statistically significant increase. The present results suggest that E(2) upregulates the synthesis of fatty acids

  20. Eta vs sigma, an update: Gallus-Klemp test, and 250 hPa wind skill compared to ECMWF in ensemble experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina

    2015-04-01

    In our presentation at the 2013 EGU Assembly experiments were reviewed comparing the Eta model results against those using the same code but switched to sigma. Using the eta, better precipitation scores, and more accurate placement of storms, stood out. Improvements with the eta were particularly noticeable over the lee slopes of the Rocky Mountains topography. A recent discovery of an omission in making the model's Smagorinsky-like horizontal diffusion aware of the sloping steps discretization enabled a replication of the Gallus and Klemp (Mon. Wea. Rev., 2000) test of flow over a bell-shaped mountain with a very high degree of resemblance to the one they obtained after addressing the flow-separation problem of the step-topography eta. Results were also discussed in the 2013 presentation of experiments in which 26 Eta ensemble members driven by an ECMWF 32-day ensemble mostly had better scores in placing strong 250 hPa winds than their driver members; and of a test of the impact of having 10 of these Eta members use sigma. While no obvious impact on 250 hPa wind scores stood out, a tendency was seen for more accurate tilt at an apparently crucial time of the 250 hPa trough of the eta compared to sigma members. To test the sensitivity to resolution and also to check on the robustness of this Eta vs ECMWF result to the choice of the period a 10-member Eta experiment was rerun for a more recent ECMWF ensemble, one initialized 4 October 2012, when its resolution was higher than of that used previously. The advantage of the Eta members more frequently than not is seen again, even though this time the resolution of the Eta during the first 10 days of the experiment was about the same as that of the driver ECMWF members. Rerunning the Eta ensemble with the code switched to sigma this time however an advantage of the Eta/eta over the Eta/sigma is seen, quite considerable during the early 2-6 day period of the experiment when a deep upper-air trough was moving across the

  1. Effects of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) injected into the yolks of chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs prior to incubation.

    PubMed

    Powell, D C; Aulerich, R J; Meadows, J C; Tillitt, D E; Giesy, J P; Stromberg, K L; Bursian, S J

    1996-10-01

    The yolks of White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected prior to incubation with either 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) at doses ranging from 0.1 to 12.8 microg/kg egg or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at doses ranging from 0.04 to 0.64 microg/kg egg. Chicks were subjected to necropsy within 24 h of hatching. The brain, bursa, heart, liver, and spleen were removed and weighed. Assessment of the rate of hatching indicated an LD50+/-S.E. of 2.3+/-0.19 microg/kg egg (7. 1+/-0.58 nmol/kg egg) for PCB 126 and 0.15 +/- 0.012 microg/kg egg (0.47 +/- 0.037 nmol/kg egg) for TCDD. No significant differences in the incidence of developmental abnormalities (structural defects and edema) were observed in TCDD-exposed embryos, while PCB 126 caused significantly more developmental abnormalities at 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 microg/kg egg than the vehicle control. PCB 126 caused lower hatchling weights and greater relative brain, heart, and liver weights when compared to the vehicle control group at a dose of 3.2 microg/kg egg which is greater than the LD50. TCDD at 0.08 microg/kg egg caused relative bursa weights to be less than those of the vehicle control. A toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 0.07 was determined for PCB 126 in relation to TCDD based on overt lethality. PMID:8854835

  2. Development of the gonads in the triploid (ZZW and ZZZ) fowl, Gallus domesticus, and comparison with normal diploid males (ZZ) and females (ZW).

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Thorne, M H; Martin, I C; Sheldon, B L; Jones, R C

    1995-01-01

    Gonadal development in fowls aged from 1 day to more than 4.5 years was studied in 63 ZZW and 16 ZZZ triploid crossbreds and compared with normal diploid males (ZZ) and females (ZW). In the ZZW fowl, the right gonad developed into a testis (although this occurred earlier in the ZZ genotype), and a structurally-abnormal excurrent duct system containing some malformed spermatids and spermatozoa was associated with the gonad of young adults. The left gonad was an ovotestes at hatching and no excurrent ducts were associated with it. The ovarian component was much less developed than that in the ZW genotype-it started to degenerate by 1 week of age, and most of the oocytes had disappeared by about 3 weeks of age. The seminiferous tubules developed in the medullary region, but only abnormal spermatozoa were produced. Leukocytes infiltrated both gonads at about 9 months of age and the seminiferous epithelium had degenerated in most fowls over 1 year old. In ZZZ fowl, gonadal and excurrent duct development was normal, but occurred earlier than in the ZZ genotype. However, meiosis and spermiogenesis were abnormal and malformed spermatozoa were produced. The heads of spermatozoa from the ducts deferens were about 1.4-times longer in the ZZZ genotype than in the ZZ genotype, indicating that the former may be producing some diploid spermatozoa. PMID:8848586

  3. Microconnectomics of the pretectum and ventral thalamus in the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Marín, Gonzalo; González-Cabrera, Cristian; Planitscher, Eva; Hartmann, Anja; Marks, Vanessa; Mpodozis, Jorge; Luksch, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The avian pretectal and ventrothalamic nuclei, encompassing the griseum tectale (GT), n. lentiformis mesencephali (LM), and n. geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv), are prominent retinorecipient structures related to optic flow operations and visuomotor control. Hence, a close coordination of these neural circuits is to be expected. Yet the connectivity among these nuclei is poorly known. Here, using intracellular labeling and in situ hybridization, we investigated the detailed morphology, connectivity, and neurochemical identity of neurons in these nuclei. Two different cell types exist in the GT: one that generates an axonal projection to the optic tectum (TeO), LM, GLv, and n. intercalatus thalami (ICT), and a second population that only projects to the LM and GLv. In situ hybridization revealed that most neurons in the GT express the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT2) mRNA, indicating a glutamatergic identity. In the LM, three morphological cell types were defined, two of which project axons towards dorsal targets. The LM neurons showed strong VGluT2 expression. Finally, the cells located in the GLv project to the TeO, LM, GT, n. principalis precommisuralis (PPC), and ICT. All neurons in the GLv showed strong expression of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) mRNA, suggesting a GABAergic identity. Our results show that the pretectal and ventrothalamic nuclei are highly interconnected, especially by glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons from the GT and GLv, respectively. This complex morphology and connectivity might be required to organize orienting visuomotor behaviors and coordinate the specific optic flow patterns that they induce. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2208-2229, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26659271

  4. Phenotypic developmental plasticity induced by preincubation egg storage in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Branum, Sylvia R; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    The developing chicken blastoderm can be temporarily maintained in dormancy below physiological zero temperature. However, prolonged preincubation egg storage impairs normal morphological and physiological development of embryos in a potential example of fetal programming (in this case, "embryonic programming"). We investigated how preincubation egg storage conditions (temperature, duration, hypoxia, and hypercapnia) affects viability, body mass, and physiological variables and functions in day 15 chicken embryos. Embryo viability was impaired in eggs stored for 2 and 3 weeks, with the effects greater at 22°C compared to 15°C. However, embryo size was reduced in eggs stored at 15°C compared with 22°C. Phenotypic change resulting from embryonic programming was evident in the fact that preincubation storage at 15°C diminished hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell concentration ([RBC]), and hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Storage duration at 15°C more severely affected the time course (2, 6, and 24 h) responses of Hct, [RBC], and [Hb] to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by submersion compared with storage duration at 22°C. The time-specific regulation of acid-base balance was changed progressively with storage duration at both 22 and 15°C preincubation storages. Consequently, preincubation egg storage at 22°C resulted in poor viability compared with eggs stored at 15°C, but size and physiological functions of embryos in eggs stored for 1-2 weeks were worse in eggs stored in the cooler than stored under room conditions. Avian eggs thus prove to be useful for examining developmental consequences to physiology of altered preincubation thermal environment in very early stages of development (embryonic programming). PMID:26908714

  5. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  6. Brain gene expression in relation to fearfulness in female red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Jöngren, M; Westander, J; Nätt, D; Jensen, P

    2010-10-01

    The biology of fear is central to animal welfare and has been a major target for selection during domestication. Fear responses were studied in female red junglefowl (RJF), the ancestor of domesticated chickens. A total of 31 females were tested in a ground predator test, an aerial predator test and a tonic immobility (TI) test, in order to assess their level of fearfulness across different situations. Two to six variables from each test were entered into a principal component (PC) analysis, which showed one major fearfulness component (explaining 27% of the variance). Based on the PC scores, four high- and four low-fearful birds were then selected for gene expression analysis. From each of these birds, the midbrain region (including thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary, mesencephalon, pons, nucleus tractus solitarii and medulla oblongata), was collected and global gene expression compared between groups using a 14k chicken cDNA microarray. There were 13 significantly differentially expressed (DE) genes (based on M > 1 and B > 0; FDR-adjusted P < 0.05) between the fearful and non-fearful females. Among the DE genes, we identified the neuroprotein Axin1, two potential DNA/RNA regulating proteins and a retrotransposon transcript situated in a well-studied quantitative trait loci (QTL) region on chromosome 1, known to affect several domestication-related traits. The differentially expressed genes may be part of a possible molecular mechanism controlling fear responses in fowl. PMID:20597989

  7. Domestication effects on behavioural synchronization and individual distances in chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Eklund, Beatrix; Jensen, Per

    2011-02-01

    Behavioural synchrony (allelomimetic behaviour), and inter-individual distances are aspects of social and anti-predator strategies which may have been affected by domestication. Chickens are known to adjust synchronization and inter-individual distances depending on behaviour. We hypothesized that White Leghorn (WL) chickens would show less synchronized behaviour than the ancestor, the red jungle fowl (RJF). Sixty birds, 15 female and 15 male WL and the same number of RJF (28 weeks old) were studied in groups of three in furnished pens (1 m×2 m) for 24 consecutive hours per group, following 24 h of habituation. Video tapes covering 4 h per group (dawn, 9-10 am, 1-2 pm and dusk) were analysed. Red junglefowl perched significantly more, but there were no breed effects on the frequency or daily rhythm of any other activities, or on average inter-individual distances. Red junglefowl were more synchronized during perching and a tendency for the same was found for social behaviour. After performance of the two most synchronized behaviours, perching and comfort behaviour, individual distance increased more for RJF than WL. According to this study domestication of chickens appears not to have significantly altered the relative frequencies of different activities or average inter-individual distances, but have caused some changes in behavioural synchronization and maintenance of activity-specific inter-individual distances in chickens. The changes may indicate an adaptive response to captivity and domestication. PMID:21187131

  8. Genetics driven interventions for ex situ conservation of red junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi) populations in India.

    PubMed

    Mukesh; Fernandes, Merwyn; Han, Jianlin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2013-01-01

    Genetics driven interventions (GDI) are imperative for ex situ conservation to exhort long-term sustenance of small and isolated populations in captivity as they are more prone to an increased extinction risk due to inbreeding and genetic drift. We investigated constitutive genetic attributes of four captive Red Junglefowl (RJF) populations in India, to facilitate the prioritization of the birds to formulate an effective breeding action plan. All the four RJF populations were found to be evident of significant inbreeding but none of them had exhibited any signature of bottleneck footprints in the recent past. Bayesian cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups among the four captive RJF populations. Interestingly, birds of Kufri population were assigned together with Gopalpur as well as with Morni populations, indicating their shared genetic ancestry. Among the four populations, Morni population displayed the richest genetic attributes and was therefore presumed as a key source of genetic variation. Nine birds of Morni population were relatively pure (q-value >0.98) and carried about 50% of the total private alleles of Morni population. Thus, being the foremost reservoir of allelic diversity, these nine birds may be selected for launching alien alleles to other RJF populations to rescue their loss of genetic diversity arising from inbreeding. PMID:23813667

  9. Using the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) as an in vivo model for iron bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron fortification of foods and biofortification of staple food crops are strategies that can help to alleviate Fe deficiency. The broiler chicken may be a useful model for initial in vivo screening of Fe bioavailability in foods due to its growth rate, anatomy, size and low cost. In this study, we ...

  10. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and chickens (Gallus gallus) - similarities in adaptation to high growth rate.

    PubMed

    Duggan, B M; Hocking, P M; Clements, D N

    2016-01-01

    Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits) to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry. PMID:27387535

  11. Testosterone: from initiating change to modulating social organisation in domestic fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, John P.; Murphy, Kenneth J.; Bannon, Finian J.; Hynes, Niamh M.; Hayden, Thomas J.

    2009-07-01

    Testosterone (T) concentrations in many species are sensitive to seasonal changes and to changes in social conditions. However, the effect of the natural or endogenous T increase in the juvenile on their social behaviour is not well understood. In this study, T and behaviour were measured from the pro-social juvenile to the adult stage in semi-feral domestic fowl. During the pro-social phase T levels and the distance chicks maintained between each other, i.e. inter-individual distance (IID) were low. Then, as T increased, a corresponding increase in IID occurred and continued in males until dispersal to individual adult male territories. In the new and initially stable adult social structure, T declined and IID remained high, indicating a new behavioural mechanism was in place. Males first mated as T levels were declining. They were then challenged; then T increased, and then IID increased again. Adult male T levels fluctuate, being low or declining in a socially stable environment and increasing following a challenge, suggesting a regulatory or modulating role for T. The results are consistent with T having an endogenous role: in the juvenile, driving behavioural change towards adulthood, and in adulthood, a modulating role regulating social organisation.

  12. Neuronal morphology in subdivisions of the inferior colliculus of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Niederleitner, Bertram; Luksch, Harald

    2012-05-01

    The avian inferior colliculus (IC), also referred to as the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd), is an auditory midbrain nucleus that converges auditory cues from tonotopically organized brainstem nuclei. This information is relayed onto the optic tectum on the one hand and to nucleus ovoidalis on the other hand. Morphologically, there has been considerable debate about the number and nomenclature of the subnuclei within the IC. Here, we provide morphological characteristics of single cells in five IC subnuclei in chicken. The cellular structure within the IC was studied by whole-cell patch technique and biocytin iontophoresis. In addition, histological staining was performed, to delineate the borders between subnuclei of the IC. We were able to discriminate between 5 subnuclei: the core of the central nucleus (ICCc), the medial and lateral shell of the central nucleus (ICCms and ICCls), the external nucleus (ICX) and the superficial nucleus (ICS) of the IC. Our findings suggest the existence of at least two different morphologies of neurons with two subtypes each. The IC in chicken is a largely homogenous nucleus in terms of neuronal anatomy on a cellular level. However, its compartmentation into diversified subnuclei with different neurophysiological characteristics suggests a complex system to process auditory information. The auditory system in chicken is not as hypertrophied as in specialists such as the barn owl, but appears to have comparable connectivity and cellular morphology. PMID:22525356

  13. The role of uropygial gland on sexual behavior in domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Atsushi; Aoyama, Masato; Sugita, Shoei

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have indicated that avian social behavior is influenced by olfactory cues. During the reproductive season a change in the chemical composition of uropygial gland secretion has been reported in some species and the hypothesis that olfactory signals may be produced by this gland has been proposed. To examine this hypothesis we performed two behavioral experiments to determine whether a female's uropygial gland produces chemical signals that stimulate mating behaviors in domestic chickens. In Experiment 1 the role of the female's uropygial gland in male mating behavior was examined by removing and examining the female's uropygial gland. The frequency of mounts and copulations of intact male birds with sham-operated female birds was significantly higher than with uropygial glandectomized female birds. With respect to the number of waltzing that is one of the courtship displays intact males showed no significant difference between sham-operated female birds and uropygial glandectomized female birds. In Experiment 2 the relationship between male olfaction and the female's uropygial gland was investigated using olfactory bulbectomized male birds. The number of mounts and copulations of sham-operated male birds with sham-operated female bird was significantly higher than with uropygial glandectomized female birds. In contrast olfactory bulbectomized male birds showed no significant differences in the number of mounts and copulations between sham-operated female birds and uropygial glandectomized female birds. These results indicate that intact and sham-operated male birds prefer to mate with female birds with the uropygial gland. The number of courtship waltzing of sham-operated male birds showed no significant difference. However olfactory bulbectomized male birds significantly courted to uropygial glandectomized female birds. Summarizing our results show that while anosmic males did not have any preference, both intact and sham-operated male birds chose to mate with female birds having an intact uropygial gland, suggesting that mate preference involves in male olfaction and that the female's uropygial gland acts as a source of social odor cues in domestic chickens. PMID:19013507

  14. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior. PMID:25930217

  15. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Stefanie; Touchton, Greg; Wynn, Jessica; Geng, Tuoyu; Chong, Nelson W.

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on the Z_random, while one matched a W chromosome sequence and could be useful in cataloguing functionally important genes on this sex chromosome. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and validated in 10 ESTs that showed 98% or higher sequence similarity to known chicken genes. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism. PMID:18629218

  16. Audiogram of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 2 Hz to 9 kHz.

    PubMed

    Hill, Evan M; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S; Heffner, Henry E

    2014-10-01

    The pure-tone thresholds of four domestic female chickens were determined from 2 Hz to 9 kHz using the method of conditioned suppression/avoidance. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m(2)), their hearing range extends from 9.1 Hz to 7.2 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 2.6 dB at 2 kHz. Chickens have better sensitivity than humans for frequencies below 64 Hz; indeed, their sensitivity to infrasound exceeds that of the homing pigeon. However, when threshold testing moved to the lower frequencies, the animals required additional training before their final thresholds were obtained, suggesting that they may perceive frequencies below 64 Hz differently than higher frequencies. PMID:25092127

  17. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, V.; Rekha, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days). The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR) supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally) during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and serum reduced glutathione (GSH) in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT) and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress. PMID:20442818

  18. Accumulation dynamics of chlordanes and their enantiomers in cockerels (Gallus gallus) after oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhijiang; Xue, Miao; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Kaiyang; Li, Xiqing; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2011-09-15

    After a single oral exposure of technical chlordane, levels of cis-chlordane (CC), trans-chlordane (TC), heptachlor (HEP), heptachlorepoxide (HEPX), and oxychlordane (OXY) were determined in gastrointestinal residues, droppings, and various tissues of cockerels at times of 60, 120, 160, 200, 300, 500, 1000, and 2000 min. Over 98% of CC and TC were found to be bioaccessible; only 1.1% of CC and TC were directly excreted through droppings without further biotransformation. According to the single-compartment toxicokinetic modeling, CC and TC shared similar absorption rates in the whole body while TC showed a slightly more rapid elimination rate, with a half-life of 13.4 h for CC and 12.5 h for TC. The metabolites HEPX and OXY appeared quickly in tissues 60 min after exposure and were mainly accumulated in fat and liver tissues. Concentrations of CC, TC, and HEP in cockerel tissues roughly followed the order as fat > intestine > skin > liver> brain > muscle > blood. Levels of CC, TC, and HEP in various tissues showed significant correlation with the lipid contents of the tissues (p < 0.05) for samples beginning 500 min after exposure. A multicompartment toxicokinetic model was developed to characterize the accumulation dynamics of CC and TC in the various tissues. All tissues of cockerels enantioselectively accumulated (-)-CC and (+)-TC, and fat, skin, and liver tissues showed a relatively stronger capacity of enantioenrichment. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of droppings remained nearly racemic at first but gradually decreased to less than 0.5 for CC and increased to more than 0.5 for TC, which could rule out enantioselective absorption and excretion of CC and TC in cockerels. The one-compartment toxicokinetic model was applied to the individual enantiomers of CC and TC. Different elimination rates but similar absorption rates were observed between the enantiomers for both CC and TC. PMID:21823571

  19. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus), GLUT12

    PubMed Central

    Coudert, Edouard; Pascal, Géraldine; Dupont, Joëlle; Simon, Jean; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Tesseraud, Sophie; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals. PMID:26431526

  20. Maturation of the angiotensin II cardiovascular response in the embryonic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Sonnet S.; Hicks, James W.; Thornburg, Kent L.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important regulator of cardiovascular function in adult vertebrates. Although its role in regulating the adult system has been extensively investigated, the cardiovascular response to Ang II in embryonic vertebrates is relatively unknown. We investigated the potential of Ang II as a regulator of cardiovascular function in embryonic chickens, which lack central nervous system control of cardiovascular function throughout the majority of incubation. The cardiovascular response to Ang II in embryonic chickens was investigated over the final 50% of their development. Ang II produced a dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure on each day of development studied, and the response increased in intensity as development progressed. The Ang II type-1 receptor nonspecific competitive peptide antagonist [Sar1 ile8] Ang II blocked the cardiovascular response to subsequent injections of Ang II on day 21 only. The embryonic pressure response to Ang II (hypertension only) differed from that of adult chickens, in which initial hypotension is followed by hypertension. The constant level of gene expression for the Ang II receptor, in conjunction with an increasing pressure response to the peptide, suggests that two Ang II receptor subtypes are present during chicken development. Collectively, the data indicate that Ang II plays an important role in the cardiovascular development of chickens; however, its role in maintaining basal function requires further study. PMID:20495810

  1. Mobilization of ectopic yolk in Gallus gallus domesticus: a novel reverse lipid transport process.

    PubMed

    Cornax, Ingrid; Walzem, Rosemary L; Larner, Craig; Macfarlane, Ronald D; Klasing, Kirk C

    2013-05-15

    In many oviparous animals, bursting type atresia of ovarian follicles occurs during the reproductive cycle, resulting in the escape of yolk into the extracellular compartment. In birds, this ectopic yolk is rapidly cleared by an unknown process that involves the appearance of yolk-engorged macrophage-like cells. To study this unique type of lipid transport, we injected young male chickens intra-abdominally with egg yolk. Absorption of egg yolk from the body cavity markedly increased the triacylglyceride-rich fraction (TRL) of plasma lipoproteins and was coincident with increased levels of plasma triacylglycerides (TAGs) but not non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Thus, the transport of yolk lipids from the abdominal cavity appears to occur in lipoproteins and be more similar to the transport of hepatic TAGs to the periphery via lipoproteins than to transport of adipose TAGs to the periphery via NEFAs released by the action of lipases. When macrophages were exposed to yolk in vitro, they quickly phagocytized yolk; however, it is unclear whether this level of phagocytosis contributes significantly to total yolk clearance. Instead, the chicken macrophage may function more as a facilitator of yolk clearance through the modification of yolk lipoproteins and the regulation of the local and systemic immune response to ectopic yolk. Yolk appears to be anti-inflammatory in nature. Yolk did not increase levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and IFNγ either in vivo or in vitro; in fact, yolk dampened many inflammatory changes caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Conversely, LPS-induced inflammation retarded yolk clearance from the abdominal cavity and plasma TAG levels. PMID:23348941

  2. Hydroxylation of quinocetone and carbadox is mediated by CYP1As in the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiannan; Liu, Zhaoying; Li, Mei; Qiu, Xinghui

    2013-08-01

    Quinoxaline derivatives (quinoxalines) comprise a class of drugs that have been widely used as animal antimicrobial agents and feed additives. Although the metabolism of quinoxaline drugs has been mostly studied using chicken liver microsomes, the biochemical mechanism of biotransformation of these chemicals in the chicken has yet to be characterized. In this study, using bacteria produced enzymes, we demonstrated that both CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 participate in the oxidative metabolism of quinoxalines. For CYP1A5, three hydroxylated metabolites of quinocetone were generated. In addition, CYP1A5 is able to hydroxylate carbadox. For CYP1A4, only one hydroxylated product of quinocetone on the phenyl ring was identified. Neither CYP1A5 nor CYP1A4 showed hydroxylation activity towards mequindox and cyadox. Our results suggest that CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 have different and somewhat overlapping substrate specificity in quinoxaline metabolism, and CYP1A5 represents a crucial enzyme in hydroxylation of both quinocetone and carbadox. PMID:23726999

  3. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  4. Production of bioactive chicken (Gallus gallus) follistatin-type proteins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Beum; Park, Sung Kwon; Kim, Yong Soo

    2015-12-01

    Follistatin (FST) is a cysteine-rich autocrine glycoprotein and plays an important role in mammalian prenatal and postnatal development. FST binds to and inhibit myostatin (MSTN), a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, and FST abundance enhances muscle growth in animals via inhibition of MSTN activity. The objective of this study was to produce biologically active, four chicken FST-type proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system. Gibson assembly cloning method was used to insert the DNA fragments of four FST-type proteins, designated as FST288, NDFSD1/2, NDFSD1, and NDFSD1/1, into pMALc5x vector downstream of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) gene, and the plasmids containing the inserts were eventually transformed into Shuffle E. coli strain for protein expression. We observed a soluble expression of the four MBP-fused FST-type proteins, and the proteins could be easily purified by the combination of amylose and heparin resin affinity chromatography. MBP-fused FST-type proteins demonstrated their affinity to anti-FST antibody. In an in vitro reporter gene assay to examine their potencies and selectivities to different ligands (MSTN, GDF11, and activin A), the four FST-type proteins (MBP-FST288, MBP-NDFSD1/2, MBP-NDFSD1, and MBP-NDFSD1/1) showed different potency and selectivity against the three ligands from each other. Ligand selectivity of each FST-type proteins was similar to its counterpart FST-type protein of eukaryotic origin. In conclusion, we could produce four FST-type proteins having different ligand selectivity in E. coli, and the results imply that economic production of a large amount of FST-type proteins with different ligand selectivity is possible to examine their potential use in meat-producing animals. PMID:26302688

  5. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5–11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent. PMID:26778053

  6. Fatty acid metabolism in neonatal chickens (Gallus domesticus) treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) in ovo.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Beckye; DeWitt, Jamie; Henshel, Diane; Watkins, Steven; Lasley, Bill

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of chickens as pre-incubation embryos with TCDD or PCB-126 altered fatty acid concentrations in their plasma 21 days later, compared with their oil vehicles (sunflower and corn oils, respectively). TCDD increased the concentrations of total fatty acids, lipid classes (phospholipids and cholesterol ester), fatty acid families (saturated, n-7 and n-6), and many specific fatty acids. The only fatty acid concentrations decreased by TCDD treatment were those of cholesterol ester fatty acids 20:3n3 and 24:6n3 and overall plasma 24:6n3. In contrast, PCB-126 treatment decreased total phospholipid, saturated and plasmogen fatty acid concentrations with generally decreasing trends in specific fatty acid concentrations. However, both TCDD and PCB-126 treatments increased total 22:1n9 and decreased 24:6n3 concentrations compared with their respective vehicles. The potential relationship between those fatty acid concentrations altered by toxicant treatment and alterations in brain symmetry was then examined using correlation analysis. Several fatty acid concentrations were significantly correlated with differences in brain morphology between the right and left hemispheres and these potential associations were different between toxicant and vehicle. PMID:14522600

  7. Ultrastructural study on the granulocytes of Uttara fowl (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Khan Idrees; Mrigesh, Meena; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to know the ultrastructural detail of the blood cells of Uttara fowl (native fowl of Uttarakhand). Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 10 apparently healthy adult birds of either sex reared at the Instructional Poultry Farm, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The blood was collected from wing vein using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as anticoagulant. The blood was further processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies separately. Results: Ultrastructurally, the heterophils were irregularly round in shape. The cytoplasm was laden with pleomorphic membrane-bound granules, viz., large elliptical-, medium oval-, large round-, and medium round-shaped granules. The eosinophils under TEM were irregularly circular in outline showing pseudopodia and finger-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasmic granules were pleomorphic with elliptical-, round-, and rod-shaped granules. The basophils were irregularly circular in outline containing small hook-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasm contained electron dense and electron lucent round-shaped granules. Conclusion: Granulocytes contained pleomorphic cytoplasmic granules. However, the shape and electron density of granules varied among the different granulocytes and helped in the characterization of different granulocytes. PMID:27057119

  8. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E.; Girón, María E.; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F. Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

  9. Breed-specific companions--inter-individual distances reflect isolating mechanisms within domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus f.d.).

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2008-06-15

    White Crested Polish (WCP) chickens are an interesting breed because of skull anatomy (crest), brain size and composition. This makes them attractive to investigate processes of selection that could parallel a step towards speciation in terms of ethological isolation. Lohmann Brown Classic (BL) and Red Leghorn (RL) were selected as comparative breeds to detect whether WCPs flock together as shown by shorter inter-individual distances within WCP than across breeds. WCP and BL were observed in the first year whereas RL served as comparative breed to WCP in the second year. Eggs of both breeds of each year were incubated at the same time, and chicks hatched and were raised together. Three young hens of each breed were randomly chosen and observed weekly in an open field situation for 20 min between the first and 31st week of life. Intra-breed distances differed significantly from those distances measured across breeds. Results demonstrate breed-specific flocking within observed breeds. This flocking behaviour may reflect breed-specific social and sexual preferences. Our observations indicate that domestic breeds may represent an ethological entity. Selective processes controlled by human intervention as given in domestication may therefore to be set in parallel to evolutionary processes. PMID:18498945

  10. Volatile compounds from the integument of white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus L.): candidate attractants of ornithophilic mosquito species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidate kairomones of ornithophilic mosquito species are reported from GC/MS analysis of compounds from the skin, feet, and feathers of White Leghorn chickens. Hexane and ether solvent collections of chicken emanations produce fractions that differ significantly in their ability to attract Culex ...

  11. Lateralized mechanisms for encoding of object. Behavioral evidence from an animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    In our previous research we reported a leftward-asymmetry in domestic chicks required to identify a target element, on the basis of its ordinal position, in a series of identical elements. Here we re-coded behavioral data collected in previous studies from chicks tested in a task involving a different kind of numerical ability, to study lateralization in dealing with an arithmetic task. Chicks were reared with a set of identical objects representing artificial social companions. On day 4, chicks underwent a free-choice test in which two sets, each composed of a different number of identical objects (5 vs.10 or 6 vs. 9, Experiment 1), were hidden behind two opaque screens placed in front of the chick, one on the left and one on the right side. Objects disappeared, one by one, behind either screen, so that, for example, one screen occluded 5 objects and the other 10 objects. The left-right position of the larger set was counterbalanced between trials. Results show that chicks, in the attempt to rejoin the set with the higher number of social companions, performed better when this was located to the right. However, when the number of elements in the two sets was identical (2 vs. 2, in Experiment 2) and they differed only in the coloration of the objects, this bias was not observed, suggesting a predisposition to map the numerical magnitude from left to right. Future studies should be devoted to the direct investigation of this phenomenon, possibly employing an identical number of mono-chromatic imprinting stimuli in both conditions involving a numerical discrimination and conditions not involving any numerosity difference. PMID:24605106

  12. Deep-brain photoreceptors (DBPs) involved in the photoperiodic gonadal response in an avian species, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong W; Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2015-01-15

    Three primitive photoreceptors [melanopsin (Opn4), neuropsin/opsin5 (Opn5) and vertebrate ancient opsin (VAOpn)] were reported as possible avian deep-brain photoreceptors (DBPs) involved in the perception of photoperiodic information affecting the onset and development of reproduction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-day photostimulation and/or sulfamethazine treatment (SMZ, a compound known to advance light-induced testes development) on gene expression of DBPs and key hypothalamic and pituitary genes involved in avian reproductive function. Two-week old chicks were randomly selected into four experimental groups: short-day control (SC, LD8:16), short-day+SMZ (SS, LD8:16, 0.2% diet SMZ), long-day control (LC, LD16:8), and long-day+SMZ (LS, LD16:8, 0.2% diet SMZ). Birds were sampled on days 3, 7, and 28 after initiation of a long-day photoperiod and/or SMZ dietary treatments. Three brain regions [septal-preoptic, anterior hypothalamic (SepPre/Ant-Hypo) region, mid-hypothalamic (Mid-Hypo) region, posterior-hypothalamic (Post-Hypo) region], and anterior pituitary gland were dissected. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined changes of expression levels of genes in distinct brain regions; Opn4 and Opn5 in SepPre/Ant-Hypo and Post-Hypo regions and, VAOpn in the Mid-Hypo region. Long-day treatment resulted in a significantly elevated testes weight on days 7 and 28 compared to controls, and SMZ augmented testes weight in both short- and long-day treatment after day 7 (P<0.05). Long-day photoperiodic treatment on the third day unexpectedly induced a large 8.4-fold increase of VAOpn expression in the Mid-Hypo region, a 15.4-fold increase of Opn4 and a 97.8-fold increase of Opn5 gene expression in the Post-Hypo region compared to SC birds (P<0.01). In contrast, on days 7 and 28, gene expression of the three DBPs was barely detectable. LC group showed a significant increase in GnRH-1 and TRH mRNA in the Mid-Hypo compared to SC on day 3. Pituitary LHβ and FSHβ mRNA were significantly elevated in LC and LS groups compared to SC on days 3 and 7 (P<0.05). On days 3 and 7, TSHβ mRNA level was significantly elevated by long-day treatment compared to the SC groups (P<0.05). Results suggest that long-day photoperiodic activation of DBPs is robust, transient, and temporally related with neuroendocrine genes involved in reproductive function. Additionally, results indicate that two subsets of GnRH-1 neurons exist based upon significantly different gene expression from long-day photostimulation and long-day plus SMZ administration. Taken together, the data indicate that within 3 days of a long-day photoperiod, an eminent activation of all three types of DBPs might be involved in priming the neuroendocrine system to activate reproductive function in birds. PMID:25486342

  13. A possible neural cascade involving the photoneuroendocrine system (PNES) responsible for regulating gonadal development in an avian species, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2008-08-15

    Neurons located in the lateral septal organ (LSO) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) have been proposed to be encephalic photoreceptors (EPRs), which sense photoperiodic time and initiate avian gonadal development. Controversy continues regarding the location of EPRs serving the PNES and their signal transduction pathway. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR we determined activation of key genes following prolonged light periods and sulfamethethazine (compound known to advance light-induced testes development) in 21-day old chicks. Earliest activation occurred in genes of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and type 6 phosphodiesterase beta subunit (PDE-6 beta) in the LSO at 4 and 6h, respectively, after onset of light and sulfamethazine intake. In contrast, no change was detected in the MBH during the first 8h of that treatment. Thereafter, significant increases in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-1) and VIP receptor (VIPR) mRNA transcripts were detected in the bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (NCPa). Hours later, activation of all four genes (VIP, PDE-6 beta, GnRH-1, VIPR) were induced solely by photostimulation. Deiodinase 2 and tyrosine hydroxylase in the MBH did not show increased gene expression until 12h of photostimulation. Prolactin mRNA transcripts showed significant increases at 4h due to SMZ intake and at 24, 36 and 48 h due to long-day photoperiodic effects. Data suggest that VIP neurons in the LSO may serve as EPRs and utilize PDE, present in the phototransduction cascade of known photoreceptors. Additionally, VIP released from the LSO may modulate GnRH-1 neurons in the NCPa via VIP receptors by increasing GnRH-1 gene expression. PMID:18598849

  14. Reproductive neuropeptides: prevalence of GnRH and KNDy neural signalling components in a model avian, gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nerine T; Tello, Javier A; Bedecarrats, Gregoy Y; Millar, Robert P

    2013-09-01

    Diverse external and internal environmental factors are integrated in the hypothalamus to regulate the reproductive system. This is mediated through the pulsatile secretion of GnRH into the portal system to stimulate pituitary gonadotrophin secretion, which in turn regulates gonadal function. A single subpopulation of neurones termed 'KNDy neurones' located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus co-localise kisspeptin (Kiss), neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (Dyn) and are responsive to negative feedback effects of sex steroids. The co-ordinated secretion from KNDy neurones appears to modulate the pulsatile release of GnRH, acting as a proximate pacemaker. This review briefly describes the neuropeptidergic control of reproduction in the avian class, highlighting the status of reproductive neuropeptide signalling systems homologous to those found in mammalian genomes. Genes encoding the GnRH system are complete in the chicken with similar roles to the mammalian counterparts, whereas genes encoding Kiss signalling components appear missing in the avian lineage, indicating a differing set of hypothalamic signals controlling avian reproduction. Gene sequences encoding both NKB and Dyn signalling components are present in the chicken genome, but expression analysis and functional studies remain to be completed. The focus of this article is to describe the avian complement of neuropeptidergic reproductive hormones and provide insights into the putative mechanisms that regulate reproduction in birds. These postulations highlight differences in reproductive strategies of birds in terms of gonadal steroid feedback systems, integration of metabolic signals and seasonality. Also included are propositions of KNDy neuropeptide gene silencing and plasticity in utilisation of these neuropeptides during avian evolution. PMID:23756151

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor from the chicken (Gallus gallus): interspecies similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Kim, Eun-Young; Nomaru, Koji; Iwata, Hisato

    2011-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) repressor (AHRR) has been recognized as a negative feedback modulator of AHR-mediated responses in fish and mammals. However, the repressive mechanism by the AHRR has not been investigated in other animals. To understand the molecular mechanism of dioxin toxicity and the evolutionary history of the AHR signaling pathway in avian species, the present study addresses chicken AHRR (ckAHRR). The complementary DNA sequence of ckAHRR encodes an 84-kDa protein sharing 29-52% identities with other AHRRs. High levels of ckAHRR messenger RNA were recorded in the kidney and intestine of nontreated chicks. In hepatoma LMH cells, the 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 50% effective concentration value for ckAHRR induction (0.0016nM) was the same as that for chicken cytochrome P450 1A5 (ckCYP1A5), implying a shared transcriptional regulation of ckAHRR and ckCYP1A5 by chicken AHR (ckAHR). In ckAHRR transient transfection assays, ckAHRR repressed both ckAHR1- and ckAHR2-mediated transcriptional activities. Deletion and mutation assays revealed that basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim A domains of ckAHRR, particularly 217-402 amino acid residues, are indispensable for the repression, but the AHR nuclear translocator sequestration by ckAHRR and SUMOylation of ckAHRR are not involved in its repressive mechanism. Additionally, subcellular localization assay of ckAHR1-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that ckAHRR did not affect nuclear translocation of the ckAHR1. Furthermore, ckAHRR inhibited the TCDD- and 17β estradiol-enhanced ckCYP1A5 transcription through AHR-estrogen receptor α (ERα) cross talk. Taken together, the function of AHRR is conserved in chicken in terms of the negative regulation of AHR and ERα activities, but its functional mechanism is likely distinct from those of the mammalian and fish homologues. PMID:21047992

  16. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat stress on the expression of intestinal transporters.

  17. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and chickens (Gallus gallus) – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, P. M.; Clements, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits) to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry. PMID:27387535

  18. Social interactions in Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) and White Leghorn layers in stable groups and after re-grouping.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, J; Håkansson, J; Jensen, P

    2005-04-01

    Although social behaviour is a major factor affecting the coping of poultry in production environments little is known about how it has been affected by intensive selection processes in fowl. We attempted to clarify selection effects on overall repertoire and occurrence of different social behaviours as well as on aggressive responses to re-grouping with unfamiliar birds by comparing high-producing White Leghorn layers to wild type Red Junglefowl. In the first experiment we observed 8 stable mixed sex groups/breed each consisting of four 24-week-old birds previously familiar to each other. During 9 consecutive days, a wide range of social signals, sexual and aggressive interactions as well as spacing behaviour and activity were recorded over a 12-h photoperiod. In the second experiment, starting at 19 weeks of age, 16 single sex groups of three birds from each breed were formed by mixing unfamiliar individuals. Aggressive behaviours were recorded 0, 5, 24 and 48 h after re-grouping. Results from the stable groups indicated that the repertoire of social behaviours has been preserved during selection with few changes in frequencies and intensities. However, Leghorns showed a more cohesive spacing pattern than junglefowl. In the second experiment, aggressive activity was higher immediately and after 24 h following re-grouping in Leghorns, but there was a drop in the aggressiveness at 5 h to the same level as junglefowl. We suggest that this may indicate poorer social learning capacity with a weaker ability to cope with group disruptions compared to the ancestral breed. PMID:15957435

  19. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Katajamaa, Rebecca; Altimiras, Jordi; Jensen, Per

    2015-09-01

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication. PMID:26382075

  20. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Katajamaa, Rebecca; Altimiras, Jordi; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44–48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication. PMID:26382075

  1. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here. PMID:27105229

  2. Influence of Dermanyssus gallinae and Ascaridia galli infections on behaviour and health of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, O; Roepstorff, A; Permin, A; Nørgaard-Nielsen, G; Lawson, L G; Simonsen, H B

    2005-02-01

    (1) The effect of infections with Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite or chicken mite) and Ascaridia galli (roundworm) on the behaviour and health of laying hens was investigated. (2) Six groups of 15 pullets (Isa Brown) were kept in indoor pens from 18 weeks of age. Two groups were artificially infected with D. gallinae, two groups with A. galli and two groups were kept as uninfected controls. The hens were observed for behavioural reactions and physiological changes (weight gain and various blood variables) to the parasitic infections. (3) Infections with D. gallinae resulted in reduced weight gain, anaemia and even death of some of the hens. Behavioural changes were also observed, as the mite-infected hens showed higher self-grooming and head scratching both during the day and night. (4) A. galli resulted in a lower weight gain but no significant changes were seen in blood variables or behavioural activities. PMID:15835249

  3. Influence of Ascaridia galli infections and anthelmintic treatments on the behaviour and social ranks of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Gauly, M; Duss, C; Erhardt, G

    2007-05-31

    In the present study, the effects of an experimental Ascaridia galli infection and anthelmintic treatment on the behaviour and social status of laying hens of two different lines were studied. Sixty white (Lohmann LSL; LSL) and 60 brown (Lohmann Brown; LB) hens were reared under helminth-free conditions. The hens of each line were divided into four groups. The birds in two of the groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs at an age of 27 weeks. The other two groups were kept as uninfected controls. One infection and control group was dewormed at 38 weeks of age and slaughtered 4 weeks later, contemporary with the other animals. Individual faecal Ascaridia egg counts (FEC) were performed 11 weeks post-infection (p.i.). Body weights, laying performance and egg weights were recorded regularly. Blood was taken to measure testosterone levels. The worm burdens established in the intestines were counted in the infected not treated group after slaughtering. In addition, 15 behavioural parameters were recorded by focal animal observation (n=10 per group) of one infection (plus anthelmintic treatment) and one control group, according to the time-sampling method throughout the experiment. All agonistic interactions within the groups were recorded simultaneously on an ongoing basis, thereby allowing the calculation of an individual social rank index. The following results were obtained: Mean FEC and worm burden were higher (p < 0.01) in the LSL hens than in the LB hens, but their performances were not different (p > 0.05) from the controls. Infections with A. galli resulted in significant behavioural changes in both lines as the infected birds showed a higher food intake and lower locomotion activity during the prepatent and patent periods. After anthelmintic treatment, food intake decreased and locomotion increased. Behavioural changes were more pervasive in the infected LSL hens, as these hens also showed changes in ground pecking and nesting activity not only during the prepatent and patent periods, but also after anthelmintic treatment. Social rank did not significantly change as a consequence of A. galli infection, but the infection groups of both lines had a tendency to display more agonistic activity than the non-infected controls. Serum testosterone values only increased significantly in the LSL hens during the patent period compared to the controls. No significant correlations were apparent between serum testosterone level, parasitic parameters, social status and/or aggressiveness in any of the groups. This study showed that even sub-clinical A. galli infections and their anthelmintic treatment can have an impact on animal behaviour. PMID:17434676

  4. Study of the rate of passage of food with chromium-mordanted plant cells in chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Ferrando, C; Vergara, P; Jiménez, M; Goñalons, E

    1987-07-01

    Thirty broilers 8-10 weeks old were used to study the rate of food passage in chickens. Wheat bran and rice husks of three different sizes: more than 2 mm, between 1 and 1.5 mm, and less than 0.5 mm, mordanted with chromium, were used as markers. The suitability of these markers to study the rate of food passage in chickens and the possible influence of the size and hardness of the particle on the retention time was the objective of this study. Both T1, the time of first appearance of the marker, and Tm, the mean retention time, have been evaluated. Tm was a better parameter than T1 for studying transit time. Tm was longer with the biggest particles, especially with rice husk. The gizzard, with its grinding activity and pylorus, a selector of particle size, seems to be the transit regulator for solid particles in chickens. No chromium was found in the caecal contents of any case. PMID:3628694

  5. The functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the mechanical loading of the pubis in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Fechner, Regina; Stratmann, Matthias; Gössling, Rainer; Sverdlova, Nina

    2013-03-01

    Soft tissues other than muscles are supposed to be of mechanical importance, yet they are rarely integrated into finite element models. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the loading of the pubis of the domestic fowl using 2D finite element analysis. For this purpose, a specimen of the domestic fowl was dissected and soft tissues attaching to the pubis were studied in great detail. Muscles were removed and measurements taken. For the 2D finite element model, the outline was taken from the dissected specimen. Two 2D finite element models were generated: one without and one with ischiopubic membrane. The same muscular loading based on own measurements and electromyographic data was applied to both models. The model without ischiopubic membrane shows anteroventral bending deformation of the scapus pubis, resulting in high compressive and tensile principal stresses at the level of ultimate bone stress values. The model with ischiopubic membrane shows low compressive principal stresses in the pubis consistent with the levels of steady state remodelling of bone. Based on these results, the ischiopubic membrane of the domestic fowl potentially establishes a physiological loading of the pubis and therefore might be of great mechanical significance for the loading of the bone. PMID:23171269

  6. Molecular characterization of full-length MLV-related endogenous retrovirus ChiRV1 from the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Borysenko, Leonid; Stepanets, Volodymir; Rynditch, Alla V

    2008-06-20

    We report the first full-length sequence of an endogenous retrovirus from the genome of domestic chicken, that is not related to the Avian leukemia viruses (ALV). This retrovirus, designated ChiRV1, clusters with Murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related retroviruses and hence is the first complete gammaretrovirus from the genome of a bird. Nevertheless it is not related to exogenous MLV-related retroviruses infecting chicken. The provirus is 9133 bp long and contains 90%-identical LTRs as well as reading frames for the gag, pol and env genes, interrupted by in-frame stop codons. Expression analysis showed that ChiRV1 is a transcribed provirus. Screening of the chicken genome database revealed 100 ChiRV1-related sequences that are grouped into three classes based upon LTR alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. PMID:18440041

  7. The functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the mechanical loading of the pubis in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Fechner, Regina; Stratmann, Matthias; Gößling, Rainer; Sverdlova, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues other than muscles are supposed to be of mechanical importance, yet they are rarely integrated into finite element models. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the loading of the pubis of the domestic fowl using 2D finite element analysis. For this purpose, a specimen of the domestic fowl was dissected and soft tissues attaching to the pubis were studied in great detail. Muscles were removed and measurements taken. For the 2D finite element model, the outline was taken from the dissected specimen. Two 2D finite element models were generated: one without and one with ischiopubic membrane. The same muscular loading based on own measurements and electromyographic data was applied to both models. The model without ischiopubic membrane shows anteroventral bending deformation of the scapus pubis, resulting in high compressive and tensile principal stresses at the level of ultimate bone stress values. The model with ischiopubic membrane shows low compressive principal stresses in the pubis consistent with the levels of steady state remodelling of bone. Based on these results, the ischiopubic membrane of the domestic fowl potentially establishes a physiological loading of the pubis and therefore might be of great mechanical significance for the loading of the bone. PMID:23171269

  8. Lower expression of sialic acid receptors in the cecum of silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) compared to white leghorn.

    PubMed

    Han, Deping; Hu, Yanxin; Teng, Kedao; Deng, Xuemei

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus has received increasing attention in recent years because of the potential for recombination with the human virus. Distributions of sialic acid receptors on target cells are determinants of the susceptibilities of different species to influenza virus infection. In this study, the distribution of sialic acid receptors in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of Silky Fowl and White Leghorn chickens were compared. The results showed that sialic acid-α-2,3-galactose receptors and sialic acid-α6-galactose receptors were both observed in Silky Fowl and White Leghorn, but fewer positive cells were detected in Silky Fowl with significant difference in the cecum. The lower abundance of sialic acid receptors likely results from the lower abundance of CD3 and F4/80 immune cells in the cecum of Silky Fowl. PMID:26976896

  9. Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in desi fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) in and around Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, C; Jyothisree, Ch; Rama Devi, V; Annapurna, P; Jeyabal, L

    2016-09-01

    A study was carried out to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in desi fowl in and nearby villages of Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh for a period of 1 year. Screening of 492 samples comprising faecal samples and gastrointestinal tracts from freshly slaughtered desi birds at local poultry shops and samples from post mortem examinations at NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram revealed 63.21 % of gastrointestinal parasites. Faecal samples were examined by floatation technique using salt solution and samples positive for coccidian oocysts were sporulated in 2.5 % potassium dichromate solution for species identification. Adult worms were identified after routine processing and mounting. The species identified includes Davainea proglottina, Raillietina cesticillus and Raillietina echinobothrida in cestodes (32.47 %), Ascaridia galli, Capillaria annulata, Heterakis gallinarum in nematodes (39.87 %), Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria necatrix in Eimeria spp. (39.87 %). Ascaridia galli and R. cesticillus and A. galli and Eimeria spp. were common in mixed infection (12.86 %). Ascaridia galli was the more prevalent species. No trematode parasite was identified during the study period. Significant (p = 0.001) relationship between the seasonality and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed (χ2 = 17.46, df = 2). Data revealed high prevalence in rainy season (43.41 %) followed by summer (38.91 %) and winter (17.68 %) seasons for all parasites except for A. galli and C. annulata infections which were higher in summer season. Results indicated high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in desi fowl in study area emphasizing the need of improved management practices of backyard poultry. PMID:27605762

  10. Three subdivisions of the auditory midbrain in chicks (Gallus gallus) identified by their afferent and commissural projections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Karten, Harvey J.

    2010-01-01

    The auditory midbrain is a site of convergence of multiple auditory channels from the brainstem. In birds, two separate ascending channels have been identified, through which time and intensity information is sent to nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis (MLd), the homologue of the central nucleus of mammalian inferior colliculus. Using in vivo anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques, the current study provides two lines of anatomical evidence supporting the presence of a third ascending channel to the chick MLd. First, three non-overlapping zones of MLd receive inputs from three distinct cell groups in the caudodorsal brainstem. The projections from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) are predominately contralateral and may correspond to the time and intensity channels. A rostromedial portion of MLd receives bilateral projections mainly from the Regio Intermedius, an interposed region of cells lying at a caudal level between NL and NA, as well as scattered neurons embedded in 8th nerve tract, and probably a very ventral region of NA. Second, the bilateral zones of MLd on two sides of the brain are reciprocally connected and do not interact with other zones of MLd via commissural connections. In contrast, the NL-recipient zone projects contralaterally upon the NA-recipient zone. The structural separation of the third pathway from the NA and NL projections suggests a third information-processing channel, in parallel with the time and intensity channels. Neurons in the third channel appear to process very low frequency information including infrasound, probably utilizing different mechanisms than that underlying higher frequency processing. PMID:20148439

  11. Sex differences in plasma corticosterone release in undisturbed chickens (Gallus gallus) in response to arginine vasotocin and corticotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Madison, F N; Jurkevich, A; Kuenzel, W J

    2008-02-01

    In birds, two neuropeptides, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), are major regulators of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) during the stress response. In birds, however, the relative efficacy of CRH and AVT to stimulate the HPA axis in males and females remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of CORT release following central CRH and AVT administration to male and female chickens. Chickens were fitted with a stainless steel cannula surgically implanted in the lateral ventricle and a catheter chronically inserted in the jugular vein. Birds were housed individually in cages behind a one-way glass partition and unnecessary noise was avoided during the sampling period. Each bird received a single 5.0microtracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of either saline (SAL), AVT (10 and 100pmol), or CRH (10 and 100pmol). Blood was sampled remotely every 15min for 2h and plasma CORT was determined by radioimmunoassay. There was a significant increase in plasma CORT concentration in males injected with 100pmol AVT beginning at 15min post-injection through 2h compared with SAL injected birds. In males, injection of 100pmol CRH was significantly more effective in releasing CORT compared to an equal molar concentration of AVT or SAL. In females, ICV injection of 100pmol AVT induced moderate increase in CORT levels. In contrast, 100pmol CRH significantly increased plasma CORT compared to SAL injected controls but the CORT response was nearly 50% less than that obtained in males. PMID:17936761

  12. Characterization and immunohistochemical visualization of the vasotocin VT2 receptor in the pituitary gland of the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Jurkevich, Aleksandr; Berghman, Luc R; Cornett, Lawrence E; Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2005-08-01

    Arginine vasotocin is a neurohypophysial hormone in lower vertebrates including birds. Its actions are mediated through G-protein coupled receptors that belong to the vasopressin/oxytocin receptor family. Our laboratory recently cloned a vasotocin receptor, designated the VT2 receptor (VT2R), which shares high sequence identity at both the nucleotide and amino acid level with the mammalian V1b vasopressin receptor (V1bR). In the present study, we report development and use of an antibody to the VT2R to obtain anatomical evidence for testing the hypothesis that the VT2R is the avian homolog of the mammalian V1bR. Results verified the specificity of the antibody and demonstrated a receptor distribution occurring predominantly in the cephalic lobe of the pars distalis and co-localizing with adrenocorticotropin in corticotrophs. With respect to VT2R distribution and cell-type localization in pituitary gland, evidence presented support its similarity with the mammalian V1bR. In contrast to the mammalian V1bR, VT2R expression was not observed in chicken brain. Further research will be required to determine which receptor/s in the arginine vasotocin/mesotocin family are expressed in brain and mediate regulatory functions of vasotocin in the central nervous system. PMID:15993108

  13. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Breast Muscle Tissues from High or Low Levels of Atmospheric Ammonia Exposed Broilers (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Yi, Bao; Chen, Liang; Sa, Renna; Zhong, Ruqing; Xing, Huan; Zhang, Hongfu

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia is a common problem in poultry industry. High concentrations of aerial ammonia cause great harm to broilers' health and production. For the consideration of human health, the limit exposure concentration of ammonia in houses is set at 25 ppm. Previous reports have shown that 25 ppm is still detrimental to livestock, especially the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract, but the negative relationship between ammonia exposure and the tissue of breast muscle of broilers is still unknown. In the present study, 25 ppm ammonia in poultry houses was found to lower slaughter performance and breast yield. Then, high-throughput RNA sequencing was utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in breast muscle of broiler chickens exposed to high (25 ppm) or low (3 ppm) levels of atmospheric ammonia. The transcriptome analysis showed that 163 genes (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ 0.5; P-value < 0.05) were differentially expressed between Ammonia25 (treatment group) and Ammonia3 (control group), including 96 down-regulated and 67 up-regulated genes. qRT-PCR analysis validated the transcriptomic results of RNA sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation analysis revealed potential genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in growth and development inhibition of breast muscle in broilers caused by aerial ammonia exposure. This study facilitates understanding of the genetic architecture of the chicken breast muscle transcriptome, and has identified candidate genes for breast muscle response to atmospheric ammonia exposure. PMID:27611572

  14. Selenoprotein Transcript Level and Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers for Selenium Status and Selenium Requirements of Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Long; Sunde, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The NRC selenium (Se) requirement for broiler chicks is 0.15 μg Se/g diet, based primarily on weight gain and feed intake studies reported in 1986. To determine Se requirements in today’s rapidly growing broiler chick, day-old male chicks were fed Se-deficient basal diets supplemented with graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 μg Se/g) as Na2SeO3 (5/treatment). Diets contained 15X the vitamin E requirement, and there were no gross signs of Se-deficiency. At 29 d, Se-deficient chicks weighed 62% of Se-supplemented chicks; 0.025 μg Se/g reversed this effect, indicating a minimum Se requirement of 0.025 μg Se/g diet for growth for male broiler chicks. Enzyme activities in Se-deficient chicks for plasma GPX3, liver and gizzard GPX1, and liver and gizzard GPX4 decreased dramatically to 3, 2, 5, 10 and 5%, respectively, of Se-adequate levels, with minimum Se requirements of 0.10–0.13 μg Se/g, and with defined plateaus above these levels. Pancreas GPX1 and GPX4 activities, however, lacked defined plateaus, with breakpoints at 0.3 μg Se/g. qPCR measurement of all 24 chicken selenoprotein transcripts, plus SEPHS1, found that SEPP1 in liver, GPX3 in gizzard, and SEPP1, GPX3 and SELK in pancreas were expressed at levels comparable to housekeeping transcripts. Only 33%, 25% and 50% of selenoprotein transcripts were down-regulated significantly by Se deficiency in liver, gizzard and pancreas, respectively. No transcripts could be used as biomarkers for supernutritional Se status. For export selenoproteins SEPP1 and GPX3, tissue distribution, high expression and Se-regulation clearly indicate unique Se metabolism, which may underlie tissues targeted by Se deficiency. Based on enzyme activities in liver, gizzard, and plasma, the minimum Se requirement in today’s broiler chick is 0.15 μg Se/g diet; pancreas data indicate that the Se requirement should be raised to 0.2 μg Se/g diet to provide a margin of safety. PMID:27045754

  15. An autoradiographic study of the afferent innervation of the trachea, syrinx and extrapulmonary primary bronchus of Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, A J; Parker, S; Molony, V

    1978-01-01

    A method for injecting a small quantity of tritiated leucine directly into the nodose ganglion of the adult hen is described. The presence of an inner and an outer nerve plexus in the trachea and extrapulmonary primary bronchus is confirmed. Structures in the luminal epithelium of the trachea, syrinx and extrapulmonary primary bronchus having an afferent innervation are described and their possible function is discussed. The question of positive chemography in autoradiographic studies is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:649496

  16. Structure of the glandular layer and koilin membrane in the gizzard of the adult domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Akester, A R

    1986-01-01

    The koilin membrane is formed by the secretions of gland, crypt and surface epithelial cells. Glands form a continuous layer and are arranged in groups of 10-20. They are straight tubes about 500 microns long and 15 microns in diameter and produce rodlets of hard koilin. Hard koilin rodlets (5 microns diameter) form clusters of five or six as they pass through the crypts and enter the koilin membrane. Each rodlet hardens within its gland and maintains its individuality throughout its entire length. Rodlet clusters have previously been called 'rods'. Most of the softer koilin, which fills the spaces between the rodlet clusters, is produced by the surface epithelial cells. These cells form gentle arches between the cavities of adjacent crypts. Horizontal branches between rodlet clusters ('rods') do not exist. There is approximately twice as much surface koilin as rodlet koilin within the membrane. Abrasion of the koilin membrane is not uniform but occurs in a patchy fashion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3693065

  17. Selenoprotein Transcript Level and Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers for Selenium Status and Selenium Requirements of Chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Long; Sunde, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    The NRC selenium (Se) requirement for broiler chicks is 0.15 μg Se/g diet, based primarily on weight gain and feed intake studies reported in 1986. To determine Se requirements in today's rapidly growing broiler chick, day-old male chicks were fed Se-deficient basal diets supplemented with graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 μg Se/g) as Na2SeO3 (5/treatment). Diets contained 15X the vitamin E requirement, and there were no gross signs of Se-deficiency. At 29 d, Se-deficient chicks weighed 62% of Se-supplemented chicks; 0.025 μg Se/g reversed this effect, indicating a minimum Se requirement of 0.025 μg Se/g diet for growth for male broiler chicks. Enzyme activities in Se-deficient chicks for plasma GPX3, liver and gizzard GPX1, and liver and gizzard GPX4 decreased dramatically to 3, 2, 5, 10 and 5%, respectively, of Se-adequate levels, with minimum Se requirements of 0.10-0.13 μg Se/g, and with defined plateaus above these levels. Pancreas GPX1 and GPX4 activities, however, lacked defined plateaus, with breakpoints at 0.3 μg Se/g. qPCR measurement of all 24 chicken selenoprotein transcripts, plus SEPHS1, found that SEPP1 in liver, GPX3 in gizzard, and SEPP1, GPX3 and SELK in pancreas were expressed at levels comparable to housekeeping transcripts. Only 33%, 25% and 50% of selenoprotein transcripts were down-regulated significantly by Se deficiency in liver, gizzard and pancreas, respectively. No transcripts could be used as biomarkers for supernutritional Se status. For export selenoproteins SEPP1 and GPX3, tissue distribution, high expression and Se-regulation clearly indicate unique Se metabolism, which may underlie tissues targeted by Se deficiency. Based on enzyme activities in liver, gizzard, and plasma, the minimum Se requirement in today's broiler chick is 0.15 μg Se/g diet; pancreas data indicate that the Se requirement should be raised to 0.2 μg Se/g diet to provide a margin of safety. PMID:27045754

  18. A common developmental plan for neocortical gene-expressing neurons in the pallium of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus and the Chinese softshell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ikuo K.; Hirata, Tatsumi

    2014-01-01

    The six-layered neocortex is a unique characteristic of mammals and likely provides the neural basis of their sophisticated cognitive abilities. Although all mammalian species share the layered structure of the neocortex, the sauropsids exhibit an entirely different cytoarchitecture of the corresponding pallial region. Our previous gene expression study revealed that the chicken pallium possesses neural subtypes that express orthologs of layer-specific genes of the mammalian neocortex. To understand the evolutionary steps leading toward animal group-specific neuronal arrangements in the pallium in the course of amniote diversification, we examined expression patterns of the same orthologs and a few additional genes in the pallial development of the Chinese softshell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis, and compared these patterns to those of the chicken. Our analyses highlighted similarities in neuronal arrangements between the two species; the mammalian layer 5 marker orthologs are expressed in the medial domain and the layer 2/3 marker orthologs are expressed in the lateral domain in the pallia of both species. We hypothesize that the mediolateral arrangement of the neocortical layer-specific gene-expressing neurons originated in their common ancestor and is conserved among all sauropsid groups, whereas the neuronal arrangement within the pallium could have highly diversified independently in the mammalian lineage. PMID:24778607

  19. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ammon W; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Knoppel, Edward L; Hall, Jeffery O

    2016-05-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S. officinale. Male, California White chicks were orally exposed to daily doses of 0.04, 0.13, 0.26, 0.52 and 1.04 mmol lycopsamine, intermedine or reduced comfrey extract per kg bodyweight (BW) for 10 days. After another 7 days chicks were euthanized. Based on clinical signs of poisoning, serum biochemistry, and histopathological analysis the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than lycopsamine and intermedine. This work suggests a greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract. It also suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey. PMID:26177929

  20. Transfer and Detection of Freshly Isolated or Cultured Chicken (Gallus gallus) and Exotic Species’ Embryonic Gonadal Germ Stem Cells in Host Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Imus, Nastassja; Roe, Mandi; Charter, Suellen; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The management of captive avian breeding programs increasingly utilizes various artificial reproductive technologies, including in ova sexing of embryos to adjust population sex ratios. Currently, however, no attention has been given to the loss of genetic diversity following sex-selective incubation, even with respect to individuals from critically endangered species. This project evaluated the possibility of using xenotransfer of embryonic gonadal germline stem cells (GGCs) for future reintroduction of their germplasm into the gene pool. We examined and compared the host gonad colonization of freshly isolated and 3 day (3d) cultured donor GGCs from chicken and 13 species of exotic embryos. Following 3d-culture of GGCs, there was a significant increase in the percentage of stem cell marker (SSEA-1, -3, -4) positive cells. However, the percentage of positive host gonads with chicken donor-derived cells decreased from 68% (fresh) to 22% (3d), while the percentage of exotic species donor-cells positive host gonads decreased from 61% (fresh) to 49% (3d-cultured). Donor GGCs from both chicken and exotic species were localized within the caudal endoderm, including the region encompassing the gonadal ridge by 16 hours post-injection. Furthermore, donor-derived cells isolated from stage 36 host embryos were antigenic for anti SSEA-1, VASA/DDX4 and EMA-1 antibodies, presumably indicating maintenance of stem cell identity. This study demonstrates that GGCs from multiple species can migrate to the gonadal region and maintain presumed stemness following xenotransfer into a chicken host embryo, suggesting that germline stem cell migration is highly conserved in birds. PMID:24882096

  1. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  2. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Real Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays on Pectoralis major Muscle in Chicken (Gallus gallus )

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Carlos S.; Barbosa, Leandro T.; Brito, Claudson; Fernandes, Roberta P. M.; Mann, Renata S.; Pinto, Ana Paula G.; Oliveira, Haniel C.; Dodson, Mike V.; Guimarães, Simone E. F.; Duarte, Marcio S.

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen reference genes were investigated to determine their stability to be used as a housekeeping in gene expression studies in skeletal muscle of chickens. Five different algorithms were used for ranking of reference genes and results suggested that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. The stability of the expression of reference genes were validated using samples obtained from the Pectoralis major muscle in chicken. Samples were obtained from chickens in different development periods post hatch and under different nutritional diets. For gene expression calculation the ΔΔCt approach was applied to compare relative expression of pairs of genes within each of 52 samples when normalized to mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II (MT-CO2) target gene. Our findings showed that hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1) are the most stable reference genes while transferrin receptor (TFRC) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) ranked as the least stable genes in the Pectoralis major muscle of chickens. Moreover, our results revealed that HMBS and HPRT1 gene expression did not change due to dietary variations and thus it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. PMID:26020643

  3. Aggregates of cAMP-dependent kinase isoforms characterize different areas in the developing central nervous system of the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Caretta, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) acts mainly through cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA). In mammals and reptiles, the PKA regulatory isoforms (RI and RII) are differentially distributed among the various brain areas and cell types, according to the age of the animal. Since PKA distribution may be an additional marker for homologous areas, PKA regulatory subunit types RI and RII were examined in the chicken brain, a species not yet investigated. Chicken brains were examined from prehatching to adult age, by means of immunohistochemistry and biochemical characterization. Most PKA regulatory subunits were segregated in discrete non-soluble clusters that contained either RI or RII. While RII aggregates were present also in non-neuronal cells, RI aggregates were detected only in neurons of some brain areas that are mainly related to the telencephalon. They appeared later than RII aggregates; their presence and location varied during development. RI aggregates were detected first in the olfactory bulb, around embryonic day 14; within 3 days they appeared in the hyperpallium and nidopallium, where the most intense labeling was observed in the perihatching period. Fainter RI aggregates persisted up to 3 years in the olfactory bulb and nidopallium caudale. Less intense RI aggregates were present for a shorter time, from 2 weeks to 3 months, in the septal nuclei, thalamic medial nuclei, periventricular hypothalamus, optic tectum periventricular area, brainstem reticular formation and spinal cord substantia gelatinosa. RI aggregates were not detected in many brain areas including the arcopallium, striatum and cranial nerve nuclei. RII distribution showed less variation during development. From embryonic day 12, some insoluble RII aggregates were detected in the brain; however, only minor modifications were observed in positive structures once they started to harbor insoluble RII aggregates. The present results suggest that the distribution of PKA aggregates may assist in characterizing phylogenetically homologous structures of the vertebrate central nervous system and may also unravel biochemical differences among areas considered homologous. PMID:21876332

  4. Sperm mobility: mechanisms of fertilizing efficiency, genetic variation and phenotypic relationship with male status in the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed Central

    Froman, David P; Pizzari, Tommaso; Feltmann, Allen J; Castillo-Juarez, Hector; Birkhead, Tim R

    2002-01-01

    When females are sexually promiscuous, sexual selection continues after insemination through sperm competition and cryptic female choice, and male traits conveying an advantage in competitive fertilization are selected for. Although individual male and ejaculate traits are known to influence paternity in a competitive scenario, multiple mechanisms co-occur and interact to determine paternity. The way in which different traits interact with each other and the mechanisms through which their heritability is maintained despite selection remain unresolved. In the promiscuous fowl, paternity is determined by the number of sperm inseminated into a female, which is mediated by male social dominance, and by the quality of the sperm inseminated, measured as sperm mobility. Here we show that: (i) the number of sperm inseminated determines how many sperm reach the female sperm-storage sites, and that sperm mobility mediates the fertilizing efficiency of inseminated sperm, mainly by determining the rate at which sperm are released from the female storage sites, (ii) like social status, sperm mobility is heritable, and (iii) subdominant males are significantly more likely to have higher sperm mobility than dominant males. This study indicates that although the functions of social status and sperm mobility are highly interdependent, the lack of phenotypic integration of these traits may maintain the variability of male fitness and heritability of fertilizing efficiency. PMID:11916477

  5. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  6. Involvement of nucleotide diphosphate kinase 2 in the reopening of the sensitive period of filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Aoki, Naoya; Takehara, Akihiko; Mori, Masaru; Kanai, Akio; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2016-01-26

    Filial imprinting is a behavior characterized by the sensitive or critical period restricted to the first few days after hatching. Once the sensitive period is closed, it is widely believed that chicks can never be imprinted under natural conditions. Previously, we showed that the exogenous injection of T3 reopened the sensitive period which was already closed. That study suggested that T3 functioned by way of a rapid non-genomic action; however, the molecular mechanism of how T3 reopens the sensitive period remains unknown. Here, we show that the phosphorylation level of nucleotide diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) was upregulated following T3 injection. Pharmacological deprivation of the kinase activity of NDPK hampered the molecular process prerequisite for the reopening of the sensitive period of filial imprinting. Moreover, it is shown that the kinase activity of NDPK2 participates in the priming process by T3 signaling which endows the potential for learning. Our data indicate that NDPK2 plays a crucial role downstream of T3 action and that its phosphorylation is involved in the non-genomic signaling during imprinting. PMID:26673886

  7. High Concentrations of Atmospheric Ammonia Induce Alterations in the Hepatic Proteome of Broilers (Gallus gallus): An iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jize; Li, Cong; Tang, Xiangfang; Lu, Qingping; Sa, Renna; Zhang, Hongfu

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the poultry industry, ammonia, as a main contaminant in the air, is causing increasing problems with broiler health. To date, most studies of ammonia toxicity have focused on the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract in mammals. However, few detailed studies have been conducted on the hepatic response to ammonia toxicity in poultry. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unclear. In the present study, our group applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analysis to investigate changes in the protein profile change in hepatic tissue of broilers exposed to high concentrations of atmospheric ammonia, with the goal of characterizing the molecular mechanisms of chronic liver injury from exposure to high ambient levels of ammonia. Overall, 30 differentially expressed proteins that are involved in nutrient metabolism (energy, lipid, and amino acid), immune response, transcriptional and translational regulation, stress response, and detoxification were identified. In particular, two of these proteins, beta-1 galactosidase (GLB1) and a kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8-like (AKAP8 L), were previously suggested to be potential biomarkers of chronic liver injury. In addition to the changes in the protein profile, serum parameters and histochemical analyses of hepatic tissue also showed extensive hepatic damage in ammonia-exposed broilers. Altogether, these findings suggest that longtime exposure to high concentrations of atmospheric ammonia can trigger chronic hepatic injury in broilers via different mechanisms, providing new information that can be used for intervention using nutritional strategies in the future. PMID:25901992

  8. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Real Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays on Pectoralis major Muscle in Chicken (Gallus gallus ).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carlos S; Barbosa, Leandro T; Brito, Claudson; Fernandes, Roberta P M; Mann, Renata S; Pinto, Ana Paula G; Oliveira, Haniel C; Dodson, Mike V; Guimarães, Simone E F; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen reference genes were investigated to determine their stability to be used as a housekeeping in gene expression studies in skeletal muscle of chickens. Five different algorithms were used for ranking of reference genes and results suggested that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. The stability of the expression of reference genes were validated using samples obtained from the Pectoralis major muscle in chicken. Samples were obtained from chickens in different development periods post hatch and under different nutritional diets. For gene expression calculation the ΔΔCt approach was applied to compare relative expression of pairs of genes within each of 52 samples when normalized to mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II (MT-CO2) target gene. Our findings showed that hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1) are the most stable reference genes while transferrin receptor (TFRC) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) ranked as the least stable genes in the Pectoralis major muscle of chickens. Moreover, our results revealed that HMBS and HPRT1 gene expression did not change due to dietary variations and thus it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. PMID:26020643

  9. Effects of early prenatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on postnatal reproduction in the laying hen (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Veerle; Onagbesan, Okanlawon; Dumez, Linn; De Ketelaere, Bart; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-08-01

    This study demonstrates the long-term effects of very early embryonic exposure to a single dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (0, 10 and 20 ng/egg), administered before the beginning of embryonic development, on growth and reproductive performance in laying hens. Hatchability and body weight gain from 11 weeks onwards were significantly depressed in 20 ng treated hens. All hens started laying egg at around the same age and the laying performance of TCDD-treated hens was normal. No disturbances in the age-related pattern and concentrations of oestradiol, LH or FSH in plasma could be found but mean progesterone concentrations were significantly lower in 20 ng treated hens. Moreover, follicular distribution was changed with less small white follicles and smaller yellow follicles, which probably resulted in the lower egg weight of the 20 ng treated hens. At 43 weeks of age, hens treated in ovo with TCDD showed a retained right oviduct, mostly filled with clear fluid. From these results, it seems that in ovo exposure to TCDD interferes in the right oviduct regression during embryonic development and induces some changes in follicular distribution but without impairment of reproductive performance in the adult laying hen. PMID:16154808

  10. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recomm...

  11. Dynamics of the systemic components of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) immune system following activation by Escherichia coli; implications for the costs of immunity.

    PubMed

    Iseri, V J; Klasing, K C

    2013-01-01

    The immune response is thought to be costly and deters from growth and reproduction, but the magnitude and sources of these costs are unknown. Thus, we quantified the changes in mass of leukocytes (CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, Bu1(+) IgM(+) and Bu1(+) IgG(+) B cells, monocytes/macrophages, heterophils and thrombocytes) and protective plasma proteins in systemic (non-mucosal) components of adult chickens injected intravenously with dead Escherichia coli. During the first day after E. coli injection most types of blood leukocytes decreased and α-1-acid glycoprotein increased. Specific IgM, specific IgY, total IgM, Bu1(+) lymphocytes in the spleen and bone marrow and thymic CD8(+) lymphocytes increased at 5d post-injection. Quantitatively, the increases in the weight of cells and antibodies due to E. coli were dwarfed by the increase in the weight of the liver and acute phase proteins. Thus the acute phase response was markedly more costly than the subsequent adaptive response. The weight of the cells and proteins of the systemic immune system prior to challenge was 0.14% of body weight. Following E. coli injection, the additional weight of the immune components and the hypertrophy of the liver resulted in a 3.6-fold increase in weight which is equivalent to 18.5% of a large egg. PMID:23500513

  12. Effects of Methadone on the Minimum Anesthetic Concentration of Isoflurane, and Its Effects on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Ventilation during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Pypendop, Bruno Henri; Zangirolami Filho, Darcio; Sousa, Samuel Santos; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg-1, IM) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg-1 of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg-1 of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15, 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg-1) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure. PMID:27018890

  13. Differential expression of six chicken genes associated with fatness traits in a divergently selected broiler population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianwen; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Songsong; Jin, Pengcheng; Luan, Peng; Li, Yumao; Cao, Zhiping; Leng, Li; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Shouzhi

    2016-02-01

    A genome-wide association study has shown a number of chicken (Gallus gallus) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to be significantly associated with abdominal fat content in Northeast Agricultural University (NEAU) broiler lines selected divergently for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF). The six significant SNPs are located in the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3), phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PPAT), exocyst complex component 1 (EXOC1), v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)-like 2 (MYBL2) and KIAA1211 (undefined) genes. In this study, the expression levels of these genes were investigated in both abdominal fat and liver tissues using 32 14th generation chickens from the NEAUHLF. The levels of expression of KDR in abdominal fat and KDR and TUSC3 in liver differed significantly between the two lines. The expression level of KDR in the abdominal fat was significantly correlated with the abdominal fat weight (AFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP). The expression levels of KDR, TUSC3 and PPAT in liver were significantly correlated with AFW and AFP, indicating that the six genes, especially KDR and TUSC3, could be associated with fat traits in domestic chickens. This study could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the formation of abdominal fat in chickens. PMID:26746358

  14. Possible Association of IFN-γ Gene -316A/G SNP with Humoral Immune Response to Killed H5N1 HPAI Vaccine in a Red Junglefowl Population.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Sun, Ting-Ting; Ma, Zhi-Liang; Lu, Qiong-Fen; Hu, Wen-Li; Jian, Zong-Hui; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Pei-Fu

    2015-11-01

    To understand the role of interferon (IFN)-γ gene (IFNG) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the resistance to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), we determined the SNPs, the log2-transformed specific antibody titers, and ex vivo recall antigen-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 62 red junglefowls (Gallus gallus) immunized twice with inactivated H5N1 HPAI vaccine. Consequently, 52 SNPs were detected in the amplified 1137-bp length covering the promoter region and all exons, with +2133A/T SNP in the coding DNA sequence that caused a missense mutation and was identified in G. gallus for the first time. For -316A/G SNP genotypes, the chi-squared test showed that the bird sample was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P=0.369>0.05), and the least squares analysis revealed an increasing tendency in the antibody titers with G to A substitution so that a significant difference occurred between the AA genotype (8.031±0.247) and the GG genotype (6.571±0.528) (P=0.015<0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0004-0.0866), as basically consistent with the antigen-induced IFN-γ protein expression, which indicated possible association of the -316A/G SNP with a secondary humoral immune response to the HPAI vaccine in the bird population. These findings may help to improve genetic resistance using cross-breeding and enhance HPAI vaccine-induced immunity in chicken production. PMID:26154533

  15. Attenuation by leptin of the effects of fasting on ovarian function in hens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Paczoska-Eliasiewicz, H E; Gertler, A; Proszkowiec, M; Proudman, J; Hrabia, A; Sechman, A; Mika, M; Jacek, T; Cassy, S; Raver, N; Rzasa, J

    2003-12-01

    Thirty-four-week-old laying hens received injections of recombinant chicken leptin to assess the role of leptin in avian ovarian function. In the first experiment, the hens (n=60) were divided into three groups: (i). fed ad libitum; (ii). fasted; and (iii). fasted + leptin. Hens were fasted for 5 days and those treated with leptin received 250 microg leptin kg-1 body weight twice a day, i.p. In the second experiment, the hens (n=72) were divided into four groups: (i). fed ad libitum; (ii). fasted; (iii). fasted + leptin given only during fasting (5 days); or (iv). fasted and leptin given during both fasting and 5 days of re-feeding (10 days). LH was measured in blood plasma, and progesterone and oestradiol were measured in blood plasma and the ovary by radioimmunoassay. Apoptosis was examined in the walls of the three largest yellow hierarchical follicles (F3-F1; F38-12 mm), and the granulosa layer of F3 follicles. The expression of leptin receptor in the granulosa layer of F2 and F1 follicles was barely detectable. This was in contrast to a much higher expression of leptin receptor maintained in the theca layer of F3-F1 follicles. The present results indicate that in chickens leptin might be involved in the adaptation to starvation due to attenuation of follicular apoptosis. The presence of leptin receptors in the ovary indicates the possibility of a peripheral effect of the hormone. PMID:14748693

  16. {Delta}-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: A sensitive indicator of lead exposure in broiler chicks: (Gallus domesticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalli, R.I.; Pesti, G.M.; Konjufca, V.

    1995-12-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, EC 4.2.1.24 (ALAD) is one of the enzymes participating in heme synthesis. The study reported in this paper was designed to determine the activity of erythrocyte ALAD anbd the relationship between this enzyme and tissue lead levels in chickens, during Pb intake and after withdrawing Bv from the feed. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in free ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sayari, M; Namavari, M; Mojaver, S

    2016-09-01

    Recently chickens are considered as an important intermediate hosts for Neospora caninum. Free range chickens expose to infection with N. caninum oocysts because they feed from the ground therefore they could be a good index of the environmental contamination. We studied N. caninum infection in free range chickens by serological. One hundred and fifty chickens purchased from five regions from Fars province and their blood were used for serological testing. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 26 (17.33 %) of 150 serum samples by MAT. This study is the first to describe the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in chicken in Iran. These serological results indicate a widespread exposure of free range chickens to N. caninum in south of Iran. PMID:27605795

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Martins, J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P

    2011-12-15

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N. caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the present study we studied seroprevalence of N. caninum in free range chickens from different countries in America as an indicator of soil contamination due to N. caninum oocysts. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in sera of 524 (39.5%) of 1324 chickens using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, titer 1:25 or higher). Seropositive chickens from different countries were: 18.5% of 97 from Mexico, 7.2% of 97 from USA, 39.5% of 144 from Costa Rica, 71.5% of 102 from Grenada, 44% of 50 from Guatemala, 83.6% of 98 from Nicaragua, 58.1% of 55 from Argentina, 34.3% of 358 from Brazil, 62.3% of 85 from Chile, 11.2% of 62 from Colombia, 38.7% of 80 from Guyana, 18% of 50 from Peru and 21.7% of 46 from Venezuela. The results indicate widespread exposure of chickens to N. caninum. PMID:21676546

  19. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    PubMed

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively. PMID:27605824

  20. Triploidy and haploid-triploid mosaicism among chick embryos (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Zartman, D L; Smith, A L

    1975-01-01

    Homomorphic, chromosomally abnormal roosters were mated to normal hens. The 23 hens produced 67 embryos, including two triploids and a haploid-triploid mosaic at about 26 hours of incubation. Both of the triploid embryos were conceived within a 5-day period. The presence of a single genome of paternal origin with marker chromosomes in each triploid led to the conclusion that these embryos were derived from diploid, ZW-type ova fertilized by haploid, Z-type spermatozoa. The inheritance pattern of the mosaic embryo was clearly due to a spermatozoal origin for the haploid cell line; and one genome of the three in the triploid cell line was paternal. The sec chromosomes were Z/ZZZ, with one Z of each cell line being a translocation product of paternal derivation. PMID:1192842

  1. Electron microscopy of the seminiferous epithelium in the triploid (ZZZ and ZZW) fowl, Gallus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Thorne, M H; Martin, I C; Sheldon, B L; Jones, R C

    1995-06-01

    The ultrastructure of cells of the seminiferous epithelium is described in both triploid ZZZ and ZZW fowls, especially cytological aberrations influencing the development of morphologically abnormal spermatids and spermatozoa. Mitotic divisions in triploid fowls are similar to those in diploid fowls, but meiosis in both the ZZZ and ZZW triploid fowl is abnormal and many defective gametes are produced. The majority of spermatids have structural abnormalities and this is attributed to the aneuploidy expected from meiotic chromosome pairing in a triploid. Some spermatids were observed to possess an irregularly shaped head, 2 centriolar complexes, 2 acrosomes and 2 tails and this type differentiated into large-headed spermatoza. Such spermatids and spermatozoa are suggested to be near diploid due to their large nuclear size and 2 sets of organelles. Other spermatids, observed with only 1 centriolar complex, 1 acrosome and 1 tail, are suggested to be near haploid. Differentiation of these spermatids is similar to the process observed in diploid fowls except that there is a high percentage of abnormally shaped heads. The fact that morphologically normal spermatozoa were rare is consistent with the expectation that very few spermatozoa would be exactly haploid. In both ZZZ and ZZW triploid fowls, triple pairing of chromosomes is observed in synaptonemal complexes (SC) during meiosis and recombination nodules are distributed at random in the central regions of the triple pairing SC. In ZZW triploid fowls gamete formation is more severely affected than in ZZZ triploid fowls and it is suggested that many of the degenerative changes occurring in ZZW fowls could be attributed to those spermatids that possess a W sex chromosome, since normal male fowls are the homogametic sex (ZZ) and normal spermatids and spermatozoa contain only a Z sex chromosome. PMID:7559129

  2. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N.caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the presen...

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infections in chickens (Gallus domesticus): Prevalence, clinical disease, diagnosis, and public health significance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens are considered one of the most important hosts in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are an efficient source of infection for cats that excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts and because humans may become infected with this parasite after eating undercooked ...

  4. Kinetic study of chlordecone orally given to laying hens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Jondreville, Catherine; Fournier, Agnès; Mahieu, Maurice; Feidt, Cyril; Archimède, Harry; Rychen, Guido

    2014-11-01

    The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. In this area, CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through soil ingestion. In order to assess this risk, a kinetic study involving the contamination of laying hens (22 weeks of age) with a diet containing 500 μg CLD kg(-1) during 42 d, followed by a depuration period of 35 d was carried out. Forty-four hens were sequentially slaughtered all over the experimental period and their liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum were collected. Two additional edible tissues, pectoral and leg muscles, were collected in hens slaughtered at the end of the contamination period. The depuration half-life of CLD in liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum was estimated at 5.0 ± 0.38 (mean ± SE), 5.5 ± 0.29, 5.3 ± 0.37 and 5.1 ± 0.66 d, respectively. CLD concentration at the end of the contamination period reached 1640 ± 274, 460 ± 41, 331 ± 23, and 213 ± 8.5 μg kg(-1) fresh matter (FM), respectively. The corresponding concentrations in pectoral and leg muscles were 119 ± 8.4, 127 ± 11 μg kg(-1) FM, respectively. The steady state carry over rate of CLD in eggs reached 43 ± 7.6%. This experiment demonstrates the preferential accumulation of CLD in liver, its significant transfer to eggs and its quite short half-life. It is concluded that raising hens on even mildly contaminated areas would lead to products exceeding the regulatory maximum residue limit of 20 μg CLD kg(-1). PMID:25113213

  5. In vitro optimization of the Gallus domesticus oviduct epithelial cells culture.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, K; Bajek, A; Joachimiak, R; Walasik, K; Marszalek, A; Drewa, T; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to establish an efficient method for isolation and further culture in vitro of the normal chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) for cell-based research models. Different factors were tested to optimize COEC primary culture for repeatable results: the origin of isolated cells (oviduct Infundibulum or Magnum section); the oviduct tissue dissociation procedure (mechanical scrapping or mincing), tissue digestion times (15, 30 and 45 min), the culture plates coating (colagene I, polystyrene surface or 3T3 feeder layer), the growth media (classic DMEM/Ham's F12 and defined serum-free medium, Lonza Switzerland), incubation temperature (37 °C vs 41°C) and different cell seeding numbers: 0.2M, 0.5M and 1.0M cells/well. The COEC isolated by mincing the Infundibular neck and digestion of tissue for 30 min formed cell aggregates of bright colour and gave proliferating colonies of epithelial-like character which was the best result obtained from all applied procedures in our studies. The fibroblast-like cells considered as contaminants occurred only sporadically up to day 7 of culture. Seeding about 1M cells in 1 mL of serum-free medium onto 12-well dishes gave the optimal growth of colonies resulting in 5 to 7 confluent culture wells from a single oviduct sample. Feeder layer and collagen I did not improve adhesion of the COEC to the culture vessel. Adoption of 37 °C and 41 °C did not reveal apparent differences to the condition of cultured COEC. Cell differentiation and proliferation potential depends on number and replicative capacity of isolated progenitors. The progenitors are responsible for holoclones formation and good culture growth. The percentage of colonies developed from the cells isolated from Infundibulum was greater than that of other samples in our studies. We conclude that the model of COEC primary cultures from different segments of oviduct, in particular infundibulum, should be incorporated to the range of avian cells research as this work generates questions about undocumented sources of oviduct progenitor cells. PMID:22401831

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) of Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, E Z; Tesfamaryam, G; Yunus, H A; Duguma, R; Tilahun, G; DI Marco, V; Vitale, M

    2015-02-01

    We performed a seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from October 2012 to May 2013. We used cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling to collect blood samples from wing veins of 601 chickens from central Ethiopia. T. gondii-specific antibodies were assayed by modified agglutination test (MAT). We collected information about risk factors by questionnaire and used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·27-34·14] and 54·2% (95% CI 47·06-61·36) was found at animal- and flock-level, respectively. The MAT end titre of seropositive chickens (n = 183) were 1 : 60 in 46, 1 : 180 in 28, 1 : 540 in 29, ⩾1 : 1620 in 48, 1 : 6000 in 22, 1 : 18,000 in five, 1 : 54,000 in one, and ⩾1 : 162,000 in four. Animal-level risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression model were: midland altitude [odds ratio (OR) 2·53, 95% CI 1·12-5·72], cross and exotic breeds (OR 3·17, 95% CI 1·39-7·23), increased age of chickens (OR 2·32, 95% CI 1·19-4·49), extensive management (OR 6·92, 95% CI 1·34-35·86) and the presence of cats (OR 2·08, 95% CI 1·20-3·61). Similarly, flock-level risk factors were midland altitude (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·31-9·99) and the presence of cats (OR 1·19-4·94). The knowledge of the local people about the health risk of cats to humans and animals is poor. Housing and management of cats and chickens are also poor. The widespread presence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens of Central Ethiopia provides suggestive evidence for the high level of contamination of the living environment of people with T. gondii oocysts. Meat from free-range chickens might be an important source of infection for humans. Altitude, breed, age, management and presence of cats are independent predictors of seropositivity. Education of farmers about toxoplasmosis and further studies to elucidate the burden of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans warrants consideration. PMID:24763135

  7. DigiPINS: a database for vertebrate exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms and its application to cancer association studies.

    PubMed

    Navratil, Vincent; Penel, Simon; Delmotte, Stéphane; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Gautier, Christian; Aouacheria, Abdel

    2008-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are the most abundant form of genetic variations in numerous organisms, have emerged as important tools for the study of complex genetic traits and deciphering of genome evolution. High-throughput genome sequencing projects worldwide provide an unprecedented opportunity for whole-genome SNP analysis in a variety of species. To facilitate SNP discovery in vertebrates, we have developed a web-based, user-friendly, and fully automated application, DigiPINS, for genome-wide identification of exonic SNPs from EST data. Currently, the database can be used to the mining of exonic SNPs in six complete genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis familiaris, Gallus gallus and Danio rerio). In addition to providing information on sequence conservation, DigiPINS allows compilation of comprehensive sets of polymorphisms within cancer candidate genes or identification of novel cancer markers, making it potentially useful for cancer association studies. The DigiPINS server is available via the internet at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/gem/DigiPINS/query_DigiPINS.php. PMID:17988782

  8. Rainfall simulation in greenhouse microcosms to assess bacterial-associated runoff from land-applied poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; Read, John J; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Runoff water following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination after a manure application. This greenhouse study used a rainfall simulator to determine bacterial-associated runoff from troughs of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] that were treated with P-based, N-based, and N plus lime rates of poultry (Gallus gallus) litter, recommended inorganic fertilizer, and control. Total heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as antibiotic resistance profiles for the staphylococci and enterococci isolates were all monitored in runoff waters. Analysis following five rainfall events indicated that staphylococci, enterococci, and clostridia levels were related to manure application rate. Runoff release of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens were approximately 3 to 6 log10 greater in litter vs. control treatment. In addition, traditional indicators such as thermotolerant and total coliforms performed poorly as fecal indicators. Some isolated enterococci demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance to polymixin b and/or select aminoglyocosides, while many staphylococci were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. Results indicated poultry litter application can lead to microbial runoff following simulated rain events. Future studies should focus on the use of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens as indicators. PMID:19141812

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci and Candidate Genes for Body Composition and Meat Quality Traits in Beijing-You Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E−6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed. PMID:23637794

  10. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to Newcastle disease virus in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the first outbreak in Indonesia in 1926, Newcastle disease has become one of the most common and contagious bird diseases throughout the world. To date, enhancing host antibody response by vaccination remains the most efficient strategy to control outbreaks of Newcastle disease. Antibody response plays an important role in host resistance to Newcastle disease, and selection for antibody response can effectively improve disease resistance in chickens. However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear. The aim of this study was to detect genes modulating antibody response to NDV by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results To identify genes or chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to NDV after immunization, a GWAS was performed using 39,833 SNP markers in a chicken F2 resource population derived from a cross between two broiler lines that differed in their resistance. Two SNP effects reached 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P<1.26×10-6). These two SNPs, rs15354805 and rs15355555, were both on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 and spanned approximately 600 Kb, from 100.4 Mb to 101.0 Mb. Rs15354805 is in intron 7 of the chicken Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (ROBO2) gene, and rs15355555 is located about 243 Kb upstream of ROBO2. Rs15354805 explained 5% of the phenotypic variation in antibody response to NDV, post immunization, in chickens. Rs15355555 had a similar effect as rs15354805 because of its linkage disequilibrium with rs15354805 (r2=0.98). Conclusion The region at about 100 Mb from the proximal end of chicken chromosome 1, including the ROBO1 and ROBO2 genes, has a strong effect on the antibody response to the NDV in chickens. This study paves the way for further research on the host immune response to NDV. PMID:23663563

  11. Endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) is associated with the panda plumage colour mutation in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Miwa, M; Inoue-Murayama, M; Aoki, H; Kunisada, T; Hiragaki, T; Mizutani, M; Ito, S

    2007-04-01

    The panda mutant in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) displays spots of wild-type plumage on a white background and is controlled by an autosomal recessive allele (s). The dotted white is controlled by a third allele (s(dw)) of the s locus with s(dw)/s(dw) quail having less pigmentation than s/s quail. We mapped the s locus to the Japanese quail chromosome 4 (CJA04) in a previous study. The orthologous region of the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome includes endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2), an avian-specific paralog of endothelin receptor B (EDNRB). EDNRB mutations in mammals retard the migration of neural crest cells (NCCs), which results in a spotted coat colour and an enteric nervous defect. In the present study, we investigated the association between the s locus and EDNRB2 in Japanese quail. Sequence comparison among transcripts from livers of wild-type, panda and dotted white quail revealed a nucleotide substitution (c.995G>A) leading to a p.R332H amino acid change that was specific to panda, whereas no amino acid substitution was found in dotted white birds. The amino acid position 332 is located in the sixth transmembrane domain and is highly conserved in both avian and mammalian endothelin receptors. The A allele at nucleotide position 995 was specific to panda (s/s) birds among 10 strains, and was mapped to the same chromosomal region as the s locus. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that EDNRB2 transcripts were reduced in both panda and dotted white mutants compared with wild-type. However, there was no difference between the early embryos of wild-type and panda with respect to the migration of NCCs. The genetic association of EDNRB2 with plumage colour in birds was found for the first time in this study. PMID:17313575

  12. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Molee, A.; Kongroi, K.; Kuadsantia, P.; Poompramun, C.; Likitdecharote, B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study. PMID:26732325

  13. Amplification of microsatellite repeat motifs is associated with the evolutionary differentiation and heterochromatinization of sex chromosomes in Sauropsida.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazumi; O'Meally, Denis; Azad, Bhumika; Georges, Arthur; Sarre, Stephen D; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Matsuda, Yoichi; Ezaz, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    The sex chromosomes in Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) have evolved independently many times. They show astonishing diversity in morphology ranging from cryptic to highly differentiated sex chromosomes with male (XX/XY) and female heterogamety (ZZ/ZW). Comparing such diverse sex chromosome systems thus provides unparalleled opportunities to capture evolution of morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes in action. Here, we describe chromosomal mapping of 18 microsatellite repeat motifs in eight species of Sauropsida. More than two microsatellite repeat motifs were amplified on the sex-specific chromosome, W or Y, in five species (Bassiana duperreyi, Aprasia parapulchella, Notechis scutatus, Chelodina longicollis, and Gallus gallus) of which the sex-specific chromosomes were heteromorphic and heterochromatic. Motifs (AAGG)n and (ATCC)n were amplified on the W chromosome of Pogona vitticeps and the Y chromosome of Emydura macquarii, respectively. By contrast, no motifs were amplified on the W chromosome of Christinus marmoratus, which is not much differentiated from the Z chromosome. Taken together with previously published studies, our results suggest that the amplification of microsatellite repeats is tightly associated with the differentiation and heterochromatinization of sex-specific chromosomes in sauropsids as well as in other taxa. Although some motifs were common between the sex-specific chromosomes of multiple species, no correlation was observed between this commonality and the species phylogeny. Furthermore, comparative analysis of sex chromosome homology and chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats between two closely related chelid turtles, C. longicollis and E. macquarii, identified different ancestry and differentiation history. These suggest multiple evolutions of sex chromosomes in the Sauropsida. PMID:26194100

  14. GnRH-1 mRNA, LH surges, steroid hormones, egg production, and intersequence pause days alter in birds exposed to longer wavelength of light in the later stages of production in Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ippala Janardhan; David, Corbon Godfrey; Selvaraju, Sellen; Mondal, Sunato; Ravi Kiran, Gorti

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this was to establish the effects of red spectrum of light (650 nm, treated n = 12) and normal spectrum of light (450 nm control = 12) on GnRH-I mRNA expression, amplitude and frequency of luteinizing hormone (LH), and egg production from 72-82 weeks of age in white leghorn hens. Birds exposed to red spectrum of wavelength significantly improved (P < 0.01) steroid hormone, and egg production improved over old laying 72 to 82 weeks. Weekly interval profiles followed the same pattern. At 77th weeks of age blood, samples from both the groups were collected at every 3 h for 36 h to study the pulsatile secretion of LH surges. Plasma LH concentration was higher (P < 0.01) in treated birds with more number of frequencies and amplitude LH surges in plasma of treated birds. LH frequencies were more pronounced and advanced during 36 h of sampling at 3 h interval in treated birds. Weekly interval of plasma LH, E2β, and P(4) concentrations increased (P < 0.01) in treated birds from 72 to 82 weeks of age. GnRH-I mRNA concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in birds exposed to red spectrum of light compared to controls. It is hypothesized that exposure of birds to red spectrum of light-enhanced (P < 0.01) GnRH-I mRNA with more number of yellow yolky follicles was found in birds exposed to red spectrum of light during 77 days (72-82 weeks of age) of experimental period. It is concluded that higher levels of GnRH-I mRNA, LH, E2β, and P(4) concentration with lower incidence of pause days enabled the birds to lay more eggs even later in the productive period by modulating the wavelengths of light under normal husbandry conditions. PMID:22532077

  15. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  16. The mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase N, and the di- and tri- peptide transporter PepT1 in the embryo of the domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus) shows developmental regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mRNA expression profile for ten amino acid transporters (AAT), the di-and tri- peptide transporter (Pept1), and aminopeptidase N (APN) during chick embryogenesis was determined. Fertilized eggs were sampled at days 9, 11, 15, 17, 19, and 20, post fertilization. Three to four embryos were sampl...

  17. [Effect of sex inversion in embryos of domestic chicken (Gallu gallus domesticus) by influence of letrozole and tamoxifen].

    PubMed

    Trukhina, A V; Lukina, N A; Vakkerov-Kouzova, N D; Nekrasova, A A; Smirnov, A F

    2014-01-01

    Realization of program of sex formation in multicellular organisms is a complex multistage process. The role of the inductor in this process is assigned to sex hormones synthesized by cells of the emerging gonads. The action of androgens on the formation of the male is now well understood. However, little is known about the involvement of estrogen the female gonad formation and the formation of a female as a whole. Here we present the results of experimental sex inversion in female chickens produced by aromatase inhibition and by the action of tamoxifen on chicken embryos. We have shown various masculinizing effect depending on the dose of active substance and the number of injections. We have noted that inhibition of aromatase does not block meiotic prophase in oogoniums. We have suggested that there are differences in the mechanisms of action of retinoic acid and estrogens on oogenesis. We have first shown proteins and nucleoproteins that interact with the estrogen receptor 1 and provided maps of their gene localization in human and chicken genomes. PMID:25509152

  18. Changes in estrogen receptor ERalpha and ERbeta expression in chicken (Gallus domesticus) adrenal gland during short-fasting and refeeding.

    PubMed

    Błachuta, Małgorzata; Wrońska-Fortuna, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptors have been found in the adrenal gland of rodents, monkeys, mares and sheep, indicating a connection between sex steroids and the activity of the adrenal gland. In the present study, the expression of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) in the chicken adrenal gland during stress induced by 24 h fasting and after refeeding was determined using reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of both ER mRNAs in the adrenal gland of all examined groups was found. The relative expression of ERalpha mRNA was higher than ERbeta mRNA. There were no significant differences in ERalpha mRNA expression among the examined groups. On the contrary, we observed changes in ERbeta expression during stress conditions. These findings indicate different pathways of estrogen action in the avian adrenal gland. Furthermore, changes in ERbeta level suggest that this form of estrogen receptor plays a predominant role for estrogen action in the chicken adrenal gland during stress. PMID:23342917

  19. Mechanisms involved in the spontaneous occurrence of diploid-triploid chimerism in the mink (Mustela vison) and chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Fechheimer, N S; Isakova, G K; Belyaev, D K

    1983-01-01

    Diploid-triploid chimeras have been observed both in man and in a number of laboratory and livestock animals. The mechanism(s) of their origin remains enigmatic. One approach is to calculate for each proposed mechanism the expected frequencies of zygotes bearing different gonosomic complements in the two cell lines. Observed samples are then compared with the expectations. The mechanisms that have been considered include: (1) fertilization of a blastomere, (2) absorption of the second polar body into a blastomere, (3) fertilization of the first polar body, (4) independent fertilization of both nuclei in binucleated oocytes, (5) fertilization of the second polar body as well as the egg, and (6) fusion of two eggs. The sample of minks comprised three preimplantation embryos, nine postimplantation embryos, and three neonatal pups, with gonosomic complements of 7 XX/XXX, 3 XX/XXY, 4XY/XXY, and 1 XY/XYY; the chicks comprised 13 embryos at 1 day of incubation, 1 embryo at 4 days, and one adult bird, with gonosomic complements of 5 ZZ/ZZZ, 1 ZZ/ZZW, 1 ZW/ZZZ, 3 ZW/ZZW, and 5 ZW/ZWW. If it is assumed that within each species all, or most, of the 2n/3n chimeras arise from the same mechanism, then the occurrence of a type that has an expected frequency of zero for a given proposed mechanism effectively eliminates that mechanism as a source. All of the chicks could have resulted from only one mechanism, viz., independent fertilization of both nuclei in binucleated oocytes. The sample of minks could have resulted from the same mechanism or from fertilization of a blastomere of a two-cell, 2n embryo. PMID:6578004

  20. Effects of pantethine on lipogenesis and CO2 production in the isolated hepatocytes of the chick (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Hsu, J C; Tanaka, K; Inayama, I; Ohtani, S

    1992-07-01

    1. Isolated hepatocytes from chicks were used to study the effects of pantethine supplementation to incubation medium on in vitro lipogenesis, CO2 production and beta-oxidation of fatty acid. 2. In vitro lipogenesis, determined by the incorporation of 1-[14C]acetate into total lipid and various lipid fractions, as depressed in concordance with the increase of pantethine concentration in the medium. 3. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with pantethine resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase. 4. The results suggest that in vitro fatty acid synthesis from 1-[14C]acetate was depressed and CO2 production was elevated in hepatocytes of chicks through pantethine addition to the medium at a low level. PMID:1359945

  1. Dopamine and prolactin involvement in the maternal care of chicks in the native Thai hen (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Chokchaloemwong, Duangsuda; Rozenboim, Israel; El Halawani, Mohamed E; Chaiseha, Yupaporn

    2015-02-01

    The dopaminergic (DAergic) system plays a pivotal role in incubation behavior via the regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion in birds, however the role of the DA/PRL system in rearing behavior is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the DA/PRL system and rearing behavior in a gallinaceous bird, the native Thai chicken. Incubating native Thai hens were divided into two groups. In the first group, hens were allowed to care for their chicks (rearing hens; R). In the second group, hens were deprived of their chicks immediately after hatching (non-rearing hens; NR). In both groups, blood samples and brain sections were collected at different time points after the chicks hatched (days 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 28; 6 hens/time point/group). In this study, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used as a marker for DAergic neurons. The numbers of TH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the nucleus intramedialis (nI) and in the nucleus mamillaris lateralis (ML), which regulate the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/PRL system, were determined in R and NR hens utilizing immunohistochemical techniques. Plasma PRL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The results revealed that both the number of TH-ir neurons in the nI and the plasma PRL levels were significantly higher in the R hens compared with the NR hens during the first 14 days of chick rearing (P<0.05). However, there was no significant change in the DAergic activity in the ML in either the R or NR groups throughout the 28-day rearing periods. These results suggest that the DA/PRL system is involved in early rearing behavior. The additional decline in DAergic activity and plasma PRL levels during the disruption of rearing behavior further supports their involvement in rearing behavior in this equatorial precocial species. PMID:24746677

  2. The Stimulatory Effect of Cerebral Intraventricular Injection of cNPY on Precocial Feeding Behavior in Neonatal Chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guiqian; Yang, Feifei; Wu, Taofen; Jiang, Junfang; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in many animals. Most of the supporting evidence for the effects of NPY has been gathered in mammalian species using porcine NPY. To investigate the effects of NPY on precocial feeding initiation in chicks, we firstly used chicken NPY (cNPY) to study its role in food intake and spontaneous activities in 3-day-old male chicks. Food intake was monitored at different times after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of cNPY (2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 μg/10 μL) and anti-cNPY antibody (anti-cNPY) (1:9000, 1:3000 or 1:1000 in dilution). cNPY given at different doses significantly increased food intake at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min after injection. Chicks treated with 5.0 μg/10 μL of cNPY showed a maximal 4.48 fold increase in food intake comparing to the control at 30 min. There is still more than 2 fold increase in food intake at 120 min after injection of cNPY. Food intake was significantly inhibited by a single ICV injection of anti-cNPY diluted to 1:9000 (60% inhibition), 1:3000 (92% inhibition), and 1:1000 (95% inhibition) at 30 min with 1:1000 being the maximally effective concentration. The inhibitory effects of anti-cNPY (diluted to1:9000, 1:3000, 1:1000) at 120 min post ICV injection were 22%, 42% and 46%, respectively. But ICV of anti-cNPY (1:3000 in dilution) did not block the orexigenic effect of 2.5 μg/10 μL of cNPY. ICV injection of different concentrations of cNPY increases locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner while ICV anti-cNPY greatly decreased the distance moved by each chick compared to control groups. Taken together, our results demonstrated that cNPY has a promoting effect on chick food intake and locomotor activity, and that endogenous cNPY might play a positive role in regulating precocial feeding behavior in newly hatched chicks. PMID:27055273

  3. Measurement of the filtration coefficient (Kfc) in the lung of Gallus domesticus and the effects of increased microvascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Weidner, W Jeffrey; Waddell, David S; Furlow, J David

    2006-08-01

    The filtration coefficient (Kfc) is a sensitive measure of microvascular hydraulic conductivity and has been reported for the alveolar lungs of many mammalian species, but not for the parabronchial avian lung. This study reports the Kfc in the isolated lungs of normal chickens and in the lungs of chickens given the edemogenic agents oleic acid (OA) or dimethyl amiloride (DMA). The control Kfc =0.04+/-0.01 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1). This parameter increased significantly following the administration of both OA (0.12+/-0.02 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1)) and DMA (0.07+/-0.01 ml min kPa(-1) g(-1)). As endothelial cadherins are thought to play a role in the dynamic response to acute lung injury, we utilized Western blot analysis to assess lung cadherin content and Northern blot analysis to assess pulmonary vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin expression following drug administration. Lung cadherin content decreases markedly following DMA, but not OA administration. VE cadherin expression increases as a result of DMA treatment, but is unchanged following OA. Our results suggest that the permeability characteristics of the avian lung are more closely consistent with those of the mammalian rather than the reptilian lung, and, that cadherins may play a significant role in the response to acute increases in avian pulmonary microvascular permeability. PMID:16538461

  4. Acclimation to hypothermic incubation in developing chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus): I. Developmental effects and chronic and acute metabolic adjustments.

    PubMed

    Black, Juli L; Burggren, Warren W

    2004-04-01

    Chronic exposure to a low incubation temperature clearly slows the development of poikilothemic chicken embryos (or any other poikilotherms), but little is known about the more subtle developmental effects of temperature, especially on physiological regulatory systems. Consequently, two populations of chicken embryos were incubated at 38 degrees C and 35 degrees C. When compared at the same development stage, incubation temperature had no significant impact on embryonic survival or growth. Moreover, the relative timing of major developmental landmarks (e.g. internal pipping), expressed as a percentage of development, was unaffected by temperature. The ability to maintain the rate of oxygen consumption ((O(2))) during an acute drop in ambient temperature (T(a)) improved from Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stages 39-40 to 43-44 in the 38 degrees C but not the 35 degrees C populations. Late stage (HH43-44) embryos incubated at 38 degrees C could maintain (O(2)) (approximately 27-33 micro l g(-1) min(-1)) during an acute drop in T(a) to approximately 30 degrees C. However, at the same stage 35 degrees C embryos acutely measured at 38 degrees C were unable to similarly maintain their (O(2)), which fell as soon as T(a) reached 36 degrees C. Thus, while hypothermic incubation does not affect gross development (other than would be predicted from a simple effect of Q(10)), there is a significant delay in the relative timing of the onset of thermoregulatory ability induced by hypothermic incubation. PMID:15037648

  5. Monophyletic origin and unique dispersal patterns of domestic fowls.

    PubMed

    Fumihito, A; Miyake, T; Takada, M; Shingu, R; Endo, T; Gojobori, T; Kondo, N; Ohno, S

    1996-06-25

    With the aim of elucidating in greater detail the genealogical origin of the present domestic fowls of the world, we have determined mtDNA sequences of the D-loop regions for a total of 21 birds, of which 12 samples belong to red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) comprising three subspecies (six Gallus gallus gallus, three Gallus gallus spadiceus, and three Gallus gallus bankiva) and nine represent diverse domestic breeds (Gallus gallus domesticus). We also sequenced four green junglefowl (Gallus varius), two Lafayette's junglefowl (Gallus lafayettei), and one grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii). We then constructed a phylogenetic tree for these birds by the use of nucleotide sequences, choosing the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) as an outgroup. We found that a continental population of G. g. gallus was the real matriarchic origin of all the domestic poultries examined in this study. It is also of particular interest that there were no discernible differences among G. gallus subspecies; G. g. bankiva was a notable exception. This was because G. g. spadiceus and a continental population of G. g. gallus formed a single cluster in the phylogenetic tree. G. g. bankiva, on the other hand, was a distinct entity, thus deserving its subspecies status. It implies that a continental population of G. g. gallus sufficed as the monophyletic ancestor of all domestic breeds. We also discussed a possible significance of the initial dispersal pattern of the present domestic fowls, using the phylogenetic tree. PMID:8692897

  6. Genetic parameters and genome-wide association study of hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum (HVP) has recently garnered much attention in the poultry industry because of the possible risk to the health of affected animals and the damage it causes to the appearance of commercial chicken carcasses. However, the heritable characters of HVP remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic parameters of HVP by genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results HVP was found to be influenced by genetic factors, with a heritability score of 0.33. HVP had positive genetic correlations with growth and carcass traits, such as leg muscle weight (rg = 0.34), but had negative genetic correlations with immune traits, such as the antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (rg = −0.42). The GWAS for HVP using 39,833 single nucleotide polymorphisms indicated the genetic factors associated with HVP displayed an additive effect rather than a dominance effect. In addition, we determined that three genomic regions, involving the 50.5–54.0 Mb region of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 (GGA1), the 58.5–60.5 Mb region of GGA1, and the 10.5–12.0 Mb region of GGA20, were strongly associated (P < 6.28 × 10-7) with HVP in chickens. Variants in these regions explained >50% of additive genetic variance for HVP. This study also confirmed that expression of BMP7, which codes for a bone morphogenetic protein and is located in one of the candidate regions, was significantly higher in the visceral peritoneum of Huiyang Beard chickens with HVP than in that of chickens without pigmentation (P < 0.05). Conclusions HVP is a quantitative trait with moderate heritability. Genomic variants resulting in HVP were identified on GGA1 and GGA20, and expression of the BMP7 gene appears to be upregulated in HVP-affected chickens. Findings from this study should be used as a basis for further functional validation of candidate genes involved in HVP. PMID:23679099

  7. The association between plumage damage and feather-eating in free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Hemsworth, P H; Wilkinson, S J; Thomson, P C; Cronin, G M

    2016-05-01

    Severe feather-pecking (SFP) persists as a highly prevalent and detrimental behavioural problem in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) worldwide. The present experiment investigated the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, a consequence of SFP, in groups of free-range, ISA Brown laying hens. Single feathers were placed on the floor of the home pens. Feathers were sourced from seven different birds. A total of 50 birds in six pens with extensive plumage damage were compared with birds in six control pens with little plumage damage at 41 to 43 weeks of age (n=12 pens, 600 hens). Birds in pens with extensive plumage damage ingested more feathers (F=8.1, DF=1, 8, P=0.02), and also showed shorter latencies to peck at (χ 2=54.5, DF=1, P<0.001), and ingest feathers (χ 2=55.6, DF=1, P<0.001). Birds ingested feathers from a bird in the free-range facility, in which the testing took place, more quickly than from a bird housed in a separate cage facility (χ 2 = 39.0, DF=6, P<0.001). A second experiment investigated the predictive relationship between feather-eating and plumage damage. Feathers were presented to 16 pens of 50 pullets prior to the development of plumage damage, at 15 weeks of age, and then to the same hens after plumage damage had become prominent, at 40 weeks of age. Birds had a higher probability of ingesting feathers (F=142.0, DF=1, 231, P<0.001), pecked feathers more times (F=11.24, DF=1, 239, P<0.001), and also pecked (χ 2 = 127.3, DF=1, P<0.001) and ingested (χ 2=189.3, DF=1, P<0.001) the feathers more quickly at 40 than 15 weeks of age. There was a trend for an interaction, where birds pecked feathers from the rump more times than feathers from the back at 40 weeks of age (F=3.46, DF=1, 237, P=0.06). However, a lack of variability in plumage damage between pens in this experiment precluded investigation of the predictive relationship. The results from the present study confirm the association between feather-eating and plumage

  8. EFFECT OF ESTROGEN AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) ON PLASMA FATTY ACIDS OF IMMATURE MALE CHICKENS (GALLUS DOMESTICUS). (R826298)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. INTERACTION OF ESTROGEN AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) WITH HEPATIC FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS AND METABOLISM OF MALE CHICKENS (GALLUS DOMESTICUS). (R826298)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. INTERACTION OF ESTROGEN AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) IN IMMATURE MALE CHICKENS (GALLUS DOMESTICUS). (R826298)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. INTERACTION OF ESTROGEN AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-BENZENE WITH PLASMA FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF MALE CHICKENS (GALLUS DOMESTICUS). (R826298)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. INTERACTION OF ESTROGEN AND 2,3,7,8-TECHTRACHOLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) WITH HEPATIC FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS AND METABOLISM OF MALE CHICKENS (GALLUS DOMESTICUS). (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Prevalence of the gastro-intestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 in Tunisia according to the agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2016-09-01

    Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the prevalence rates of helminth parasites in the different agro-ecological zones. The highest prevalence was observed in lowland areas of northern Tunisia (Siliana district). This suggests that agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Recovered nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %). PMID:27605783

  14. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  15. Repetitive auditory stimulation at a critical prenatal period modulates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Roy, Saborni; Nag, Tapas C; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Mathur, Rashmi; Jain, Suman

    2013-09-01

    The extrinsic sensory stimulation plays a crucial role in the formation and integration of sensory modalities during development. Postnatal behavior is thereby influenced by the type and timing of presentation of prenatal sensory stimuli. In this study, fertilized eggs of white Leghorn chickens during incubation were exposed to either species-specific calls or no sound. To find the prenatal critical period when auditory stimulation can modulate visual system development, the former group was divided into three subgroups: in subgroup A (SGA), the stimulus was provided during embryonic day (E)10 to E16, in SGB E17- hatching, and in SGC E10-hatching. The auditory and visual perceptual learning was recorded at posthatch day (PH) 1-3, whereas synaptic plasticity (evident from synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression), was observed at E19, E20, and PH 1-3. An increased number of responders were observed in both auditory and visual preference tests at PH 1 following stimulation. Although a decrease in latency of entry and an increase in total time spent were observed in all stimulated groups, it was most significant in SGC in auditory preference and in SGB and SGC in visual preference test. The auditory cortex of SGC and visual Wulst of SGB and SGC revealed higher expression of synaptic proteins, compared to control and SGA. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results indicate facilitation of postnatal behaviour and synaptogenesis in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal repetitive auditory stimulation, only when given during prenatal critical period of development. PMID:23696545

  16. Adverse effects of fipronil on avian reproduction and development: maternal transfer of fipronil to eggs in zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata and in ovo exposure in chickens Gallus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Kitulagodage, Malsha; Buttemer, William A; Astheimer, Lee B

    2011-06-01

    Two studies were carried out to examine the impact of maternal fipronil exposure on embryonic and offspring development. In the first study, breeding female zebra finches were orally dosed with single sublethal levels of fipronil (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight) to determine behavioural and developmental consequences on chicks following maternal pesticide exposure. Significant levels of fipronil and fipronil-sulfone residues were detected in eggs laid by females in all dosed groups, however, these were undetectable in eggs laid 13 days after treatment. The level of sulfone detected in eggs was consistently higher than that of the parent fipronil compound. Of the seven eggs laid in the treatment groups, only one (14%) chick hatched and this was from the lowest dose group. This chick was severely underdeveloped at 10 days of age in comparison to control chicks and fiproles were detected in brain, liver, and adipose tissues collected following euthanasia of this individual. In contrast, there was 100% hatchability of control group eggs and all chicks fledged nests on schedule. In the second study, domestic chicken eggs were injected with 5.5, 17.5, and 37.5 mg/kg egg weight of fipronil directly into the yolk sac on day 12 of incubation. Treatment did not affect hatching success, however, behavioural and developmental abnormalities were observed in hatchlings from the highest dose group. These chicks also demonstrated reduced feeding rates, as indicated by reduced body mass at 48 h period post hatch. Both fipronil and fipronil-sulfone residues were detected in brain and liver tissue of hatchlings at all pesticide dose levels tested. PMID:21327488

  17. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus): morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ohfuji, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis. PMID:27303655

  18. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus): morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, S

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis. PMID:27303655

  19. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae) in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus) model in comparison to ketoconazole

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus). Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis. PMID:23114185

  20. Eukaryotic Evolutionary Transitions Are Associated with Extreme Codon Bias in Functionally-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Nicholas J.; Gu, Quan; Nagaraj, Shivashankar H.; Ding, Yong-Sheng; Dalrymple, Brian P.; Reverter, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Codon bias in the genome of an organism influences its phenome by changing the speed and efficiency of mRNA translation and hence protein abundance. We hypothesized that differences in codon bias, either between-species differences in orthologous genes, or within-species differences between genes, may play an evolutionary role. To explore this hypothesis, we compared the genome-wide codon bias in six species that occupy vital positions in the Eukaryotic Tree of Life. We acquired the entire protein coding sequences for these organisms, computed the codon bias for all genes in each organism and explored the output for relationships between codon bias and protein function, both within- and between-lineages. We discovered five notable coordinated patterns, with extreme codon bias most pronounced in traits considered highly characteristic of a given lineage. Firstly, the Homo sapiens genome had stronger codon bias for DNA-binding transcription factors than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, whereas the opposite was true for ribosomal proteins – perhaps underscoring transcriptional regulation in the origin of complexity. Secondly, both mammalian species examined possessed extreme codon bias in genes relating to hair – a tissue unique to mammals. Thirdly, Arabidopsis thaliana showed extreme codon bias in genes implicated in cell wall formation and chloroplast function – which are unique to plants. Fourthly, Gallus gallus possessed strong codon bias in a subset of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins – perhaps reflecting the enhanced bioenergetic efficiency in birds that co-evolved with flight. And lastly, the G. gallus genome had extreme codon bias for the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor – which may help to explain their spontaneous recovery from deafness. We propose that extreme codon bias in groups of genes that encode functionally related proteins has a pathway-level energetic explanation. PMID:21966531

  1. Progressive cytologic changes during the development of delayed feather amelanosis and associated choroidal defects in the DAM chicken line. A vitiligo model.

    PubMed

    Boissy, R E; Smyth, J R; Fite, K V

    1983-05-01

    Newly hatched Gallus domesticus chicks of the delayed amelanotic (DAM) line have phenotypically normal down pigmentation. Functioning pigment cells are present in the down plumage, choroid, and retinal pigment epithelium. However, histologic and ultrastructural studies reveal that after hatching regenerating feather melanocytes synthesize melanosomes with abnormal, irregularly shaped surfaces and pigmented extensions. Eventually retraction of melanocytic dendrites and clumping of pigment occurs concomitantly with intracellular compartmentalization of the abnormal melanosomes. Melanocyte degeneration is accompanied by the appearance of mononuclear leukocytes (MNLs) in the pulp of the regenerating feathers. Concurrently, melanocytes cease to migrate into the regenerating feather epithelium, and the result is amelanosis. Changes in choroidal melanocytes are first evident as swelling of cell bodies and associated dendrites. Ultrastructurally, the choroidal melanocytes demonstrate increased cytoplasmic material, melanosomal irregularities, retraction of dendrites, melanosome compartmentalization, and eventual necrosis. Concurrently, MNLs arrive and remove the pigment from the choroid. The authors conclude that a basic melanocyte defect precedes the arrival of immunocytes in the delayed cutaneous and choroidal amelanosis in the genetic DAM vitiligo model of the chicken. PMID:6846502

  2. Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding sites in the brain of the one-day-old domestic chick (Gallus domesticus): An in vitro quantitative autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Csillag, A.; Bourne, R.C.; Stewart, M.G. )

    1990-12-15

    Three highly specific opioid ligands--(D-Ala2,Gly-ol)-enkephalin (DAGO) for mu (mu) receptor sites, (D-Pen2,D-Pen5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) for delta (delta) sites, and U-69593 for kappa (kappa) sites--were used to determine the regional distribution of the three major subtypes of opioid receptor binding sites in the brains of 1-day-old domestic chicks by the technique of quantitative receptor autoradiography. While there was a degree of heterogeneity in the binding levels of each of the ligands, some notable similarities existed in the binding of the mu and kappa ligands in several forebrain regions, and in the optic tectum of the midbrain where mu and delta binding was very high. In the forebrain there was a high level of binding of mu and kappa ligands in the hyperstriatum, and for the mu ligand there was a very distinct lamination of binding sites in hyperstriatum accessorium, intercalatum supremum, dorsale and ventrale. Levels of binding of the mu and kappa ligands were also high in nucleus basalis, and (for mu only) in the neostriatum. The distribution of binding of the delta specific ligand in the forebrain showed marked differences to that of mu and kappa, being particularly low in the hyperstriatum and neostriatum. Very high levels of labelling of delta binding sites were, however, found in the nucleus rotundus. Binding of the three ligands was generally low or absent in the cerebellum and medulla, apart from a distinct labelling of the granule cell layer by the mu-ligand. A kinetic analysis was made of the binding of the three ligands to whole forebrain sections using scintillation counting methods.

  3. The origin and genetic diversity of Chinese native chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dong; Fu, Yan; Luo, Jing; Ruan, Hui; Yu, Xu-Ping; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2002-06-01

    The first 539 bases of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of six Chinese native chicken breeds (Gallus gallus domesticus) were sequenced and compared to those of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), the gray junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii), the green junglefowl (Gallus varius) and Lafayette's junglefowl (Gallus lafayettei) reported in GenBank, and the phylogenetic trees for the chickens were constructed based on the D-loop sequences. The results showed that the four species of the genus Gallus had great differences among each other the G. g. domesticus was closest to the red junglefowl in Thailand and its adjacent regions, suggesting the Chinese domestic fowl probably originatedfrom the red junglefowl in these regions. The two subspecies of Thailand, G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus, should belong to one subspecies because of their resemblance. In the case of native breeds, there existed a great difference between the egg breeds and general purpose breeds, which suggested different maternal origins of the two types. PMID:12137331

  4. Molecular phylogeny of some avian species using Cytochrome b gene sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M

    2015-01-01

    Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180

  5. Molecular phylogeny of some avian species using Cytochrome b gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Awad, A; Khalil, S R; Abd-Elhakim, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180

  6. Influence of Poultry Litter Application Methods on the Longevity of Nutrient and E. coli in Runoff from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant quantities of the broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter produced in the U.S. are being applied to pasture lands. The traditional surface- broadcast application of animal manure onto permanent pasture, however, may lead to high concentration of nutrients and pathogenic micro...

  7. Exencephaly in araucana chickens and silkie bantams.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G L; Softly, A

    1985-01-01

    Exencephaly and hydranencephaly were diagnosed in two 6-week-old araucana chickens (Gallus domesticus) and one adult silkie bantam (Gallus domesticus). The chickens were presented with large, subcutaneous, cranial soft-tissue masses and exhibited neurological signs. There was partial aplasia of the frontal bones, resulting in herniation of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:4026741

  8. Animal and industrial by-products management strategies for sustainable agricultural production system and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated application of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural lands often results in soil P and heavy metal accumulations, which may pose risks to water bodies. We evaluated six different application strategies on P, N and heavy metal losses from an established bermudagrass (Cyno...

  9. Poultry Litter and Tillage Influence on Corn Production and Soil Nutrients on a Silt Loam Soil in Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler (Gallus Gallus) litter, a rich source of plant nutrients, is generated in large quantities in southeastern USA where many row crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.), are also extensively cropped. However, the use of broiler manure as an economical alternative source of nutrients for corn producti...

  10. Transport of dissolved trace elements in surface runoff and leachate from a coastal plain soil after poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural soils may exacerbate losses of trace elements in runoff water, an emerging concern to water quality. We evaluated trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium and zinc) in surface runoff and ...

  11. Apparent Use Efficiency of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Broiler Litter Applied to Bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 80% of broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter produced annually is applied as a plant nutrient source, particularly N and P, to pastures. However, N losses during the process of litter N mineralization limit availability of N to crops. This study determined broiler litter N and...

  12. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  13. Subsurface banding, placement of pelletized poultry litter in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative management of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus ) litter in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production is needed to effectively capture nutrients in the root zone and enable greater crop utilization of land-applied nutrients and hence yield . This four-year study compared the growth, lin...

  14. Broiler Litter Application Method and Runoff Timing Effects on Nutrient and Escherichia coli Losses from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 85% of broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter applied in the U.S. is being applied to pasture lands year-round. Runoff from litter-applied land has the potential to transport nutrients and pathogenic microorganisms to nearby surface water. Many studies have indicated the advant...

  15. Broiler Litter Application Date on Bermudagrass in Southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, more than 85% of the boiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter is being applied to pasture lands year-round. This practice results in nutrient losses and potentially unfavorable environmental impacts particularly during the wet winter months. A field plot experiment was initiated ...

  16. Apparent use efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus from broiler litter applied to bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Great quantity of broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter produced annually is being utilized as a plant nutrient source particularly for N and P. However, the estimates of these nutrients availability to plants are highly variable. The accurate quantities of the litter nutrients in an ac...

  17. Broiler litter effects on forage quality in tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) litter to forage crops is one of the most obvious methods of recycling nutrients. However, manure management remains one of the greatest challenges for livestock producers, particularly where animals are produced on relatively small land areas. Tal...

  18. Chicken domestication: from archeology to genomics.

    PubMed

    Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Rognon, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Current knowledge on chicken domestication is reviewed on the basis of archaeological, historical and molecular data. Several domestication centres have been identified in South and South-East Asia. Gallus gallus is the major ancestor species, but Gallus sonneratii has also contributed to the genetic make-up of the domestic chicken. Genetic diversity is now distributed among traditional populations, standardized breeds and highly selected lines. Knowing the genome sequence has accelerated the identification of causal mutations determining major morphological differences between wild Gallus and domestic breeds. Comparative genome resequencing between Gallus and domestic chickens has identified 21 selective sweeps, one involving a non-synonymous mutation in the TSHR gene, which functional consequences remain to be explored. The resequencing approach could also identify candidate genes responsible of quantitative traits loci (QTL) effects in selected lines. Genomics is opening new ways to understand major switches that took place during domestication and subsequent selection. PMID:21377614

  19. Female mate choice and male behaviour in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Leonard; Zanette

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to use paired choice tests to examine mate selection by female domestic chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus. We examined five behavioural and six morphological traits of 34 pairs of males to determine which male features influenced female mate choice. The frequency of a behavioural display known as wingflapping was the only variable that differed significantly between males that were chosen and males that were not. Within trials, females selected males with the highest wingflapping rate. Across trials, the wingflapping rate of chosen males ranged widely (3-82 wingflaps/h) suggesting that females used a relative choice mechanism when selecting a mate. These results differ from earlier work on the closely related red junglefowl, G. g. murghi, in which females use morphological traits and a threshold choice mechanism when selecting mates. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9819324

  20. Detection and Characterization of Low Abundance Glycopeptides Via Higher-Energy C-Trap Dissociation and Orbitrap Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Raftery, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale mass spectrometric analyses of glycopeptides are constrained by the considerable complexity inherent to glycoproteomics, and techniques are still being actively developed to address the associated analytical difficulties. Here we apply Orbitrap mass analysis and higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) to facilitate detailed insights into the compositions and heterogeneity of complex mixtures of low abundance glycopeptides. By generating diagnostic oxonium product ions at mass measurement errors of <5 ppm, highly selective glycopeptide precursor ion detections are made at sub-fmol limits of detection: analyses of proteolytic digests of a hen egg glycoprotein mixture detect 88 previously uncharacterized glycopeptides from 666 precursor ions selected for MS/MS, with only one false positive due to co-fragmentation of a non-glycosylated peptide with a glycopeptide. We also demonstrate that by (1) identifying multiple series of glycoforms using high mass accuracy single stage MS spectra, and (2) performing product ion scans at optimized HCD collision energies, the identification of peptide + N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) ions (Y1 ions) can be readily achieved at <5 ppm mass measurement errors. These data allow base peptide sequences and glycan compositional information to be attained with high confidence, even for glycopeptides that produce weak precursor ion signals and/or low quality MS/MS spectra. The glycopeptides characterized from low fmol abundances using these methods allow two previously unreported glycosylation sites on the Gallus gallus protein ovoglycoprotein (amino acids 82 and 90) to be confirmed; considerable glycan heterogeneities at amino acid 90 of ovoglycoprotein, and amino acids 34 and 77 of Gallus gallus ovomucoid are also revealed.

  1. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  2. Major growth QTLs in fowl are related to fearful behavior: possible genetic links between fear responses and production traits in a red junglefowl x white leghorn intercross.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Karin E; Kerje, Susanne; Jacobsson, Lina; Forkman, Björn; Carlborg, Orjan; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study fear responses and their relation to production traits in red junglefowl ( Gallus gallus spp.), White Leghorn ( Gallus domesticus ), and their F2-progeny. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were performed for behavioral traits to gain information about possible genetic links between fear-related behaviors and production. Four behavioral tests were performed that induce different levels of acute fear (open field [OF], exposure to a novel object, tonic immobility, and restraint). Production traits, that is, egg production, sexual maturity (in females), food intake, and growth, were measured individually. A genome scan using 105 microsatellite markers was carried out to identify QTLs controlling the traits studied. In the OF and novel object tests (NO), Leghorns showed less fear behavior than junglefowl, whereas junglefowl behaved less fearfully in the tonic immobility test (TI) and were more active in the restraint test. In the F2 progeny, only weak phenotypic associations were found between production traits and fear behavior. A significant QTL for TI duration was found on chromosome 1 that coincided with a QTL for egg weight and growth in the same animals. Another QTL for NO in males coincided with another major growth QTL. These two known growth QTLs affected a wide range of reactions in different tests. Several other significant and suggestive QTLs for behavioral traits related to fear were found. These QTLs did not coincide with QTLs for production traits, indicating that these fear variables may not be genetically linked to the production traits we measured here. The results show that loci affecting important production traits are located in the same chromosomal region as loci affecting different fear-related behaviors. PMID:14739702

  3. Targeted capture enrichment and sequencing identifies extensive nucleotide variation in the turkey MHC-B.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Settlage, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is increasingly associated with disease susceptibility and resistance in avian species of agricultural importance. This variation includes sequence polymorphisms but also structural differences (gene rearrangement) and copy number variation (CNV). The MHC has now been described for multiple galliform species including the best defined assemblies of the chicken (Gallus gallus) and domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Using this sequence resource, this study applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate MHC variation in turkeys of North America (NA turkeys). An MHC-specific SureSelect (Agilent) capture array was developed, and libraries were created for 14 turkeys representing domestic (commercial bred), heritage breed, and wild turkeys. In addition, a representative of the Ocellated turkey (M. ocellata) and chicken (G. gallus) was included to test cross-species applicability of the capture array allowing for identification of new species-specific polymorphisms. Libraries were hybridized to ∼12 K cRNA baits and the resulting pools were sequenced. On average, 98% of processed reads mapped to the turkey whole genome sequence and 53% to the MHC target. In addition to the MHC, capture hybridization recovered sequences corresponding to other MHC regions. Sequence alignment and de novo assembly indicated the presence of several additional BG genes in the turkey with evidence for CNV. Variant detection identified an average of 2245 polymorphisms per individual for the NA turkeys, 3012 for the Ocellated turkey, and 462 variants in the chicken (RJF-256). This study provides an extensive sequence resource for examining MHC variation and its relation to health of this agriculturally important group of birds. PMID:26729471

  4. The distribution of endogenous chicken retrovirus sequences in the DNA of galliform birds does not coincide with avian phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Frisby, D P; Weiss, R A; Roussel, M; Stehelin, D

    1979-07-01

    The chicken is a domesticated form of Red Jungle-fowl (Gallus gallus), which belongs to the Pheasant family (Phasianidae) within the order Galliformes. Domestic chickens carry the genome of the endogenous retrovirus RAV-O as DNA sequences integrated into host chromosomes transmitted through the germ line. We have examined the presence and distribution of RAV-O-related sequences in the DNA of Red Junglefowl and other closely related species of Junglefowl, as well as more distantly related Pheasants and Quail. DNA sequences homologous to RAV-O were analyzed by molecular hybridization in liquid and after electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease fragments. The presence of RAV-O-related sequences in avian DNA does not correlate with phylogenetic relationships. Under stringent conditions of hybridization in liquid, DNA sequences homologous to RAV-O cDNA were detected at high levels (greater than 80% homology( only in the genomes of the domestic chicken and its phylogenetic ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus). The DNA of two other species of Gallus (G. sonnerati, Sonnerat's Junglefowl and G. varius, Green Junglefowl), of Ring-necked Pheasant and of Japanese Quail contained sequences with less than 10% homology to RAV-O cDNA. Under conditions permitting mismatching, however, Ring-necked Pheasant DNA hybridized up to 50% of the RAV-O cDNA, and Quail DNA 24%, whereas the extent of hybridization to Sonnerat's and Green Junglefowl DNA was not markedly increased. Analysis of restriction enzyme digests revealed several distinct fragments of DNA hybridizing to chick retrovirus cDNA in both Red Junglefowl and domestic chicken, and multiple fragments in DNA from two species of Phasianus. No fragments with sequences related to chicken retroviruses were found, however, in digests of DNA prepared from Sonnerat's, Ceylonese and Green Junglefowl, from two other Pheasant genera (Chrysolophus and Lophura), or from one Quail genus (Coturnix). Thus the DNA of three Junglefowl

  5. The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K A; Chappell, M A; Cardullo, R A; Lin, R; Johnsen, T S

    2000-07-01

    We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs. PMID:10851122

  6. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  7. A novel polymorphism in the chicken adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene (FABP4) that alters ligand-binding and correlates with fatness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qigui; Guan, Tianzhu; Li, Hui; Bernlohr, David A

    2009-11-01

    Similar to the mammalian FABP4 gene, the chicken (Gallus gallus) FABP4 gene consists of four exons separated by three introns and encodes a 132 amino acid protein termed the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP). In the current study, a novel G/A polymorphism in exon 3 of the chicken FABP4 gene was identified associated with different chicken breeds that leads to either Ser or Asn at amino acid 89 of the AFABP protein. The Baier chicken averages 0.89+/-0.12% abdominal fat and expresses the G allele (Ser 89 isoform) while the Broiler chicken typically has 3.74+/-0.23% abdominal fat and expresses the A allele (Asn 89 isoforms). cDNAs corresponding to the two AFABP isoforms were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as GST fusions, purified by using glutathione sepharose 4B chromatography and evaluated for lipid binding using the fluorescent surrogate ligand 1-anilinonaphthalene 8-sulphonic acid (1,8-ANS). The results showed that AFABP Ser89 exhibited a lower ligand-binding affinity with apparent dissociation constants (Kd) of 7.31+/-3.75 microM, while the AFABP Asn89 isoform bound 1,8-ANS with an apparent dissociation constant of 2.99+/-1.00 microM (P=0.02). These results suggest that the Ser89Asn polymorphism may influence chicken AFABP function and ultimately lipid deposition through changing the ligand-binding activity of AFABP. PMID:19595785

  8. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and inducibility in wild populations of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Fry, D.M.; Wilson, B.W.

    1997-07-01

    Microplate fluorometric techniques were used to measure ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in hepatic microsomes and primary hepatocyte cultures from individual wild double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) embryos. Embryos were collected in 1993 and 1994 from Humboldt Bay and San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) and a reference site in coastal Oregon (USA). Median microsomal EROD activities in embryos collected from San Francisco Bay (in both 1993 and 1994) and from Humboldt Bay (1994) were four- to eightfold higher than the reference site median. This degree of induction suggests that cormorant embryos in the two California locations were exposed to concentrations of dioxin-like compounds that are at the threshold for toxic effects in this species. Substantial variation in the EROD response in cultured hepatocytes was observed between individuals, populations, and the two bird species tested (cormorants and chickens [Gallus gallus]). Although most of the cormorant individuals displayed a consistent dose-response profile, a few individuals were uninducible, showing no appreciable increase over basal activity with increasing dose of inducer. Composite dose-response curves for two cormorant colonies appeared to be divergent in spite of small sample sizes, indicating that inducibility can also vary at the population level. These observations suggest that considerable variability in pollutant metabolism and sensitivity associated with single enzyme systems may exist within wild populations and species.

  9. Sources of Blood Meals of Sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, Assayed with qPCR and 12S Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, David E.; Ribera, Wilma; Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Plaza, Carlos; Gordon, Levi W.; Peña, Reynaldo; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Stevens, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methodology/Principal Findings We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). Conclusions/Significance We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors. PMID:25474154

  10. Chronic Zinc Deficiency Alters Chick Gut Microbiota Composition and Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Spenser; Neuman, Hadar; Moscovich, Sharon; Glahn, Raymond P.; Koren, Omry; Tako, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under conditions of Zn deficiency have yet to be studied. Using the broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) model, the aim of this study was to characterize distinct cecal microbiota shifts induced by chronic dietary Zn depletion. We demonstrate that Zn deficiency induces significant taxonomic alterations and decreases overall species richness and diversity, establishing a microbial profile resembling that of various other pathological states. Through metagenomic analysis, we show that predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways responsible for macro- and micronutrient uptake are significantly depleted under Zn deficiency; along with concomitant decreases in beneficial short chain fatty acids, such depletions may further preclude optimal host Zn availability. We also identify several candidate microbes that may play a significant role in modulating the bioavailability and utilization of dietary Zn during prolonged deficiency. Our results are the first to characterize a unique and dysbiotic cecal microbiota during Zn deficiency, and provide evidence for such microbial perturbations as potential effectors of the Zn deficient phenotype. PMID:26633470

  11. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  12. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  13. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Figueiredo, Rui; Mendes, Catarina; Card, Roderick M; Anjum, Muna F; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70%) and ampicillin (63%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A) (72%), blaTEM (68%), and sul1 (47%), while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9). Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss) virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN), 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh), and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA) virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection. PMID:27025519

  14. Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. Traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators’ own predators. However, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to simply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. Some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. In the peacock butterfly, Inachis io, eyespots are typically hidden during rest and suddenly exposed by the butterfly when disturbed. Previous experiments have shown that small wild passerines are intimidated by this display. Here, we test whether eyespots also intimidate a considerably larger bird, domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, by staging interactions between birds and peacock butterflies that were sham-painted or had their eyespots painted over. Our results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over. However, birds confronting butterflies with visible eyespots delayed their return to the butterfly, were more vigilant, and more likely to utter alarm calls associated with detection of ground-based predators, compared with birds confronting butterflies with eyespots painted over. Because production of alarm calls and increased vigilance are antipredation behaviors in the fowl, their reaction suggests that eyespots may elicit fear rather than just an aversion to conspicuous patterns. Our results, therefore, suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator. PMID:23243378

  15. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Nuno; Figueiredo, Rui; Mendes, Catarina; Card, Roderick M.; Anjum, Muna F.; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70%) and ampicillin (63%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A) (72%), blaTEM (68%), and sul1 (47%), while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9). Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss) virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN), 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh), and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA) virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection. PMID:27025519

  16. A landmark contribution to poultry science--a possible mode of action of sulfamethazine on the reproductive system of Leghorn cockerels.

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, W J

    2009-04-01

    The paper "The effect of sulfamethazine feeding on the thyroids, combs and testes of Single Comb White Leghorn cockerels" was published early in the career of Ari van Tienhoven when he was an assistant professor. The current manuscript pays tribute to that study submitted to the journal, Poultry Science, over 5 decades ago. In addition, the review examines the academic lineage of van Tienhoven to show that his line of descent produced several scientists who have contributed significantly to the success of the Poultry Science Association in the discipline of neuroendocrinology and avian physiology during most of its first 100 yr. In a quiet, unassuming manner, van Tienhoven has had a major effect on basic research addressing reproductive endocrinology in vertebrates, particularly in the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus. Biographical information, his academic pedigree, students produced, research areas pursued, and the landmark contribution selected for review are highlighted. A link to an electronic archive of a recorded interview with van Tienhoven in preparation for the symposium can be accessed using the link given in the first footnote. PMID:19276428

  17. Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David

    2006-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. PMID:16287170

  18. Chromosome Painting in Three Species of Buteoninae: A Cytogenetic Signature Reinforces the Monophyly of South American Species

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Tagliarini, Marcella Mergulhão; dos Santos, Michelly S.; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.

    2013-01-01

    Buteoninae (Falconiformes, Accipitridae) consist of the widely distributed genus Buteo, and several closely related species in a group called “sub-buteonine hawks”, such as Buteogallus, Parabuteo, Asturina, Leucopternis and Busarellus, with unsolved phylogenetic relationships. Diploid number ranges between 2n = 66 and 2n = 68. Only one species, L. albicollis had its karyotype analyzed by molecular cytogenetics. The aim of this study was to present chromosomal analysis of three species of Buteoninae: Rupornis magnirostris, Asturina nitida and Buteogallus meridionallis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with telomeric and rDNA probes, as well as whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. The three species analyzed herein showed similar karyotypes, with 2n = 68. Telomeric probes showed some interstitial telomeric sequences, which could be resulted by fusion processes occurred in the chromosomal evolution of the group, including the one found in the tassociation GGA1p/GGA6. In fact, this association was observed in all the three species analyzed in this paper, and also in L. albicollis, suggesting that it represents a cytogenetic signature which reinforces the monophyly of Neotropical buteoninae species. PMID:23922908

  19. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  20. Identification of the yellow skin gene reveals a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jonas; Larson, Greger; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Strömstedt, Lina; Wright, Dominic; Jungerius, Annemieke; Vereijken, Addie; Randi, Ettore; Jensen, Per; Andersson, Leif

    2008-02-01

    Yellow skin is an abundant phenotype among domestic chickens and is caused by a recessive allele (W*Y) that allows deposition of yellow carotenoids in the skin. Here we show that yellow skin is caused by one or more cis-acting and tissue-specific regulatory mutation(s) that inhibit expression of BCDO2 (beta-carotene dioxygenase 2) in skin. Our data imply that carotenoids are taken up from the circulation in both genotypes but are degraded by BCDO2 in skin from animals carrying the white skin allele (W*W). Surprisingly, our results demonstrate that yellow skin does not originate from the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), the presumed sole wild ancestor of the domestic chicken, but most likely from the closely related grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii). This is the first conclusive evidence for a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken, and it has important implications for our views of the domestication process. PMID:18454198

  1. Histopathological changes in the kidneys of vertebrate hosts infected naturally and experimentally with Paratanaisia bragai (Trematoda, Digenea).

    PubMed

    Xavier, Vanessa Barreto; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; Amato, Suzana Bencke; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Pinheiro, Jairo; Brandolini, Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia) naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus. PMID:26154968

  2. Feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in Chile.

    PubMed

    Chacón, F; Bacigalupo, A; Quiroga, J F; Ferreira, A; Cattan, P E; Ramírez-Toloza, G

    2016-10-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a chronic disease transmitted mainly by vectors. The hematophagous triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to a wide variety of mammals, which usually are their food source. This study determined the feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic triatomine vector, present in endemic areas of Chile. Vectors were captured in the north-central area of Chile. Samples of intestinal contents were analyzed by an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that identifies and discriminates the presence of serum antigens from Homo sapiens and nine animal species (Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Capra hircus, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Octodon degus, Thylamys elegans, Phyllotis darwini and Oryctolagus cuniculus). Our data indicate the most frequent feeding source in this area was P. darwini, followed by O. degus, O. cuniculus, M. musculus, G. gallus, T. elegans, C. familiaris, F. catus and C. hircus. Mixed food sources were also identified. PMID:27349188

  3. Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Ramírez, José Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction. PMID:17556540

  4. Relationships between range access as monitored by radio frequency identification technology, fearfulness, and plumage damage in free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Hickey, K A; Hemsworth, P H; Cronin, G M; Wilkinson, S J; Singh, M

    2016-05-01

    Severe feather-pecking (SFP), a particularly injurious behaviour in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is thought to be negatively correlated with range use in free-range systems. In turn, range use is thought to be inversely associated with fearfulness, where fearful birds may be less likely to venture outside. However, very few experiments have investigated the proposed association between range use and fearfulness. This experiment investigated associations between range use (time spent outside), fearfulness, plumage damage, and BW. Two pens of 50 ISA Brown laying hens (n=100) were fitted with radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders (contained within silicone leg rings) at 26 weeks of age. Data were then collected over 13 days. A total of 95% of birds accessed the outdoor run more than once per day. Birds spent an average duration of 6.1 h outside each day over 11 visits per bird per day (51.5 min per visit). The top 15 and bottom 15 range users (n=30), as determined by the total time spent on the range over 13 days, were selected for study. These birds were tonic immobility (TI) tested at the end of the trial and were feather-scored and weighed after TI testing. Birds with longer TI durations spent less time outside (P=0.01). Plumage damage was not associated with range use (P=0.68). The small group sizes used in this experiment may have been conducive to the high numbers of birds utilising the outdoor range area. The RFID technology collected a large amount of data on range access in the tagged birds, and provides a potential means for quantitatively assessing range access in laying hens. The present findings indicate a negative association between fearfulness and range use. However, the proposed negative association between plumage damage and range use was not supported. The relationships between range use, fearfulness, and SFP warrant further research. PMID:26593871

  5. Chicken domestication: an updated perspective based on mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Y-W; Peng, M-S; Wu, G-S; Ouyang, Y-N; Yang, Z-Y; Yu, N; Liang, J-P; Pianchou, G; Beja-Pereira, A; Mitra, B; Palanichamy, M G; Baig, M; Chaudhuri, T K; Shen, Y-Y; Kong, Q-P; Murphy, R W; Yao, Y-G; Zhang, Y-P

    2013-01-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fulfill various roles ranging from food and entertainment to religion and ornamentation. To survey its genetic diversity and trace the history of domestication, we investigated a total of 4938 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments including 2843 previously published and 2095 de novo units from 2044 domestic chickens and 51 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To obtain the highest possible level of molecular resolution, 50 representative samples were further selected for total mtDNA genome sequencing. A fine-gained mtDNA phylogeny was investigated by defining haplogroups A–I and W–Z. Common haplogroups A–G were shared by domestic chickens and red junglefowl. Rare haplogroups H–I and W–Z were specific to domestic chickens and red junglefowl, respectively. We re-evaluated the global mtDNA profiles of chickens. The geographic distribution for each of major haplogroups was examined. Our results revealed new complexities of history in chicken domestication because in the phylogeny lineages from the red junglefowl were mingled with those of the domestic chickens. Several local domestication events in South Asia, Southwest China and Southeast Asia were identified. The assessment of chicken mtDNA data also facilitated our understanding about the Austronesian settlement in the Pacific. PMID:23211792

  6. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulism toxin serotypes A, B E and F activity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng and chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  7. Chicken domestication: an updated perspective based on mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Y-W; Peng, M-S; Wu, G-S; Ouyang, Y-N; Yang, Z-Y; Yu, N; Liang, J-P; Pianchou, G; Beja-Pereira, A; Mitra, B; Palanichamy, M G; Baig, M; Chaudhuri, T K; Shen, Y-Y; Kong, Q-P; Murphy, R W; Yao, Y-G; Zhang, Y-P

    2013-03-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fulfill various roles ranging from food and entertainment to religion and ornamentation. To survey its genetic diversity and trace the history of domestication, we investigated a total of 4938 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments including 2843 previously published and 2095 de novo units from 2044 domestic chickens and 51 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To obtain the highest possible level of molecular resolution, 50 representative samples were further selected for total mtDNA genome sequencing. A fine-gained mtDNA phylogeny was investigated by defining haplogroups A-I and W-Z. Common haplogroups A-G were shared by domestic chickens and red junglefowl. Rare haplogroups H-I and W-Z were specific to domestic chickens and red junglefowl, respectively. We re-evaluated the global mtDNA profiles of chickens. The geographic distribution for each of major haplogroups was examined. Our results revealed new complexities of history in chicken domestication because in the phylogeny lineages from the red junglefowl were mingled with those of the domestic chickens. Several local domestication events in South Asia, Southwest China and Southeast Asia were identified. The assessment of chicken mtDNA data also facilitated our understanding about the Austronesian settlement in the Pacific. PMID:23211792

  8. Multiple maternal origins of chickens: out of the Asian jungles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ping; Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Miao, Yong-Wang; Luikart, Gordon; Baig, Mumtaz; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Ding, Zhao-Li; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Domestic chickens have long been important to human societies for food, religion, entertainment, and decorative uses, yet the origins and phylogeography of chickens through Eurasia remain uncertain. Here, we assessed their origins and phylogeographic history by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) for 834 domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Eurasia as well as 66 wild red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus) from Southeast Asia and China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed nine highly divergent mtDNA clades (A-I) in which seven clades contained both the red jungle fowls and domestic chickens. There was no breed-specific clade in the chickens. The clades A, B, and E are distributed ubiquitously in Eurasia, while the other clades were restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Clade C was mainly distributed in Japan and Southeast China, while clades F and G were exclusive to Yunnan, China. The geographic distribution of clade D was closely related to the distribution of the pastime of cock fighting. Statistical tests detect population expansion within each subclade. These distinct distribution patterns and expansion signatures suggest that different clades may originate from different regions, such as Yunnan, South and Southwest China and/or surrounding areas (i.e., Vietnam, Burma, and Thailand), and the Indian subcontinent, respectively, which support the theory of multiple origins in South and Southeast Asia. PMID:16275023

  9. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  10. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  11. GH and IGF-I induction by passive immunization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum using a somatostatin 14 antibody

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of the growth axis by somatostatin was studied in juvenile rainbow trout using passive immunization with a previously isolated somatostatin antibody (antiSS-14). Upon subcutaneously injection of laying hens (Gallus domesticus) with conjugated somatostatin-14 (SS-14), the antiSS-14 was iso...

  12. BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC COMPARISON OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM THE NORTHERN PARÁ STATE AND THE SOUTHERN STATE RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL REVEALED HIGHLY DIVERSE AND DISTINCT PARASITE POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grand...

  13. Agriculture in the U.S. Corn Belt: Past, Present, and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 50 years, agriculture in the U.S. Corn Belt has changed from diversified farms that included forage, grain, and livestock operations to larger management units that separated grain and animal production. Swine (Sus scrofa L.), chicken (Gallus Domesticus), turkey (Meleagris gallopava)...

  14. EFFECT OF AMBIENT LEVELS OF POWER-LINE-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS ON A DEVELOPING VERTEBRATE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fertilized eggs of Gallus domesticus were exposed continuously during their 21-day incubation period to either 50-Hz or 60-Hz sinusoidal electric fields at an average intensity of 10 Vrms/m. Within 1.5 days after hatching, the chickens were removed from the apparatus and tested. ...

  15. Growth enhancement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by passive immunisation against somatostatin-14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunised against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunised weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d) with chicken egg yolk derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 ...

  16. T. GONDII IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM GHANA, INDONESIA, ITALY, POLAND, AND VIETNAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam was determin...

  17. TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FORM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Perna...

  18. Molecular and biological characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from Guyana, South America identified several unique and common parasite genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 76 free-range chickens from Guyana, South America was determined. Antibodies t...

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of the phasianidae reveals possible non-pheasant taxa.

    PubMed

    Bush, K L; Strobeck, C

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 21 pheasant and 6 non-pheasant species were determined using nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis were used to try to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within Phasianidae. Both the degree of resolution and strength of support are improved over previous studies due to the testing of a number of species from multiple pheasant genera, but several major ambiguities persist. Polyplectron bicalcaratum (grey peacock pheasant) is shown not to be a pheasant. Alternatively, it appears ancestral to either the partridges or peafowl. Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha (koklass) and Gallus gallus (red jungle fowl) both emerge as non-pheasant genera. Monophyly of the pheasant group is challenged if Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha and Gallus gallus are considered to be pheasants. The placement of Catreus wallichii (cheer) within the pheasants also remains undetermined, as does the cause for the great sequence divergence in Chrysolophus pictus obscurus (black-throated golden). These results suggest that alterations in taxonomic classifications may be required for some pheasant species and genera. PMID:14691314

  20. BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM NICARAGUA, CENTRAL AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii w...

  1. Mutations in SLC45A2 cause plumage color variation in chicken and Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Hellström, Anders R; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Minvielle, Francis; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Ito, Shin'ichi; Jensen, Per; Rattink, Annemieke; Vereijken, Addie; Andersson, Leif

    2007-02-01

    S*S (Silver), S*N (wild type/gold), and S*AL (sex-linked imperfect albinism) form a series of alleles at the S (Silver) locus on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome Z. Similarly, sex-linked imperfect albinism (AL*A) is the bottom recessive allele at the orthologous AL locus in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The solute carrier family 45, member 2, protein (SLC45A2), previously denoted membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP), has an important role in vesicle sorting in the melanocytes. Here we report five SLC45A2 mutations. The 106delT mutation in the chicken S*AL allele results in a frameshift and a premature stop codon and the corresponding mRNA appears to be degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. A splice-site mutation in the Japanese quail AL*A allele causes in-frame skipping of exon 4. Two independent missense mutations (Tyr277Cys and Leu347Met) were associated with the Silver allele in chicken. The functional significance of the former mutation, associated only with Silver in White Leghorn, is unclear. Ala72Asp was associated with the cinnamon allele (AL*C) in the Japanese quail. The most interesting feature concerning the SLC45A2 variants documented in this study is the specific inhibition of expression of red pheomelanin in Silver chickens. This phenotypic effect cannot be explained on the basis of the current, incomplete, understanding of SLC45A2 function. It is an enigma why recessive null mutations at this locus cause an almost complete absence of both eumelanin and pheomelanin whereas some missense mutations are dominant and cause a specific inhibition of pheomelanin production. PMID:17151254

  2. Perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Saxena, A.R.; Route, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 archived great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs collected from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, IN, (Indiana Dunes) in 1993 were analyzed for 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, the major contributor to total PFC concentrations, were below the toxicity thresholds estimated for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). The ranking of PBDE congener concentrations by percent concentration (PBDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -153 > -154 > -28 > -183) was consistent with the Penta-PBDE formulation. Total PBDE concentrations in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes were elevated and probably reflect local contamination from highly urbanized and industrialized inputs into Lake Michigan. Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in other avian species and based on trends in other Great Lakes birds are probably higher today.

  3. Implicit mechanistic role of the collagen, smooth muscle, and elastic tissue components in strengthening the air and blood capillaries of the avian lung.

    PubMed

    Maina, John N; Jimoh, Sikiru A; Hosie, Margo

    2010-11-01

    To identify the forces that may exist in the parabronchus of the avian lung and that which may explain the reported strengths of the terminal respiratory units, the air capillaries and the blood capillaries, the arrangement of the parabronchial collagen fibers (CF) of the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus was investigated by discriminatory staining, selective alkali digestion, and vascular casting followed by alkali digestion. On the luminal circumference, the atrial and the infundibular CF are directly connected to the smooth muscle fibers and the elastic tissue fibers. The CF in this part of the parabronchus form the internal column (the axial scaffold), whereas the CF in the interparabronchial septa and those associated with the walls of the interparabronchial blood vessels form the external, i.e. the peripheral, parabronchial CF scaffold. Thin CF penetrate the exchange tissue directly from the interparabronchial septa and indirectly by accompanying the intraparabronchial blood vessels. Forming a dense network that supports the air and blood capillaries, the CF weave through the exchange tissue. The exchange tissue, specifically the air and blood capillaries, is effectively suspended between CF pillars by an intricate system of thin CF, elastic and smooth muscle fibers. The CF course through the basement membranes of the walls of the blood and air capillaries. Based on the architecture of the smooth muscle fibers, the CF, the elastic muscle fibers, and structures like the interparabronchial septa and their associated blood vessels, it is envisaged that dynamic tensional, resistive, and compressive forces exist in the parabronchus, forming a tensegrity (tension integrity) system that gives the lung rigidity while strengthening the air and blood capillaries. PMID:20819116

  4. A Scale-Corrected Comparison of Linkage Disequilibrium Levels between Genic and Non-Genic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Swetlana; Schlather, Martin; de los Campos, Gustavo; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Erbe, Malena; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of non-random association between loci, termed linkage disequilibrium (LD), plays a central role in genomic research. Since causal mutations are generally not included in genomic marker data, LD between those and available markers is essential for capturing the effects of causal loci on localizing genes responsible for traits. Thus, the interpretation of association studies requires a detailed knowledge of LD patterns. It is well known that most LD measures depend on minor allele frequencies (MAF) of the considered loci and the magnitude of LD is influenced by the physical distances between loci. In the present study, a procedure to compare the LD structure between genomic regions comprising several markers each is suggested. The approach accounts for different scaling factors, namely the distribution of MAF, the distribution of pair-wise differences in MAF, and the physical extent of compared regions, reflected by the distribution of pair-wise physical distances. In the first step, genomic regions are matched based on similarity in these scaling factors. In the second step, chromosome- and genome-wide significance tests for differences in medians of LD measures in each pair are performed. The proposed framework was applied to test the hypothesis that the average LD is different in genic and non-genic regions. This was tested with a genome-wide approach with data sets for humans (Homo sapiens), a highly selected chicken line (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In all three data sets we found a significantly higher level of LD in genic regions compared to non-genic regions. About 31% more LD was detected genome-wide in genic compared to non-genic regions in Arabidopsis thaliana, followed by 13.6% in human and 6% chicken. Chromosome-wide comparison discovered significant differences on all 5 chromosomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and on one third of the human and of the chicken chromosomes. PMID:26517830

  5. Prevalent presence of periodic actin–spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A.; Kurshan, Peri T.; Farley, Jonathan E.; Simon, David J.; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R.; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. PMID:27162329

  6. Implicit mechanistic role of the collagen, smooth muscle, and elastic tissue components in strengthening the air and blood capillaries of the avian lung

    PubMed Central

    Maina, John N; Jimoh, Sikiru A; Hosie, Margo

    2010-01-01

    To identify the forces that may exist in the parabronchus of the avian lung and that which may explain the reported strengths of the terminal respiratory units, the air capillaries and the blood capillaries, the arrangement of the parabronchial collagen fibers (CF) of the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus was investigated by discriminatory staining, selective alkali digestion, and vascular casting followed by alkali digestion. On the luminal circumference, the atrial and the infundibular CF are directly connected to the smooth muscle fibers and the elastic tissue fibers. The CF in this part of the parabronchus form the internal column (the axial scaffold), whereas the CF in the interparabronchial septa and those associated with the walls of the interparabronchial blood vessels form the external, i.e. the peripheral, parabronchial CF scaffold. Thin CF penetrate the exchange tissue directly from the interparabronchial septa and indirectly by accompanying the intraparabronchial blood vessels. Forming a dense network that supports the air and blood capillaries, the CF weave through the exchange tissue. The exchange tissue, specifically the air and blood capillaries, is effectively suspended between CF pillars by an intricate system of thin CF, elastic and smooth muscle fibers. The CF course through the basement membranes of the walls of the blood and air capillaries. Based on the architecture of the smooth muscle fibers, the CF, the elastic muscle fibers, and structures like the interparabronchial septa and their associated blood vessels, it is envisaged that dynamic tensional, resistive, and compressive forces exist in the parabronchus, forming a tensegrity (tension integrity) system that gives the lung rigidity while strengthening the air and blood capillaries. PMID:20819116

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietins during hen ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwon; Lee, Jeeyoung; Johnson, A L

    2016-06-01

    Growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in the hen (Gallus gallus) requires a network of blood vessels that increases in complexity during development. The present studies investigate expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), angiopoietin1 (ANGPT1) and ANGPT2 mRNAs together with their associated receptors (VEGFR and TIE2, respectively) during maturation. Elevated expression of VEGF and its receptors is associated with healthy, compared to atretic, follicles. Levels of VEGF significantly increase, while antagonistic ANGPT2 decrease, in granulosa cells (GC) at follicle selection. By comparison, levels of VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, ANGPT1, ANGPT2 and TIE2 within the theca layer do not change (P>0.05) relative to developmental stages surrounding follicle selection (6-8mm versus 9-12mm follicles). Prior to selection, treatment with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) significantly increases levels of VEGF in undifferentiated GC from prehierarchal (6-8mm) follicles and actively differentiating GC from selected (9-12 and F4) follicles. Moreover, subsequent to selection follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increases VEGF expression in GC from 9 to 12mm follicles, and eventually luteinizing hormone (LH) promotes VEGF expression in GC from more mature preovulatory follicles. It is concluded that prior to follicle selection VEGF expression is regulated by autocrine and paracrine actions of TGFβ1 (but not FSH), and that a comparatively limited extent of vasculature is sufficient to maintain prehierarchal follicles in a viable and undifferentiated state. At follicle selection, FSH- and subsequently LH-induced VEGF production within the GC layer enhance angiogenesis within the theca layer, which facilitates the rapid growth of preovulatory follicles via enhanced incorporation of yellow yolk. PMID:26996428

  8. Prevalent presence of periodic actin-spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A; Kurshan, Peri T; Farley, Jonathan E; Simon, David J; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-24

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. PMID:27162329

  9. Mixed ancestry and admixture in Kauai's feral chickens: invasion of domestic genes into ancient Red Junglefowl reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gering, E; Johnsson, M; Willis, P; Getty, T; Wright, D

    2015-05-01

    A major goal of invasion genetics is to determine how establishment histories shape non-native organisms' genotypes and phenotypes. While domesticated species commonly escape cultivation to invade feral habitats, few studies have examined how this process shapes feral gene pools and traits. We collected genomic and phenotypic data from feral chickens (Gallus gallus) on the Hawaiian island of Kauai to (i) ascertain their origins and (ii) measure standing variation in feral genomes, morphology and behaviour. Mitochondrial phylogenies (D-loop & whole Mt genome) revealed two divergent clades within our samples. The rare clade also contains sequences from Red Junglefowl (the domestic chicken's progenitor) and ancient DNA sequences from Kauai that predate European contact. This lineage appears to have been dispersed into the east Pacific by ancient Polynesian colonists. The more prevalent MtDNA clade occurs worldwide and includes domesticated breeds developed recently in Europe that are farmed within Hawaii. We hypothesize this lineage originates from recently feralized livestock and found supporting evidence for increased G. gallus density on Kauai within the last few decades. SNPs obtained from whole-genome sequencing were consistent with historic admixture between Kauai's divergent (G. gallus) lineages. Additionally, analyses of plumage, skin colour and vocalizations revealed that Kauai birds' behaviours and morphologies overlap with those of domestic chickens and Red Junglefowl, suggesting hybrid origins. Together, our data support the hypotheses that (i) Kauai's feral G. gallus descend from recent invasion(s) of domestic chickens into an ancient Red Junglefowl reservoir and (ii) feral chickens exhibit greater phenotypic diversity than candidate source populations. These findings complicate management objectives for Pacific feral chickens, while highlighting the potential of this and other feral systems for evolutionary studies of invasions. PMID:25655399

  10. Integrating transcriptome and genome re-sequencing data to identify key genes and mutations affecting chicken eggshell qualities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Long; Zheng, Chuan Wei; Wang, De He; Hou, Zhuo Cheng; Ning, Zhong Hua

    2015-01-01

    Eggshell damages lead to economic losses in the egg production industry and are a threat to human health. We examined 49-wk-old Rhode Island White hens (Gallus gallus) that laid eggs having shells with significantly different strengths and thicknesses. We used HiSeq 2000 (Illumina) sequencing to characterize the chicken transcriptome and whole genome to identify the key genes and genetic mutations associated with eggshell calcification. We identified a total of 14,234 genes expressed in the chicken uterus, representing 89% of all annotated chicken genes. A total of 889 differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing low eggshell strength (LES) and normal eggshell strength (NES) genomes. The DEGs are enriched in calcification-related processes, including calcium ion transport and calcium signaling pathways as revealed by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Some important matrix proteins, such as OC-116, LTF and SPP1, were also expressed differentially between two groups. A total of 3,671,919 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 508,035 Indels were detected in protein coding genes by whole-genome re-sequencing, including 1775 non-synonymous variations and 19 frame-shift Indels in DEGs. SNPs and Indels found in this study could be further investigated for eggshell traits. This is the first report to integrate the transcriptome and genome re-sequencing to target the genetic variations which decreased the eggshell qualities. These findings further advance our understanding of eggshell calcification in the chicken uterus. PMID:25974068

  11. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis. PMID:22151413

  12. Conservation of a vitellogenin gene cluster in oviparous vertebrates and identification of its traces in the platypus genome.

    PubMed

    Babin, Patrick J

    2008-04-30

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) derivatives are the main egg-yolk proteins in most oviparous animal species, and are, therefore, key players in reproduction and embryo development. Conserved synteny and phylogeny were used to identify a Vtg gene cluster (VGC) that had been evolutionarily conserved in most oviparous vertebrates, encompassing the three linked Vtgs on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 8. Tandem arranged homologs to chicken VtgII and VtgIII were retrieved in similar locations in Xenopus (Xenopus tropicalis) and homologous transcribed inverted genes were found in medaka (Oryzias latipes), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes), and Tetrahodon (Tetraodon nigroviridis), while zebrafish (Danio rerio) Vtg3 may represent a residual trace of VGC in this genome. Vtgs were not conserved in the paralogous chromosomal segment attributed to a whole-genome duplication event in the ancestor of teleosts, while tandem duplicated forms have survived the recent African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) tetraploidization. Orthologs to chicken VtgI were found in similar locations in teleost fish, as well as in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Additional Vtg fragments found suggested that VGC had been conserved in this egg-laying mammal. A low ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution values and the paucity of pseudogene features suggest functional platypus Vtg products. Genomic identification of Vtgs, Apob, and Mtp in this genome, together with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses, support the existence of these three large lipid transfer protein superfamily members at the base of the mammalian lineage. In conclusion, the establishment of a VGC in the vertebrate lineage predates the divergence of ray-finned fish and tetrapods and the shift in reproductive and developmental strategy observed between prototherians and therians may be associated with its loss, as shown by its absence from the genomic resources currently

  13. Negative Selection of Self-Reactive Chicken B Cells Requires B Cell Receptor Signaling and Is Independent of the Bursal Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Davani, Dariush; Pancer, Zeev; Cheroutre, Hilde; Ratcliffe, Michael J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative selection of self-reactive B cells in the bone marrow of mammals has been clearly demonstrated, it remains unclear in models of gut-associated B cell lymphopoiesis, such as that of the chicken (Gallus gallus). We have generated chicken surface IgM–related receptors in which the diversity region of the lamprey variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) has been fused to the C region of chicken surface IgM (Tμ). Expression of a VLR:Tμ receptor with specificity for PE supported normal development of B cells, whereas a VLR:Tμ receptor specific to hen egg lysozyme (a self-antigen with respect to chicken B cells) induced, in vivo, complete deletion of VLRHELTμ-expressing B cells. In ovo i.v. injection of PE resulted in deletion of VLRPETμ-expressing Β cells in the embryo spleen, demonstrating that negative selection was independent of the bursal microenvironment. Although chickens transduced with a murine CD8α:chicken Igα fusion protein contained B cells expressing mCD8α:chIgα, cotransfection of the mCD8α:chIgα construct, together with thymus leukemia Ag (a natural ligand for mCD8α), resulted in reduced levels of mCD8α:chIgα-expressing B cells in inverse proportion to the levels of thymus leukemia Ag–expressing cells. Deletion of mCD8a: chIga-expressing cells was specific for B cells and required active signaling downstream of the mCD8α:chIgα receptor. Ag-mediated negative selection of developing chicken B cells can therefore occur independently of the bursal microenvironment and is dependent on signaling downstream of the BCR. PMID:24516196

  14. Identification and comparative proteomic study of quail and duck egg white protein using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Zhao, Hongyan; Gao, Dan; Song, Rui; Ma, Meihu

    2016-01-01

    A proteomic study of egg white proteins from 2 major poultry species, namely quail (Coturnix coturnix) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos), was performed with comparison to those of chicken (Gallus gallus) through 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), 29 protein spots representing 10 different kinds of proteins as well as 17 protein spots designating 9 proteins were successfully identified in quail and duck egg white, respectively. This report suggested a closer relationship between quail and chicken egg white proteome patterns, whereas the duck egg white protein distribution on the 2-DE map was more distinct. In duck egg white, some well-known major proteins, such as ovomucoid, clusterin, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor (ex-FABP), and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PG D2 synthase), were not detected, while two major protein spots identified as “deleted in malignant brain tumors 1” protein (DMBT1) and vitellogenin-2 were found specific to duck in the corresponding range on the 2-DE gel map. These interspecies diversities may be associated with the egg white protein functions in cell defense or regulating/supporting the embryonic development to adapt to the inhabiting environment or reproduction demand during long-term evolution. The findings of this work will give insight into the advantages involved in the application on egg white proteins from various egg sources, which may present novel beneficial properties in the food industry or related to human health. PMID:26957635

  15. [Interpretation of the epizootic outbreak among wild and domestic birds in the south of the European part of Russia in December 2007].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Prilipov, A G; Deriabin, P G; Fediakina, I T; Galkina, I V; Kireev, D E; Frolov, A V; Akanina, D S; Usacheva, O V; Shliapnikova, O V; Poglazov, A B; Morozova, T N; Proshina, E S; Grebennikova, T V; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Iakovlev, S S; Shcherbakova, L O; Shapovalov, A B; Zhalin, M V; Rudenko, V P; Pichuev, A E; Litvin, K N; Varkentin, A V; Steshenko, V V; Kharitonov, S P; Proshina, E S; Samokhvalov, E I; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Aliper, T I; Martynovchenko, V V; Lysenko, S N; Vlasov, N A; Nepoklonov, E A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of interpreting the epizootic outbreak etiologically associated with high-virulent influenza virus A/H5N1 among domestic and wild birds in the Zernogradsky and Tselinsky districts of the Rostov Region. Epizooty was characterized by a high infection rate in the synanthropic birds of a ground-based complex. RT-PCT revealed influenza virus A/H5 in 60% of pigeons and crows and in around 20% of starlings, and in 10% of tree sparrows. Fifteen viral strains from chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), Indian ducks (Cairina moschata), rooks (Corvus frugilegus), rock pigeons (Columba livia), tree sparrows (Passer montanus), common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and great white herons (Egretta alba) were isolated and deposited in the State Collection of Viruses of the Russian Federation. Full-sized genomes of 5 strains were sequenced and deposited in the international database GenBank. The isolated strains belong to the Quinhai-Siberian (2.2) genotype, an Iranian-Northern Caucasian subgroup, they are phylogenetically closest to the strain A/chicken/Moscow/2/2007 (inducing epizooty among poultry in the near-Moscow Region in February 2007) and have 13 unique amino acid replacements as the consensus of the Quinhai-Siberian genotypes in the proteins PB2, PA, HA, NP, NA, and M2, by preserving thereby 4 unique replacements first describes for the strain A/chicken/Moscow/2/2007. The findings are indicative of a different mechanism that is responsible for bringing the virus into the northeastern part of the Azov Sea area in September 2007 (during the fall migration of wild birds) and in December 2007 in the south-western Rostov Region where a human factor cannot be excluded. Mass infection of synanthropic birds endangers the further spread of epizooty, including that in the central regions of the Russian Federation in spring after near migrants return after wintering. PMID:18756811

  16. Effects of methylmercury on epigenetic markers in three model species: mink, chicken and yellow perch

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Nam, Dong-Ha; Pilsner, J. Richard; Carvan, Michael J; Chan, Hing Man; Goetz, Frederick W; Murphy, Cheryl A; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Scheuhammer, Anton M

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is associated with DNA hypomethylation in the brain stem of male polar bears. Here, we conveniently use archived tissues obtained from controlled laboratory exposure studies to look for evidence that MeHg can disrupt DNA methylation across taxa. Brain (cerebrum) tissues from MeHg-exposed mink (Neovison vison), chicken (Gallus gallus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were analyzed for total Hg levels and global DNA methylation. Tissues from chicken and mink, but not perch, were also analyzed for DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. In mink we observed significant reductions in global DNA methylation in an environmentally-relevant dietary exposure group (1ppm MeHg), but not in a higher group (2ppm MeHg). DNMT activity was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. In chicken or yellow perch, no statistically significant effects of MeHg were observed. Dose-dependent trends were observed in the chicken data but the direction of the change was not consistent between the two endpoints. Our results suggest that MeHg can be epigenetically active in that it has the capacity to affect DNA methylation in mammals. The variability in results across species may suggest inter-taxa differences in epigenetic responses to MeHg, or may be related to differences among the exposure scenarios used as animals were exposed to MeHg through different routes (dietary, egg injection), for different periods of time (19 – 89 days) and at different life stages (embryonic, juvenile, adult). PMID:23481557

  17. Identification and comparative proteomic study of quail and duck egg white protein using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Qiu, N; Liu, Y; Zhao, H; Gao, D; Song, R; Ma, M

    2016-05-01

    A proteomic study of egg white proteins from 2 major poultry species, namely quail (Coturnix coturnix) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos), was performed with comparison to those of chicken (Gallus gallus) through 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), 29 protein spots representing 10 different kinds of proteins as well as 17 protein spots designating 9 proteins were successfully identified in quail and duck egg white, respectively. This report suggested a closer relationship between quail and chicken egg white proteome patterns, whereas the duck egg white protein distribution on the 2-DE map was more distinct. In duck egg white, some well-known major proteins, such as ovomucoid, clusterin, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor (ex-FABP), and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PG D2 synthase), were not detected, while two major protein spots identified as "deleted in malignant brain tumors 1" protein (DMBT1) and vitellogenin-2 were found specific to duck in the corresponding range on the 2-DE gel map. These interspecies diversities may be associated with the egg white protein functions in cell defense or regulating/supporting the embryonic development to adapt to the inhabiting environment or reproduction demand during long-term evolution. The findings of this work will give insight into the advantages involved in the application on egg white proteins from various egg sources, which may present novel beneficial properties in the food industry or related to human health. PMID:26957635

  18. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-04-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB 126 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 to 23 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate 50% lethal dose (LD50) for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1,000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low-level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster`s terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  19. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Thomas J.; Kent, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured. Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2) to day 65 (wk 10). Peck rate at crumb food reached maximum levels at day 32 (wk 5), and then declined, fitting a quadratic model, with no sex, sex of cagemate, or box order effects. Within bouts the peck rate was higher and it increased to day 41 (wk 6) and then declined, and here males pecked faster than females. A change in dietary protein concentration from 22% to 18% at day 28 (wk 4) had no effect on subsequent peck rate. Pecking at and consumption of a mealworm in pair housed chicks were measured weekly from wks [5 to 12]. The latency to first worm peck and latency to swallow decreased to wk 8 and increased thereafter. The peck rate to first wormpeck and number of pecks to swallow increased to wk 8 and then declined paralleling the changes with crumb food. The increase in peck rate is coupled with an increase in efficiency in worm catching. The results are consistent with the view that the improvement in pecking ability and accuracy compliments change in nutritional requirement best served by an invertebrate food (IF) source requiring speed to achieve feeding success, especially with live prey. When this food source is no longer crucial these associated skill levels decline. An appreciation of the role of domestic fowl in controlling insect populations, at farm level, that are often vectors in disease spread is lacking. PMID:25374777

  20. Mate choice by female red junglefowl: the issues of multiple ornaments and fluctuating asymmetry

    PubMed

    Ligon; Kimball; Merola-zwartjes

    1998-01-01

    The significance of multiple ornaments of male birds and other animals is currently not well understood. Male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, possess a number of morphological traits that appear to be ornamental in nature. These traits include components of the colourful plumage and fleshy structures on the face and head, the single, medially-located comb, paired wattles and ear lappets. Some studies have implicated the comb in the mate choice decisions of female junglefowl, and some have also indicated that plumage of males is not important in this regard. To test for a possible role of other male morphological ornaments in female mate choice, and to evaluate the earlier counterintuitive findings concerning male plumage, we controlled comb size, and experimentally manipulated plumage, wattles and ear lappets of male red junglefowl. We also tested responses of female junglefowl to asymmetry of bilaterally paired male ornaments by manipulating the symmetry of the paired wattles, ear lappets and the ornate hackle feathers of the neck. None of these manipulations provided evidence that female red junglefowl are sensitive to asymmetry of paired ornaments of males. A series of tests involving a male with pronounced body asymmetry likewise produced negative results. In contrast to some other studies on birds, we obtained no evidence that female red junglefowl use symmetry of either ornamental or non-ornamental traits in mate choice decisions. Comb size, the only male trait shown to be used by females, both in the present study and in some earlier ones, did not correlate significantly with natural asymmetry in any of several measured traits. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480670

  1. Integrating Transcriptome and Genome Re-Sequencing Data to Identify Key Genes and Mutations Affecting Chicken Eggshell Qualities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Zheng, Chuan Wei; Wang, De He; Hou, Zhuo Cheng; Ning, Zhong Hua

    2015-01-01

    Eggshell damages lead to economic losses in the egg production industry and are a threat to human health. We examined 49-wk-old Rhode Island White hens (Gallus gallus) that laid eggs having shells with significantly different strengths and thicknesses. We used HiSeq 2000 (Illumina) sequencing to characterize the chicken transcriptome and whole genome to identify the key genes and genetic mutations associated with eggshell calcification. We identified a total of 14,234 genes expressed in the chicken uterus, representing 89% of all annotated chicken genes. A total of 889 differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing low eggshell strength (LES) and normal eggshell strength (NES) genomes. The DEGs are enriched in calcification-related processes, including calcium ion transport and calcium signaling pathways as reveled by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Some important matrix proteins, such as OC-116, LTF and SPP1, were also expressed differentially between two groups. A total of 3,671,919 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 508,035 Indels were detected in protein coding genes by whole-genome re-sequencing, including 1775 non-synonymous variations and 19 frame-shift Indels in DEGs. SNPs and Indels found in this study could be further investigated for eggshell traits. This is the first report to integrate the transcriptome and genome re-sequencing to target the genetic variations which decreased the eggshell qualities. These findings further advance our understanding of eggshell calcification in the chicken uterus. PMID:25974068

  2. Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Timothy A; Llagostera, Esther; Barna, Maria

    2013-05-30

    The ability of signalling proteins to traverse tissues containing tightly packed cells is of fundamental importance for cell specification and tissue development; however, how this is achieved at a cellular level remains poorly understood. For more than a century, the vertebrate limb bud has served as a model for studying cell signalling during embryonic development. Here we optimize single-cell real-time imaging to delineate the cellular mechanisms for how signalling proteins, such as sonic hedgehog (SHH), that possess membrane-bound covalent lipid modifications traverse long distances within the vertebrate limb bud in vivo. By directly imaging SHH ligand production under native regulatory control in chick (Gallus gallus) embryos, our findings show that SHH is unexpectedly produced in the form of a particle that remains associated with the cell via long cytoplasmic extensions that span several cell diameters. We show that these cellular extensions are a specialized class of actin-based filopodia with novel cytoskeletal features that have not been previously described. Notably, particles containing SHH travel along these extensions with a net anterograde movement within the field of SHH cell signalling. We further show that in SHH-responding cells, specific subsets of SHH co-receptors, including cell adhesion molecule downregulated by oncogenes (CDO) and brother of CDO (BOC), actively distribute and co-localize in specific micro-domains within filopodial extensions, far from the cell body. Stabilized interactions are formed between filopodia containing SHH ligand and those containing co-receptors over a long range. These results suggest that contact-mediated release propagated by specialized filopodia contributes to the delivery of SHH at a distance. Together, these studies identify an important mode of communication between cells that considerably extends our understanding of ligand movement and reception during vertebrate tissue patterning. PMID:23624372

  3. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kenneth J; Hayden, Thomas J; Kent, John P

    2014-01-01

    Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured. Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2) to day 65 (wk 10). Peck rate at crumb food reached maximum levels at day 32 (wk 5), and then declined, fitting a quadratic model, with no sex, sex of cagemate, or box order effects. Within bouts the peck rate was higher and it increased to day 41 (wk 6) and then declined, and here males pecked faster than females. A change in dietary protein concentration from 22% to 18% at day 28 (wk 4) had no effect on subsequent peck rate. Pecking at and consumption of a mealworm in pair housed chicks were measured weekly from wks [5 to 12]. The latency to first worm peck and latency to swallow decreased to wk 8 and increased thereafter. The peck rate to first wormpeck and number of pecks to swallow increased to wk 8 and then declined paralleling the changes with crumb food. The increase in peck rate is coupled with an increase in efficiency in worm catching. The results are consistent with the view that the improvement in pecking ability and accuracy compliments change in nutritional requirement best served by an invertebrate food (IF) source requiring speed to achieve feeding success, especially with live prey. When this food source is no longer crucial these associated skill levels decline. An appreciation of the role of domestic fowl in controlling insect populations, at farm level, that are often vectors in disease spread is lacking. PMID:25374777

  4. The development of chlorophyll-based markers in poultry diets to aid detection of fluorescent fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R F; Leemans, D; Theobald, V J; Fleming, H R; Gay, A P

    2013-12-01

    Incidents of foodborne illness associated with consuming undercooked or raw chicken are often linked to 2 causative pathogens: Campylobacter spp. or Salmonella spp. Numerous studies have shown that contamination of carcasses results when pathogens are transferred from the intestinal tract or fecal material on feet and feathers to the dressed carcass. Ultraviolet spectral imaging to detect surface fecal and ingesta contamination on poultry carcasses may provide a solution to aid detection. However, poultry diets do not provide sufficiently high levels of natural fluorophores for this system to be reliable. This study investigated the potential of chlorophyll-based feed additives to improve fluorescence of the feces and narrow the excitation and emission wavelengths to aid in the development of a simple visualization system. Twenty-four hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were allocated at random to 1 of 4 treatments: control (C, no marker), Zn chlorophyllin, Mg chlorophyllin, or Fe chlorophyllin. All markers were incorporated into mash before pelleting at a rate of 1 g/kg of DM. The experiment consisted of two 4 × 4 Latin squares with each period consisting of 2 wk. Feces were collected and extracted in acetone:water (50:50; vol/vol) with fecal fluorescence emission spectra determined using a Jasco FP-6200 Spectrofluorometer with excitation at 382 nm. A main peak evolved at wavelength 670 nm with the total area under the peak used as fluorescence intensity. Following 7 d of marker supplementation, the 3 markers improved the fluorescence intensity by ×14.8, 12.8, and 6.9 for Fe, Mg, and Zn chlorophyllin, respectively, compared with the control. The addition of feces containing Mg chlorophyllin to chicken carcass increased detection of the feces compared with feces with no marker. Also, due to the plain background of chicken skin, a simple image at 675 nm with appropriate thresholds would allow detection of contaminated carcasses at the current slaughter line speed

  5. EpimiR: a database of curated mutual regulation between miRNAs and epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Dai, Enyu; Yu, Xuexin; Zhang, Yan; Meng, Fanlin; Wang, Shuyuan; Liu, Xinyi; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Jing; Li, Xia; Jiang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    As two kinds of important gene expression regulators, both epigenetic modification and microRNA (miRNA) can play significant roles in a wide range of human diseases. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that epigenetics and miRNA can affect each other in various ways. In this study, we established the EpimiR database, which collects 1974 regulations between 19 kinds of epigenetic modifications (such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, H3K4me3, H3S10p) and 617 miRNAs across seven species (including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus, Epstein-Barr virus, Canis familiaris and Arabidopsis thaliana) from >300 references in the literature. These regulations can be divided into two parts: miR2Epi (103 entries describing how miRNA regulates epigenetic modification) and Epi2miR (1871 entries describing how epigenetic modification affects miRNA). Each entry of EpimiR not only contains basic descriptions of the validated experiment (method, species, reference and so on) but also clearly illuminates the regulatory pathway between epigenetics and miRNA. As a supplement to the curated information, the EpimiR extends to gather predicted epigenetic features (such as predicted transcription start site, upstream CpG island) associated with miRNA for users to guide their future biological experiments. Finally, EpimiR offers download and submission pages. Thus, EpimiR provides a fairly comprehensive repository about the mutual regulation between epigenetic modifications and miRNAs, which will promote the research on the regulatory mechanism of epigenetics and miRNA. Database URL: http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/EpimiR/. PMID:24682734

  6. A Pseudo MS3 Approach for Identification of Disulfide-Bonded Proteins: Uncommon Product Ions and Database Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Shiyanov, Pavel; Schlager, John J.; Green, Kari B.

    2012-02-01

    It has previously been reported that disulfide and backbone bonds of native intact proteins can be concurrently cleaved using electrospray ionization (ESI) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). However, the cleavages of disulfide bonds result in different cysteine modifications in product ions, making it difficult to identify the disulfide-bonded proteins via database search. To solve this identification problem, we have developed a pseudo MS3 approach by combining nozzle-skimmer dissociation (NSD) and CID on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer using chicken lysozyme as a model. Although many of the product ions were similar to those typically seen in MS/MS spectra of enzymatically derived peptides, additional uncommon product ions were detected including ci-1 ions (the ith residue being aspartic acid, arginine, lysine and dehydroalanine) as well as those from a scrambled sequence. The formation of these uncommon types of product ions, likely caused by the lack of mobile protons, were proposed to involve bond rearrangements via a six-membered ring transition state and/or salt bridge(s). A search of 20 pseudo MS3 spectra against the Gallus gallus (chicken) database using Batch-Tag, a program originally designed for bottom up MS/MS analysis, identified chicken lysozyme as the only hit with the expectation values less than 0.02 for 12 of the spectra. The pseudo MS3 approach may help to identify disulfide-bonded proteins and determine the associated post-translational modifications (PTMs); the confidence in the identification may be improved by incorporating the fragmentation characteristics into currently available search programs.

  7. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Cássia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgínia Léo; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234

  8. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  9. Endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) is responsible for the tyrosinase-independent recessive white (mo(w) ) and mottled (mo) plumage phenotypes in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Keiji; Akiyama, Toyoko; Mizutani, Makoto; Shinomiya, Ai; Ishikawa, Akira; Younis, Hassan Hassan; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Namikawa, Takao; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo), which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mo(w) for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mo(w) /mo(w) chicken and the panda (s/s) mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) gene, showed a mo(w)/mo(w) chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2) in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo) plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3)-EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration. PMID:24466053

  10. Identification of uterine ion transporters for mineralisation precursors of the avian eggshell

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Gallus gallus, eggshell formation takes place daily in the hen uterus and requires large amounts of the ionic precursors for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Both elements (Ca2+, HCO3-) are supplied by the blood via trans-epithelial transport. Our aims were to identify genes coding for ion transporters that are upregulated in the uterine portion of the oviduct during eggshell calcification, compared to other tissues and other physiological states, and incorporate these proteins into a general model for mineral transfer across the tubular gland cells during eggshell formation. Results A total of 37 candidate ion transport genes were selected from our database of overexpressed uterine genes associated with eggshell calcification, and by analogy with mammalian transporters. Their uterine expression was compared by qRTPCR in the presence and absence of eggshell formation, and with relative expression levels in magnum (low Ca2+/HCO3- movement) and duodenum (high rates of Ca2+/HCO3- trans-epithelial transfer). We identified overexpression of eleven genes related to calcium movement: the TRPV6 Ca2+ channel (basolateral uptake of Ca2+), 28 kDa calbindin (intracellular Ca2+ buffering), the endoplasmic reticulum type 2 and 3 Ca2+ pumps (ER uptake), and the inositol trisphosphate receptors type 1, 2 and 3 (ER release). Ca2+ movement across the apical membrane likely involves membrane Ca2+ pumps and Ca2+/Na+ exchangers. Our data suggests that Na+ transport involved the SCNN1 channel and the Na+/Ca2+ exchangers SLC8A1, 3 for cell uptake, the Na+/K+ ATPase for cell output. K+ uptake resulted from the Na+/K+ ATPase, and its output from the K+ channels (KCNJ2, 15, 16 and KCNMA1). We propose that the HCO3- is mainly produced from CO2 by the carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) and that HCO3- is secreted through the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger SLC26A9. HCO3- synthesis and precipitation with Ca2+ produce two H+. Protons are absorbed via the membrane’s Ca2+ pumps ATP2B1, 2 in the apical

  11. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    particular concerns. Inside vehicles, in fact, the smoke of one single cigarette causes concentrations of fine particulate matter three times higher than what is considered the threshold of hazard. According to surveys conducted by DOXA (an Italian statistical and opinion research company) in 2011-2012, two thirds of Italian smokers smoked in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. Despite this, 80% of Italian adults (and 49% of current smokers) supported a smoking ban in private cars, and 93% (and 84% of current smokers) supported such a ban in cars carrying children [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. We therefore welcome the incoming Minister's Decree banning tobacco smoking in private vehicles in presence of minors or pregnant women. The risk associated to SHS exposure is still largely underestimated. To give an idea of its harmful effect, we recommend viewing a video realised by colleagues at the National Cancer Institute of Milan, showing how the indoor air pollution generated by one single cigarette is 4 to 6 times higher than that produced by a diesel truck [Ruprecht et al., 2015]. There is a need to further inform the (Italian) population, including in particular smokers with young children, about the harmful effects of SHS, in order to increase the number of smoke-free homes and cars. In this sense, paediatricians or paediatric dentists have today the opportunity to give a major help. Their contribution can imply a minimum effort, e.g., providing informative leaflets, or making available, in the waiting rooms of their clinics, monitors showing informative videos, including the one previously described [Ruprecht et al., 2015]. PMID:26637246

  12. Development and validation of fast duplex real-time PCR assays based on SYBER Green florescence for detection of bovine and poultry origins in feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Muhammad; Junejo, Yasmeen

    2015-04-15

    SYBR duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (SDRT-PCR) with melting curve analysis was developed that can unite the reward of multiplex PCR with real-time PCR to recognize animal genes rapidly in feedstuffs. The method merges the use of bovine (Bos taurus) and poultry (Gallus gallus) specific primers that amplify small fragments (amplicons <200 base pairs) of the mitochondrial gene. Appropriate mixtures of bovine and poultry heat treated meat DNAs were used to develop the assay. Gene products of bovine and poultry were produced two distinct melting peaks simultaneously at 79.5 °C and 87.5 °C, respectively. Multiplex analysis of the reference feed samples showed that the detection limit of the assay was 0.001% for bovine and poultry species. Based upon the assay results it has been concluded that SDRT-PCR assay might be an efficient tool for the verification of species origin in feedstuffs. PMID:25466073

  13. Ability of experimentally infected chickens to infect ticks with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Piesman, J; Dolan, M C; Schriefer, M E; Burkot, T R

    1996-03-01

    Chickens were used as a laboratory model to determine the conditions affecting the ability of birds to infect ticks with Lyme disease spirochetes. Chicks (Gallus gallus) were exposed to 12 nymphal Ixodes scapularis at one week or three weeks of age. Xenodiagnostic larval ticks fed these birds at weekly intervals thereafter. Chicks exposed to infected nymphs at one week of age infected 87% of larvae at three weeks of age, but only infected 3% of larvae at four weeks and 0% of larvae at five weeks. Chicks exposed to nymphs at three weeks of age infected only 12% of larvae at four weeks, and 0% thereafter. Thus, experimentally infected chicks can infect larval ticks, but only for a brief interval after exposure. Young chicks are more infectious than older chickens. The immune response of infected chicks was rapid and directed against diverse antigens. PMID:8600769

  14. Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

  15. Newly hatched chicks solve the visual binding problem.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2014-07-01

    For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

  16. In Ovo Sexing of Domestic Chicken Eggs by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Galli, Roberta; Preusse, Grit; Uckermann, Ortrud; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2016-09-01

    Male birds of egg-laying hen strains have no commercial value and are culled immediately after hatching, raising concerns for animal welfare. Existing experimental methods for in ovo sexing require taking samples and are applicable after embryos' sexual differentiation. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy enables contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. dom.) already at day 3.5 of egg incubation. A sexing accuracy of 90% was obtained by analyzing the spectra of blood circulating in the extraembryonic vessels. The measurement is damage-free and barely affects the hatching rate. Sex recognition is achieved before the onset of sensitivity. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy provides an alternative to the culling of 1-day-old male chicks in laying hen production. PMID:27512829

  17. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-01-01

    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  18. A smoothness constraint on the development of object recognition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how the brain learns to recognize objects is one of the ultimate goals in the cognitive sciences. To date, however, we have not yet characterized the environmental factors that cause object recognition to emerge in the newborn brain. Here, I present the results of a high-throughput controlled-rearing experiment that examined whether the development of object recognition requires experience with temporally smooth visual objects. When newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) were raised with virtual objects that moved smoothly over time, the chicks developed accurate color recognition, shape recognition, and color-shape binding abilities. In contrast, when newborn chicks were raised with virtual objects that moved non-smoothly over time, the chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. These results provide evidence for a "smoothness constraint" on newborn object recognition. Experience with temporally smooth objects facilitates the development of object recognition. PMID:27208825

  19. The investigation of genetic diversity and evolution of Daweishan Mini chicken based on the complete mitochondrial (mt)DNA D-loop region sequence.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Xu; Tang, Xiu-Jun; Lu, Jun-Xian; Fan, Yan-Feng; Chen, Da-Wei; Tang, Meng-Jun; Gu, Rong; Gao, Yu-Shi

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the genetic diversity and origin of Daweishan Mini chickens using mtDNA sequence polymorphism. Blood samples from 30 Daweishan Mini chickens were collected. The complete D-loop was PCR amplified, sequenced and compared with the DNA data of five Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) subspecies. Eighteen variable sites that defined six haplotypes were observed. The six haplotypes were clustered into four clades (A, B, D and E), of which clade A and B were dominant. Clades Aand B were clustered with G.g. spadiceus, indicating these two clades may have originated from this subspecies. These results show there is diversity in the middle of the mtDNA D-loop, and indicate there are multiple maternal origins for Daweishan Mini chickens. It appears that G.g. spadiceus contributed more to the evolution of the Daweishan Mini chickens breed than the other four subspecies tested here. PMID:26153755

  20. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000.

    PubMed

    Komar, N; Burns, J; Dean, C; Panella, N A; Dusza, S; Cherry, B

    2001-01-01

    After an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in people, horses, and wildlife in Staten Island, NY, during the summer of 2000, we surveyed the bird population of the island for evidence of infection. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 59 of 257 (23.0%) resident birds and none of 96 transient (migrating) birds sampled in early October. Species with the greatest seroprevalence were northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) (69.2%) and rock dove (Columba livia) (54.5%). House sparrows (Passer domesticus) and chickens (Gallus gallus) had lower than expected seroprevalences, 8.6% and 5.5%, respectively. The geographic distribution of seropositivity suggested focal transmission at several locations on the island. The concentration of seropositive birds among resident bird populations on Staten Island supports the concept that many birds survive WNV infection and that some of these play an important role in the WNV-bird-mosquito transmission cycle. PMID:12653147

  1. West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001.

    PubMed

    Godsey, Marvin S; Blackmore, Mark S; Panella, Nicholas A; Burkhalter, Kristen; Gottfried, Kristy; Halsey, Lawrence A; Rutledge, Roxanne; Langevin, Stanley A; Gates, Robert; Lamonte, Karen M; Lambert, Amy; Lanciotti, Robert S; Blackmore, Carina G M; Loyless, Tom; Stark, Lillian; Oliveri, Robin; Conti, Lisa; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    We investigated mosquito and bird involvement in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in July 2001 in Jefferson County, FL, and Lowndes County, GA. We detected 16 WNV-infected pools from Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Cx. nigripalpus, and Culiseta melanura. In Florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized WNV. Antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (Columbina passerina, 25%), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, 15%), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus, 16%), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, 11%). Antibody-positive birds were detected in nine of 11 locations, among which prevalence in chickens ranged from 0% to 100%. Seropositive chickens were detected in Georgia as well. The primary transmission cycle of WNV in the southeastern United States apparently involves Culex mosquitoes and passerine birds. Chickens are frequently infected and may serve as effective sentinels in this region. PMID:15815153

  2. A simplified method for correcting contaminant concentrations in eggs for moisture loss.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Hoffman, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a simplified and highly accurate method for correcting contaminant concentrations in eggs for the moisture that is lost from an egg during incubation. To make the correction, one injects water into the air cell of the egg until overflowing. The amount of water injected corrects almost perfectly for the amount of water lost during incubation or when an egg is left in the nest and dehydrates and deteriorates over time. To validate the new method we weighed freshly laid chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs and then incubated sets of fertile and dead eggs for either 12 or 19 d. We then injected water into the air cells of these eggs and verified that the weights after water injection were almost identical to the weights of the eggs when they were fresh. The advantages of the new method are its speed, accuracy, and simplicity: It does not require the calculation of a correction factor that has to be applied to each contaminant residue.

  3. Degenerative primer design and gene sequencing validation for select turkey genes.

    PubMed

    Hutsko, Stephanie L; Lilburn, Michael S; Wick, Macdonald

    2016-06-01

    We successfully designed and validated degenerative primers for turkey genes MUC2, RPS13, TBP and TFF2 based on chicken sequences in order to use gene transcription analysis to evaluate (quantify) the mucin transcription to probiotic supplementation in turkeys. Primers were designed for the genes MUC2, TFF2, RPS13 and TBP using a degenerative primer design method based on the available Gallus gallus sequences. All primer sets, which produced a single PCR amplicon of the expected sizes, were cloned into the TOPO(®) vector and then transformed into TOP 10(®) competent cells. Plasmid DNA isolation was performed on the TOP10(®) cell culture and sent for sequencing. Sequences were analyzed using NCBI BLAST. All genes sequenced had over 90% homology with both the chicken and predicted turkey sequences. The sequences were used to design new 100% homologous primer sets for the genes of interest. PMID:27053625

  4. Holograms of fluorescent albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2011-09-01

    We report the characterization and analysis of photochromic films gallus gallus albumin as a matrix modified for holographic recording. Photo-oxidation of homogeneous mixtures prepared with albumin-propylene glycol, to combine chemically with aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate at certain concentrations. We analyzed the diffraction gratings, through the diffraction efficiency of the proposed material. Also, eosin was used as a fluorescent agent, so it is found that produces an inhibitory effect, thus decreasing the diffraction efficiency of the matrices prepared in near-identical circumstances. The work was to achieve stability of albumin films, were prepared with propylene glycol. Finally, experimental studies were performed with films when subjected to aqueous solution of eosin (fluorescent agent) to verify the ability to increase or decrease in diffraction efficiency.

  5. Correlation of dark mantle deposits with high Mg/Al ratios. [from orbital X-ray fluorescence experiment on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Mg/Al concentration ratios from the orbital fluorescence X-ray experiment were used to characterize dark mantle deposits on the moon. The areas studied included the regions of Sulpicius Gallus, Taurus-Littrow, Hadley Rille, Mare Crisium (craters Picard and Pierce), and NE Mare Fecunditatis. In all these cases these deposits exhibit high Mg/Al ratios which suggest the presence of orange, black, and green pyroclastic glasses. The highest concentration of glasses was inferred in the Sulpicius Gallus Formation at about 35%. The depth of the initial pyroclastic deposits was estimated at 3 to 4 meters. Central Mare Serenitatis exhibits high Mg/Al values but does not possess dark mantle deposits. Orbital Al and Mg/Al data for this region is similar to the very low titanium mare basalts.

  6. The colour of domestication and the designer chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppy, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Colour is an important feature of most living organisms. In the wild, colour has great significance affecting the survival and reproductive success of the species. The environmental constraints which lead to the specific colours of birds and animals are very strong and individuals of novel colours tend not to survive. Under domestication, mankind has transformed all the species involved which have thus been freed from environmental pressures to a large extent. Early colour variants were mostly selected for utility reasons or religious practices. In more recent centuries colour varieties have been created purely for ornament and pleasure, fashion playing a surprisingly large part in their development. A bewildering array of colours and patterns can now be found in all our commensal species, especially the Domestic Fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus).

  7. Measuring the electric activity of chick embryos heart through 16 bit audio card monitored by the Goldwavetm software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we used a high-resolution, low-cost apparatus capable of detecting waves fit inside the sound bandwidth, and the software package GoldwaveTM for graphical display, processing and monitoring the signals, to study aspects of the electric heart activity of early avian embryos, specifically at the 18th Hamburger & Hamilton stage of the embryo development. The species used was the domestic chick (Gallus gallus), and we carried out 23 experiments in which cardiographic spectra of QRS complex waves representing the propagation of depolarization waves through ventricles was recorded using microprobes and reference electrodes directly on the embryos. The results show that technique using 16 bit audio card monitored by the GoldwaveTM software was efficient to study signal aspects of heart electric activity of early avian embryos.

  8. Molecular Identification of Food Sources in Triatomines in the Brazilian Northeast: Roles of Goats and Rodents in Chagas Disease Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Fernandes, Fabiano Araújo; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro; Sarquis, Otília; Harry, Myriam; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Marli Maria

    2015-11-01

    We used the gut contents of triatomines collected from rural areas of Ceará State, northeastern Brazil, to identify their putative hosts via vertebrate cytb gene sequencing. Successful direct sequencing was obtained for 48% of insects, comprising 50 Triatoma brasiliensis, 7 Triatoma pseudomaculata, and 1 Rhodnius nasutus. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) procedure revealed that domestic animals, such as chickens (Gallus gallus) and goats (Capra hircus), are the main food source, including in sylvatic environment. Native hosts were also detected in peridomestic environment such as reptiles (Tropidurus sp. and Iguana iguana) and the Galea spixii (Rodentia: Caviidae). The role of goats and Galea spixii in Chagas disease epidemiology calls for further studies, because these mammals likely link the sylvatic and domestic Trypanosoma cruzi cycles. PMID:26350453

  9. Avian ultraviolet/violet cones as magnetoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Hans-Joachim; Nießner, Christine; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, we described the localization of cryptochrome 1a in the retina of domestic chickens, Gallus gallus, and European robins, Erithacus rubecula: Cryptochrome 1a was found exclusively along the membranes of the disks in the outer segments of the ultraviolet/violet single cones. Cryptochrome has been suggested to act as receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, which would mean that the UV/V cones have a double function: they mediate vision in the short-wavelength range and, at the same time, magnetic directional information. This has important implications and raises a number of questions, in particular, how the two types of input are separated. Here, we point out several possibilities how this could be achieved.  PMID:22446535

  10. Reproduction of wild birds via interspecies germ cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Jin; Choi, Jin Won; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Kyung Je; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Young Mok; Kim, Heebal; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2008-11-01

    The present study was conducted to apply an interspecies germ cell transfer technique to wild bird reproduction. Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) retrieved from the gonads of 7-day-old embryos were transferred to the bloodstream of 2.5-day-old chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos. Pheasant-to-chicken germline chimeras hatched from the recipient embryos, and 10 pheasants were derived from testcross reproduction of the male chimeras with female pheasants. Gonadal migration of the transferred PGCs, their involvement in spermatogenesis, and production of chimeric semen were confirmed. The phenotype of pheasant progenies derived from the interspecies transfer was identical to that of wild pheasants. The average efficiency of reproduction estimated from the percentage of pheasants to total progenies was 17.5%. In conclusion, interspecies germ cell transfer into a developing embryo can be used for wild bird reproduction, and this reproductive technology may be applicable in conserving endangered bird species. PMID:18685127

  11. Comparison of microsatellite variations between Red Junglefowl and a commercial chicken gene pool.

    PubMed

    Tadano, R; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Tsudzuki, M

    2014-02-01

    It is assumed that Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) is one of the main ancestors of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Differences in microsatellite polymorphisms between Red Junglefowl and modern commercial chickens, which are used for egg and meat production, have not been fully reported. A total of 361 individuals from 1 Red Junglefowl population that has been maintained as a closed flock, 5 final cross-bred commercial layer populations (white-, tinted-, and brown-egg layers), and 2 final cross-bred commercial broiler populations were genotyped for 40 autosomal microsatellite loci. We compared microsatellite variations in Red Junglefowl with those in a commercial chicken gene pool. The contribution of each population to the genetic diversity was also estimated based on the molecular coancestry. In total, 302 distinct alleles were detected in 1 Red Junglefowl and 7 commercial chicken populations, of which 31 alleles (10.3%) were unique to Red Junglefowl, most of which occurred at a high frequency. The genetic differentiation between Red Junglefowl and commercial chickens (pairwise FST) ranged from 0.32 to 0.47. According to the neighbor-joining tree based on the modified Cavalli-Sforza chord distances and the Bayesian clustering analysis, Red Junglefowl was genetically distant from the commercial chicken gene pool tested. In all of the populations analyzed, Red Junglefowl made the highest contribution to genetic diversity. These results suggest that Red Junglefowl has a distinct distribution of microsatellite alleles and that there is a high level of genetic divergence between Red Junglefowl and commercial chickens. PMID:24570452

  12. Ovodefensins, an Oviduct-Specific Antimicrobial Gene Family, Have Evolved in Birds and Reptiles to Protect the Egg by Both Sequence and Intra-Six-Cysteine Sequence Motif Spacing.

    PubMed

    Whenham, Natasha; Lu, Tian Chee; Maidin, Maisarah B M; Wilson, Peter W; Bain, Maureen M; Stevenson, M Lynn; Stevens, Mark P; Bedford, Michael R; Dunn, Ian C

    2015-06-01

    Ovodefensins are a novel beta defensin-related family of antimicrobial peptides containing conserved glycine and six cysteine residues. Originally thought to be restricted to the albumen-producing region of the avian oviduct, expression was found in chicken, turkey, duck, and zebra finch in large quantities in many parts of the oviduct, but this varied between species and between gene forms in the same species. Using new search strategies, the ovodefensin family now has 35 members, including reptiles, but no representatives outside birds and reptiles have been found. Analysis of their evolution shows that ovodefensins divide into six groups based on the intra-cysteine amino acid spacing, representing a unique mechanism alongside traditional evolution of sequence. The groups have been used to base a nomenclature for the family. Antimicrobial activity for three ovodefensins from chicken and duck was confirmed against Escherichia coli and a pathogenic E. coli strain as well as a Gram-positive organism, Staphylococcus aureus, for the first time. However, activity varied greatly between peptides, with Gallus gallus OvoDA1 being the most potent, suggesting a link with the different structures. Expression of Gallus gallus OvoDA1 (gallin) in the oviduct was increased by estrogen and progesterone and in the reproductive state. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that ovodefensins evolved to protect the egg, but they are not necessarily restricted to the egg white. Therefore, divergent motif structure and sequence present an interesting area of research for antimicrobial peptide design and understanding protection of the cleidoic egg. PMID:25972010

  13. The Updated Phylogenies of the Phasianidae Based on Combined Data of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yong-Yi; Dai, Kun; Cao, Xue; Murphy, Robert W.; Shen, Xue-Juan; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of species in the Phasianidae, Order Galliformes, are the object of intensive study. However, convergent morphological evolution and rapid species radiation result in much ambiguity in the group. Further, matrilineal (mtDNA) genealogies conflict with trees based on nuclear DNA retrotransposable elements. Herein, we analyze 39 nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (three new) and up to seven nuclear DNA segments. We combine these multiple unlinked, more informative genetic markers to infer historical relationships of the major groups of phasianids. The nuclear DNA tree is largely congruent with the tree derived from mt genomes. However, branching orders of mt/nuclear trees largely conflict with those based on retrotransposons. For example, Gallus/Bambusicola/Francolinus forms the sister-group of Coturnix/Alectoris in the nuclear/mtDNA trees, yet the tree based on retrotransposable elements roots the former at the base of the tree and not with the latter. Further, while peafowls cluster with Gallus/Coturnix in the mt tree, they root at the base of the phasianids following Gallus in the tree based on retrotransposable elements. The conflicting branch orders in nuclear/mtDNA and retrotransposons-based trees in our study reveal the complex topology of the Phasianidae. PMID:24748132

  14. Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis Identifies Loci for Physical Appearance Traits in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanfa; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Yu, Xiaoqiong; Li, Peng; Wen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Physical appearance traits, such as feather-crested head, comb size and type, beard, wattles size, and feathered feet, are used to distinguish between breeds of chicken and also may be associated with economic traits. In this study, a genome-wide linkage analysis was used to identify candidate regions and genes for physical appearance traits and to potentially provide further knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these traits. The linkage analysis was conducted with an F2 population derived from Beijing-You chickens and a commercial broiler line. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed using the Illumina 60K Chicken SNP Beadchip. The data were used to map quantitative trait loci and genes for six physical appearance traits. A 10-cM/0.51-Mb region (0.0−10.0 cM/0.00−0.51 Mb) with 1% genome-wide significant level on LGE22C19W28_E50C23 linkage group (LGE22) for crest trait was identified, which is likely very closely linked to the HOXC8. A QTL with 5% chromosome-wide significant level for comb weight, which partly overlaps with a region identified in a previous study, was identified at 74 cM/25.55 Mb on chicken (Gallus gallus; GG) chromosome 3 (i.e., GGA3). For beard and wattles traits, an identical region 11 cM/2.23 Mb (0.0−11.0 cM/0.00−2.23 Mb) including WNT3 and GH genes on GGA27 was identified. Two QTL with 1% genome-wide significant level for feathered feet trait, one 9-cM/2.80-Mb (48.0-57.0/13.40-16.20 Mb) region on GGA13, and another 12-cM/1.45-Mb (41.0−53.0 cM/11.37−12.82 Mb) region on GGA15 were identified. These candidate regions and genes provide important genetic information for the physical appearance traits in chicken. PMID:26248982

  15. Comparative Complete Genome Analysis of Chicken and Turkey Megriviruses (Family Picornaviridae): Long 3′ Untranslated Regions with a Potential Second Open Reading Frame and Evidence for Possible Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J.; Nemes, Csaba; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the family Picornaviridae consist of small positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses capable of infecting various vertebrate species, including birds. One of the recently identified avian picornaviruses, with a remarkably long (>9,040-nucleotide) but still incompletely sequenced genome, is turkey hepatitis virus 1 (THV-1; species Melegrivirus A, genus Megrivirus), a virus associated with liver necrosis and enteritis in commercial turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). This report presents the results of the genetic analysis of three complete genomes of megriviruses from fecal samples of chickens (chicken/B21-CHV/2012/HUN, GenBank accession no. KF961186, and chicken/CHK-IV-CHV/2013/HUN, GenBank accession no. KF961187) (Gallus gallus domesticus) and turkey (turkey/B407-THV/2011/HUN, GenBank accession no. KF961188) (Meleagris gallopavo) with the largest picornavirus genome (up to 9,739 nucleotides) so far described. The close phylogenetic relationship to THV-1 in the nonstructural protein-coding genome region and possession of the same internal ribosomal entry site type (IVB-like) suggest that the study strains belong to the genus Megrivirus. However, the genome comparisons revealed numerous unique variations (e.g., different numbers of potential 2A peptides, unusually long 3′ genome parts with various lengths of a potential second open reading frame, and multiple repeating sequence motifs in the 3′ untranslated region) and heterogeneous sequence relationships between the structural and nonstructural genome regions. These differences suggest the classification of chicken megrivirus-like viruses into a candidate novel species in the genus Megrivirus. Based on the different phylogenetic positions of chicken megrivirus-like viruses at the structural and nonstructural genome regions, the recombinant nature of these viruses is plausible. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analysis of turkey and novel chicken megriviruses revealed numerous unique

  16. Sensitivity of avian species to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand 6-formylindolo [3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ).

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-09-25

    Avian species differ in sensitivity to the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and recent reports have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying this variability. The sensitivity of avian species to DLCs is associated with the identity of amino acids at positions 324 and 380 within the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1). 6-formylindolo [3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ), a naturally produced photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, is a highly potent AHR ligand. Few studies have attempted to determine if there are species differences in AHR activation by FICZ in a systematic manner. Here we describe results from an in vitro assay that measures AHR1-mediated luciferase reporter gene activity to determine concentration-dependent effects of FICZ and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in COS-7 cells transfected with AHR1 constructs from chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and common tern (Sterna hirundo), and three mutant AHR1 constructs. Data were used to (a) compare the potency of FICZ and TCDD for each AHR1 construct (relative potency; ReP) and (b) the sensitivity of each construct to AHR1 activation by FICZ and TCDD (relative sensitivity; ReS). The results show that (1) FICZ was considerably more potent than TCDD in cells transfected with chicken AHR1 (RePavg=41), ring-necked pheasant AHR1 (RePavg=93), Japanese quail AHR1 (RePavg=1392) and common tern AHR1 (RePavg=1534), (2) there were no significant differences in sensitivity to FICZ in cells expressing chicken, pheasant, quail and tern AHR1, but there were significant differences in sensitivity to TCDD, (3) alteration of amino acids at positions 324 and 380 had no effect on avian AHR1 activity in response to FICZ, (4) there was no time-dependent change in the relative potency of FICZ in COS-7 cells, and (5) neither FICZ nor TCDD induced ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD activity

  17. Cospeciation and Horizontal Transmission of Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus gag Genes in Galliform Birds

    PubMed Central

    Dimcheff, Derek E.; Drovetski, Sergei V.; Krishnan, Mallika; Mindell, David P.

    2000-01-01

    In a study of the evolution and distribution of avian retroviruses, we found avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) gag genes in 26 species of galliform birds from North America, Central America, eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa. Nineteen of the 26 host species from whom ASLVs were sequenced were not previously known to contain ASLVs. We assessed congruence between ASLV phylogenies based on a total of 110 gag gene sequences and ASLV-host phylogenies based on mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA and ND2 sequences to infer coevolutionary history for ASLVs and their hosts. Widespread distribution of ASLVs among diverse, endemic galliform host species suggests an ancient association. Congruent ASLV and host phylogenies for two species of Perdix, two species of Gallus, and Lagopus lagopus and L. mutus also indicate an old association with vertical transmission and cospeciation for these ASLVs and hosts. An inference of horizontal transmission of ASLVs among some members of the Tetraoninae subfamily (grouse and ptarmigan) is supported by ASLV monophyletic groups reflecting geographic distribution and proximity of hosts rather than host species phylogeny. We provide a preliminary phylogenetic taxonomy for the new ASLVs, in which named taxa denote monophyletic groups. PMID:10756010

  18. Alzheimer's Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get involved Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association ... Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association ...

  19. Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies the juvenile stress response, oxidative stress and telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Haussmann, Mark F.; Longenecker, Andrew S.; Marchetto, Nicole M.; Juliano, Steven A.; Bowden, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Early embryonic exposure to maternal glucocorticoids can broadly impact physiology and behaviour across phylogenetically diverse taxa. The transfer of maternal glucocorticoids to offspring may be an inevitable cost associated with poor environmental conditions, or serve as a maternal effect that alters offspring phenotype in preparation for a stressful environment. Regardless, maternal glucocorticoids are likely to have both costs and benefits that are paid and collected over different developmental time periods. We manipulated yolk corticosterone (cort) in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to examine the potential impacts of embryonic exposure to maternal stress on the juvenile stress response and cellular ageing. Here, we report that juveniles exposed to experimentally increased cort in ovo had a protracted decline in cort during the recovery phase of the stress response. All birds, regardless of treatment group, shifted to oxidative stress during an acute stress response. In addition, embryonic exposure to cort resulted in higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and an over-representation of short telomeres compared with the control birds. In many species, individuals with higher levels of oxidative stress and shorter telomeres have the poorest survival prospects. Given this, long-term costs of glucocorticoid-induced phenotypes may include accelerated ageing and increased mortality. PMID:22072607

  20. Relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl 126 treatment and cytochrome P4501A activity in chickens, as measured by in vivo caffeine and ex vivo ethoxyresorufin metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Lambert, G.H.

    1999-09-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons (PHDHs) and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-CBT) has been developed to measure in vivo avian CYPIA activity. Research goals were to develop stable isotope methods ({sup 13}C-CBT), determine dose-response relationships between caffeine N-demethylation (CNDM) and PHDH exposure, and assess the relative utility of the CBT and ex vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay. The {sup 13}C-CBT methods were developed with 20 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Chickens received three intraperitoneal injections of 0, 1, 5, or 50 {micro}g 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)/kg body weight, and CNDM was quantified by measurement of {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} in expired breath. The {sup 13}C-CBT was not as sensitive or specific as the EROD assay as an indicator of PHDH exposure and effect in birds. Constitutive CNDM of great interindividual variability was observed, and the magnitude of induction was greater for EROD activity than for CNDM (approximately 1,000- and 2-fold, respectively). Variability associated with baseline {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} ratios in expired breath reduced the sensitivity of the {sup 13}C-CBT method.

  1. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection of Chicken Embryos Causes Retinal Changes and Modulates HSP90B1 Gene Expression: A Promising Ocular Toxoplasmosis Model.

    PubMed

    Nasaré, Alex M; Tedesco, Roberto C; Cristovam, Priscila C; Cenedese, Marcos A; Galisteo, Andrés J; Andrade, Heitor F; Gomes, José Álvaro P; Guimarães, Érik V; Barbosa, Helene S; Alonso, Luis G

    2015-12-01

    HSP90B1 is a gene that codifies heat shock protein 108 (HSP108) that belongs to a group of proteins induced under stress situation, and it has close relation with the nervous system, especially in the retina. Toxoplasma gondii causes ocular toxoplasmosis that has been associated with a late manifestation of the congenital toxoplasmosis although experimental models show that morphological alterations are already present during embryological development. Here, we used 18 eyes of Gallus domesticus embryos in 7th and 20th embryonic days to establish a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, experimentally infected in its fifth day correlating with HSP90B1 gene expression. Embryos' eyes were histologically evaluated, and gene expression was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data showed parasite present in the choroid, unusual migration of retinal pigment epithelium, and chorioretinal scars, and a tendency to a lower expression of the HSP90B1 gene upon experimental infection. This is a promising model to better understand T. gondii etiopathogeny. PMID:26716020

  2. Using PCR-RFLP for sexing of the endangered Galápagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia).

    PubMed

    Patiño, L; Cruz, M; Martínez, P; Cedeño-Escobar, V

    2013-01-01

    Pterodroma phaeopygia is a critically endangered avian species of the Galápagos Islands. This bird is sexually monomorphic, making it difficult to identify the sex. This information, however, is relevant to studies of behavior, ecology, and management of wild or captive populations. Here, we aimed to implement a molecular approach for determining sex in this petrel. DNA was extracted from the blood and the feathers of 24 adult P. phaeopygia, with samples from a female and a male Gallus gallus for comparison. We amplified the cromo-helicase DNA binding protein 1 (CHD-1) gene by PCR, using primers P2 and P8. Allele CHD-1W is unique to females and CHD-1Z occurs in both sexes. We then digested these PCR products using the restriction enzyme HaeIII. The PCR amplified a 400-bp product for both alleles. The digestion of the G. gallus, amplicons split the CHD-1Z allele into two fragments (of 320 and 80 bp), while CHD-1W remained intact. Thus, the male exhibited two bands (digested CHD- 1Z) and the female three bands (undigested CHD-1W and digested CHD-1Z). Applying this RFLP method on DNA derived from blood, 9 of the 24 petrels were found to be male, while 15 were females. The same results were obtained using feathers as the source of DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular method for sexing this species. The potential of sexing this petrel from feathers is remarkable as it minimizes blood sampling induced stress. This method could be used to reinforce the conservation efforts for this bird, to investigate population sex ratios and to develop new conservation strategies. PMID:24222251

  3. Interspecific variation in dietary carotenoid assimilation in birds: links to phylogeny and color ornamentation.

    PubMed

    McGraw, K J

    2005-10-01

    Many birds use carotenoid pigments to acquire rich red, orange, and yellow coloration in feathers and bare parts that is used as a signal of mate quality. Because carotenoids are derived from foods, much attention has been paid to the role of diet in generating color variation both within and among avian species. Less consideration has been given to physiological underpinnings of color variability, especially among species. Here, I surveyed published literature (e.g. captive feeding studies) on carotenoid assimilation in six bird species and completed additional controlled carotenoid-supplementation experiments in two others to consider the ability of different taxa to extract carotenoids from the diet in relation to phylogeny and coloration. I found that, for a given level of carotenoids in the diet, passerine birds (zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata; house finch, Carpodacus mexicanus; American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis; society finch, Lonchura domestica) exhibit higher levels of carotenoids in circulation than non-passerines like gamebirds (domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus; red junglefowl, Gallus gallus; Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix; red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa). This difference in carotenoid accumulation is likely due to interspecific variation in micelle, chylomicron, or lipoprotein concentrations or affinities for xanthophyll carotenoids. Passerine birds more commonly develop carotenoid-based colors than do birds from ancient avian lineages such as Galliformes, and the physiological differences I uncover may explain why songbirds especially capitalize on carotenoid pigments for color production. Ultimately, because we can deconstruct color traits into component biochemical, physical, and physiological parts, avian color signals may serve as a valuable model for illuminating the proximate mechanisms behind interspecific variation in signal use in animals. PMID:16129640

  4. Modelling inhibition of avian aromatase by azole pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, A.K.; Devillers, J.; Bhunia, S.S.; Bro, E.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of pesticides and their metabolites on the endocrine system are of major concern to wildlife and human health. In this context, the azole pesticides have earned special attention due to their cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibition potential. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) catalyses the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. Thus, aromatase modulates the oestrogenic balance essential not only for females, but also for male physiology, including gonadal function. Its inhibition affects reproductive organs, fertility and sexual behaviour in humans and wildlife species. Several studies have shown that azole pesticides are able to inhibit human and fish aromatases but the information on birds is lacking. Consequently, it appeared to be of interest to estimate the aromatase inhibition of azoles in three different avian species, namely Gallus gallus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Taeniopygia guttata. In the absence of the crystal structure of the aromatase enzyme in these bird species, homology models for the individual avian species were constructed using the crystal structure of human aromatase (hAr) (pdb: 3EQM) that showed high sequence similarity for G. gallus (82.0%), T. guttata (81.9%) and C. japonica (81.2%). A homology model with Oncorhynchus mykiss (81.9%) was also designed for comparison purpose. The homology-modelled aromatase for each avian and fish species and crystal structure of human aromatase were selected for docking 46 structurally diverse azoles and related compounds. We showed that the docking behaviour of the chemicals on the different aromatases was broadly the same. We also demonstrated that there was an acceptable level of correlation between the binding score values and the available aromatase inhibition data. This means that the homology models derived on bird and fish species can be used to approximate the potential inhibitory effects of azoles on their aromatase. PMID

  5. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans

    PubMed Central

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Glahn, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3–glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  6. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  7. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  8. The eggshell: structure, composition and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Hincke, Maxwell T; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joel; Mann, Karlheinz; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; McKee, Marc D

    2012-01-01

    The calcareous egg is produced by all birds and most reptiles. Current understanding of eggshell formation and mineralization is mainly based on intensive studies of one species - the domesticated chicken Gallus gallus. The majority of constituents of the chicken eggshell have been identified. In this article we review eggshell microstructure and ultrastructure, and the results of recent genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the chicken eggshell matrix to draw attention to areas of current uncertainty such as the potential role of amorphous calcium carbonate and the specific nature of the molecules that initiate (nucleate) mammillary cone formation and terminate palisade layer calcification. Comparative avian genomics and proteomics have only recently become possible with the publication of the Taeniopygia guttata (zebra finch) genome. Further rapid progress is highly anticipated with the soon-to-be-released genomes of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos). These resources will allow rapid advances in comparative studies of the organic constituents of avian eggshell and their functional implications. PMID:22201802

  9. Thermal fluctuations of haemoglobin from different species: adaptation to temperature via conformational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stadler, A M; Garvey, C J; Bocahut, A; Sacquin-Mora, S; Digel, I; Schneider, G J; Natali, F; Artmann, G M; Zaccai, G

    2012-11-01

    Thermodynamic stability, configurational motions and internal forces of haemoglobin (Hb) of three endotherms (platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus; domestic chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus and human, Homo sapiens) and an ectotherm (salt water crocodile, Crocodylus porosus) were investigated using circular dichroism, incoherent elastic neutron scattering and coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results from Hb solutions revealed a direct correlation between protein resilience, melting temperature and average body temperature of the different species on the 0.1 ns time scale. Molecular forces appeared to be adapted to permit conformational fluctuations with a root mean square displacement close to 1.2 Å at the corresponding average body temperature of the endotherms. Strong forces within crocodile Hb maintain the amplitudes of motion within a narrow limit over the entire temperature range in which the animal lives. In fully hydrated powder samples of human and chicken, Hb mean square displacements and effective force constants on the 1 ns time scale showed no differences over the whole temperature range from 10 to 300 K, in contrast to the solution case. A complementary result of the study, therefore, is that one hydration layer is not sufficient to activate all conformational fluctuations of Hb in the pico- to nanosecond time scale which might be relevant for biological function. Coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations permitted to explore residue-specific effects. They indicated that temperature sensing of human and chicken Hb occurs mainly at residues lining internal cavities in the β-subunits. PMID:22696485

  10. Optimum conditions for the chicken lymphocyte transformation test.

    PubMed

    Barta, O; Barta, V; Pierson, F W

    1992-01-01

    Optimum conditions for chicken (Gallus gallus) lymphocyte transformation tests were determined. Thrice-washed chicken buffy-coat cells obtained after slow centrifugation (40 x g for 10 minutes) responded substantially better to mitogenic stimulation than lymphocytes isolated on separation media containing Ficoll. Maximum responses were obtained with 2 x 10(7) lymphoid cells/ml. Responses to the mitogens were greatest when fetal bovine serum was used at a 5% concentration or pooled chicken serum and autologous plasma were used at a 1.25% concentration. Optimum mitogen concentrations varied with individual birds, timing of the culture, temperature of incubation, and serum concentration in the cultures. When 1.25% chicken serum was used in the cultures, responses were usually greatest with final concentrations of 30-50 micrograms/ml of concanavalin A (Con A) and 30-50 micrograms/ml of phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). The optimum concentration of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) varied from 1 to 40 micrograms/ml among the birds and was practically impossible to establish in general. The incubation in humidified air with 5% CO2 was significantly better at 40 C than at 37 C. The total culture time of 40 hours including pulsing with 3H-thymidine during the final 16 hours of incubation was the best for Con A- and PHA-P-stimulated cells, whereas a longer incubation of 64 hours gave the highest results with PWM stimulations. PMID:1485878

  11. Evidence of balancing selection in multiple indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Arlud, S; E, G X; Zeng, S C

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA markers, which are assumed to drift, have been widely used to assess genetic diversity in all major domestic animal species. These markers provide insight into the arrival and dispersion history of a species, with regard to their content or management history. However, no direct evidence supports current standard microsatellite markers falling under this assumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect and divergence of microsatellites under different types of selection on genetic patterns and population diversity. A total of 192 birds (Gallus gallus) from eight different geographic locations were investigated using 20 microsatellites that are classified into different groups by their selective effect (neutral, positive selection, and balancing selection) by the FDIST2 outlier test. The results showed that most polymorphisms were in the balancing selection marker group, the expected heterozygosity was 0.70, the observed heterozygosity was 0.65, and the mean number of alleles was 6.91. AMOVA revealed that the balancing group contributed the lowest amount of variance among groups, which was -0.60%, the highest variance contributed within the population being 92.28% in comparison with that of other groups. A similar pattern of population genetics was revealed following Slatkin linearized FST, principal component factor analysis, and population structure by Bayesian clustering. In conclusion, balancing selective markers offer high polymorphism for estimating genetic diversity but reduced genetic divergence between populations. PMID:27525886

  12. Changes in multiple brain regions underlie species differences in a complex, congenital behavior

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Evan

    1997-01-01

    The evolutionary brain modifications that produce any complex, congenital behavioral difference between two species have never been identified. Evolutionary processes may (i) alter a single, “higher” brain area that generates and/or coordinates the diverse motor components of a complex act; (ii) separately change independent, “lower” brain areas that modulate the fine motor control of the individual components; or (iii) modify both types of areas. This study explores the brain localization of a species difference in one such behavior, the crowing of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Two major subcomponents of the behavioral difference can be independently transferred with interspecies transplantation of separate brain regions, despite the fact that these components, sound and patterned head movement, occur together in a highly integrated fashion. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration that species differences in a complex behavior are built up from separate changes to distinct cell groups in different parts of the brain and that these cell groups have independent effects on individual behavioral components. PMID:9050894

  13. Classical Mus musculus Igκ enhancers support transcription but not high level somatic hypermutation from a V-lambda promoter in chicken DT40 cells.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Norton, Darrell D; Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2011-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in activated B cells. This process is strictly dependent on transcription. Hence, cis-acting transcriptional control elements have been proposed to target SHM to immunoglobulin loci. The Mus musculus Igκ locus is regulated by the intronic enhancer (iE/MAR) and the 3' enhancer (3'E), and multiple studies using transgenic and knock-out approaches in mice and cell lines have reported somewhat contradictory results about the function of these enhancers in AID-mediated sequence diversification. Here we show that the M. musculus iE/MAR and 3'E elements are active solely as transcriptional enhancer when placed in the context of the IGL locus in Gallus gallus DT40 cells, but they are very inefficient in targeting AID-mediated mutation events to this locus. This suggests that either key components of the cis-regulatory targeting elements reside outside the murine Igκ transcriptional enhancer sequences, or that the targeting of AID activity to Ig loci occurs by largely species-specific mechanisms. PMID:21533098

  14. Classical Mus musculus Igκ Enhancers Support Transcription but not High Level Somatic Hypermutation from a V-Lambda Promoter in Chicken DT40 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Norton, Darrell D.; Fugmann, Sebastian D.

    2011-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in activated B cells. This process is strictly dependent on transcription. Hence, cis-acting transcriptional control elements have been proposed to target SHM to immunoglobulin loci. The Mus musculus Igκ locus is regulated by the intronic enhancer (iE/MAR) and the 3′ enhancer (3′E), and multiple studies using transgenic and knock-out approaches in mice and cell lines have reported somewhat contradictory results about the function of these enhancers in AID-mediated sequence diversification. Here we show that the M. musculus iE/MAR and 3′E elements are active solely as transcriptional enhancer when placed in the context of the IGL locus in Gallus gallus DT40 cells, but they are very inefficient in targeting AID-mediated mutation events to this locus. This suggests that either key components of the cis-regulatory targeting elements reside outside the murine Igκ transcriptional enhancer sequences, or that the targeting of AID activity to Ig loci occurs by largely species-specific mechanisms. PMID:21533098

  15. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Graves, James L; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2015-12-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  16. A Novel in Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Geophagic Earth on Iron Status.

    PubMed

    Seim, Gretchen L; Tako, Elad; Ahn, Cedric; Glahn, Raymond P; Young, Sera L

    2016-01-01

    The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decisive investigation into this relationship. Here we present a novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status: Gallus gallus (broiler chicken). For four weeks, animals were gavaged daily with varying dosages of geophagic material or pure clay mineral. Differences in haemoglobin (Hb) across treatment groups were assessed weekly and differences in liver ferritin, liver iron, and gene expression of the iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB) and ferroportin were assessed at the end of the study. Minimal impact on iron status indicators was observed in all non-control groups, suggesting dosing of geophagic materials may need refining in future studies. However, this model shows clear advantages over prior methods used both in vitro and in humans, and represents an important step in explaining the public health impact of geophagy on iron status. PMID:27304966

  17. Does Early Environmental Complexity Influence Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Chicken Hippocampus and “Prefrontal” Caudolateral Nidopallium?

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Brantsæter, Margrethe; Østby, Gunn C.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    In adult chickens, the housing system influences hippocampal morphology and neurochemistry. However, no work has been done investigating the effects of the early life environment on chicken brain development. In the present study, we reared 67 commercial laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in two environments that differed in the degree of complexity (aviary or cage system). These two groups were further divided into two age groups. At 20 weeks of age, 18 aviary-reared birds and 15 cage-reared birds were humanely euthanized and their brains dissected. At 24 weeks of age, a further 16 brains from aviary-reared birds and 18 brains from cage-reared birds were collected. These brains were prepared for immunohistochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of dopamine, in the hippocampus and the caudolateral nidopallium (NCL). There were no differences between the treatment groups in TH staining intensity in the hippocampus or the NCL. In the medial hippocampus, the right hemisphere had higher TH staining intensity compared to the left hemisphere. The opposite was true for the NCL, with the left hemisphere being more strongly stained compared to the right hemisphere. The present study supports the notion that the hippocampus is functionally lateralized, and our findings add to the body of knowledge on adult neural plasticity of the avian brain. PMID:26904550

  18. Individual recognition based on communication behaviour of male fowl.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolynn L; Taubert, Jessica; Weldon, Kimberly; Evans, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    Correctly directing social behaviour towards a specific individual requires an ability to discriminate between conspecifics. The mechanisms of individual recognition include phenotype matching and familiarity-based recognition. Communication-based recognition is a subset of familiarity-based recognition wherein the classification is based on behavioural or distinctive signalling properties. Male fowl (Gallus gallus) produce a visual display (tidbitting) upon finding food in the presence of a female. Females typically approach displaying males. However, males may tidbit without food. We used the distinctiveness of the visual display and the unreliability of some males to test for communication-based recognition in female fowl. We manipulated the prior experience of the hens with the males to create two classes of males: S(+) wherein the tidbitting signal was paired with a food reward to the female, and S (-) wherein the tidbitting signal occurred without food reward. We then conducted a sequential discrimination test with hens using a live video feed of a familiar male. The results of the discrimination tests revealed that hens discriminated between categories of males based on their signalling behaviour. These results suggest that fowl possess a communication-based recognition system. This is the first demonstration of live-to-video transfer of recognition in any species of bird. PMID:26915426

  19. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  20. Avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: evidence for a well-developed sense of smell in birds?

    PubMed

    Steiger, Silke S; Fidler, Andrew E; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-10-22

    Among vertebrates, the sense of smell is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium. Comparative genomic studies suggest that the olfactory acuity of mammalian species correlates positively with both the total number and the proportion of functional OR genes encoded in their genomes. In contrast to mammals, avian olfaction is poorly understood, with birds widely regarded as relying primarily on visual and auditory inputs. Here, we show that in nine bird species from seven orders (blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; black coucal, Centropus grillii; brown kiwi, Apteryx australis; canary, Serinus canaria; galah, Eolophus roseicapillus; red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus; kakapo, Strigops habroptilus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; snow petrel, Pagodroma nivea), the majority of amplified OR sequences are predicted to be from potentially functional genes. This finding is somewhat surprising as one previous report suggested that the majority of OR genes in an avian (red jungle fowl) genomic sequence are non-functional pseudogenes. We also show that it is not the estimated proportion of potentially functional OR genes, but rather the estimated total number of OR genes that correlates positively with relative olfactory bulb size, an anatomical correlate of olfactory capability. We further demonstrate that all the nine bird genomes examined encode OR genes belonging to a large gene clade, termed gamma-c, the expansion of which appears to be a shared characteristic of class Aves. In summary, our findings suggest that olfaction in birds may be a more important sense than generally believed. PMID:18628122

  1. Cloning and expression analysis of androgen receptor gene in chicken embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hironori; Ogino, Yukiko; Yamada, Gen

    2006-03-01

    We cloned a full-length androgen receptor (AR) cDNA from chicken (Gallus gallus) gonads. The cDNA sequence has an open reading frame of 2109 bp encoding 703 amino acids. The chicken AR (cAR) shares high homology with ARs from other species in its amino acid sequences, in particular DNA binding domain (DBD) and ligand binding domain (LBD). RT-PCR analysis revealed that cAR mRNA is expressed in several embryonic tissues of both sexes, and relatively higher expression was observed in left ovary compared with testis. The immunoreactive signal of AR was co-localized within the ovarian cell nucleus, while such nuclear localization was not detected in those of testis. To get insight on the possible role of androgen-AR signaling during gonadal development, non-steroidal AR antagonist, flutamide, was administrated in ovo. The treatment induced the disorganization of sex cords in ovarian cortex at day 12 of incubation. The effect was restored by testosterone co-treatment, implying the possibility that AR mediated signaling may be involved in ovarian morphogenesis. Furthermore, co-treatment of flutamide with estradiol-17beta (E2) also restored the phenotype, suggesting androgen-AR signaling might activate aromatase expression that is necessary for estrogen synthesis. These findings suggest androgen-AR signaling might contribute to chicken embryonic ovarian development. PMID:16480982

  2. Renal LRP2 expression in man and chicken is estrogen-responsive.

    PubMed

    Plieschnig, Julia A; Gensberger, Eva T; Bajari, Tarek M; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Hermann, Marcela

    2012-10-15

    In mammals, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 (LRP2) is an endocytic receptor that binds multiple ligands and is essential for a wide range of physiological processes. To gain new insights into the biology of this complex protein, we have initiated the molecular characterization of the LRP2 homolog from an oviparous species, the chicken (Gallus gallus). The galline LRP2 cDNA encodes a membrane protein of 4658 residues. Overall, the galline and human proteins are 73% identical, indicating that the avian gene has been well conserved over 300 million years. Unexpectedly, LRP2 transcript and protein levels in the kidney of females and estrogen-treated roosters were significantly higher than those in untreated males. The estrogen-responsiveness of avian LRP2 may be related to the dramatic differences in lipoprotein metabolism between mature roosters and laying hens. Newly identified potential estrogen-responsive elements (ERE) in the human and galline LRP2 gene, and additional Sp1 sites present in the promoter of the chicken gene, are compatible with both direct estrogen induction via the classical ligand-induced ERE pathway and the indirect transcription factor crosstalk pathway engaging the Sp1 sites. In agreement with this assumption, estrogen induction of LRP2 was observed not only in primary cultured chicken kidney cells, but also human kidney cell lines. These findings point to novel regulatory features of the LRP2 gene resulting in sex-specific receptor expression. PMID:22868208

  3. An argument for the chicken embryo as a model for the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Henshel, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article will present the argument that the chicken embryo is especially appropriate as an animal model for studying the mechanism of the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The PHAHs are a group of toxicologically related compounds including, in part, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. The chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo is relatively sensitive to the toxicological effects of the PHAHs being approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the mature bird. The chicken embryo has been used to demonstrate general toxicological teratogeneicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Many of these effects, or analogous effects, have also been observed in mammals and fish. Thus, most animals appear to respond to the PHAHs with a similar toxicological profile, indicating that many of the biomarkers used for the PHAHs are valid across a number of species, including the chicken. Furthermore, the chicken embryo is relatively inexpensive to use for toxicity testing. In addition, all effects detected are due to direct effects on the embryo and are not complicated by maternal interactions. In short, for sensitivity, ease of use, cost and applicability of results to other animals, the chicken embryo is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicological effects of the PHAHs.

  4. Sensitivity of embryos of chicken, domestic duck, and common eider duck to polychlorinated and non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstroem, B.

    1995-12-31

    Embryos of chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos), and common eider duck (Somateria mollissima) were exposed in ovo to PCBs and to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Two coplanar PCBs, 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB {number_sign}77) and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB {number_sign}126), were considerably more lethal and potent as inducers of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) than in embryos of the other two species. In chicken embryos, these compounds caused edema and eye and beak deformities. An artificial mixture of 18 PAHs which all have been detected in environmental samples, was slightly more toxic to embryos of the domestic duck and the common eider duck than to chicken embryos. The most potent compound in the mixture was benzo(k)fluoranthene. When chicken embryo livers were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in vitro, EROD was induced by very low concentrations and the EC{sub 50} value obtained was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} M. Livers from embryos of eider ducks and domestic ducks were 2--4 orders of magnitude less responsive to TCDD than chicken embryo livers in terms of EROD induction in vitro.

  5. COMPLETE GENOMIC SEQUENCE OF VIRULENT PIGEON PARAMYXOVIRUS IN LAUGHING DOVES (STREPTOPELIA SENEGALENSIS) IN KENYA.

    PubMed

    Obanda, Vincent; Michuki, George; Jowers, Michael J; Rumberia, Cecilia; Mutinda, Mathew; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Wangoru, Kihara; Kasiiti-Orengo, Jacquiline; Yongo, Moses; Angelone-Alasaad, Samer

    2016-07-01

    Following mass deaths of Laughing Doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) in different localities throughout Kenya, internal organs obtained during necropsy of two moribund birds were sampled and analyzed by next generation sequencing. We isolated the virulent strain of pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1), PPMV1/Laughing Dove/Kenya/Isiolo/B2/2012, which had a characteristic fusion gene motif (110)GGRRQKRF(117). We obtained a partial full genome of 15,114 nucleotides. The phylogenetic relationship based on the fusion gene and genomic sequence grouped our isolate as class II genotype VI, a group of viruses commonly isolated from wild birds but potentially lethal to Chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus ). The fusion gene isolate clustered with PPMV-I strains from pigeons (Columbidae) in Nigeria. The complete genome showed a basal and highly divergent lineage to American, European, and Asian strains, indicating a divergent evolutionary pathway. The isolated strain is highly virulent and apparently species-specific to Laughing Doves in Kenya. Risk of transmission of such a strain to poultry is potentially high whereas the cyclic epizootic in doves is a threat to conservation of wild Columbidae in Kenya. PMID:27224210

  6. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Julie M.; Dean, Rebecca F.; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S.; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles. PMID:24648220

  7. Social status and personality: stability in social state can promote consistency of behavioural responses

    PubMed Central

    Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Radesäter, Tommy; Løvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ‘state’ has been suggested as an underlying factor explaining behavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, and consistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibility that stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression and consistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status between repeated personality assays. We used male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies, and showed that behavioural responses were strongly affected by social status, but also by individual characteristics. The level of vigilance, activity and exploration changed with social status, whereas boldness appeared as a stable individual property, independent of status. Furthermore, variation in vocalization predicted future social status, indicating that individual behaviours can both be a predictor and a consequence of social status, depending on the aspect in focus. Our results illustrate that social states contribute to both variation and stability in behavioural responses, and should therefore be taken into account when investigating and interpreting variation in personality. PMID:24225462

  8. [Ecological distribution and spatial niche of pheasants in the Karst mountains of southwest Guangxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen-Xing; Yang, Gang; Li, Dong; Zhou, Fang

    2011-10-01

    The Karst mountain area along the Sino-Vietnam border of southwest Guangxi has been designated a "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" since 2003. We conducted a survey of pheasant species in this area, with seven species recorded, namely Chinese Francolin (Francolinus pintadeanus), Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus), Mountain Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola fytchii), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Analysis and comparison of the distribution and spatial niche of these seven pheasant species revealed that Red Junglefowl had the widest spatial niche, while Chinese Francolin had the narrowest. The spatial niche overlap index was high between Chinese Francolin and the Common Pheasant, Chinese Bamboo Partridge, and Red Junglefowl. With narrow distribution range, small population, and lower ecological adaptability, it is likely that the Bar-backed Partridge is the most vulnerable pheasant species in this area. The results suggest more research and conservation measures are required for pheasant habitat protection in the Karst areas of southwest Guangxi. PMID:22006809

  9. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    PubMed

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles. PMID:24648220

  10. Personality Predicts Social Dominance in Male Domestic Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Løvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals) demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types. PMID:25072296

  11. [Studies of the origin of Chinese domestic fowls].

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Niu, D; Luo, J; Ruan, H; He, G Q; Zhang, Y P

    2001-05-01

    A total of 539 bases fragment of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of six domestic chicken breeds (30 individuals) were sequenced and compared to that of red junglefowl, grey junglefowl, green junglefowl and Lafayette's junglefowl issued in GenBank, and the phylogenetic trees for the chickens constructed based on the D-loop sequences. The results indicated that the four species of genus Gallus had great differences between each other, the G. g. domesticus was the next of kin to red junglefowl in Thailand and its adjacent regions, and near of kin to red junglefowl in Indonesian, Lafayette's junglefowl, grey junglefowl and green junglefowl one by one in proper order, suggesting that the red junglefowl in Thailand and its neighbour areas sufficed as the matriarchic ancestor of Chinese domestic fowls. It was also discovered that the two subspecies of Thailand i.e. G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus should belong to one subspecies because of their far lower differentiation compared to that among the domestic breeds. PMID:11441653

  12. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males.

    PubMed

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A F; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S

    2013-10-22

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC--dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  13. Sexual selection and the differential effect of polyandry.

    PubMed

    Collet, Julie; Richardson, David S; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-05-29

    In principle, widespread polyandry (female promiscuity) creates potential for sexual selection in males both before and after copulation. However, the way polyandry affects pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection remains little understood. Resolving this fundamental question has been difficult because it requires extensive information on mating behavior as well as paternity for the whole male population. Here we show that in replicate seminatural groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, polyandry eroded variance in male mating success, which simultaneously weakened the overall intensity of sexual selection but increased the relative strength of postcopulatory episodes. We further illustrate the differential effect of polyandry on pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection by considering the case of male social status, a key determinant of male reproductive success in this species. In low-polyandry groups, however, status was strongly sexually selected before copulation because dominants mated with more females. In high-polyandry groups, sexual selection for status was weakened and largely restricted after copulation because dominants defended paternity by mating repeatedly with the same female. These results reveal polyandry as a potent and dynamic modulator of sexual selection episodes. PMID:22592795

  14. Familiarity interferes with filial imprinting.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, H S; de Vos, G J

    1996-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate whether and how pre-exposure to an object affects subsequent filial imprinting to that object. In Experiment 1 junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were first exposed to either a red object alone (control group), or a red and a yellow object simultaneously (experimental group; phase 1). Subsequently, all chicks were exposed to the yellow object in the presence of a black and blue one (phase 2). At the end of phase 1, most experimental chicks had developed a preference for the red object over the yellow one. At the end of phase 2, preferences of experimental chicks were shifted away from the yellow object towards the novel black and blue object, relative to preferences of control chicks. This shows that pre-exposure may interfere with imprinting. Experiment 2 revealed that when control chicks were tested with the yellow object at the end of phase 1, filial responses were as strong as in experimental chicks. This shows that the yellow object had not acquired control over filial behaviour during phase 1, and also that the relatively impaired imprinting on that object in phase 2 was not due to reduced generalization from the red object. One possible explanation why pre-exposure may interfere with imprinting is that familiarity alters the level of attention attracted by an object, a mechanism suggested to underlie 'latent inhibition' in conditioning. PMID:24897630

  15. Sex-specific, counteracting responses to inbreeding in a bird.

    PubMed

    Pizzari, Tommaso; Løvlie, Hanne; Cornwallis, Charles K

    2004-10-22

    Inbreeding often depresses offspring fitness. Because females invest more than males in a reproductive event, inbreeding is expected to be more costly to mothers than fathers, creating a divergence between the reproductive interests of each sex and promoting sex-specific inbreeding strategies. Males and females may bias the probability of inbreeding by selecting copulation partners, and, in sexually promiscuous species, through male strategic sperm investment in different females and female selection of the sperm of different males. However, these processes are often difficult to study, and the way that different male and female strategies interact to determine inbreeding remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate sex-specific, counteracting responses to inbreeding in the promiscuous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. First, a male was just as likely to copulate with his full-sib sister as with an unrelated female. In addition, males displayed a tendency to: (i) initiate copulation faster when exposed to an unrelated female than when exposed to a sister, and (ii) inseminate more sperm into sisters than into unrelated females. Second, females retained fewer sperm following insemination by brothers, thus reducing the risk of inbreeding and counteracting male inbreeding strategies. PMID:15475330

  16. The genetic architecture of a female sexual ornament.

    PubMed

    Wright, Dominic; Kerje, Susanne; Brändström, Helena; Schütz, Karin; Kindmark, Andreas; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sexual ornaments, and particularly that of female sexual ornaments, is an enduring challenge in evolutionary biology. Key to this challenge are establishing the relationship between ornament expression and female reproductive investment, and determining the genetic basis underpinning such relationship. Advances in genomics provide unprecedented opportunities to study the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments in model species. Here, we present a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a female sexual ornament, the comb of the fowl, Gallus gallus, using a large-scale intercross between red junglefowl and a domestic line, selected for egg production. First, we demonstrate that female somatic investment in comb reflects female reproductive investment. Despite a trade-off between reproductive and skeletal investment mediated by the mobilization of skeletal minerals for egg production, females with proportionally large combs also had relatively high skeletal investment. Second, we identify a major QTL for bisexual expression of comb mass and several QTL specific to female comb mass. Importantly, QTL for comb mass were nonrandomly clustered with QTL for female reproductive and skeletal investment on chromosomes one and three. Together, these results shed light onto the physiological and genetic architecture of a female ornament. PMID:18053076

  17. Expression of prostaglandin synthesizing enzymes (cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2) in the ovary of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Rodler, Daniela; Sinowatz, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase is the rate limiting enzyme in the production of prostaglandins. In birds two isoforms are present: cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Despite evidence implicating that cyclooxygenases and PGs are critical factors in female reproduction in birds, little is known about COX expression in the avian ovary. In birds, cyclooxygenases have been studied in very few species only. In this study we report on the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the ovary of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) using immunohistochemistry and non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques. Our results demonstrate that COX-1 is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of oocytes of previtellogenic follicles, whereas COX-2 shows the strongest immunostaining in the granulosa cells of previtellogenic follicles. The signals of both isoenzymes fade significantly with increasing diameter and finally nearly vanish in the vitellogenic follicles with a size >1.8 cm. This expression pattern in the ostrich (S. camelus) is, therefore, completely different from the localization of COX-1 and COX-2 in the hen (Gallus gallus), a finding which also suggests different functions of the cyclooxygenases in the ostrich species. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization confirmed that COX-1 is synthesized in the ooplasm and COX-2 in the granulosa layers of early previtellogenic follicles. According to the results of this study it appears unlikely that COX-1 or COX-2 play a major role in ovulation and oviposition in the ostrich. PMID:25528171

  18. Lrp13 is a novel vertebrate lipoprotein receptor that binds vitellogenins in teleost fishes[S

    PubMed Central

    Reading, Benjamin J.; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Schilling, Justin; Molloy, Katelyn T.; Glassbrook, Norm; Mizuta, Hiroko; Luo, Wenshu; Baltzegar, David A.; Williams, Valerie N.; Todo, Takashi; Hara, Akihiko; Sullivan, Craig V.

    2014-01-01

    Transcripts encoding a novel member of the lipoprotein receptor superfamily, termed LDL receptor-related protein (Lrp)13, were sequenced from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana) ovaries. Receptor proteins were purified from perch ovary membranes by protein-affinity chromatography employing an immobilized mixture of vitellogenins Aa and Ab. RT-PCR revealed lrp13 to be predominantly expressed in striped bass ovary, and in situ hybridization detected lrp13 transcripts in the ooplasm of early secondary growth oocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed peak lrp13 expression in the ovary during early secondary growth. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed peak Lrp13 protein levels in striped bass ovary during late-vitellogenesis, and immunohistochemistry localized Lrp13 to the oolemma and zona radiata of vitellogenic oocytes. Previously unreported orthologs of lrp13 were identified in genome sequences of fishes, chicken (Gallus gallus), mouse (Mus musculus), and dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) lrp13 loci are discrete and share genomic synteny. The Lrp13 appears to function as a vitellogenin receptor and may be an important mediator of yolk formation in fishes and other oviparous vertebrates. The presence of lrp13 orthologs in mammals suggests that this lipoprotein receptor is widely distributed among vertebrates, where it may generally play a role in lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:25217480

  19. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  20. Compensation of Dosage-Sensitive Genes on the Chicken Z Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Fabian; Harrison, Peter W; Dessimoz, Christophe; Mank, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    In many diploid species, sex determination is linked to a pair of sex chromosomes that evolved from a pair of autosomes. In these organisms, the degeneration of the sex-limited Y or W chromosome causes a reduction in gene dose in the heterogametic sex for X- or Z-linked genes. Variations in gene dose are detrimental for large chromosomal regions when they span dosage-sensitive genes, and many organisms were thought to evolve complete mechanisms of dosage compensation to mitigate this. However, the recent realization that a wide variety of organisms lack complete mechanisms of sex chromosome dosage compensation has presented a perplexing question: How do organisms with incomplete dosage compensation avoid deleterious effects of gene dose differences between the sexes? Here we use expression data from the chicken (Gallus gallus) to show that ohnologs, duplicated genes known to be dosage-sensitive, are preferentially dosage-compensated on the chicken Z chromosome. Our results indicate that even in the absence of a complete and chromosome wide dosage compensation mechanism, dosage-sensitive genes are effectively dosage compensated on the Z chromosome. PMID:27044516

  1. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus) genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos), an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots"). Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies. PMID:19656363

  2. Compensation of Dosage-Sensitive Genes on the Chicken Z Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Fabian; Harrison, Peter W.; Dessimoz, Christophe; Mank, Judith E.

    2016-01-01

    In many diploid species, sex determination is linked to a pair of sex chromosomes that evolved from a pair of autosomes. In these organisms, the degeneration of the sex-limited Y or W chromosome causes a reduction in gene dose in the heterogametic sex for X- or Z-linked genes. Variations in gene dose are detrimental for large chromosomal regions when they span dosage-sensitive genes, and many organisms were thought to evolve complete mechanisms of dosage compensation to mitigate this. However, the recent realization that a wide variety of organisms lack complete mechanisms of sex chromosome dosage compensation has presented a perplexing question: How do organisms with incomplete dosage compensation avoid deleterious effects of gene dose differences between the sexes? Here we use expression data from the chicken (Gallus gallus) to show that ohnologs, duplicated genes known to be dosage-sensitive, are preferentially dosage-compensated on the chicken Z chromosome. Our results indicate that even in the absence of a complete and chromosome wide dosage compensation mechanism, dosage-sensitive genes are effectively dosage compensated on the Z chromosome. PMID:27044516

  3. Survey of microsatellite clustering in eight fully sequenced species sheds light on the origin of compound microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Robert; Schlötterer, Christian; Luschützky, Evita; Lelley, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    Background Compound microsatellites are a special variation of microsatellites in which two or more individual microsatellites are found directly adjacent to each other. Until now, such composite microsatellites have not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. Results Our in silico survey of microsatellite clustering in genomes of Homo sapiens, Maccaca mulatta, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster revealed an unexpected high abundance of compound microsatellites. About 4 – 25% of all microsatellites could be categorized as compound microsatellites. Compound microsatellites are approximately 15 times more frequent than expected under the assumption of a random distribution of microsatellites. Interestingly, microsatellites do not only tend to cluster but the adjacent repeat types of compound microsatellites have very similar motifs: in most cases (>90%) these motifs differ only by a single mutation (base substitution or indel). We propose that the majority of the compound microsatellites originates by duplication of imperfections in a microsatellite tract. This process occurs mostly at the end of a microsatellite, leading to a new repeat type and a potential microsatellite repeat track. Conclusion Our findings suggest a more dynamic picture of microsatellite evolution than previously believed. Imperfections within microsatellites might not only cause the "death" of microsatellites they might also result in their "birth". PMID:19091106

  4. Differentiated evolutionary relationships among chordates from comparative alignments of multiple sequences of MyoD and MyoG myogenic regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Oliani, L C; Lidani, K C F; Gabriel, J E

    2015-01-01

    MyoD and MyoG are transcription factors that have essential roles in myogenic lineage determination and muscle differentiation. The purpose of this study was to compare multiple amino acid sequences of myogenic regulatory proteins to infer evolutionary relationships among chordates. Protein sequences from Mus musculus (P10085 and P12979), human Homo sapiens (P15172 and P15173), bovine Bos taurus (Q7YS82 and Q7YS81), wild pig Sus scrofa (P49811 and P49812), quail Coturnix coturnix (P21572 and P34060), chicken Gallus gallus (P16075 and P17920), rat Rattus norvegicus (Q02346 and P20428), domestic water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (D2SP11 and A7L034), and sheep Ovis aries (Q90477 and D3YKV7) were searched from a non-redundant protein sequence database UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and subsequently analyzed using the Mega6.0 software. MyoD evolutionary analyses revealed the presence of three main clusters with all mammals branched in one cluster, members of the order Rodentia (mouse and rat) in a second branch linked to the first, and birds of the order Galliformes (chicken and quail) remaining isolated in a third. MyoG evolutionary analyses aligned sequences in two main clusters, all mammalian specimens grouped in different sub-branches, and birds clustered in a second branch. These analyses suggest that the evolution of MyoD and MyoG was driven by different pathways. PMID:26505406

  5. Personality predicts social dominance in male domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Løvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals) demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types. PMID:25072296

  6. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later. PMID:26195775

  7. The Modes of Evolutionary Emergence of Primal and Late Pandemic Influenza Virus Strains from Viral Reservoir in Animals: An Interdisciplinary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wealth of recent findings, in conjunction with earliest chronologies pertaining to evolutionary emergences of ancestral RNA viruses, ducks, Influenzavirus A (assumingly within ducks), and hominids, as well as to the initial domestication of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and wild horse (Equus ferus), presumed genesis modes of primordial pandemic influenza strains have multidisciplinarily been configured. The virological fundamentality of domestication and farming of those various avian and mammalian species has thereby been demonstrated and broadly elucidated, within distinctive coevolutionary paradigms. The mentioned viral genesis modes were then analyzed, compatibly with common denominators and flexibility that mark the geographic profile of the last 18 pandemic strains, which reputedly emerged since 1510, the antigenic profile of the last 10 pandemic strains since 1847, and the genomic profile of the last 5 pandemic strains since 1918, until present. Related ecophylogenetic and biogeographic aspects have been enlightened, alongside with the crucial role of spatial virus gene dissemination by avian hosts. A fairly coherent picture of primary and late evolutionary and genomic courses of pandemic strains has thus been attained, tentatively. Specific patterns underlying complexes prone to generate past and future pandemic strains from viral reservoir in animals are consequentially derived. PMID:23074663

  8. Are Aristolochic Acids Responsible for the Chemical Defence of Aposematic Larvae of Battus polydamas (L.) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)?

    PubMed

    Morais, A B B; Brown, K S; Stanton, M A; Massuda, K F; Trigo, J R

    2013-12-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) are thought to be responsible for the chemical protection of the aposematic larvae Battus polydamas (L.) (Papilionidae: Troidini) against predators. These compounds are sequestered by larvae from their Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) host plants. Studying the role of the chemical protection of the second and fifth instars of B. polydamas against potential predators, we found that the consumption of larvae by the carpenter ant Camponotus crassus Mayr and young chicks Gallus gallus domesticus was dependent on larval developmental stage. Second instars were more preyed upon than fifth instars; however, the assassin bug Montina confusa Stål was not deterred by chemical defences of the fifth instar B. polydamas. Laboratory bioassays with carpenter ants and young chicks using palatable baits topically treated with a pure commercial mixture of AAs I and AAs II in concentrations up to 100 times those previously found in B. polydamas larvae showed no activity. Similar results were found in field bioassays, where palatable baits treated as above were exposed to the guild of predators that attack B. polydamas larvae and were also consumed irrespective of the commercial AA concentration used. These results suggest that the mixture of AAs I and AAs II have no defensive role against predators, at least against those investigated in the present work. Other compounds present in Aristolochia host plants such as O-glycosylated AAs; benzylisoquinoline alkaloids; and mono-, sesqui-, di-, and triterpenes, which can be sequestered by Troidini, could act as deterrents against predators. PMID:27193273

  9. Axon terminals from the nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis control the ascending retinotectofugal output through direct synaptic contact with tectal ganglion cell dendrites.

    PubMed

    González-Cabrera, Cristian; Garrido-Charad, Florencia; Mpodozis, Jorge; Bolam, J Paul; Marín, Gonzalo J

    2016-02-01

    The optic tectum in birds and its homologue the superior colliculus in mammals both send major bilateral, nontopographic projections to the nucleus rotundus and caudal pulvinar, respectively. These projections originate from widefield tectal ganglion cells (TGCs) located in layer 13 in the avian tectum and in the lower superficial layers in the mammalian colliculus. The TGCs characteristically have monostratified arrays of brush-like dendritic terminations and respond mostly to bidimensional motion or looming features. In birds, this TGC-mediated tectofugal output is controlled by feedback signals from the nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis (Ipc). The Ipc neurons display topographically organized axons that densely ramify in restricted columnar terminal fields overlapping various neural elements that could mediate this tectofugal control, including the retinal terminals and the TGC dendrites themselves. Whether the Ipc axons make synaptic contact with these or other tectal neural elements remains undetermined. We double labeled Ipc axons and their presumptive postsynaptic targets in the tectum of chickens (Gallus gallus) with neural tracers and performed an ultrastructural analysis. We found that the Ipc terminal boutons form glomerulus-like structures in the superficial and intermediate tectal layers, establishing asymmetric synapses with several dendritic profiles. In these glomeruli, at least two of the postsynaptic dendrites originated from TGCs. We also found synaptic contacts between retinal terminals and TGC dendrites. These findings suggest that, in birds, Ipc axons control the ascending tectal outflow of retinal signals through direct synaptic contacts with the TGCs. PMID:26224333

  10. Behavioral responses of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Furuse, M

    2009-05-01

    Research has shown that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, mitochondrial fatty acid transport, and oxidation enzymes. Various behavioral abnormalities may also decrease the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate behavioral irregularities in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C) neonatal chicks, we studied behavioral responses when compared with the control kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Two-day-old chicks (n = 5) were exposed to either low or thermoneutral temperature for 3 h and were then immediately placed in an acrylic monitoring cage (40 x 30 x 20 cm). The monitoring cage was fitted with a 3-dimensional mirror (to prevent isolation-induced stress) and maintained either at 20 or 30 degrees C. Behavioral responses were monitored for 10 min. Behavioral observations revealed that low-temperature exposure decreased distress vocalizations and spontaneous activity. Low-temperature exposure induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; active wakefulness was decreased while standing or sitting motionless with eyes closed or open and sleeping posture was significantly increased. In conclusion, there is evidence that on exposure to low-temperature, neonatal chicks decrease behavioral activity. Increased sleep-like behavior and decreased activity may reduce heat production in low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks and could potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19359677

  11. Evidence of balanced diversity at the chicken interleukin 4 receptor alpha chain locus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The comparative analysis of genome sequences emerging for several avian species with the fully sequenced chicken genome enables the genome-wide investigation of selective processes in functionally important chicken genes. In particular, because of pathogenic challenges it is expected that genes involved in the chicken immune system are subject to particularly strong adaptive pressure. Signatures of selection detected by inter-species comparison may then be investigated at the population level in global chicken populations to highlight potentially relevant functional polymorphisms. Results Comparative evolutionary analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genes identified interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain (IL-4Rα), a key cytokine receptor as a candidate with a significant excess of substitutions at nonsynonymous sites, suggestive of adaptive evolution. Resequencing and detailed population genetic analysis of this gene in diverse village chickens from Asia and Africa, commercial broilers, and in outgroup species red jungle fowl (JF), grey JF, Ceylon JF, green JF, grey francolin and bamboo partridge, suggested elevated and balanced diversity across all populations at this gene, acting to preserve different high-frequency alleles at two nonsynonymous sites. Conclusion Haplotype networks indicate that red JF is the primary contributor of diversity at chicken IL-4Rα: the signature of variation observed here may be due to the effects of domestication, admixture and introgression, which produce high diversity. However, this gene is a key cytokine-binding receptor in the immune system, so balancing selection related to the host response to pathogens cannot be excluded. PMID:19527513

  12. Mutation/SNP analysis in EF-hand calcium binding domain of mitochondrial Ca[Formula: see text] uptake 1 gene in bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Salimi, Reza; Tunca, Zeliha; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Ceylan, Deniz; Sakizli, Meral

    2016-06-01

    Calcium signaling is important for synaptic plasticity, generation of brain rhythms, regulating neuronal excitability, data processing and cognition. Impairment in calcium homeostasis contributed to the development of psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder (BP). MCU is the most important calcium transporter in mitochondria inner membrane responsible for influx of Ca[Formula: see text]. MICU1 is linked with MCU and has two canonical EF hands that are vital for its activity and regulates MCU-mediated Ca[Formula: see text] influx. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of genetic alteration of EF hand calcium binding motifs of MICU1 on the development of BP. We examined patients with BP, first degree relatives of these patients and healthy volunteers for mutations and polymorphisms in EF hand calcium binding motifs of MICU1. The result showed no SNP/mutation in BP patients, in healthy subjects and in first degree relatives. Additionally, alignment of the EF hand calcium binding regions among species (Gallus-gallus, Canis-lupus-familiaris, Bos-taurus, Mus-musculus, Rattus-norvegicus, Pan-troglodytes, Homosapiens and Danio-rerio) showed exactly the same amino acids (DLNGDGEVDMEE and DCDGNGELSNKE) except in one of the calcium binding domain of Danio-rerio that there was only one difference; leucine instead of Methionine. Our results showed that the SNP on EF-hand Ca[Formula: see text] binding domains of MICU1 gene had no effect in phenotypic characters of BP patients. PMID:27297032

  13. Factors determining gastrointestinal transit time of several markers in the domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Vergara, P; Ferrando, C; Jiménez, M; Fernández, E; Goñalons, E

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to find out how marker characteristics could affect digestive transit time in Gallus gallus. One soluble marker, Cr-EDTA, and two insoluble markers, Cr2O3 and chromium-mordanted plant cells of two sizes, were used. Three- to six-week-old chickens were killed in series after the oral administration of the markers at intervals of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 h. The amount of chromium in each digestive segment was determined by atomic absorption. There were some differences in the initial distribution of markers; whereas almost the total amount of the chromium-mordanted rice husk of the largest size was found in the crop at time 0, less than half of the Cr-EDTA was found. Marker emptying out of the crop was fast and not related to either the type or size. In contrast, the emptying rate of the gizzard depended on marker particle size. As far as the caeca were concerned, the ileocaecal junction allowed the passage of soluble Cr-EDTA whereas solid markers were impeded (Cr2O3) or not allowed to pass through at all (vegetable fibre of any size). It can be concluded that marker selection is of major importance to transit time studies in chickens, since its characteristics can determine transit time in an absolute way. PMID:2512590

  14. Transgenic Quail as a Model for Research in the Avian Nervous System – A Comparative Study of the Auditory Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.; Sanchez, Jason Tait; Schecterson, Leslayann; Tabor, Kathryn M.; Wang, Yuan; Kashima, Daniel T.; Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Fraser, Scott E.; Lansford, Rusty; Rubel, Edwin W

    2012-01-01

    Research performed on transgenic animals has led to numerous advances in biological research. However, using traditional retroviral methods to generate transgenic avian research models has proven problematic. As a result, experiments aimed at genetic manipulations on birds remained difficult for this popular research tool. Recently, lentiviral methods have enabled production of transgenic birds, including a transgenic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) line showing neuronal-specificity and stable expression of eGFP across generations (termed here as GFP quail). To test whether the GFP quail may serve as a viable alternative to the popular chicken model system, with the additional benefit of gene manipulation, we compared the development, organization, structure and function of a specific neuronal circuit in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) to that of the GFP quail. This study focuses on a well-defined avian brain region, the principal nuclei of the sound localization circuit in the auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). Our results demonstrate that structural and functional properties of NM and NL neurons in the GFP quail, as well as their dynamic properties in response to changes in the environment, are nearly identical to those in chickens. These similarities demonstrate that the GFP quail, as well as other transgenic quail lines, can serve as an attractive avian model system, with the advantage of being able to build on the wealth of information already available from the chicken. PMID:22806400

  15. A chicken model for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Samantha M. W.; Wood, Justin N.

    2015-01-01

    “Invariant object recognition” refers to the ability to recognize objects across variation in their appearance on the retina. This ability is central to visual perception, yet its developmental origins are poorly understood. Traditionally, nonhuman primates, rats, and pigeons have been the most commonly used animal models for studying invariant object recognition. Although these animals have many advantages as model systems, they are not well suited for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition in the newborn brain. Here, we argue that newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) are an ideal model system for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition. Using an automated controlled-rearing approach, we show that chicks can build a viewpoint-invariant representation of the first object they see in their life. This invariant representation can be built from highly impoverished visual input (three images of an object separated by 15° azimuth rotations) and cannot be accounted for by low-level retina-like or V1-like neuronal representations. These results indicate that newborn neural circuits begin building invariant object representations at the onset of vision and argue for an increased focus on chicks as an animal model for studying invariant object recognition. PMID:25767436

  16. Pseudo-Reference-Based Assembly of Vertebrate Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoungwoo; Jeong, Heesu; Nam, Jin-Wu

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, including the identity, structure, quantity, and variability of expressed transcripts in cells, through the assembly of sequenced short RNA-seq reads. Although the reference-based approach guarantees the high quality of the resulting transcriptome, this approach is only applicable when the relevant reference genome is present. Here, we developed a pseudo-reference-based assembly (PRA) that reconstructs a transcriptome based on a linear regression function of the optimized mapping parameters and genetic distances of the closest species. Using the linear model, we reconstructed transcriptomes of four different aves, the white leg horn, turkey, duck, and zebra finch, with the Gallus gallus genome as a pseudo-reference, and of three primates, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque, with the human genome as a pseudo-reference. The resulting transcriptomes show that the PRAs outperformed the de novo approach for species with within about 10% mutation rate among orthologous transcriptomes, enough to cover distantly related species as far as chicken and duck. Taken together, we suggest that the PRA method can be used as a tool for reconstructing transcriptome maps of vertebrates whose genomes have not yet been sequenced. PMID:26927182

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and gene organization of Chinese indigenous chickens with phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F P; Fan, H Y; Li, G H; Zhang, B K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Chinese indigenous Jinhu Black-bone and Rugao chickens. The two chicken mitochondrial genomes were deposited in GenBank under accession Nos. KP742951 and KR347464, respectively. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Jinhu Black-bone and Rugao chickens were sequenced and found to span 16,785 and 16,786 bp, respectively, and consisted of 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region (D-loop). The majority of genes were positioned on the H-strand, and the ND6 and eight tRNA genes were found to be encoded on the L-strand. The mitogenomes showed a similar gene order to that of the published Gallus gallus genome, as neither included a control region. The overall base composition of the genome of the two chickens was A = 30.22/30.28%, G = 13.57/13.49%, T = 23.74/23.76%, and C = 32.48/32.48%. Nucleotide skewness of the coding strands of the two chicken genomes (AT-skew = 0.12, GC-skew = -0.41) was biased towards T and G. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 29 subspecies, and the molecular genetic relationship among the 29 subspecies was identical to that of traditional taxonomy. PMID:27421002

  18. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Qisheng; Wang, Yinjie; Cheng, Shaoze; Lian, Chao; Tang, Beibei; Wang, Fei; Lu, Zhenyu; Ji, Yanqing; Zhao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Wenhui; Jin, Kai; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2016-01-01

    The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA) recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%). Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens. PMID:27172204

  19. Use of visual cover by domestic fowl: a Venetian blind effect?

    PubMed

    Newberry; Shackleton

    1997-08-01

    Cover is a structural feature of the environment that animals can use to conceal themselves from predators or conspecifics or to gain shelter from inclement weather. Cover may also form a physical barrier limiting movement. It was hypothesized that domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticuswould use visual cover for concealment. Use of cover was examined in two strains of domestic fowl kept indoors in four groups of 110-112 birds each. In each pen, cover was provided by four rigid vertical panels, one in each of four quadrants. Four similar quadrants were without cover. To investigate use of cover for concealment, the four cover structures varied in continuity of visual cover: (1) transparent (0% cover), (2) transparent with four equidistant vertical green stripes (33% cover), (3) transparent with eight such stripes (67% cover) and (4) solid green (100% cover). Scan samples of quadrant use were made weekly when the birds were 24-52 days of age. Both strains of domestic fowl (1) used areas with cover more than areas without cover, (2) showed increased resting and preening behaviour in areas with cover and (3) showed increased use of cover as continuity increased from 0 to 67%. These results could not be explained by thermoregulatory or physical barrier effects of the cover structures. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a preference for concealment motivates the use of visual cover by domestic fowl, and suggest a 'Venetian blind' effect for visually discontinuous security cover. PMID:9268471

  20. Purification and Characterization of Avian β-Defensin 11, an Antimicrobial Peptide of the Hen Egg▿

    PubMed Central

    Hervé-Grépinet, Virginie; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie; Labas, Valérie; Magallon, Thierry; Derache, Chrystelle; Lavergne, Marion; Gautron, Joël; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Nys, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Natural antimicrobial peptides are present in different compartments (eggshell, egg white, and vitelline membranes) of the hen egg and are expected to be involved in the protection of the embryo during its development and to contribute to the production of pathogen-free eggs. In the present study, we used vitelline membranes from hen (Gallus gallus) eggs as a source of avian β-defensin 11 (AvBD11). A purification scheme using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase chromatography was developed. Purified AvBD11 was analyzed by a combination of mass spectrometry approaches to characterize its primary sequence and structure. A monoisotopic molecular species at [M + H]+ of 9,271.56 Da was obtained, and its N- and C-terminal sequences were determined. We also examined posttranslational modifications and identified the presence of 6 internal disulfide bonds. AvBD11 was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:20625158

  1. Chromosome Painting in Vanellus chilensis: Detection of a Fusion Common to Clade Charadrii (Charadriiformes).

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Gunski, Ricardo J; del Valle Garnero, Analía; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Ochotorena de Freitas, Thales R; Correa de Oliveira, Edivaldo H

    2015-01-01

    The Southern lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) is endemic to America and is well-known because of the vast expansion of its geographical distribution and its involvement in air accidents. Despite its popularity, there is no information concerning the genomic organization and karyotype of this species. Hence, because other species of the genus Vanellus have variable diploid numbers from 2n = 58 to 76, the aim of this report was to analyze the karyotype of V. chilensis by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. We found that 2n = 78 and chromosome painting using probes of Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis revealed an organization similar to the avian putative ancestral karyotype, except for the fusion of GGA7 and GGA8, also found in Burhinus oedicnemus, the only Charadriiforme species analyzed by FISH so far. This rearrangement may represent a cytogenetic signature for this group and, in addition, must be responsible for the difference between the diploid number found in the avian putative ancestral karyotype (2n = 80) and V. chilensis (2n = 78). PMID:26088018

  2. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input. PMID:27079969

  3. Spatiotemporal mapping of the motility of the isolated chicken caecum.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Patrick W M; Lentle, Roger G; Hulls, Corrin; Ravindran, Velmurugu; Amerah, Ahmed M

    2009-07-01

    We studied the caecal contractile activity of the chicken (Gallus gallus) using single caeca that had been cannulated at their proximal and distal ends, and in paired caeca, maintained in situ on excised segments of gut that were cannulated at the colonic and small intestinal ends. Longitudinal and circular contractile patterns were characterised using high-definition spatiotemporal mapping. Low amplitude longitudinal contraction waves of frequency 14.1 cycles/min occurred in the absence of major contractile events. These were termed fast phasic and appeared to be mediated by slow waves. The nature of major spontaneous contractions occurring in the single caecum varied with the level of caecal distension. Type A contractions occurred when the caecum was not distended, originated from variable sites and propagated in both directions. Type B or C contractile events occurred when the caecum was moderately or fully distended, originated from a predominantly distal site and propagated proximally. On diameter maps, each type B event comprised a succession of contractions which had similar propagation speeds, frequency and direction to fast phasic contractions. Type C events were comprised of a succession of higher amplitude contractions with no appreciable propagation. Perfusion of saline via the colon resulted in fluid entering both caeca and the onset of aborad contractions in their proximal canals. Saline was also seen to flow between caeca during contractile events however no saline was seen to enter the small intestine as has been postulated by other workers. PMID:19194713

  4. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium found in raptors exposed to infected domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Petr; Kaevska, Marija; Bartejsova, Iva; Pavlik, Ivo

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of a falcon breeding facility, where raptors (both diurnal and nocturnal) were raised in contact with domestic fowl (Gallus gallus f. domesticus) infected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Fecal and environmental samples from 20 raptors and four common ravens (Corvus corax) were collected. Mycobacterium a. avium DNA was detected in feces of four raptors (bald eagle [Haliaeetus leucocephalus], eagle owl [Bubo bubo], barn owl [Tyto alba], and little owl [Athene noctua]) using triplex quantitative real-time PCR. As both the flock of domestic fowl and one of the infected raptors had the same origin (zoological collection), they might have had a common source of colonization/infection. However, the detection of M. a. avium in feces of three other raptors may point at transmission of the agent between the birds in the facility. Contact of raptors with domestic fowl infected by M. a. avium may pose a risk for transmission of the infection for them; however, raptors from the falcon breeding facility seemed to be relatively resistant to the infection. PMID:24283140

  5. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Matthew B; Collins, Aaron M; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering. PMID:26446559

  6. Pseudo-Reference-Based Assembly of Vertebrate Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyoungwoo; Jeong, Heesu; Nam, Jin-Wu

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, including the identity, structure, quantity, and variability of expressed transcripts in cells, through the assembly of sequenced short RNA-seq reads. Although the reference-based approach guarantees the high quality of the resulting transcriptome, this approach is only applicable when the relevant reference genome is present. Here, we developed a pseudo-reference-based assembly (PRA) that reconstructs a transcriptome based on a linear regression function of the optimized mapping parameters and genetic distances of the closest species. Using the linear model, we reconstructed transcriptomes of four different aves, the white leg horn, turkey, duck, and zebra finch, with the Gallus gallus genome as a pseudo-reference, and of three primates, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque, with the human genome as a pseudo-reference. The resulting transcriptomes show that the PRAs outperformed the de novo approach for species with within about 10% mutation rate among orthologous transcriptomes, enough to cover distantly related species as far as chicken and duck. Taken together, we suggest that the PRA method can be used as a tool for reconstructing transcriptome maps of vertebrates whose genomes have not yet been sequenced. PMID:26927182

  7. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) from Columba livia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei Shan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Partial sequence cloning of interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) of Columba livia. Material and methods In order to obtain a certain length (630 bp) of gene, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of Gallus (EU477527.1) and Taeniopygia guttata (XM_002189232.1) IFNAR-1 gene fragment that was published by GenBank. Special primers were designed by the Race method to amplify the 3'terminal cDNA. Results The Columba livia IFNAR-1 displayed 88.5%, 80.5% and 73.8% nucleotide identity to Falco peregrinus, Gallus and Taeniopygia guttata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the IFNAR1 gene showed that the relationship of Columba livia, Falco peregrinus and chicken had high homology. Conclusions We successfully obtained a Columba livia IFNAR-1 gene partial sequence. Analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Columba livia and Falco peregrinus IFNAR-1 had high homology. This result can be used as reference for further research and practical application. PMID:26155117

  8. Extensive homology of chicken macrochromosomes in the karyotypes of Trachemys scripta elegans and Crocodylus niloticus revealed by chromosome painting despite long divergence times.

    PubMed

    Kasai, F; O'Brien, P C M; Martin, S; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report extensive chromosome homology revealed by chromosome painting between chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA, 2n = 78) macrochromosomes (representing 70% of the chicken genome) and the chromosomes of a turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans, TSC, 2n = 50), and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus, CNI, 2n = 32). Our data show that GGA1-8 arms seem to be conserved in the arms of TSC chromosomes, GGA1-2 arms are separated and homologous to CNI1p, 3q, 4q and 5q. In addition to GGAZ homologues in our previous study, large-scale GGA autosome syntenies have been conserved in turtle and crocodile despite hundreds of millions of years divergence time. Based on phylogenetic hypotheses that crocodiles diverged after the divergence of birds and turtles, our results in CNI suggest that GGA1-2 and TSC1-2 represent the ancestral state and that chromosome fissions followed by fusions have been the mechanisms responsible for the reduction of chromosome number in crocodiles. PMID:22572532

  9. Reassessment of genome size in turtle and crocodile based on chromosome measurement by flow karyotyping: close similarity to chicken.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Fumio; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

    2012-08-23

    The genome size in turtles and crocodiles is thought to be much larger than the 1.2 Gb of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA), according to the animal genome size database. However, GGA macrochromosomes show extensive homology in the karyotypes of the red eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans, TSC) and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus, CNI), and bird and reptile genomes have been highly conserved during evolution. In this study, size and GC content of all chromosomes are measured from the flow karyotypes of GGA, TSC and CNI. Genome sizes estimated from the total chromosome size demonstrate that TSC and CNI are 1.21 Gb and 1.29 Gb, respectively. This refines previous overestimations and reveals similar genome sizes in chicken, turtle and crocodile. Analysis of chromosome GC content in each of these three species shows a higher GC content in smaller chromosomes than in larger chromosomes. This contrasts with mammals and squamates in which GC content does not correlate with chromosome size. These data suggest that a common ancestor of birds, turtles and crocodiles had a small genome size and a chromosomal size-dependent GC bias, distinct from the squamate lineage. PMID:22491763

  10. Whole genome sequencing of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a newly developed blue-egg laying chicken breed, reveals its origin and genetic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Byung-ki; Yi, Jun-Koo; Ha, Jae-Jung; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Dong Yep

    2016-01-01

    Chicken, Gallus gallus, is a valuable species both as a food source and as a model organism for scientific research. Here, we sequenced the genome of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a rare chicken breed with unique phenotypic characteristics including flight ability, large body size, and laying blue-shelled eggs, to identify its genomic features. We generated genomes of Gyeongbuk Araucana, Leghorn, and Korean Native Chicken at a total of 33.5, 35.82, and 33.23 coverage depth, respectively. Along with the genomes of 12 Chinese breeds, we identified genomic variants of 16.3 million SNVs and 2.3 million InDels in mapped regions. Additionally, through assembly of unmapped reads and selective sweep, we identified candidate genes that fall into heart, vasculature and muscle development and body growth categories, which provided insight into Gyeongbuk Araucana’s phenotypic traits. Finally, genetic variation based on the transposable element insertion pattern was investigated to elucidate the features of transposable elements related to blue egg shell formation. This study presents results of the first genomic study on the Gyeongbuk Araucana breed; it has potential to serve as an invaluable resource for future research on the genomic characteristics of this chicken breed as well as others. PMID:27215397

  11. Ascocotyle (A.) nunezae n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, L

    1997-02-01

    A new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) nunezae n. sp., is described from adults found in the intestine of naturally infected heron, Casmerodius albus (type host), from the coastal lagoon of Celestún. Yucatan, Mexico, and a domestic chick (Gallus gallus), experimentally infected with metacercariae from Cichlasoma octofasciatum. The new species is characterized mainly by the number (32-37) and arrangement of circumoral spines, which form I complete row of 25-27 circumoral spines and 6-10 accessory spines on the dorsal side, and by the morphology of the ventrogenital sac with a large gonotyl, consisting of 2 indistinctly separated lobes of vesicular tissue. Ascocotyle (A.) nunezae is placed into the nominotypical subgenus Ascocotyle because of the presence of uterine loops at the pharyngeal region and position of vitelline follicles. However, it differs distinctly from other members of this subgenus by the presence of long intestinal ceca reaching posterior to the ventral sucker. Cichlids of the genus Cichlasoma from cenotes, lakes, and the river Río Hondo in the Yucatan Peninsula were natural second intermediate hosts of A. (A.) nunezae, with metacercariae encysted on their gills. Cichlasoma meeki (Brind) was the most heavily infected fish host (total prevalence 75%; mean intensity 11 +/- 9). PMID:9057711

  12. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males

    PubMed Central

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC-dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  13. Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean birds in adipose tissue and serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B H; Leng, L; Wu, M Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X Y; Xu, S S; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression levels of BMP4 transcript and protein were relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than those of lean males at 1, 2, 5, and 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum BMP4 content of fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). BMP4 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in preadipocytes than those in mature adipocytes (P < 0.05), and the expression level decreased during differentiation in vitro (P < 0.05). These results suggested that chicken BMP4 might affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species. PMID:26945137

  14. Sex-specific, counteracting responses to inbreeding in a bird.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzari, Tommaso; Løvlie, Hanne; Cornwallis, Charles K.

    2004-01-01

    Inbreeding often depresses offspring fitness. Because females invest more than males in a reproductive event, inbreeding is expected to be more costly to mothers than fathers, creating a divergence between the reproductive interests of each sex and promoting sex-specific inbreeding strategies. Males and females may bias the probability of inbreeding by selecting copulation partners, and, in sexually promiscuous species, through male strategic sperm investment in different females and female selection of the sperm of different males. However, these processes are often difficult to study, and the way that different male and female strategies interact to determine inbreeding remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate sex-specific, counteracting responses to inbreeding in the promiscuous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. First, a male was just as likely to copulate with his full-sib sister as with an unrelated female. In addition, males displayed a tendency to: (i) initiate copulation faster when exposed to an unrelated female than when exposed to a sister, and (ii) inseminate more sperm into sisters than into unrelated females. Second, females retained fewer sperm following insemination by brothers, thus reducing the risk of inbreeding and counteracting male inbreeding strategies. PMID:15475330

  15. In vitro conversion of ß-carotene to retinal in bovine rumen fluid by a recombinant ß-carotene- 15, 15'-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    García-López, Esperanza; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Antaramián, Anaid; González-Dávalos, María Laura; Shimada, Armando; Varela-Echavarria, Alfredo; Mora, Ofelia

    2012-04-01

    Pasture-fed cattle yield carcasses with yellow fat; consumers often reject the resulting meat products because they assume they come from old and/or culled animals. Recombinant bacteria expressing beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, introduced into the rumen of the animal, might help to reduce the coloration since this enzyme converts carotene to retinal, thereby eliminating the source of yellowness. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of a recombinant beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) from Gallus gallus, expressed in Escherichia coli. The genetically modified microbe was introduced into ruminal fluid, and carotene conversion to retinal was measured. Under optimum conditions the enzyme produced 6.8 nmol of retinal per 1 mg of protein in 1 hour at 37 °C. The data on in vitro digestibility in ruminal fluid showed no differences in beta-carotene breakdown or in retinal production (p > 0.1) between E. coli with pBAD vector alone and E. coli with pBAD/BCMO1. The pBAD/BCMO1 plasmid was stable in E. coli for 750 generations. These results indicate that the protein did not break beta-carotene into retinal in ruminal fluid, perhaps due to its location in the periplasmic space in E. coli. Future research must consider strategies to release the enzyme into the rumen environment. PMID:23065834

  16. A Novel in Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Geophagic Earth on Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Gretchen L.; Tako, Elad; Ahn, Cedric; Glahn, Raymond P.; Young, Sera L.

    2016-01-01

    The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decisive investigation into this relationship. Here we present a novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status: Gallus gallus (broiler chicken). For four weeks, animals were gavaged daily with varying dosages of geophagic material or pure clay mineral. Differences in haemoglobin (Hb) across treatment groups were assessed weekly and differences in liver ferritin, liver iron, and gene expression of the iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB) and ferroportin were assessed at the end of the study. Minimal impact on iron status indicators was observed in all non-control groups, suggesting dosing of geophagic materials may need refining in future studies. However, this model shows clear advantages over prior methods used both in vitro and in humans, and represents an important step in explaining the public health impact of geophagy on iron status. PMID:27304966

  17. Anti-Echis carinatus venom antibodies from chicken egg yolk: isolation, purification and neutralization efficacy.

    PubMed

    Paul, K; Manjula, J; Deepa, E P; Selvanayagam, Z E; Ganesh, K A; Subba Rao, P V

    2007-12-01

    High titer antibodies (IgY) were raised in egg yolk of white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) by immunizing with the venom of Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper or carpet viper), an Indian venomous snake belonging to the family Viperidae. The anti-snake venom antibodies (antivenom) were isolated from egg yolk by the water dilution method, enriched by 19% sodium sulfate precipitation and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. A single, electrophoretically pure IgY band of 180-200 kDa was obtained on SDS-PAGE. Immunoblot analysis revealed not only the specific binding of the antivenom but also dose-dependent blocking of antivenom by venom proteins. In neutralization studies, a preincubated mixture of both affinity-purified (50 mg/kg body weight) as well as partially purified (210 mg/kg body weight) anti-E. carinatus IgY with 2 LD(50) dose of E. carinatus venom (2 x 6.65 mg/kg body weight) gave 100% protection in mice when administered subcutaneously. PMID:17681579

  18. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth–second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later. PMID:26195775

  19. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings. PMID:27236304

  20. The modes of evolutionary emergence of primal and late pandemic influenza virus strains from viral reservoir in animals: an interdisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wealth of recent findings, in conjunction with earliest chronologies pertaining to evolutionary emergences of ancestral RNA viruses, ducks, Influenzavirus A (assumingly within ducks), and hominids, as well as to the initial domestication of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and wild horse (Equus ferus), presumed genesis modes of primordial pandemic influenza strains have multidisciplinarily been configured. The virological fundamentality of domestication and farming of those various avian and mammalian species has thereby been demonstrated and broadly elucidated, within distinctive coevolutionary paradigms. The mentioned viral genesis modes were then analyzed, compatibly with common denominators and flexibility that mark the geographic profile of the last 18 pandemic strains, which reputedly emerged since 1510, the antigenic profile of the last 10 pandemic strains since 1847, and the genomic profile of the last 5 pandemic strains since 1918, until present. Related ecophylogenetic and biogeographic aspects have been enlightened, alongside with the crucial role of spatial virus gene dissemination by avian hosts. A fairly coherent picture of primary and late evolutionary and genomic courses of pandemic strains has thus been attained, tentatively. Specific patterns underlying complexes prone to generate past and future pandemic strains from viral reservoir in animals are consequentially derived. PMID:23074663

  1. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Qisheng; Wang, Yinjie; Cheng, Shaoze; Lian, Chao; Tang, Beibei; Wang, Fei; Lu, Zhenyu; Ji, Yanqing; Zhao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Wenhui; Jin, Kai; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2016-01-01

    The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA) recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%). Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens. PMID:27172204

  2. Human and chicken TLR pathways: manual curation and computer-based orthology analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Marc; Shamovsky, Veronica; D’Eustachio, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide an evolutionarily well-conserved first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In the Reactome Knowledgebase we previously integrated annotations of human TLR molecular functions with those of over 4000 other human proteins involved in processes such as adaptive immunity, DNA replication, signaling, and intermediary metabolism, and have linked these annotations to external resources, including PubMed, UniProt, EntrezGene, Ensembl, and the Gene Ontology to generate a resource suitable for data mining, pathway analysis, and other systems biology approaches. We have now used a combination of manual expert curation and computer-based orthology analysis to generate a set of annotations for TLR molecular function in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Mammalian and avian lineages diverged approximately 300 million years ago, and the avian TLR repertoire consists of both orthologs and distinct new genes. The work described here centers on the molecular biology of TLR3, the host receptor that mediates responses to viral and other doubled-stranded polynucleotides, as a paradigm for our approach to integrated manual and computationally based annotation and data analysis. It tests the quality of computationally generated annotations projected from human onto other species and supports a systems biology approach to analysis of virus-activated signaling pathways and identification of clinically useful antiviral measures. PMID:21052677

  3. The effects of the visual environment on responses to colour by domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, A; Gonda, Zs; Osorio, D; Farzin, A

    2002-03-01

    It is well known that development of vision is affected by experience, but there are few studies of environmental effects on colour vision. Natural scenes contain predominantly a restricted range of reflectance spectra, so such effects might be important, perhaps biasing visual mechanisms towards common colours. We investigated how the visual environment affects colour preferences of domestic chicks ( Gallus gallus), by training week-old birds to select small food containers distinguished from an achromatic alternative either by an orange or by a greenish-blue colour. Chicks that had been raised in control conditions, with long-wavelength-dominated reflectance spectra, responded more readily to orange than to blue. This was not due to avoidance of blue, as increasing saturation enhanced the chicks' preference for the same hue. The advantage of orange was, however, reduced or abolished for chicks raised in an environment dominated by blue objects. This indicates that responses to coloured food are affected by experience of non-food objects. If colours of ordinary objects in the environment do influence responses to specialised visual signals this might help explain why biological signals directed at birds are often coloured yellow, orange or red; long-wavelength-dominated spectra being more prevalent than short-wavelength-dominated spectra. PMID:11919694

  4. The Genome of the Chicken DT40 Bursal Lymphoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, János; Póti, Ádám; Pipek, Orsolya; Krzystanek, Marcin; Kanu, Nnennaya; Swanton, Charles; Tusnády, Gábor E.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Csabai, István; Szüts, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell line using whole genome shotgun sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array hybridization. The results indicate that wild-type DT40 has a relatively normal karyotype, except for whole chromosome copy number gains, and no karyotype variability within stocks. In a comparison to two domestic chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations inactivating the PIK3R1 and ATRX genes likely contributed to the oncogenic transformation. In addition to a known avian leukosis virus integration in the MYC gene, we detected further integration sites that are likely to de-regulate gene expression. The new findings support the hypothesis that DT40 is a typical transformed cell line with a relatively intact genome; therefore, it is well-suited to the role of a model system for DNA repair and related processes. The sequence data generated by this study, including a searchable de novo genome assembly and annotated lists of mutated genes, will support future research using this cell line. PMID:25227228

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, 1989, Paperna and Landsberg) in a western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. is described from a Western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 48) were cylindroidal in shape. Oocyst length, 27.0 (26.0-28.3) μm, oocyst width, 15.2 (14.0-16.5) μm, oocyst length/width ratio (L/W) 1.8 (1.6-1.9), each with 4 sporocysts (Eimeria-like) and a polar granule, but lacking a micropyle and oocyst residuum. Sporocysts are ovoidal in shape, sporocyst length, 10.0 (9.0-11.0) μm, sporocyst width 8.5 (7.0-9.5) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.2 (1.1-1.3). Stieda, substieda and parasubstieda bodies were all absent. Molecular analysis was conducted at the 18S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) loci. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S sequences revealed that C. pogonae n. sp. grouped together with another four Choleoeimeria spp. and exhibited 99.1%-99.4% genetic similarity. At the COI locus, C. pogonae n. sp. was in an independent clade and had the highest similarity (80.4%) to Eimeria cf. mivati from a chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). According to the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite. This study further supports the taxonomy of Choleoeimeria spp. as a new genus based on molecular phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26586629

  6. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Hubalek, Jaromir; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metals and in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Excepting humans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animal species. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records were obtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observed in samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used, well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very low signal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reaching over 20 µM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowest values of about 1-3 µM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  7. Development of the pulmonary surfactant system in two oviparous vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Orgeig, S; Lopatko, O V; Daniels, C B

    2000-02-01

    In birds and oviparous reptiles, hatching is often a lengthy and exhausting process, which commences with pipping followed by lung clearance and pulmonary ventilation. We examined the composition of pulmonary surfactant in the developing lungs of the chicken, Gallus gallus, and of the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps. Lung tissue was collected from chicken embryos at days 14, 16, 18 (prepipped), and 20 (postpipped) of incubation and from 1 day and 3 wk posthatch and adult animals. In chickens, surfactant protein A mRNA was detected using Northern blot analysis in lung tissue at all stages sampled, appearing relatively earlier in development compared with placental mammals. Chickens were lavaged at days 16, 18, and 20 of incubation and 1 day posthatch, whereas bearded dragons were lavaged at day 55, days 57-60 (postpipped), and days 58-61 (posthatched). In both species, total phospholipid (PL) from the lavage increased throughout incubation. Disaturated PL (DSP) was not measurable before 16 days of incubation in the chick embryo nor before 55 days in bearded dragons. However, the percentage of DSP/PL increased markedly throughout late development in both species. Because cholesterol (Chol) remained unchanged, the Chol/PL and Chol/DSP ratios decreased in both species. Thus the Chol and PL components are differentially regulated. The lizard surfactant system develops and matures over a relatively shorter time than that of birds and mammals. This probably reflects the highly precocial nature of hatchling reptiles. PMID:10666151

  8. Evolutionary relationships among copies of feather beta ({beta}) keratin genes from several avian orders.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C; French, Jeffrey O; Heincelman, Traci J; Jones, Kenneth L; Sawyer, Roger H

    2008-10-01

    The feather beta (β) keratins of the white leghorn chicken (order Galliformes, Gallus gallus domesticus) are the products of a multigene family that includes claw, feather, feather-like, and scale genes (Presland et al. 1989a). Here we characterize the feather β-keratin genes in additional bird species. We designed primers for polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using sequences available from chicken, cloned the resulting amplicons to isolate individual copies, and sequenced multiple clones from each PCR reaction for which we obtained amplicons of the expected size. Feather β-keratins of 18 species from eight avian orders demonstrate DNA sequence variation within and among taxa, even in the protein-coding regions of the genes. Phylogenies of these data suggest that Galliformes (fowl-like birds), Psittaciformes (parrots), and possibly Falconiformes (birds of prey) existed as separate lineages before duplication of the feather β-keratin gene began in Ciconiiformes (herons, storks, and allies), Gruiformes (cranes, rails, and allies), and Piciformes (woodpeckers and allies). Sequences from single species of Coraciiformes (kingfishers) and Columbiformes (pigeons) are monophyletic and strikingly divergent, suggesting feather β-keratin genes in these birds also diverged after these species last shared a common ancestor with the other taxa investigated. Overall, these data demonstrate considerable variation in this structural protein in the relatively recent history of birds, and raise questions concerning the origin and homology of claw, feather-like, and scale β-keratins of birds and the reptilian β-keratins. PMID:21669807

  9. Whole genome sequencing of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a newly developed blue-egg laying chicken breed, reveals its origin and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Byung-Ki; Yi, Jun-Koo; Ha, Jae-Jung; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Dong Yep

    2016-01-01

    Chicken, Gallus gallus, is a valuable species both as a food source and as a model organism for scientific research. Here, we sequenced the genome of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a rare chicken breed with unique phenotypic characteristics including flight ability, large body size, and laying blue-shelled eggs, to identify its genomic features. We generated genomes of Gyeongbuk Araucana, Leghorn, and Korean Native Chicken at a total of 33.5, 35.82, and 33.23 coverage depth, respectively. Along with the genomes of 12 Chinese breeds, we identified genomic variants of 16.3 million SNVs and 2.3 million InDels in mapped regions. Additionally, through assembly of unmapped reads and selective sweep, we identified candidate genes that fall into heart, vasculature and muscle development and body growth categories, which provided insight into Gyeongbuk Araucana's phenotypic traits. Finally, genetic variation based on the transposable element insertion pattern was investigated to elucidate the features of transposable elements related to blue egg shell formation. This study presents results of the first genomic study on the Gyeongbuk Araucana breed; it has potential to serve as an invaluable resource for future research on the genomic characteristics of this chicken breed as well as others. PMID:27215397

  10. Embryonic development of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Mak, Siu-Shan; Weng, Wei; Nakaya, Yukiko; Ladher, Raj; Sheng, Guojun

    2011-01-01

    The chick, Gallus gallus, is the traditional model in avian developmental studies. Data on other bird species are scarce. Here, we present a comparative study of the embryonic development of the chick and the emu Dromaius novaehollandiae, a member of Paleognathae, which also includes the ostrich, rhea, tinamou, kiwi, and cassowary. Emu embryos ranging from Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) equivalent stages 1 to 43 were collected and their gross morphology analyzed. Its early development was studied in detail with time-lapse imaging and molecular techniques. Emu embryos in general take 2-3 times longer incubation time to reach equivalent chicken stages, requiring 1 day for HH2, 2.5 days for HH4, 7 days for limb bud initiation, 23 days for feather germ appearance, and approximately 50-56 days for hatching. Chordin gene expression is similar in emu and chick embryos, and emu Brachyury is not expressed until HH3. Circulation is established at approximately the 27- to 30-somite stage. Forelimb buds are formed and patterned initially, but their growth is severely retarded. The size difference between an emu and a chick embryo only becomes apparent after limb bud formation. Overall, emu and chick embryogenesis proceeds through similar stages, but developmental heterochrony between these two species is widely observed. PMID:21181941

  11. Automimicry destabilizes aposematism: predator sample-and-reject behaviour may provide a solution.

    PubMed Central

    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Guilford, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Aposematism, the use of conspicuous colours to advertise unpalatability to predators, is perhaps the most studied signalling system in nature. However, its evolutionary stability remains paradoxical. The paradox is illustrated by the problem of automimicry. Automimics are palatable individuals within a population of unpalatable aposematics. Automimics benefit from predators avoiding warning coloration without carrying the models' cost of unpalatability, and should increase in the population, destabilizing the signalling system, unless selected against in some way. Cautious sampling, instead of avoidance, by predators may offer a solution to this problem. Here, we investigate the effect of automimic frequency on predator sampling behaviour, and whether predator sampling behaviour may provide a selection pressure against mimics. Domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were subjected to the task of discriminating between green (signalling) and untreated brown chick crumbs. Some of the green crumbs were quinine treated and thus unpalatable. The frequency of palatable signalling prey items varied in four treatments; all unpalatable, low automimic frequency, high automimic frequency and all palatable. The results show that predator sampling behaviour is sensitive to automimic frequency and that predators may discriminate between models and mimics through sampling, and thereby benefit unprofitable prey. The results suggest somewhat surprisingly that aposematic signalling is stable only because of the actions of those predators not actually deterred by warning signals. PMID:15615689

  12. Species-specific relative AHR1 binding affinities of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran explain avian species differences in its relative potency.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Jones, Stephanie P; Crump, Doug; Hahn, Mark E; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-04-01

    Results of recent studies showed that 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are equipotent in domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) while PeCDF is more potent than TCDD in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). To elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying these differences in relative potency of PeCDF among avian species, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to species-specific differential binding affinity of PeCDF to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1). Here, we modified a cell-based binding assay that allowed us to measure the binding affinity of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) to avian AHR1 expressed in COS-7 (fibroblast-like cells). The results of the binding assay show that PeCDF and TCDD bind with equal affinity to chicken AHR1, but PeCDF binds with greater affinity than TCDD to pheasant (3-fold) and Japanese quail (5-fold) AHR1. The current report introduces a COS-7 whole-cell binding assay and provides a mechanistic explanation for differential relative potencies of PeCDF among species of birds. PMID:24434118

  13. Relative sensitivities among avian species to individual and mixtures of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fenghua; Li, Juanying; Zhang, Rui; Xia, Pu; Peng, Ying; Giesy, John P; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are potent toxicants to most vertebrates. Sensitivities to DLCs vary among species. In the present study, the sensitivities of avian species (chicken [Gallus gallus], ring-necked pheasant [Phasianus colchicus], and Japanese quail [Coturnix japonica]) to some polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined by using species-specific, in vitro, transactivation assays based on a luciferase reporter gene under control of species-specific aryl hydrocarbon receptors. In ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was not the most potent inducer of toxic effects. Especially for Japanese quail, the relative potency values of most of 9 PCDD/Fs tested were greater than for TCDD. The rank order of avian species sensitivities to DLCs was chicken > ring-necked pheasant > Japanese quail. Effects of binary mixtures of TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran were strictly additive. Moreover, we also found that the primary DLCs that were responsible for most of the potency of the DLC mixtures can be deduced by using ordination in a multidimensional space defined by the avian species sensitivities. Overall, the relative potency and the species sensitivities of these chemicals could guide risk assessments to wild species when exposure to mixtures of DLCs in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1239-1246. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26442838

  14. Antigenotoxic and Antimutagenic Activities of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Vc against N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine.

    PubMed

    Pithva, Sheetal P; Ambalam, Padma S; Ramoliya, Jignesh M; Dave, Jayantilal M; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides experimental evidence of in vivo reduction of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of potent carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) by the strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Vc. In vitro studies revealed that coincubation of MNNG with viable cells of L. rhamnosus Vc resulted in the detoxification of the parent compound accompanied with reduction in genotoxicity (69%) and mutagenicity (61%) as evaluated by SOS-Chromotest and Ames test, respectively. Oral feeding of probiotic bacteria L. rhamnosus Vc (10(9) cfu) to Gallus gallus (chicks) for 30 days provided protection against MNNG-induced damage as evidenced from the significant decrease (P = 0.009) in glutathione S-transferase activity in the L. rhamnosus Vc+MNNG-treated chicks in comparison to the MNNG-treated chicks. Histopathology of colon and liver showed intact cells and mild inflammation in the L. rhamnosus Vc+MNNG-treated chicks, whereas heavy inflammation and degenerative changes were observed in MNNG-treated chicks. The results indicate that the probiotic L. rhamnosus Vc provided in vivo protection against MNNG-induced colon damage by detoxification of MNNG to less toxic metabolites. PMID:26312410

  15. An introduced generalist parasite, the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea), and its pathology in the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Boughton, R K; Atwell, J W; Schoech, S J

    2006-10-01

    The sticktight flea, (Echidnophaga gallinacea), a major pest of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) that can cause severe pathology or death if untreated, is rarely recorded in free-living avian species. Sticktight fleas, however, were observed on the federally threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) in February 2004, in south central Florida. Of the 81 Florida scrub-jays (FSJs) sampled before the 2004 breeding season, 12 were infested, with from 1 to as many as 57 fleas. Subsequent survivorship and variation in health indices led us to conclude that the sticktight flea caused the death of several jays. Within 4 mo, 46% of sticktight flea-infested (INF) jays died, whereas in the nonflea-infested (NINF) jays, only 5.9% died. Adult INF birds lost body mass in the time since a previous capture compared with NINF jays, and mass gain was slowed in 1-yr-old INF jays. Hematocrit of INF jays was dramatically impacted, as low as 17%, and was negatively correlated with the extent of infestation. Leukocyte counts were highest in INF jays; however, plasma immunoglobulin levels were lowest. Physiological stress levels, measured using plasma corticosterone, increased more rapidly in INF jays than NINF jays and were positively correlated with heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. The impact of the sticktight flea on the federally threatened FSJ negates previous findings that sticktight fleas are benign in wild avian hosts. PMID:17152932

  16. Teratogenic efects of injected methylmercury on avian embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Kondrad, Shannon L.; Erwin, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Controlled laboratory studies with game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and chickens (Gallus gallus) have demonstrated that methylmercury can cause teratogenic effects in birds, but studies with wild species of birds are lacking. To address this need, doses of methylmercury chloride were injected into the eggs of 25 species of birds, and the dead embryos and hatched chicks were examined for external deformities. When data for controls were summed across all 25 species tested and across all types of deformities, 24 individuals out of a total of 1,533 (a rate of 1.57%) exhibited at least one deformity. In contrast, when data for all of the mercury treatments and all 25 species were summed, 188 deformed individuals out of a total of 2,292 (8.20%) were found. Some deformities, such as lordosis and scoliosis (twisting of the spine), misshapen heads, shortening or twisting of the neck, and deformities of the wings, were seldom observed in controls but occurred in much greater frequency in Hg-treated individuals. Only 0.59% of individual control dead embryos and hatchlings exhibited multiple deformities versus 3.18% for Hg-dosed dead embryos and hatchlings. Methylmercury seems to have a widespread teratogenic potential across many species of birds.

  17. A Genome-Wide Screen Indicates Correlation between Differentiation and Expression of Metabolism Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Akhilesh; Singh, Anupama; Meena, Anil; Ghosal, Ritika; Ranganathan, Madhav; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated tissues may be considered as materials with distinct properties. The differentiation program of a given tissue ensures that it acquires material properties commensurate with its function. It may be hypothesized that some of these properties are acquired through production of tissue-specific metabolites synthesized by metabolic enzymes. To establish correlation between metabolism and organogenesis we have carried out a genome-wide expression study of metabolism related genes by RNA in-situ hybridization. 23% of the metabolism related genes studied are expressed in a tissue-restricted but not tissue-exclusive manner. We have conducted the screen on whole mount chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from four distinct developmental stages to correlate dynamic changes in expression patterns of metabolic enzymes with spatio-temporally unique developmental events. Our data strongly suggests that unique combinations of metabolism related genes, and not specific metabolic pathways, are upregulated during differentiation. Further, expression of metabolism related genes in well established signaling centers that regulate different aspects of morphogenesis indicates developmental roles of some of the metabolism related genes. The database of tissue-restricted expression patterns of metabolism related genes, generated in this study, should serve as a resource for systematic identification of these genes with tissue-specific functions during development. Finally, comprehensive understanding of differentiation is not possible unless the downstream genes of a differentiation cascade are identified. We propose, metabolic enzymes constitute a significant portion of these downstream target genes. Thus our study should help elucidate different aspects of tissue differentiation. PMID:23717462

  18. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Neta, Rita Oliveira de Sousa; Trovão, Dilma Maria de Brito Melo; Barbosa, Jose Etham de Lucena; Barros, Adrianne Teixeira; Dias, Thelma Lucia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae "teju" lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was "problems affecting the respiratory system". Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  19. Identifying the Evolutionary Building Blocks of the Cardiac Conduction System

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Bjarke; Boukens, Bastiaan J. D.; Postma, Alex V.; Gunst, Quinn D.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Wang, Tobias; Christoffels, Vincent M.

    2012-01-01

    The endothermic state of mammals and birds requires high heart rates to accommodate the high rates of oxygen consumption. These high heart rates are driven by very similar conduction systems consisting of an atrioventricular node that slows the electrical impulse and a His-Purkinje system that efficiently activates the ventricular chambers. While ectothermic vertebrates have similar contraction patterns, they do not possess anatomical evidence for a conduction system. This lack amongst extant ectotherms is surprising because mammals and birds evolved independently from reptile-like ancestors. Using conserved genetic markers, we found that the conduction system design of lizard (Anolis carolinensis and A. sagrei), frog (Xenopus laevis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) adults is strikingly similar to that of embryos of mammals (mouse Mus musculus, and man) and chicken (Gallus gallus). Thus, in ectothermic adults, the slow conducting atrioventricular canal muscle is present, no fibrous insulating plane is formed, and the spongy ventricle serves the dual purpose of conduction and contraction. Optical mapping showed base-to-apex activation of the ventricles of the ectothermic animals, similar to the activation pattern of mammalian and avian embryonic ventricles and to the His-Purkinje systems of the formed hearts. Mammalian and avian ventricles uniquely develop thick compact walls and septum and, hence, form a discrete ventricular conduction system from the embryonic spongy ventricle. Our study uncovers the evolutionary building plan of heart and indicates that the building blocks of the conduction system of adult ectothermic vertebrates and embryos of endotherms are similar. PMID:22984480

  20. Chicks, like children, spontaneously reorient by three-dimensional environmental geometry, not by image matching

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Spatial reorientation by layout geometry occurs in numerous species, but its underlying mechanisms are debated. While some argue that navigating animals' sense of place is based on geometric computations over three-dimensional representations, others claim it depends on panoramic image-matching processes. Because children reorient by subtle three-dimensional perturbations of the terrain and not by salient two-dimensional brightness contours on surfaces or freestanding columns, children's sense of place cannot be explained by image matching. To test image-matching theories in a different species, the present experiment investigates the reorientation performance of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) in environments similar to those used with children. Chicks, like children, spontaneously reoriented by geometric relationships of subtle three-dimensional terrains, and not by salient two-dimensional brightness contours on surfaces or columns. These findings add to the evidence for homologous navigation systems in humans and other vertebrates, and they cast doubt on image-matching theories of reorientation in these species. PMID:22417791

  1. Transcriptome profiling of developing photoreceptor subtypes reveals candidate genes involved in avian photoreceptor diversification

    PubMed Central

    Enright, Jennifer M.; Lawrence, Karen A.; Hadzic, Tarik; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Avian photoreceptors are a diverse class of neurons, comprised of four single cones, the two members of the double cone, and rods. The signaling events and transcriptional regulators driving the differentiation of these diverse photoreceptors are currently unknown. In addition, many distinctive features of photoreceptor subtypes, including spectral tuning, oil droplet size and pigmentation, synaptic targets and spatial patterning, have been well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these attributes have not been explored. To identify genes specifically expressed in distinct chicken (Gallus gallus) photoreceptor subtypes, we developed fluorescent reporters that label photoreceptor subpopulations, isolated these subpopulations using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and subjected them to next-generation sequencing. By comparing the expression profiles of photoreceptors labeled with rhodopsin, red opsin, green opsin, and violet opsin reporters, we have identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that may underlie the distinctive features of these photoreceptor subtypes. These genes are involved in a variety of processes, including phototransduction, transcriptional regulation, cell adhesion, maintenance of intra- and extra-cellular structure, and metabolism. Of particular note are a variety of differentially expressed transcription factors, which may drive and maintain photoreceptor diversity, and cell adhesion molecules that may mediate spatial patterning of photoreceptors and act to establish retinal circuitry. These analyses provide a framework for future studies that will dissect the role of these various factors in the differentiation of avian photoreceptor subtypes. PMID:25349106

  2. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Multiple Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Two Representatives of the Genus Turdus (Turdidae, Passeriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Furo, Ivanete de Oliveira; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa

    2014-01-01

    Turdus rufiventris and Turdus albicollis, two songbirds belonging to the family Turdidae (Aves, Passeriformes) were studied by C-banding, 18S rDNA, as well as the use of whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL). They showed very similar karyotypes, with 2n = 78 and the same pattern of distribution of heterochromatic blocks and hybridization patterns. However, the analysis of 18/28S rDNA has shown differences in the number of NOR-bearing chromosomes and ribosomal clusters. The hybridization pattern of GGA macrochromosomes was similar to the one found in songbirds studied by Fluorescent in situ hybridization, with fission of GGA 1 and GGA 4 chromosomes. In contrast, LAL chromosome paintings revealed a complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) on chromosome 2, which corresponds to GGA1q. The first inversion changed the chromosomal morphology and the second and third inversions changed the order of chromosome segments. Karyotype analysis in Turdus revealed that this genus has derived characteristics in relation to the putative avian ancestral karyotype, highlighting the importance of using new tools for analysis of chromosomal evolution in birds, such as the probes derived from L. albicollis, which make it possible to identify intrachromosomal rearrangements not visible with the use of GGA chromosome painting solely. PMID:25058578

  3. The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

  4. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  5. The chick embryo as a model for the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol on craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kiecker, Clemens

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a syndrome characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations including craniofacial dysmorphologies and neurological defects. The characterisation of the mechanisms by which ethanol exerts its teratogenic effects is difficult due to the pleiotropic nature of its actions. Different experimental model systems have been employed to investigate the aetiology of FASD. Here, I will review studies using these different model organisms that have helped to elucidate how ethanol causes the craniofacial abnormalities characteristic of FASD. In these studies, ethanol was found to impair the prechordal plate-an important embryonic signalling centre-during gastrulation and to negatively affect the induction, migration and survival of the neural crest, a cell population that generates the cartilage and most of the bones of the skull. At the cellular level, ethanol appears to inhibit Sonic hedgehog signalling, alter levels of retionoic acid activity, trigger a Ca(2+)-CamKII-dependent pathway that antagonises WNT signalling, affect cytoskeletal dynamics and increase oxidative stress. Embryos of the domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus have played a central role in developing a working model for the effects of ethanol on craniofacial development because they are easily accessible and because key steps in craniofacial development are particularly well established in the avian embryo. I will finish this review by highlighting some potential future avenues of fetal alcohol research. PMID:26777098

  6. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. PMID:25660426

  7. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives. PMID:20688680

  8. Pulse wave velocity and age- and gender-dependent aortic wall hardening in fowl

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Feria, Ciro A.; Yang, Yimu; Thomason, Donald B.; White, Jarred; Su, Guibin; Nishimura, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Before sexual maturation, chickens (Gallus gallus) show high blood pressure (BP) and neointimal plaques in the lower abdominal aortae (AbA). We investigated age/sex-related changes in pulse wave velocity (PWV), elastin, collagen, and protein levels in AbA, and cardiac morphology to determine whether PWV increases during incremental increases in BP of maturing fowl, while arterial stiffness becomes dominant with aging. PWV (m/s) was significantly greater in male chicks (6-7 wk, 9.3 ± 0.8; females, 6.1 ± 0.5) and remained high in cockerels (13 wk), young (27-28 wk), and adults (44-66 wk). PWV increased in prepubertal pullets (10.0 ± 0.9), dropped significantly in young hens, and remained low in adults. In contrast, medial thickness, protein levels, and collagen levels increased, while elastin/collagen ratios decreased, with maturation/aging. Males had heavier ventricular mass and thicker ventricular walls than females at all ages; left ventricular thickness decreased with maturation/aging. Thus, sustained high BP may have caused progressive medial hypertrophy, increased aortic rigidity, and enlarged hearts with left ventricular dilation. PWV of AbA was already greater in male chicks at an age when both sexes have similar collagen levels and low protein levels, suggesting that a factor other than structural stiffness may be an important determinant of PWV. PMID:19689927

  9. Intuitive physical reasoning about occluded objects by inexperienced chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of nature and nurture in higher cognition appear to be intractable if one restricts one's attention to development in humans. However, in other domains, such as sensory development, much information has been gained from controlled rearing studies with animals. Here, we used a similar experimental strategy to investigate intuitive reasoning about occluded objects. Newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) were reared singly with a small object that became their social partner. They were then accustomed to rejoin such an imprinting object when it was made to move and disappear behind either one of two identical opaque screens. After disappearance of the imprinting object, chicks were faced with two screens of different slants, or of different height or different width, which may or may not have been compatible with the presence of the imprinting object hidden beneath/behind them. Chicks consistently chose the screen of slant/height/width compatible with the presence of the object beneath/behind it. Preventing chicks from touching and pecking at the imprinting object before testing did not affect the results, suggesting that intuitive reasoning about physical objects is largely independent of specific experience of interaction with objects and of objects' occluding events. PMID:21270036

  10. Transcriptome profiling of developing photoreceptor subtypes reveals candidate genes involved in avian photoreceptor diversification.

    PubMed

    Enright, Jennifer M; Lawrence, Karen A; Hadzic, Tarik; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-03-01

    Avian photoreceptors are a diverse class of neurons, comprised of four single cones, the two members of the double cone, and rods. The signaling events and transcriptional regulators driving the differentiation of these diverse photoreceptors are largely unknown. In addition, many distinctive features of photoreceptor subtypes, including spectral tuning, oil droplet size and pigmentation, synaptic targets, and spatial patterning, have been well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these attributes have not been explored. To identify genes specifically expressed in distinct chicken (Gallus gallus) photoreceptor subtypes, we developed fluorescent reporters that label photoreceptor subpopulations, isolated these subpopulations by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and subjected them to next-generation sequencing. By comparing the expression profiles of photoreceptors labeled with rhodopsin, red opsin, green opsin, and violet opsin reporters, we have identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that may underlie the distinctive features of these photoreceptor subtypes. These genes are involved in a variety of processes, including phototransduction, transcriptional regulation, cell adhesion, maintenance of intra- and extracellular structure, and metabolism. Of particular note are a variety of differentially expressed transcription factors, which may drive and maintain photoreceptor diversity, and cell adhesion molecules, which may mediate spatial patterning of photoreceptors and act to establish retinal circuitry. These analyses provide a framework for future studies that will dissect the role of these various factors in the differentiation of avian photoreceptor subtypes. PMID:25349106

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis). PMID:19683397

  12. Karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes: an examination of the process of karyotypic evolution by comparison of the molecular cytogenetic findings with the molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, M; Nishibori, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y

    2004-01-01

    To define the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Chinese bamboo-partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of the Phasianidae, and plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) of the Cracidae, with chicken DNA probes of chromosomes 1-9 and Z. Including our previous data from five other species, chicken (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis) of the Phasianidae, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) of the Numididae and California quail (Callipepla californica) of the Odontophoridae, we represented the evolutionary changes of karyotypes in the 13 species of the Galliformes. In addition, we compared the cytogenetic data with the molecular phylogeny of the 13 species constructed with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and discussed the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes. Comparative chromosome painting confirmed the previous data on chromosome rearrangements obtained by G-banding analysis, and identified several novel chromosome rearrangements. The process of the evolutionary changes of macrochromosomes in the 13 species was in good accordance with the molecular phylogeny, and the ancestral karyotype of the Galliformes is represented. PMID:15218250

  13. The development of newborn object recognition in fast and slow visual worlds.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-04-27

    Object recognition is central to perception and cognition. Yet relatively little is known about the environmental factors that cause invariant object recognition to emerge in the newborn brain. Is this ability a hardwired property of vision? Or does the development of invariant object recognition require experience with a particular kind of visual environment? Here, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) require visual experience with slowly changing objects to develop invariant object recognition abilities. When newborn chicks were raised with a slowly rotating virtual object, the chicks built invariant object representations that generalized across novel viewpoints and rotation speeds. In contrast, when newborn chicks were raised with a virtual object that rotated more quickly, the chicks built viewpoint-specific object representations that failed to generalize to novel viewpoints and rotation speeds. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between the speed of the object and the amount of invariance in the chick's object representation. Thus, visual experience with slowly changing objects plays a critical role in the development of invariant object recognition. These results indicate that invariant object recognition is not a hardwired property of vision, but is learned rapidly when newborns encounter a slowly changing visual world. PMID:27097925

  14. Reassessment of genome size in turtle and crocodile based on chromosome measurement by flow karyotyping: close similarity to chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Fumio; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.

    2012-01-01

    The genome size in turtles and crocodiles is thought to be much larger than the 1.2 Gb of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA), according to the animal genome size database. However, GGA macrochromosomes show extensive homology in the karyotypes of the red eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans, TSC) and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus, CNI), and bird and reptile genomes have been highly conserved during evolution. In this study, size and GC content of all chromosomes are measured from the flow karyotypes of GGA, TSC and CNI. Genome sizes estimated from the total chromosome size demonstrate that TSC and CNI are 1.21 Gb and 1.29 Gb, respectively. This refines previous overestimations and reveals similar genome sizes in chicken, turtle and crocodile. Analysis of chromosome GC content in each of these three species shows a higher GC content in smaller chromosomes than in larger chromosomes. This contrasts with mammals and squamates in which GC content does not correlate with chromosome size. These data suggest that a common ancestor of birds, turtles and crocodiles had a small genome size and a chromosomal size-dependent GC bias, distinct from the squamate lineage. PMID:22491763

  15. Effect of In Ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, E T; Wiley, F; Grasman, K A; Tillitt, D E; Sikarskie, J G; Bowerman, W W

    2007-11-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. PMID:17882474

  16. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavoie, E.T.; Wiley, F.; Grasman, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Bowerman, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  18. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  19. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced toxicity and species-differential sensitivity in chicken and duck embryos.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Kennedy, S W; Di Muccio, T; Moon, T W

    2001-05-01

    The role of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-induced toxicity and species-specific sensitivity was examined in White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) and Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) embryos. Eggs were injected into the air cell with 0.4-1.6 microgram PCB 126/kg egg in corn oil prior to incubation. Lipid peroxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the GSSG:GSH ratio, and glutathione peroxidase (GPox) activities were determined in liver and adipose tissue of day 19 chicken and day 26 duck embryos. In chicken embryos, PCB 126 increased mortality and the incidence of edema and liver lesions, decreased embryo size, increased eye and head malformations, and markedly reduced fat storage. In contrast, no effects on the endpoints were observed in duck embryos even at the highest dose used in chicken embryos. PCB 126 increased hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in a dose-dependent manner in chicken but not duck embryos. PCB 126 significantly increased TBARS levels in liver and to a greater degree in adipose tissue of chicken embryos, indicating that adipose tissue is a sensitive target for this compound. Increases in lipid peroxidation by PCB 126 were associated with significant decreases in GPox activity in these tissues. These biochemical changes support oxidative stress playing a role in PCB 126-induced embryo toxicity while antioxidant defenses provided protection against oxidative damage induced by this compound. Ducks, the less-sensitive species, showed higher basal levels of hepatic GPox than chickens, suggesting that this antioxidant enzyme may contribute to the differences in sensitivity to this compound between the two species. PMID:11312653

  20. Expression of S100 beta in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated anti-S100 beta expression in the chick (Gallus domesticus) inner ear and determined that: 1) the monomer anti-S100 beta is expressed differentially in the vestibular and auditory perikarya; 2) expression of S100 beta in the afferent nerve terminals is time-related to synapse and myelin formation; 3) the expression of the dimer anti-S100 alpha alpha beta beta and monomer anti-S100 beta overlaps in most inner ear cell types. Most S100 alpha alpha beta beta positive cells express S100 beta, but S100 beta positive cells do not always express S100 alpha alpha beta beta. 4) the expression of S100 beta is diffused over the perikaryal cytoplasm and nuclei of the acoustic ganglia but is concentrated over the nuclei of the vestibular perikarya. 6) S100 beta is expressed in secretory cells, and it is co-localized with GABA in sensory cells. 7) Color thresholding objective quantitation indicates that the amount of S100 beta was higher (mean 22, SD +/- 4) at E19 than at E9 (mean 34, SD +/- 3) in afferent axons. 8) Moreover, S100 beta was unchanged between E11-E19 in the perikaryal cytoplasm, but did change over the nuclei. At E9, 74%, and at E21, 5% of vestibular perikarya were positive. The data suggest that S100 beta may be physically associated with neuronal and ionic controlling cells of the vertebrate inner ear, where it could provide a dual ionic and neurotrophic modulatory function.

  1. A characterization of associativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for associativity of a function is given, in terms of a particular relation being a function. The concept of an associative function is generalized to the concept of a function being asssociative relative to a sequence and a characterization of such relative associativity is also given. These two characteristics are applied to the problem of proving the associativity, or relative associativity, of a function.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  3. Spondylitis Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Ankylosing Spondylitis About the Spondylitis Association of America Join Today Renew Your Membership Contact Us News ... Twitter Pinterest YouTube Copyright 2016 Spondylitis Association of America | Privacy Statement | Terms Of Use

  4. Leprosy associated with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Raiol, Theisla Kely Azevedo; Volpato, Solange Emanuelle; Santana, Jaci Maria; Ferreira, Isabelle Sousa Medeiros Torres; Takano, Daniela Mayumi

    2015-12-01

    Reported cases of leprosy and psoriasis coexistence are uncommon in the literature. Studies suggest a negative association between these two diseases. A case of association between these disorders has been reported. PMID:26964432

  5. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  6. American Association of Suicidology

    MedlinePlus

    ... AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SUICIDOLOGY Suicide Prevention is Everyone's Business AAS is a charitable, nonprofit membership organization ... Signs & Risk Factors Current Projects Mission History Financial Information At ...

  7. PADB : Published Association Database

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  8. Neuroscience: Incepting Associations.

    PubMed

    deBettencourt, Megan T; Norman, Kenneth A

    2016-07-25

    A recent study has used real-time fMRI neurofeedback to induce color-specific activity patterns in early visual cortex as participants viewed achromatic gratings. This procedure resulted in an association between the color and the displayed grating orientation, suggesting that early visual cortex can support associative learning of this type. PMID:27458913

  9. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  10. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  11. Today's Associations, Tomorrow's Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichniowski, Casey; Zax, Jeffrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of census data on local government departments investigated the effects of association-style unionism on union membership. Found that in all local government services, the presence of an association in 1977 was a strong predictor of the formation of a bargaining unit by 1982--holding constant other important determinants of public…

  12. Network Consistent Data Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases. PMID:26485472

  13. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  14. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  15. Dynamics of associating networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengchang; Habicht, Axel; Wang, Muzhou; Li, Shuaili; Seiffert, Sebastian; Olsen, Bradley

    Associating polymers offer important technological solutions to renewable and self-healing materials, conducting electrolytes for energy storage and transport, and vehicles for cell and protein deliveries. The interplay between polymer topologies and association chemistries warrants new interesting physics from associating networks, yet poses significant challenges to study these systems over a wide range of time and length scales. In a series of studies, we explored self-diffusion mechanisms of associating polymers above the percolation threshold, by combining experimental measurements using forced Rayleigh scattering and analytical insights from a two-state model. Despite the differences in molecular structures, a universal super-diffusion phenomenon is observed when diffusion of molecular species is hindered by dissociation kinetics. The molecular dissociation rate can be used to renormalize shear rheology data, which yields an unprecedented time-temperature-concentration superposition. The obtained shear rheology master curves provide experimental evidence of the relaxation hierarchy in associating networks.

  16. FRANCISELLA-LIKE ENDOSYMBIONT IN A TICK COLLECTED FROM A CHICKEN IN SOUTHERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rakthong, Pakavadee; Ruang-Areerate, Toon; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-03-01

    Francisella is a genus of bacterial pathogens potentially lethal to humans. We report here for the first time a novel Francisella-like endosymbiont discovered in a hard-tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l.) obtained from a chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Thailand. The phylogenetic results indicate the 16S rDNA sequences of this Francisella bacterium form a unique clade with the Francisella-like endosymbiont of the tick species, Amblyomma varanense and Amblyomma helvolum, that have previously been found on snakes in Thailand. This species of Francisella is in a different group from the other Francisella-like endosymbionts previously reported from other countries. No Francisella was detected in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks obtained from chickens in this study. PMID:27244963

  17. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  18. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Owens, P R; Leytem, A B; Warnemuende, E A

    2007-05-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha-1, and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L-1) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH4-N L-1) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L-1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application. PMID:17029684

  19. Larval stages of Brachylaima fuscatum in the terrestrial snail Limicolaria aurora from southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awharitoma, A O; Okaka, C E; Obaze, S E

    2003-03-01

    Of 150 specimens of the gastropod snail Limicolaria aurora examined from the Edo and Delta states of Nigeria, 63.4% were infected with larval digeneans comprising mother sporocysts (12.1%) daughter sporocysts (20.4%) cercariae (43.1%) and metacercariae (24.5%). Attempts to experimentally infect three 14-day-old chicks (Gallus domesticus) and two laboratory-bred 4-month-old mice (Mus musculus) by oral feeding and peritoneal injection with cercariae were negative, although experimental infections of chicks via a cloacal drop yielded 62 immature and 37 mature worms from the intestinal caeca and ileum. The worms were identified as Brachylaima fuscatum (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae). The study also revealed that L. aurora acts as an intermediate host for B. fuscatum, in addition to Eulota sp., Helix sp., Helicella sp., Oxychilus sp. and Agrolimax sp. PMID:12590656

  20. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  1. Effect of Microgravity on Afferent Innervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Presentations and publications are: (1) an audiovisual summary web presentation on results from SLM-MIR avian experiments. A color presentation summarizing results from the SLM-MIR and STS-29 avian experiments; (2) color threshold and ratio of S 100B MAP5, NF68/200, GABA and GAD; (3) chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents; (4) microgravity in the STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery affected the vestibular system of chick embryos; (5) expression of S 100B in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear; (6) otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes;(7) the glycan keratin sulfate in inner ear crystals; (8) elliptical-P cells in the avian perilymphatic interface of the tegmentum vasculosum; and (9) LAMP2c and S100B upregulation in brain stem after VIIIth nerve deafferentation.

  2. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus), with phylogenetic analysis in phasianidae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Sha, Tao; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pavo cristatus, known as the Indian peafowl, is endemic to India and Sri Lanka and has been domesticated for its ornamental and food value. However, its phylogenetic status is still debated. Here, to clarify the phylogenetic status of P. cristatus within Phasianidae, we analyzed its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome was determined using 34 pairs of primers. Our data show that the mtDNA genome of P. cristatus is 16,686 bp in length. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of P. cristatus was performed along with 22 complete mtDNA genomes belonging to other species in Phasianidae using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, where Aythya americana and Anas platyrhynchos were used as outgroups. Our results show that P. critatus has its closest genetic affinity with Pavo muticus and belongs to clade that contains Gallus, Bambusicola and Francolinus. PMID:24409883

  4. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus). PMID:20806654

  5. A modified protocol for sex identification of in ovo avian embryos and its application as a management tool for endangered species conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Dutton, C J; Tieber, A

    2001-06-01

    A simple, reliable, and safe protocol was developed for the collection of small amounts of blood from avian eggs of variable size and at early stages of development. Fifty eggs were used in the study; 40 were common chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs, six were homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica) eggs, and four were burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) eggs. Collection was attempted approximately halfway through incubation. The success rate for collection of blood or blood-tinged fluid from eggs was high, averaging 68% in the chicken eggs, 100% in the homing pigeon eggs, and 75% in the burrowing owl eggs. Collection did not affect subsequent hatchability. This blood could then be used to determine the sex of the embryo by utilizing a DNA probe or restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Sex identification in ovo allowed the demographic management of small populations of birds within our institution. PMID:12790417

  6. Anthrax-associated shock.

    PubMed

    Goldman, David L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Recent events have brought attention to the potential of Bacillus anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism. The shock like state of anthrax is invariably associated with high mortality, despite anti-microbial and supportive therapy. Multi-system dysfunction is typical, including: enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and inflammation. Important questions concerning the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock remain unanswered, including the effects of B. anthracis infection on cardiac function. This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock. PMID:18508494

  7. [Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism in Different Populations of Spangled Orloff Chickens].

    PubMed

    Oyuna, N Yu; Moiseyeva, I G; Sevastianova, A A; Vakhrameev, A B; Alexandrov, A V; Kuzevanova, A Yu; Alimov, A A; Sulimova, G E

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, the genetic diversity of the Spangled Orloff chickens was studied by analyzing the polymorphism of the hypervariable region in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Samples for the analysis were collected at the farms ofthe All-Russia Poultry Research and Technological Institute (VNITIP), the All-Russia Institute of Farm Animal Genetics and Breeding (VNIIGRZh), and the Moscow Zoo. The D-loop partial sequences (between nucleotide positions 57 and 523) were determined according to the reference sequence of Gallus gallus spadiceus mtDNA, NC_007235 in 39 individuals obtained from these populations (GenBank Accession Nos. KM391754-KM391792). In the analyzed mtDNA fragment, a total of 20 polymorphic sites localized between positions 167 and 368, as well as at position 446, were described in Spangled Orloff chickens. One polymorphic site at position 221 (haplogroup E, haplotype ORL-2) was unique. All of the identified nucleotide changes were transition-type substitutions. Overall, based on the analysis of poly- morphic sites in the hypervariable fragment of the D-loop of Spangled Orloff chicken mtDNA, we found seven haplotypes belonging to four haplogroups (A, B, C, and E). Haplogroup E (haplotypes ORL-1, ORL-2, and ORL-3) was present in the majority of the studied individual, with the frequencies of 0.77 in the total sample and 0.47 in the VNIIGRZh farm population. Haplogroups A (haplotypes ORL-4 and ORL-7), B (ORL-6), and C (ORL-5) were found only in samples from the VNIIGRZh farm. The studied mtDNA region revealed a lower level of polymorphism in the VNITIP and Moscow Zoo populations, which only had the ORL-1 and ORL-3 haplotypes belonging to Haplogroup E, respectively. Our data suggested that the studied Spangled Orloff chicken populations differed in the composition and frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups and haplotypes. PMID:26606802

  8. Full-length cDNA cloning and structural characterization of preproinsulin in Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Zhang, S Z; Li, E; Wang, C; Wang, C L; Wu, X B

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is an important endocrine hormone that plays a critical physiological role in regulating metabolism and glucostasis in vertebrates. In this study, the complete cDNA of Alligator sinensis preproinsulin gene was cloned for the first time by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods; the amino acid sequence encoded and protein structure were analyzed. The full-length of preproinsulin cDNA sequence consists of 528 base pairs (bp), comprising a 34-bp 5'-untranslated region, a 170-bp 3'-untranslated region and an open reading frame that is 324 bp in length. The open reading frame encodes a 107-amino acid preproinsulin with a molecular weight of approximately 12,153.8 Da, theoretical isoelectric point of 5.68, aliphatic index of 92.06, and grand average of hydropathicity of -0.157, from which a signal peptide, a B-chain, a C-peptide, and an A-chain are derived. Online analysis suggested that the deduced preproinsulin amino acid sequence contains a transmembrane region, and that it has a signal peptide whose cleavage site occurs between alanine 24 and alanine 25. Comparative analysis of preproinsulin amino acid sequences indicated that the A-chain and B-chain sequences of preproinsulins are highly conserved between reptiles and birds, and that the preproinsulin amino acid sequence of Alligator sinensis shares 89% similarity to that of Chelonia mydas, but low similarity of 48-63% to those of mammals and fishes. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method revealed that preproinsulin of Alligator sinensis had high homology with reptiles and birds, such as Chelonia mydas, Gallus gallus, and Columba livia. PMID:25366775

  9. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-08-22

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25165976

  10. Molecular characterization of an α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Ro; Yoo, Won Gi; Kim, Yu-Jung; Kim, Dae-Won; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja

    2012-11-01

    The α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGAL) is an exoglycosidase that selectively cleaves terminal α-linked N-acetylgalactosamines from a variety of sugar chains. A complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding a novel Clonorchis sinensis α-NAGAL (Cs-α-NAGAL) was identified in the expressed sequence tags database of the adult C. sinensis liver fluke. The complete coding sequence was 1,308 bp long and encoded a 436-residue protein. The selected glycosidase was manually curated as α-NAGAL (EC 3.2.1.49) based on a composite bioinformatics analysis including a search for orthologues, comparative structure modeling, and the generation of a phylogenetic tree. One orthologue of Cs-α-NAGAL was the Rattus norvegicus α-NAGAL (accession number: NP_001012120) that does not exist in C. sinensis. Cs-α-NAGAL belongs to the GH27 family and the GH-D clan. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the GH27 family of Cs-α-NAGAL was distinct from GH31 and GH36 within the GH-D clan. The putative 3D structure of Cs-α-NAGAL was built using SWISS-MODEL with a Gallus gallus α-NAGAL template (PDB code 1ktb chain A); this model demonstrated the superimposition of a TIM barrel fold (α/β) structure and substrate binding pocket. Cs-α-NAGAL transcripts were detected in the adult worm and egg cDNA libraries of C. sinensis but not in the metacercaria. Recombinant Cs-α-NAGAL (rCs-α-NAGAL) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified rCs-α-NAGAL was recognized specifically by the C. sinensis-infected human sera. This is the first report of an α-NAGAL protein in the Trematode class, suggesting that it is a potential diagnostic or vaccine candidate with strong antigenicity. PMID:22926676

  11. Significance of a basal melanin layer to production of non-iridescent structural plumage color: evidence from an amelanotic Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri).

    PubMed

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2006-04-01

    Non-iridescent structural plumage color is typically produced by coherent scattering of light within a matrix of keratin and air (a ;spongy layer') in feather barbs. It remains unclear what role, if any, the basal melanin layer underlying this spongy layer plays in the production of coloration. Amelanism in birds with structural color is a ;natural experiment' in which melanin pigmentation is lost, allowing us to identify the effects of the loss of melanin on structural color production. Here we use full-spectrum spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier analysis to compare the color and nanostructure of an amelanotic Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri Gmelin) feather with a normal blue Steller's jay feather. As a control, we also examined a white domestic chicken (Gallus gallus Linnaeus) feather. The pale amelanotic jay feather had a broad reflectance curve with a blue/green peak, while the typical blue feather had a typical distinct bell-shaped blue curve with a UV/violet peak. The white chicken feather had a typical white reflectance curve with no discrete peaks. Electron microscopy revealed that both the amelanotic and blue feather barbs contained well-formed spongy layers that were of the correct size and arrangement to produce their measured peak reflectance values, whereas the chicken feather had no spongy layer. The washed-out color of the amelanotic jay feather was thus most probably caused by the loss of the basal melanin layer, suggesting that melanin functions to absorb incoherently scattered white light from the feather barb thereby increasing the purity of the color produced by the spongy layer. PMID:16547296

  12. Identification of the Long-Sought Leptin in Chicken and Duck: Expression Pattern of the Highly GC-Rich Avian leptin Fits an Autocrine/Paracrine Rather Than Endocrine Function.

    PubMed

    Seroussi, Eyal; Cinnamon, Yuval; Yosefi, Sara; Genin, Olga; Smith, Julia Gage; Rafati, Nima; Bornelöv, Susanne; Andersson, Leif; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2016-02-01

    More than 20 years after characterization of the key regulator of mammalian energy balance, leptin, we identified the leptin (LEP) genes of chicken (Gallus gallus) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos). The extreme guanine-cytosine content (∼70%), the location in a genomic region with low-complexity repetitive and palindromic sequence elements, the relatively low sequence conservation, and low level of expression have hampered the identification of these genes until now. In vitro-expressed chicken and duck leptins specifically activated signaling through the chicken leptin receptor in cell culture. In situ hybridization demonstrated expression of LEP mRNA in granular and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, anterior pituitary, and in embryonic limb buds, somites, and branchial arches, suggesting roles in adult brain control of energy balance and during embryonic development. The expression patterns of LEP and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were explored in chicken, duck, and quail (Coturnix japonica) using RNA-sequencing experiments available in the Short Read Archive and by quantitative RT-PCR. In adipose tissue, LEP and LEPR were scarcely transcribed, and the expression level was not correlated to adiposity. Our identification of the leptin genes in chicken and duck genomes resolves a long lasting controversy regarding the existence of leptin genes in these species. This identification was confirmed by sequence and structural similarity, conserved exon-intron boundaries, detection in numerous genomic, and transcriptomic datasets and characterization by PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hy