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Sample records for game reserve human

  1. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  3. Modelling Human Emotions for Tactical Decision-Making Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny

    2013-01-01

    The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…

  4. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively. PMID:23951954

  5. Fish play Minority Game as humans do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruey-Tarng; Chung, Fei Fang; Liaw, Sy-Sang

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an unprecedented real Minority Game (MG) played by university staff members who clicked one of two identical buttons (A and B) on a computer screen while clocking in or out of work. We recorded the number of people who clicked button A for 1288 games, beginning on April 21, 2008 and ending on October 31, 2010, and calculated the variance among the people who clicked A as a function of time. The evolution of the variance shows that the global gain of selfish agents increases when a small portion of agents make persistent choice in the games. We also carried out another experiment in which we forced 101 fish to enter one of the two symmetric chambers (A and B). We repeated the fish experiment 500 times and found that the variance of the number of fish that entered chamber A evolved in a way similar to the human MG, suggesting that fish have memory and can employ more strategies when facing the same situation again and again.

  6. Human strategy updating in evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Arne; Semmann, Dirk; Sommerfeld, Ralf D; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Milinski, Manfred

    2010-02-16

    Evolutionary game dynamics describe not only frequency-dependent genetic evolution, but also cultural evolution in humans. In this context, successful strategies spread by imitation. It has been shown that the details of strategy update rules can have a crucial impact on evolutionary dynamics in theoretical models and, for example, can significantly alter the level of cooperation in social dilemmas. What kind of strategy update rules can describe imitation dynamics in humans? Here, we present a way to measure such strategy update rules in a behavioral experiment. We use a setting in which individuals are virtually arranged on a spatial lattice. This produces a large number of different strategic situations from which we can assess strategy updating. Most importantly, spontaneous strategy changes corresponding to mutations or exploration behavior are more frequent than assumed in many models. Our experimental approach to measure properties of the update mechanisms used in theoretical models will be useful for mathematical models of cultural evolution. PMID:20142470

  7. Casual Games and Casual Learning About Human Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. Aaron; Gean, Katherine; Christensen, Claire G.; Beheshti, Elham; Pernot, Bryn; Segovia, Gloria; Person, Halcyon; Beasley, Steven; Ward, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Casual games are everywhere. People play them throughout life to pass the time, to engage in social interactions, and to learn. However, their simplicity and use in distraction-heavy environments can attenuate their potential for learning. This experimental study explored the effects playing an online, casual game has on awareness of human biological systems. Two hundred and forty-two children were given pretests at a Museum and posttests at home after playing either a treatment or control game. Also, 41 children were interviewed to explore deeper meanings behind the test results. Results show modest improvement in scientific attitudes, ability to identify human biological systems and in the children's ability to describe how those systems work together in real-world scenarios. Interviews reveal that children drew upon their prior school learning as they played the game. Also, on the surface they perceived the game as mainly entertainment but were easily able to discern learning outcomes when prompted. Implications for the design of casual games and how they can be used to enhance transfer of knowledge from the classroom to everyday life are discussed.

  8. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

  9. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Educational Card Game for Learning How Human Immunology Is Regulated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, TzuFen; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Lin, Shu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of an educational card game we developed for learning human immunology. Two semesters of evaluation were included to examine the impact of the game on students' understanding and perceptions of the game-based instruction. Ninety-nine senior high school students (11th…

  10. Optimization of wildlife management in a large game reserve through waterpoints manipulation: a bio-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mwakiwa, Emmanuel; de Boer, Willem F; Hearne, John W; Slotow, Rob; van Langevelde, Frank; Peel, Mike; Grant, Cornelia C; Pretorius, Yolanda; Stigter, Johannes D; Skidmore, Andrew K; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; de Knegt, Henrik J; Kohi, Edward M; Knox, Nicky; Prins, Herbert H T

    2013-01-15

    Surface water is one of the constraining resources for herbivore populations in semi-arid regions. Artificial waterpoints are constructed by wildlife managers to supplement natural water supplies, to support herbivore populations. The aim of this paper is to analyse how a landowner may realize his ecological and economic goals by manipulating waterpoints for the management of an elephant population, a water-dependent species in the presence of water-independent species. We develop a theoretical bio-economic framework to analyse the optimization of wildlife management objectives (in this case revenue generation from both consumptive and non-consumptive use and biodiversity conservation), using waterpoint construction as a control variable. The model provides a bio-economic framework for analysing optimization problems where a control has direct effects on one herbivore species but indirect effects on the other. A landowner may be interested only in maximization of profits either from elephant offtake and/or tourism revenue, ignoring the negative effects that could be brought about by elephants to biodiversity. If the landowner does not take the indirect effects of waterpoints into consideration, then the game reserve management, as the authority entrusted with the sustainable management of the game reserve, might use economic instruments such as subsidies or taxes to the landowners to enforce sound waterpoint management. PMID:23183144

  11. Human Communication Handbook: Simulations and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.; Budd, Richard W.

    This book provides a basic, interdisciplinary framework for thinking about human communication, and contains a collection of carefully selected and ordered experience-based learning activities designed to clarify the communication process. The 24 chapters cover aspects of communication in a number of disciplines, including anthropology, art,…

  12. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  13. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  14. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human. PMID:21422464

  15. Human ovarian reserve from conception to the menopause.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W Hamish B; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    The human ovary contains a fixed number of non-growing follicles (NGFs) established before birth that decline with increasing age culminating in the menopause at 50-51 years. The objective of this study is to model the age-related population of NGFs in the human ovary from conception to menopause. Data were taken from eight separate quantitative histological studies (n = 325) in which NGF populations at known ages from seven weeks post conception to 51 years (median 32 years) were calculated. The data set was fitted to 20 peak function models, with the results ranked by obtained r2 correlation coefficient. The highest ranked model was chosen. Our model matches the log-adjusted NGF population from conception to menopause to a five-parameter asymmetric double Gaussian cumulative (ADC) curve (r2 = 0.81). When restricted to ages up to 25 years, the ADC curve has r2 = 0.95. We estimate that for 95% of women by the age of 30 years only 12% of their maximum pre-birth NGF population is present and by the age of 40 years only 3% remains. Furthermore, we found that the rate of NGF recruitment towards maturation for most women increases from birth until approximately age 14 years then decreases towards the menopause. To our knowledge, this is the first model of ovarian reserve from conception to menopause. This model allows us to estimate the number of NGFs present in the ovary at any given age, suggests that 81% of the variance in NGF populations is due to age alone, and shows for the first time, to our knowledge, that the rate of NGF recruitment increases from birth to age 14 years then declines with age until menopause. An increased understanding of the dynamics of human ovarian reserve will provide a more scientific basis for fertility counselling for both healthy women and those who have survived gonadotoxic cancer treatments. PMID:20111701

  16. Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest: The Human Rights Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an educational game for helping secondary school students learn about the role of Raoul Wallenberg in protecting European Jews from Nazi abuse in Hungary. Explains game objectives, materials needed, and procedures. Includes a map of 1945 Budapest that serves as the game board. (SG)

  17. Modeling Multiple Human-Automation Distributed Systems using Network-form Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes at a high-level the network-form game framework (based on Bayes net and game theory), which can be used to model and analyze safety issues in large, distributed, mixed human-automation systems such as NextGen.

  18. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  19. Name that Contraceptive! A Game for the Human Sexuality Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Martha S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many contraceptive choices available to people today. Learning about them can be dry, but the game "Name that Contraceptive!" can be a fun and interactive way to review, remember, and retain the details about contraceptive options. Name that Contraceptive is a card game in which students "bid" on the number of clues it will take them to…

  20. Casual Games and Casual Learning about Human Biological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, C. Aaron; Gean, Katherine; Christensen, Claire G.; Beheshti, Elham; Pernot, Bryn; Segovia, Gloria; Person, Halcyon; Beasley, Steven; Ward, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Casual games are everywhere. People play them throughout life to pass the time, to engage in social interactions, and to learn. However, their simplicity and use in distraction-heavy environments can attenuate their potential for learning. This experimental study explored the effects playing an online, casual game has on awareness of human…

  1. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Educational Card Game for Learning How Human Immunology Is Regulated

    PubMed Central

    Su, TzuFen; Lin, Shu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of an educational card game we developed for learning human immunology. Two semesters of evaluation were included to examine the impact of the game on students’ understanding and perceptions of the game-based instruction. Ninety-nine senior high school students (11th graders) were recruited for the first evaluation, and the second-semester group consisted of 72 students (also 11th graders). The results obtained indicate that students did learn from the educational card game. Moreover, students who learned from playing the game significantly outperformed their counterparts in terms of their understanding of the processes and connections among different lines of immunological defense (first semester: t = 2.92, p < 0.01; second semester: t = 3.45, p < 0.01) according to the qualitative analysis of an open-ended question. They generally had positive perceptions toward the game-based instruction and its learning efficiency, and they felt the game-based instruction was much more interesting than traditional didactic lectures (first semester: t = 2.79, p < 0.01; second semester: t = 2.41, p < 0.05). This finding is evidence that the educational card game has potential to facilitate students’ learning of how the immune system works. The implications and suggestions for future work are further discussed. PMID:25185233

  2. The Modeling of Human Intelligence in the Computer as Demonstrated in the Game of DIPLOMAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James Edward; Paulsen, Thomas Dean

    An attempt was made to develop human-like behavior in the computer. A theory of the human learning process was described. A computer game was presented which simulated the human capabilities of reasoning and learning. The program was required to make intelligent decisions based on past experiences and critical analysis of the present situation.…

  3. The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Cheryl A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Johnson, Edwin D.

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs ( Sus scrofa), goats ( Capra hircus), mouflon ( Ovis musimon), axis deer ( Axis axis), turkeys ( Melagris gallopavo), and doves ( Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned ( n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  4. The islands are different: human perceptions of game species in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Johnson, Edwin D

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents. PMID:25129387

  5. Dizeez: An Online Game for Human Gene-Disease Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Loguercio, Salvatore; Good, Benjamin M.; Su, Andrew I.

    2013-01-01

    Structured gene annotations are a foundation upon which many bioinformatics and statistical analyses are built. However the structured annotations available in public databases are a sparse representation of biological knowledge as a whole. The rate of biomedical data generation is such that centralized biocuration efforts struggle to keep up. New models for gene annotation need to be explored that expand the pace at which we are able to structure biomedical knowledge. Recently, online games have emerged as an effective way to recruit, engage and organize large numbers of volunteers to help address difficult biological challenges. For example, games have been successfully developed for protein folding (Foldit), multiple sequence alignment (Phylo) and RNA structure design (EteRNA). Here we present Dizeez, a simple online game built with the purpose of structuring knowledge of gene-disease associations. Preliminary results from game play online and at scientific conferences suggest that Dizeez is producing valid gene-disease annotations not yet present in any public database. These early results provide a basic proof of principle that online games can be successfully applied to the challenge of gene annotation. Dizeez is available at http://genegames.org. PMID:23951102

  6. Dizeez: an online game for human gene-disease annotation.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, Salvatore; Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I

    2013-01-01

    Structured gene annotations are a foundation upon which many bioinformatics and statistical analyses are built. However the structured annotations available in public databases are a sparse representation of biological knowledge as a whole. The rate of biomedical data generation is such that centralized biocuration efforts struggle to keep up. New models for gene annotation need to be explored that expand the pace at which we are able to structure biomedical knowledge. Recently, online games have emerged as an effective way to recruit, engage and organize large numbers of volunteers to help address difficult biological challenges. For example, games have been successfully developed for protein folding (Foldit), multiple sequence alignment (Phylo) and RNA structure design (EteRNA). Here we present Dizeez, a simple online game built with the purpose of structuring knowledge of gene-disease associations. Preliminary results from game play online and at scientific conferences suggest that Dizeez is producing valid gene-disease annotations not yet present in any public database. These early results provide a basic proof of principle that online games can be successfully applied to the challenge of gene annotation. Dizeez is available at http://genegames.org. PMID:23951102

  7. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair. PMID:26903892

  8. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Michael G.; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair. PMID:26903892

  9. Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Parrish, Audrey; Beran, Michael J; Flemming, Timothy; Heimbauer, Lisa; Talbot, Catherine F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Wilson, Bart J

    2011-02-22

    There is great interest in the evolution of economic behavior. In typical studies, species are asked to play one of a series of economic games, derived from game theory, and their responses are compared. The advantage of this approach is the relative level of consistency and control that emerges from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment, procedures and conditions differ widely, particularly between humans and other species. Thus, in the current study, we investigated how three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans, played the Assurance (or Stag Hunt) game using procedures that were, to the best of our ability, the same across species, particularly with respect to training and pretesting. Our goal was to determine what, if any, differences existed in the ways in which these species made decisions in this game. We hypothesized differences along phylogenetic lines, which we found. However, the species were more similar than might be expected. In particular, humans who played using "nonhuman primate-friendly" rules did not behave as is typical. Thus, we find evidence for similarity in decision-making processes across the order Primates. These results indicate that such comparative studies are possible and, moreover, that in any comparison rating species' relative abilities, extreme care must be taken in ensuring that one species does not have an advantage over the others due to methodological procedures. PMID:21300874

  10. Experimental Investigation of Human Adaptation to Change in Agent's Strategy through a Competitive Two-Player Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kazunori; Yamada, Seiji; Ito, Akira

    We conducted an experimental investigation on human adaptation to change in an agent's strategy through a competitive two-player game. Modeling the process of human adaptation to agents is important for designing intelligent interface agents and adaptive user interfaces that learn a user's preferences and behavior strategy. However, few studies on human adaptation to such an agent have been done. We propose a human adaptation model for a two-player game. We prepared an on-line experimental system in which a participant and an agent play a repeated penny-matching game with a bonus round. We then conducted experiments in which different opponent agents (human or robot) change their strategy during the game. The experimental results indicated that, as expected, there is an adaptation phase when a human is confronted with a change in the opponent agent's strategy, and adaptation is faster when a human is competing with robot than with another human.

  11. Learning to play like a human: case injected genetic algorithms for strategic computer gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Sushil J.; Miles, Chris

    2006-05-01

    We use case injected genetic algorithms to learn how to competently play computer strategy games that involve long range planning across complex dynamics. Imperfect knowledge presented to players requires them adapt their strategies in order to anticipate opponent moves. We focus on the problem of acquiring knowledge learned from human players, in particular we learn general routing information from a human player in the context of a strike force planning game. By incorporating case injection into a genetic algorithm, we show methods for incorporating general knowledge elicited from human players into future plans. In effect allowing the GA to take important strategic elements from human play and merging those elements into its own strategic thinking. Results show that with an appropriate representation, case injection is effective at biasing the genetic algorithm toward producing plans that contain important strategic elements used by human players.

  12. An Educational Game for Learning Human Immunology: What Do Students Learn and How Do They Perceive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Su, TzuFen; Huang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Jhih-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The scientific concepts of human immunology are inherently complicated and extremely difficult to understand. Hence, this study reports on the development of an educational game entitled "Humunology" and examines the impact of using "Humunology" for learning how the body's defense system works. A total of 132 middle school…

  13. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  14. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation... Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class III...

  15. Sexuality Education in Video Games: Recommendations for the Use of Video Games to Teach Human Sexuality Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, M. Scott

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a review of some of the currently available literature surrounding the academic study of video games. Many of these theoretical methods have been used to study film and television and are discussed here in order to frame the need for further examination of video games. Suggestions for the use of video games in the classroom…

  16. Laughter in popular games and in sport. The other health of human play.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Hurling in Cornwall, la soule in Britanny, Shrovetide football in England: Popular games have normally been treated as forerunners of modern sport, sport having regulated the space and the time of the game, the (non-) violence of behaviour, the control of results, the planning, strategy, tactics, techniques and evaluation of the competitive action. This is told as a story of social improvement and progress--and about turning unhealthy wildness into civilized 'healthy' sport activity. What sociological analysis of game-playing tended to ignore was the laughter of the participants. With the seriousness of modern sport, as it was established in the nineteenth century, a culture of laughter disappeared. This study tries to counter this mainstream by a phenomenology of laughter in popular games. A contrasting attention is turned towards the seriousness of sporting competition, the smile in modern sport and fitness, and the 'underground' dimension of laughter in modern sports. By comparative analysis, laughter reveals as a bodily discourse about the imperfect human being. It tells an oppositional story about the perfectionism in the order of Western thinking--in sports as well as in health. The bodily 'physiology' of laughter, the exploding psychical energy, and the inter-bodily social relations in laughter and play and game point towards the multi-dimensionality of health, as it was formulated by WHO: as "physical, mental, and social well-being". PMID:24308265

  17. Early afterdepolarizations promote transmural reentry in ischemic human ventricles with reduced repolarization reserve

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sara; Mincholé, Ana; Zacur, Ernesto; Quinn, T. Alexander; Taggart, Peter; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    Aims Acute ischemia is a major cause of sudden arrhythmic death, further promoted by potassium current blockers. Macro-reentry around the ischemic region and early afterdepolarizations (EADs) caused by electrotonic current have been suggested as potential mechanisms in animal and isolated cell studies. However, ventricular and human-specific arrhythmia mechanisms and their modulation by repolarization reserve remain unclear. The goal of this paper is to unravel multiscale mechanisms underlying the modulation of arrhythmic risk by potassium current (IKr) block in human ventricles with acute regional ischemia. Methods and results A human ventricular biophysically-detailed model, with acute regional ischemia is constructed by integrating experimental knowledge on the electrophysiological ionic alterations caused by coronary occlusion. Arrhythmic risk is evaluated by determining the vulnerable window (VW) for reentry following ectopy at the ischemic border zone. Macro-reentry around the ischemic region is the main reentrant mechanism in the ischemic human ventricle with increased repolarization reserve due to the ATP-sensitive potassium current (IK(ATP)) activation. Prolongation of refractoriness by 4% caused by 30% IKr reduction counteracts the establishment of macro-reentry and reduces the VW for reentry (by 23.5%). However, a further decrease in repolarization reserve (50% IKr reduction) is less anti-arrhythmic despite further prolongation of refractoriness. This is due to the establishment of transmural reentry enabled by electrotonically-triggered EADs in the ischemic border zone. EADs are produced by L-type calcium current (ICaL) reactivation due to prolonged low amplitude electrotonic current injected during the repolarization phase. Conclusions Electrotonically-triggered EADs are identified as a potential mechanism facilitating intramural reentry in a regionally-ischemic human ventricles model with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:26850675

  18. Coupled climate and human impacts on the wetland ecosystem in Zhalong Nature Reserve of Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, J.; Sun, Y.; Lei, G.; Zhang, H.

    2006-12-01

    The 840-squaure-mile (2,175-km2) Zhalong Nature Reserve is located in the northern Heilongjiang Province of China. Known for its migratory red-crowned cranes, the reserve was listed in the World Important Wetlands in 1992 by the United Nations. However, in recent years, Zhalong's wetlands have been facing increasingly threats from both intensified human exploitation and recent climate change. Using meteorological observations over the past 50 years, remote sensing images over the past 30 years, field surveys, and geospatial technologies, we conducted an analysis to improve our understanding of the dynamics of wetlands as a function of socioeconomic and climatic forcing. Specifically, we attempted to address the following coupled issues and questions: 1) how have the climate and socioeconomics in recent years changed in Zhalong Nature Reserve and 2) what are the ecological consequences of increasing human activities and changes in policies coupled with climate change? The analysis of the climate pattern and human activities suggest that the policy changes played a major role in land use/cover change and imposed a significant impact on the wetland ecosystem dynamics. The human activities appear to be the dominant factor in driving recent changes in wetland ecosystems while the climate change appears to have a secondary role affecting wetland ecosystems.

  19. Ionic mechanisms limiting cardiac repolarization reserve in humans compared to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Norbert; Virág, László; Comtois, Philippe; Ördög, Balázs; Szuts, Viktória; Seprényi, György; Bitay, Miklós; Kohajda, Zsófia; Koncz, István; Nagy, Norbert; Szél, Tamás; Magyar, János; Kovács, Mária; Puskás, László G; Lengyel, Csaba; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Nánási, Péter P; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Nattel, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The species-specific determinants of repolarization are poorly understood. This study compared the contribution of various currents to cardiac repolarization in canine and human ventricle. Conventional microelectrode, whole-cell patch-clamp, molecular biological and mathematical modelling techniques were used. Selective IKr block (50–100 nmol l−1 dofetilide) lengthened AP duration at 90% of repolarization (APD90) >3-fold more in human than dog, suggesting smaller repolarization reserve in humans. Selective IK1 block (10 μmol l−1 BaCl2) and IKs block (1 μmol l−1 HMR-1556) increased APD90 more in canine than human right ventricular papillary muscle. Ion current measurements in isolated cardiomyocytes showed that IK1 and IKs densities were 3- and 4.5-fold larger in dogs than humans, respectively. IKr density and kinetics were similar in human versus dog. ICa and Ito were respectively ∼30% larger and ∼29% smaller in human, and Na+–Ca2+ exchange current was comparable. Cardiac mRNA levels for the main IK1 ion channel subunit Kir2.1 and the IKs accessory subunit minK were significantly lower, but mRNA expression of ERG and KvLQT1 (IKr and IKsα-subunits) were not significantly different, in human versus dog. Immunostaining suggested lower Kir2.1 and minK, and higher KvLQT1 protein expression in human versus canine cardiomyocytes. IK1 and IKs inhibition increased the APD-prolonging effect of IKr block more in dog (by 56% and 49%, respectively) than human (34 and 16%), indicating that both currents contribute to increased repolarization reserve in the dog. A mathematical model incorporating observed human–canine ion current differences confirmed the role of IK1 and IKs in repolarization reserve differences. Thus, humans show greater repolarization-delaying effects of IKr block than dogs, because of lower repolarization reserve contributions from IK1 and IKs, emphasizing species-specific determinants of repolarization and the limitations of animal models

  20. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    PubMed

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  1. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  2. Human Migration and Agricultural Expansion: An Impending Threat to the Maya Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven; Reining, Conard; Sever, Thomas L.; Soza, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the current threats to the Maya Biosphere Reserve in northern Guatemala as derived through time-series Landsat Thematic Mapper observations and analysis. Estimates of deforestation rates and trends are examined for different management units within the reserve and buffer zones. The satellite imagery was used to quantify and monitor rates, patterns, and trends of forest clearing during a time period corresponding to new road construction and significant human migration into the newly accessible forest region. Satellite imagery is appropriate technology in a vast and remote tropical region where aerial photography and extensive field-based methods are not cost-effective and current, timely data is essential for establishing conservation priorities.

  3. Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games

    PubMed Central

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Perelló, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental research has adopted a game theoretical perspective, generating valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals’ behavior when facing different situations and to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. We present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals’ actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency, to a limited number of behavioral phenotypes (envious, optimist, pessimist, and trustful), with only a small fraction of undefined subjects. We also discuss the possible connections to existing interpretations based on a priori theoretical approaches. Our findings provide a relevant contribution to the experimental and theoretical efforts toward the identification of basic behavioral phenotypes in a wider set of contexts without aprioristic assumptions regarding the rules or strategies behind actions. From this perspective, our work contributes to a fact-based approach to the study of human behavior in strategic situations, which could be applied to simulating societies, policy-making scenario building, and even a variety of business applications. PMID:27532047

  4. Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Perelló, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-08-01

    Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental research has adopted a game theoretical perspective, generating valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals' behavior when facing different situations and to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. We present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals' actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency, to a limited number of behavioral phenotypes (envious, optimist, pessimist, and trustful), with only a small fraction of undefined subjects. We also discuss the possible connections to existing interpretations based on a priori theoretical approaches. Our findings provide a relevant contribution to the experimental and theoretical efforts toward the identification of basic behavioral phenotypes in a wider set of contexts without aprioristic assumptions regarding the rules or strategies behind actions. From this perspective, our work contributes to a fact-based approach to the study of human behavior in strategic situations, which could be applied to simulating societies, policy-making scenario building, and even a variety of business applications. PMID:27532047

  5. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual’s contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation. PMID:27339080

  6. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual's contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation. PMID:27339080

  7. Coordination strategies of chimpanzees and human children in a Stag Hunt game

    PubMed Central

    Duguid, Shona; Wyman, Emily; Bullinger, Anke F.; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Much of human cooperation takes place in mutualistic contexts in which the main challenge for individuals is how to coordinate decisions. In the current studies, we compared the abilities of chimpanzees and young children to coordinate with a partner in two versions of a Stag Hunt game. When risks were low (the hare was of low value) and information was cheap (the partner's behaviour was readily observable), partners of both species were able to successfully coordinate on the higher value stag more than 90% of the time. By contrast, when the risks were raised and observing the partner was more difficult, the chimpanzees became less successful, whereas the children compensated, and so remained highly successful, by communicating more often and more specifically. This pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that humans evolved unique skills of coordination and communication in the context of especially risky coordination problems. PMID:25320165

  8. Coordination strategies of chimpanzees and human children in a Stag Hunt game.

    PubMed

    Duguid, Shona; Wyman, Emily; Bullinger, Anke F; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Much of human cooperation takes place in mutualistic contexts in which the main challenge for individuals is how to coordinate decisions. In the current studies, we compared the abilities of chimpanzees and young children to coordinate with a partner in two versions of a Stag Hunt game. When risks were low (the hare was of low value) and information was cheap (the partner's behaviour was readily observable), partners of both species were able to successfully coordinate on the higher value stag more than 90% of the time. By contrast, when the risks were raised and observing the partner was more difficult, the chimpanzees became less successful, whereas the children compensated, and so remained highly successful, by communicating more often and more specifically. This pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that humans evolved unique skills of coordination and communication in the context of especially risky coordination problems. PMID:25320165

  9. Game playing.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304308

  10. Human Computation in Visualization: Using Purpose Driven Games for Robust Evaluation of Visualization Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, N; Zheng, Ziyi; Mueller, K

    2012-12-01

    Due to the inherent characteristics of the visualization process, most of the problems in this field have strong ties with human cognition and perception. This makes the human brain and sensory system the only truly appropriate evaluation platform for evaluating and fine-tuning a new visualization method or paradigm. However, getting humans to volunteer for these purposes has always been a significant obstacle, and thus this phase of the development process has traditionally formed a bottleneck, slowing down progress in visualization research. We propose to take advantage of the newly emerging field of Human Computation (HC) to overcome these challenges. HC promotes the idea that rather than considering humans as users of the computational system, they can be made part of a hybrid computational loop consisting of traditional computation resources and the human brain and sensory system. This approach is particularly successful in cases where part of the computational problem is considered intractable using known computer algorithms but is trivial to common sense human knowledge. In this paper, we focus on HC from the perspective of solving visualization problems and also outline a framework by which humans can be easily seduced to volunteer their HC resources. We introduce a purpose-driven game titled "Disguise" which serves as a prototypical example for how the evaluation of visualization algorithms can be mapped into a fun and addicting activity, allowing this task to be accomplished in an extensive yet cost effective way. Finally, we sketch out a framework that transcends from the pure evaluation of existing visualization methods to the design of a new one. PMID:26357117

  11. Design of a Virtual Player for Joint Improvisation with Humans in the Mirror Game

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Chao; Alderisio, Francesco; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Joint improvisation is often observed among humans performing joint action tasks. Exploring the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms behind the emergence of joint improvisation is an open research challenge. This paper investigates jointly improvised movements between two participants in the mirror game, a paradigmatic joint task example. First, experiments involving movement coordination of different dyads of human players are performed in order to build a human benchmark. No designation of leader and follower is given beforehand. We find that joint improvisation is characterized by the lack of a leader and high levels of movement synchronization. Then, a theoretical model is proposed to capture some features of their interaction, and a set of experiments is carried out to test and validate the model ability to reproduce the experimental observations. Furthermore, the model is used to drive a computer avatar able to successfully improvise joint motion with a human participant in real time. Finally, a convergence analysis of the proposed model is carried out to confirm its ability to reproduce joint movements between the participants. PMID:27123927

  12. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Alessandro; Scatà, Marialisa; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation. PMID:26496351

  13. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation. PMID:26496351

  14. Design of a Virtual Player for Joint Improvisation with Humans in the Mirror Game.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chao; Alderisio, Francesco; Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Joint improvisation is often observed among humans performing joint action tasks. Exploring the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms behind the emergence of joint improvisation is an open research challenge. This paper investigates jointly improvised movements between two participants in the mirror game, a paradigmatic joint task example. First, experiments involving movement coordination of different dyads of human players are performed in order to build a human benchmark. No designation of leader and follower is given beforehand. We find that joint improvisation is characterized by the lack of a leader and high levels of movement synchronization. Then, a theoretical model is proposed to capture some features of their interaction, and a set of experiments is carried out to test and validate the model ability to reproduce the experimental observations. Furthermore, the model is used to drive a computer avatar able to successfully improvise joint motion with a human participant in real time. Finally, a convergence analysis of the proposed model is carried out to confirm its ability to reproduce joint movements between the participants. PMID:27123927

  15. Playing the Cell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)

  16. Effects of Human-Nature Interactions on Wildlife Habitat Dynamics: The Case of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vina, A.; Tuanmu, M.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities continue to induce the degradation of natural ecosystems, thus threatening not only the long-term survival of many wildlife species around the world, but also the resilience of natural ecosystems to global environmental changes. In response, many conservation efforts are emerging as adaptive strategies for coping with the degradation of natural ecosystems. Among them, the establishment of nature reserves is considered to be the most effective. However the effectiveness of nature reserves depends on the type and intensity of human activities occurring within their boundaries. But many of these activities constitute important livelihood systems for local human populations. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of conservation actions without significantly affecting local livelihood systems, it is essential to understand the complexity of human-nature interactions and their effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the relation between giant panda habitat dynamics, conservation efforts and human activities in Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas, Sichuan Province, China. This reserve supports ca. 10% of the entire wild giant panda population but is also home to ca. 4,900 local residents. The spatio-temporal dynamics of giant panda habitat over the last four decades were analyzed using a time series of remotely sensed imagery acquired by different satellite sensor systems, including the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner, the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Our assessment suggests that when local residents were actively involved in conservation efforts (through a payment for ecosystem services scheme established since around 2000) panda habitat started to recover, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of natural ecosystems in the Reserve. This reversed a long-term (> 30 years) trend of panda habitat degradation. The study not only has direct

  17. Economic and Human Development on the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation of Nevada. Progress Report on a Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, L. Clair; Niederfrank, E. J.

    A long-range economics and human development program, launched in 1967 by the Fort McDermitt Tribal Council, outlined various projects for improving economic and living conditions on the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, including the attraction of small industry. The purpose of this report was to make an informal assessment of development…

  18. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  19. Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guoping

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

  20. Human cooperation in social dilemmas: comparing the Snowdrift game with the Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Colliard, Caroline; Fiechter, Nicolas; Petitpierre, Blaise; Russier, Flavien; Keller, Laurent

    2007-12-01

    Explaining the evolution of cooperation among non-relatives is one of the major challenges for evolutionary biology. In this study, we experimentally examined human cooperation in the iterated Snowdrift game (ISD), which has received little attention so far, and compared it with human cooperation in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD), which has become the paradigm for the evolution of cooperation. We show that iteration in the ISD leads to consistently higher levels of cooperation than in the IPD. We further demonstrate that the most successful strategies known for the IPD (generous Tit-for-Tat and Pavlov) were also successfully used in the ISD. Interestingly, we found that female players cooperated significantly more often than male players in the IPD but not in the ISD. Moreover, female players in the IPD applied Tit-for-Tat-like or Pavlovian strategies significantly more often than male players, thereby achieving significantly higher pay-offs than male players did. These data demonstrate that the willingness to cooperate does not only depend on the type of the social dilemma, but also on the class of individuals involved. Altogether, our study shows that the ISD can potentially explain high levels of cooperation among non-relatives in humans. In addition, the ISD seems to reflect the social dilemma more realistically than the IPD because individuals obtain immediate direct benefits from the cooperative acts they perform and costs of cooperation are shared between cooperators. PMID:17895227

  1. [Spatial distribution of human activities and their influences on landscape patterns in Daqingshan Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-Hui; Meng, Li; Tian, Lü; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Yue-Hui; Sun, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Based on forest inventory data and field survey information, and by using GIS spatial analysis technique and landscape indices, this paper studied the spatial distribution of three categories of human activities (settlement, roads, and other sources of disturbances) and their impacts on landscape patterns in three sub-divided regions, i. e., the west, central and east regions of the Daqingshan Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia. Results showed that the impacts of human activities were stronger in the east and west regions and weaker in the central region. Among the three subdivided regions, the landscape pattern in the west region was predominantly affected by other sources of disturbances, making the landscape patterns of coniferous forests, broadleaf forests and shrubs tended to be of aggregated distribution; the central region was mainly affected by roads, resulting in reduced landscape patch aggregation of broadleaf forests and shrubs; the east region was mostly affected by settlement, resulting in increased fragmentation of coniferous forests and broadleaf forests and apparent increases in landscape patch aggregation of shrubs and grasslands. PMID:25898623

  2. Media and human capital development: Can video game playing make you smarter?1

    PubMed Central

    Suziedelyte, Agne

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, video game playing can improve such cognitive skills as problem solving, abstract reasoning, and spatial logic. I test this hypothesis using The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The endogeneity of video game playing is addressed by using panel data methods and controlling for an extensive list of child and family characteristics. To address the measurement error in video game playing, I instrument children's weekday time use with their weekend time use. After taking into account the endogeneity and measurement error, video game playing is found to positively affect children's problem solving ability. The effect of video game playing on problem solving ability is comparable to the effect of educational activities. PMID:25705064

  3. Extraversion in Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lankveld, Giel; Schreurs, Sonny; Spronck, Pieter; van den Herik, Jaap

    The behavior of a human player in a game expresses the personality of that player. Personality is an important characteristic for modeling the player's profile. In our research we use the five factor model of personality, in which extraversion is a notable factor. Extraversion is the human tendency of being sensitive to rewards. This often results in humans seeking socially rewarding situations. Extraversion plays a prominent part in the in-game behavior of a player. The in-game behavior can be decomposed in 20 different in-game elements.

  4. Evil games.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    A defining characteristic of humans is our capacity to create a better world through mutual action. Traditional ethics attempts to define and impose the one or several things we should all want. The alternative argued here is that we can retain our individual definitions of what matters and still work together for mutual improvement. Agreeing on common ethical principles is not a precondition for an effective moral life. This approach to morality is based on game theory, which holds that in purposely social interactions: (a) there are basic understandings, (b) individuals pursue their own interests, (c) we can judge others' interests, and (d) the distribution of benefits and burdens depends on the joint action of individuals, not on the action of individuals in isolation. In this view, immorality becomes a matter of cheating in the game of life. The three primary forms of cheating are deception (misleading others into thinking they are playing a game other than the one that is to their advantage to play), coercion (blocking courses of action others would normally be entitled to), and reneging (playing the game and then dodging the payoff if one does not like the outcome). These three evils are illustrated by Shakespeare's plays Othello, Richard III, and Antony and Cleopatra. PMID:20481069

  5. Decomposition of Multi-player Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dengji; Schiffel, Stephan; Thielscher, Michael

    Research in General Game Playing aims at building systems that learn to play unknown games without human intervention. We contribute to this endeavour by generalising the established technique of decomposition from AI Planning to multi-player games. To this end, we present a method for the automatic decomposition of previously unknown games into independent subgames, and we show how a general game player can exploit a successful decomposition for game tree search.

  6. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  7. Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Nation, P N; Fanning, E A; Hopf, H B; Church, T L

    1999-02-01

    This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. PMID:10065319

  8. Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P N; Fanning, E A; Hopf, H B; Church, T L

    1999-01-01

    This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. PMID:10065319

  9. Functional Business Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Defines computerized functional business games as those focusing on decision making and integration in the areas of accounting/finance, marketing, personnel/human resources, and production/operations. Nine currently available games are reviewed and evaluated in the context of a learning model. (Author/LRW)

  10. Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Collier, S

    1993-08-01

    Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior. PMID:8372937

  11. Unpredictability induced by unfocused games in evolutionary game dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koh

    2006-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a basis of replicator systems and has applications ranging from animal behavior and human language to ecosystems and other hierarchical network systems. Most studies in evolutionary game dynamics have focused on a single game, but, in many situations, we see that many games are played simultaneously. We construct a replicator equation with plural games by assuming that a reward of a player is a simple summation of the reward of each game. Even if the numbers of the strategies of the games are different, its dynamics can be described in one replicator equation. We here show that when players play several games at the same time, the fate of a single game cannot be determined without knowing the structures of the whole other games. The most absorbing fact is that even if a single game has a ESS (evolutionary stable strategy), the relative frequencies of strategies in the game does not always converge to the ESS point when other games are played simultaneously. PMID:16490216

  12. Recent Advances in General Game Playing

    PubMed Central

    Świechowski, Maciej; Park, HyunSoo; Mańdziuk, Jacek; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing. PMID:26380375

  13. Differential games.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaiya, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.

  14. Violence in Teen-Rated Video Games

    PubMed Central

    Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M. Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-01-01

    Context: Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for “Teen”) by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. Objective: To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. Design: We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Main Outcome Measures: Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Results: Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2

  15. Individual-Specific, Beat-to-beat Trending of Significant Human Blood Loss: The Compensatory Reserve.

    PubMed

    Convertino, Victor A; Howard, Jeffrey T; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Cardin, Sylvain; Batchelder, Paul; Mulligan, Jane; Grudic, Gregory Z; Moulton, Steven L; MacLeod, David B

    2015-08-01

    Current monitoring technologies are unable to detect early, compensatory changes that are associated with significant blood loss. We previously introduced a novel algorithm to calculate the Compensatory Reserve Index (CRI) based on the analysis of arterial waveform features obtained from photoplethysmogram recordings. In the present study, we hypothesized that the CRI would provide greater sensitivity and specificity to detect blood loss compared with traditional vital signs and other hemodynamic measures. Continuous noninvasive vital sign waveform data, including CRI, photoplethysmogram, heart rate, blood pressures, SpO2, cardiac output, and stroke volume, were analyzed from 20 subjects before, during, and after an average controlled voluntary hemorrhage of ∼1.2 L of blood. Compensatory Reserve Index decreased by 33% in a linear fashion across progressive blood volume loss, with no clinically significant alterations in vital signs. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve for the CRI was 0.90, with a sensitivity of 0.80 and specificity of 0.76. In comparison, blood pressures, heart rate, SpO2, cardiac output, and stroke volume had significantly lower receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values and specificities for detecting the same volume of blood loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, CRI detected blood loss and restoration with significantly greater specificity than did other traditional physiologic measures. Single measurement of CRI may enable more accurate triage, whereas CRI monitoring may allow for earlier detection of casualty deterioration. PMID:25565640

  16. Lower cognitive reserve in the aging human immunodeficiency virus-infected brain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Linda; Holt, John L.; Yakupov, Renat; Jiang, Caroline S.; Ernst, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    More HIV-infected individuals are living longer; however, how their brain function is affected by aging is not well understood. One hundred twenty-two men (56 seronegative control [SN] subjects, 37 HIV subjects with normal cognition [HIV+NC], 29 with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder [HAND]) performed neuropsychological tests and had acceptable functional magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 Tesla during tasks with increasing attentional load. With older age, SN and HIV+NC subjects showed increased activation in the left posterior (reserve, “bottom-up”) attention network for low attentional-load tasks, and further increased activation in the left posterior and anterior (“top-down”) attention network on intermediate (HIV+NC only) and high attentional-load tasks. HAND subjects had only age-dependent decreases in activation. Age-dependent changes in brain activation differed between the 3 groups, primarily in the left frontal regions (despite similar brain atrophy). HIV and aging act synergistically or interactively to exacerbate brain activation abnormalities in different brain regions, suggestive of a neuroadaptive mechanism in the attention network to compensate for declined neural efficiency. While the SN and HIV+NC subjects compensated for their declining attention with age by using reserve and “top-down” attentional networks, older HAND subjects were unable to compensate which resulted in cognitive decline. PMID:23158761

  17. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Class III Tribal- State Compact for review and approval. The Compact increases the number of Video... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Approval... Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation is now in effect. Dated: December 20, 2012. Kevin K....

  18. The effect of reinforcer magnitude on probability and delay discounting of experienced outcomes in a computer game task in humans.

    PubMed

    Greenhow, Anna K; Hunt, Maree J; Macaskill, Anne C; Harper, David N

    2015-09-01

    Delay and uncertainty of receipt both reduce the subjective value of reinforcers. Delay has a greater impact on the subjective value of smaller reinforcers than of larger ones while the reverse is true for uncertainty. We investigated the effect of reinforcer magnitude on discounting of delayed and uncertain reinforcers using a novel approach: embedding relevant choices within a computer game. Participants made repeated choices between smaller, certain, immediate outcomes and larger, but delayed or uncertain outcomes while experiencing the result of each choice. Participants' choices were generally well described by the hyperbolic discounting function. Smaller numbers of points were discounted more steeply than larger numbers as a function of delay but not probability. The novel experiential choice task described is a promising approach to investigating both delay and probability discounting in humans. PMID:26377438

  19. Games in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Rex

    Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…

  20. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  1. [Game addiction].

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent. PMID:26394522

  2. Shorthand Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, June

    1973-01-01

    Games can be used to stimulate interest and to make learning shorthand fun. Suggested games include these: geographic shorthand rummy, shorthand concentration, shorthand baseball geography, shorthand geography spelldown, shorthand password, and shorthand hangman's bluff. (SC)

  3. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  4. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  5. Methods for game user research: studying player behavior to enhance game design.

    PubMed

    Desurvire, Heather; El-Nasr, Magy Seif

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design, media studies, and the social sciences. They've extended and modified these methods for different types of digital games, such as social games, casual games, and serious games. This article describes several current GUR methods. A case study illustrates two specific methods: think-aloud and heuristics. PMID:24808062

  6. Indian Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Answers to questions asked by junior high school students about American Indian reservations are given. The areas covered include nearly every facet of reservation life from the first Federal issuance of particles of land to the American Indians to present conditions on the reservations. (AH)

  7. Three-dimensional modeling and numerical analysis of fractional flow reserve in human coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Neng; Lv, Hui-Jie; Xiang, Ya-Fei; Fan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) computed from CT (FFRCT) is a novel method for determining the physiologic significance of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several clinical trials have been conducted, but its diagnostic performance varied among different trials. Aim To determine the cut-off value of FFRCT and its correlation with the gold standard used to diagnose CAD in clinical practice. Material and methods Forty patients with single vessel disease were included in our study. Computed tomography scan and coronary angiography with FFR were conducted for these patients. Three-dimensional geometric reconstruction and numerical analysis based on the computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) of coronary arteries were applied to obtain the values of FFRCT. The correlation between FFRCT and the gold standard used in clinical practice was tested. Results For FFRCT, the best cut-off value was 0.76, with the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of 84.6%, 92.9%, 88% and 73.3%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve was 0.945 (p < 0.0001). There was a good correlation of FFRCT values with FFR values (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001), with a slight overestimation of FFRCT as compared with measured FFR (mean difference 0.01 ±0.11, p < 0.05). For inter-observer agreement, the mean κ value was 0.69 (0.61 to 0.78) and for intra-observer agreement the mean κ value was 0.61 (0.50 to 0.72). Conclusions FFRCT derived from CT of the coronary artery is a reliable non-invasive way providing reliable functional information of coronary artery stenosis. PMID:26966446

  8. Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Health Parameters across Two Habitats with Varied Levels of Human Disturbance at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Cora L; Norris, Aimee M; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho

    2015-01-01

    The health of 36 wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across 2 habitats of varied human impact: a reserve riverine gallery forest, and a degraded mixed dry deciduous and Alluaudia-dominated spiny forest. While there were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte count or differential between habitats, female lemurs in the reserve gallery forest had significantly higher percentages of monocytes and eosinophils than male lemurs in the gallery forest. Lemurs from the degraded spiny habitat had significantly higher mean packed cell volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, chloride, ionized calcium and urine specific gravity than lemurs from the reserve gallery forest. These findings may reflect lower hydration levels in lemurs living in degraded habitat, providing evidence that environmental degradation has identifiable impacts on the physiology and health of wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs living in nearby habitats. Given the greater evidence of human impact in the mixed dry deciduous/spiny forest habitat, a pattern seen throughout southern Madagascar, biomedical markers suggestive of decreased hydration can provide empirical data to inform new conservation policies facilitating the long-term survival of this lemur community. PMID:26022301

  9. Video games.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values. PMID:16111624

  10. Simulating the Tragedy of the Commons with the Fishing Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2009-12-01

    The "Tragedy of the Commons" (Garrett Hardin) exemplifies the challenges and conflicts that occur when a common resource is shared by multiple users whose motive is profit. The global fisheries provide a timely example of the over-exploitation of a shared resource. The "Fishing Game" was inspired by the "Fishbanks Game" of Dennis Meadows. The student plays against two virtual fishing companies in an effort to make as much money as possible, while exploring the management issues that arise when trying to sustain the fish population for future profits. The game is played with four realistic management scenarios. These are 1) free for all, 2) limited fishing season, 3) marine reserves, and 4) catch shares. For each scenario the student makes decisions about how many ships to build and how many to send to each of two fishing areas. A simple population model works in the background to determine the catch and number of new fish that are added to the population through birth each year. The student sets the management parameters for each of the scenarios. Each of the scenarios can be modeled by the student to determine the optimum parameters. The player will quickly find that a single aggressive player whose profit motive trumps concern over the sustainability of the population will almost always win under all scenarios except the 4’th. When the season is limited, everybody fishes harder. With marine reserves, catches will drop, but the population will not disappear completely. Only catch shares sustain the population while providing reasonable long term profit for the fishing companies. For each management scenario, the player is asked a pre and a post thought question asking what issues they think are relevant. After all scenarios are played, the student can edit the post versions of the thought questions, plus several added questions about their experience with the game. The game results and answers to the questions are then automatically emailed to the instructor, or

  11. Tragedy of the Commons Fisheries Management Simulation Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the "Fishing Game" is that students will understand some of the issues that occur when multiple stakeholders share, and profit from, common and finite resources. Garrett Hardin described this as "The Tragedy of the Commons." The global fisheries provide a timely example of the over-exploitation of a shared resource. The forests, our water supplies, and atmosphere are other examples of "commons" that we must manage effectively. The "Fishing Game" is loosely based on the "Fishbanks Game" of Dennis Meadows. The student plays against two virtual fishing companies in an effort to make as much money as possible, while exploring the management issues that arise when trying to sustain the fish population for future profits. The player selects each of four realistic management scenarios. These are 1) free for all, 2) limited fishing season, 3) marine reserves, and 4) catch shares. For each scenario the student makes decisions about how many ships to build and how many to send to each of two fishing areas. A simple population model works in the background to determine the catch and number of new fish that are added to the population through birth each year. The student sets the management parameters for each of the scenarios. A modeling tool is used to determine the optimum parameters for each management scenario. The player will quickly find that a single aggressive player whose profit motive trumps concern over the sustainability of the population will almost always win under all scenarios except the 4'th. When the season is limited, everybody fishes harder. With marine reserves, catches will drop, but the population will not disappear completely. Only catch shares sustain the population while providing reasonable long term profit for the fishing companies. For each management scenario, the player is asked a pre and a post play thought question. After all scenarios are played, the student can edit the post versions of the thought questions, plus several added

  12. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter III, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural “technological” solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier

  13. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter, Robert

    2016-04-16

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural "technological" solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for

  14. A Lesson Learned through Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Ludovic M.; Kovalik, Doina L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an educational card game the objective of which is to raise students' awareness of the need for clarity, structure, and organization in all everyday activities of humans. Although the game as such was played in freshman composition, therefore addressing the immediate needs of that particular class, the lesson learned through…

  15. Constraining free riding in public goods games: designated solitary punishers can sustain human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    O'Gorman, Rick; Henrich, Joseph; Van Vugt, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. Unlike other animals, people frequently cooperate with non-relatives in large groups. Evolutionary models of large-scale cooperation require not just incentives for cooperation, but also a credible disincentive for free riding. Various theoretical solutions have been proposed and experimentally explored, including reputation monitoring and diffuse punishment. Here, we empirically examine an alternative theoretical proposal: responsibility for punishment can be borne by one specific individual. This experiment shows that allowing a single individual to punish increases cooperation to the same level as allowing each group member to punish and results in greater group profits. These results suggest a potential key function of leadership in human groups and provides further evidence supporting that humans will readily and knowingly behave altruistically. PMID:18812292

  16. At what cost? The social impact of American Indian gaming.

    PubMed

    Peacock, T D; Day, P A; Peacock, R B

    1999-01-01

    American Indian gaming has been called the "new buffalo." It has the potential to greatly influence cultural traditions on American Indian reservations. This study looks at the social impact that American Indian gaming is having on one reservation in northern Minnesota. Tribal members share strong feelings, both positive and negative, about the issue. Concerns about gaming include an increase in gambling abuse and addiction; a lack of appropriate child care; and concern that gaming is replacing traditional social activities. Some express concern that American Indian values are being replaced by materialism. Supporters of gaming point out that gaming provides tribal members with an opportunity to learn job skills and have gainful employment. Implications for social policy are given. PMID:10538184

  17. Serious games for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  18. How Massive Multiplayer Online Games Incorporate Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua H.; Archambault, Leanna

    2010-01-01

    Games have always been a part of the human experience. Even the earliest of civilizations created games for enjoyment and entertainment. However, the educational value of those games is a relatively recent consideration. Over the previous fifty years, scholars have questioned the potential positive lessons learned from games such as Monopoly[R],…

  19. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  20. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Valera, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; Gizzi, Alessio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE). We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD), starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition) and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful) when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components) so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers) on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles. PMID:26783225

  1. Inuit Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keewatin Regional Education Authority, Rankin Inlet (Northwest Territories).

    The purpose of this publication is to record the traditional games played by the Inuit and to preserve a unique form of sports and recreation found in northern Canada. Written in English and Inupiaq, this manual contains descriptions of games played throughout the Arctic with special emphasis on the Keewatin Region, suggestions for teaching Inuit…

  2. Stochastic games

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper “Stochastic games” to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley’s contribution. PMID:26556883

  3. Game Time!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…

  4. Game On!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deubel, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…

  5. Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2005-01-01

    In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to be distributed, build in a related…

  6. Fun & Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

  7. Game Over?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

  8. Coprophagy by wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in human-disturbed locations adjacent to the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Fish, Krista D; Sauther, Michelle L; Loudon, James E; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2007-06-01

    Coprophagy occurs in a number of animal species, including nonhuman primates. During the 2003-2004 dry seasons at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, we observed wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) consuming dried fecal matter from three different species. Ring-tailed lemurs consumed human feces on 12 occasions, cattle feces twice, and feral dog feces once. Coprophagy in this population may be a behavioral adaptation that provides animals access to energy and nutrients and may be an important nutritional source for older, and/or dentally impaired individuals during the dry season. PMID:17253614

  9. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-04-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  10. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  11. Game Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John

    1980-01-01

    The author argues that adult society prohibits adolescents from attaining maturity and that, in response to such constraints, adolescents turn to games, rituals, and charades. This state of affairs is viewed as an implicit adult conspiracy against adolescents. (DB)

  12. Models of Games Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Peter; Almond, Len

    1990-01-01

    Physical educators should be selective in deciding what games to include in the games curriculum. Several theoretical frameworks for selecting and teaching games are discussed, and a framework for developing a well-balanced games program is suggested. (IAH)

  13. Arcade Video Games: Proxemic, Cognitive and Content Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Claude M. J.; Giroux, Josette

    1989-01-01

    A study was designed to determine psychological complexity and reinforcement characteristics of popular arcade video games, including sex differences in game content, clientele social structure, human-to-human interaction contingencies, and value content. Results suggest a need for public control of children's access to the games and the video…

  14. Evaluation of Breakthrough's "America 2049" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, James; Brunner, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Breakthrough, a global human rights organization, produced "America 2049," an alternate-reality game set in a dystopian future in which the United States is on the verge of breaking apart because of an inability to tolerate diversity and promote human rights. During the 12-week game launch, players uncovered artifacts related to the persistent…

  15. Paralympic Games Inspire and Excite the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author cites the good outcomes from exposing young people to Paralympic Games. In addition, the author explains how the Paralympic Games brings to the host city many opportunities for young people to experience first-hand the common humanity that lies within every human being. Children are given the opportunity to witness and…

  16. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level. PMID:14627367

  17. Format for the Game--Logic or Intuition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Richard D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents nine steps for game design, and discusses why particular formats were used in the design of five games: CONRAIL Railroad Deregulation, Montauk Exercise, Geothermal Energy, Simulated Nutrition System, and Human Settlement. (CMV)

  18. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. PMID:27267423

  19. The impacts of human visitation on mussel bed communities along the California coast: are regulatory marine reserves effective in protecting these communities?

    PubMed

    Smith, Jayson R; Fong, Peggy; Ambrose, Richard F

    2008-04-01

    Rocky intertidal habitats frequently are used by humans for recreational, educational, and subsistence-harvesting purposes, with intertidal populations damaged by visitation activities such as extraction, trampling, and handling. California Marine Managed Areas, particularly regulatory marine reserves (MRs), were established to provide legal protection and enhancement of coastal resources and include prohibitions on harvesting intertidal populations. However, the effectiveness of MRs is unclear as enforcement of no-take laws is weak and no regulations protect intertidal species from other detrimental visitor impacts such as trampling. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine impacts from human visitation on California mussel populations (Mytilus californianus) and mussel bed community diversity; and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of regulatory MRs in reducing visitor impacts on these populations. Surveys of mussel populations and bed-associated diversity were compared: (1) at sites subjected to either high or low levels of human use, and (2) at sites either unprotected or with regulatory protection banning collecting. At sites subjected to higher levels of human visitation, mussel populations were significantly lower than low-use sites. Comparisons of mussel populations inside and outside of regulatory MRs revealed no consistent pattern suggesting that California no-take regulatory reserves may have limited effectiveness in protecting mussel communities. In areas where many people visit intertidal habitats for purposes other than collecting, many organisms will be affected by trampling, turning of rocks, and handling. In these cases, effective protection of rocky intertidal communities requires an approach that goes beyond the singular focus on collecting to reduce the full suite of impacts. PMID:18185953

  20. Use of medicinal plants for human health in Udzungwa Mountains Forests: a case study of New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kitula, Rukia A

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of local people on plant medicine from natural forests has a long tradition in Tanzania and is becoming increasingly popular among rural and urban communities due to among others increase in living costs. The study on utilization of medicinal plants for meeting heath care needs was carried out between March 2001 and March 2002 in New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania. The study aimed at generating necessary data for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project to draft sound Joint Forest Management plans. Specific objectives of the study among others were to assess knowledge associated with utilization of medicinal plants for health care needs as well as factors associated in using plant medicines in the study area. A questionnaire survey, market survey and literature review were used to collect information. Tools used for data analysis were Statistical Packages for Social Science and content analysis. A total of 45 plant species were documented curing about 22 human diseases. Medicinal plants were readily available throughout the year and plentiful in the forest reserve. Roots and leaves were the plant parts harvested for medicinal purposes. Processing of plant medicines involved boiling, pounding, soaking in water and chewing. Distance to health facility, income level of the household and beliefs contributed to the use of plant medicines. The study concluded that medicinal plants play an important role in providing primary health care to the rural communities. It is recommended that in achieving joint forest management (JFM), villagers adjacent to the forest reserve should be sensitised on the importance of JFM through seminars, workshops, drama, school songs or video show. During the development of a joint draft management plan, villagers as an informal institution must define their priority needs of use of parts of the forest in collaboration with the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project. PMID:17257410

  1. A Game-Based Simulation Utilizing Virtual Humans to Train Physicians to Screen and Manage the Care of Patients with Mental Health Disorders.

    PubMed

    Albright, Glenn; Adam, Cyrille; Goldman, Ron; Serri, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    Every year, one in four American adults suffers from a diagnosable mental disorder, yet most of them go untreated, creating a significant public health challenge. This challenge is compounded by large-scale disasters, which can cause an influx of primary care patients presenting with physical symptoms that mask mental health disorders. Primary care providers (PCPs) are usually the first point of contact for those patients; thus there exist crucial opportunities to detect and address nonphysical disorders in primary care settings that would improve patient outcomes and quality of care. Unfortunately, many PCPs view mental health as separate from the services that they provide, and the majority of them have received little training during or after medical or nursing school about risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options. To help integrate behavioral health into primary care, Kognito Interactive developed "At-Risk in Primary Care," an online game-based simulation that integrates role-play conversations with virtual humans to train PCPs to screen patients for mental health disorders, perform brief behavioral interventions using motivational interviewing (MI), refer patients, and integrate behavioral health into their treatment while building patients' intrinsic motivation to adhere to it. Preliminary findings on the implementation of this game in New York City show significant increases in skill and motivation to screen patients, conduct behavioral interventions, and refer patients to specialized care. These results show the promise of innovative technology-based solutions to integrate mental health training in primary care. PMID:26196927

  2. Serious Games: Video Games for Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  3. Applying fuzzy logic to assess human perception in relation to conservation plan efficiency measures within a biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-López, Dulce M; Aragón-Noriega, Alberto E; Luna-Gonzalez, Antonio; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector A

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to present an efficiency-perception impact assessment based upon the integration of fuzzy logic (FL) of the "Productive Reconversion" conservation program (PRP) instituted by the Mexican government, in the upper Gulf of California and the Colorado Delta Biosphere Reserve. This approach enables environmental analysts to deal with the intrinsic imprecision and ambiguity associated with people's judgments and conclusions. The application of FL to the assessment of program efficiency is illustrated in this work, demonstrating how subjective perceptions can be converted into quantitative values easy to evaluate during the decision-making process. PMID:22351598

  4. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  5. Math Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

  6. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  7. Games & Icebreakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…

  8. Grammar Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kim

    2004-01-01

    The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

  9. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Bob; Hall, Jan D.

    1992-01-01

    Installation of a new metal halide lighting system at an old athletic high school stadium serving the Red Lion School District in Pennsylvania made night games possible. Community members raised funds for the installation. Because of increased attendance, the district made a $10,000 profit. Provides facts and figures on the stadium lighting. (MLF)

  10. Games as Teaching Tools. An Examination of the Community Land Use Game. Papers on Gaming Simulation Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Margaret Warne

    An experimental study sought to determine if simulation-type games could teach a given body of material as effectively as the traditional lecture method. Graduate students in a Human Ecology course were divided into experimental and control groups; the former played the Community Land Use Game (CLUG), the latter attended lectures. Posttests…

  11. Human choices and environmental constraints: deciphering the variability of large game procurement from Mousterian to Aurignacian times (MIS 5-3) in southwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Jaubert, Jacques; Bachellerie, François

    2011-09-01

    The evolution in the selection of prey made by past humans, especially the Neandertals and the first anatomically modern humans, has been widely debated. Between Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 3, the accuracy of absolute dating is still insufficient to precisely correlate paleoclimatic and archaeological data. It is often difficult, therefore, to estimate to what extent changes in species procurement are correlated with either climate fluctuations or deliberate cultural choices in terms of subsistence behavior. Here, the full development of archeostratigraphy and Bayesian statistical analysis of absolute dates allows the archeological and paleoclimatic chronologies to be compared. The variability in hunted fauna is investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of quantitative faunal lists of 148 assemblages from 39 archeological sequences from MIS 5 through MIS 3. Despite significant intra-technocomplex variability, it is possible to identify major shifts in the human diet during these stages. The integration of archeological data, paleoclimatic proxies and the ecological characteristics of the different species of prey shows that the shifts in large game hunting can be explained by an adaptation of the human groups to climatic fluctuations. However, even if Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic men adapted to changes in their environment and to contrasting landscapes, they ultimately belonged to the ecosystems of the past and were limited by environmental constraints.

  12. Blunt impact as deterrent: human approach-avoidance behaviors and other stress responses studied within a paintball gaming context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Kenneth R.; Bergen, Michael T.; DeMarco, Robert M.; Chua, Florence B.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Blunt impact munitions are often used by civilian law enforcement and in military operations on urban terrain (MOUT) missions to dissuade individuals and groups from approaching valued assets. The use of blunt munitions (rubber-ball or sponge) is predicated on their effectiveness as aversive stimuli; the effectiveness is weighed against the risk of serious injury or death. However, little empirical evidence supports effectiveness. Here, we use a paintball gaming context to study the effects of blunt impact on performance and approach behaviors. Volunteers individually traversed a course in which targets offer the opportunity to gain for accuracy. While completing the targeting task, subjects were bombarded with paintballs, which progressively became more numerous and the impact more intense as the subjects neared goal locations. Initial data suggest that over 30 blunt impacts by paintballs delivered at 280 ft/sec over 30 to 100 ft are insufficient to overcome intrinsic and extrinsic approach motivations or impair targeting or advance performance in an overwhelming majority of subjects. Our apparent ceiling effect was surprising. A sub-comparison of the few subjects who stopped the game before the end with those who did not suggests that personality factors influence the effectiveness of blunt impact as a deterrent. While paintballs differ from traditional blunt impact munitions on a number of physical characteristics, impact that was sufficient to repeatedly bruise volunteers was not an effective deterrent.

  13. Games and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2006-01-01

    From a very early age, people learn from games and play. Parents and preschool teachers use games to teach colors, numbers, names, and shapes; the process is drill and practice. Games engage everyone, capturing their attention. People willingly spend time on task. Although students in high school and college continue to play games, games rarely…

  14. Teaching Using Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2011-01-01

    Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

  15. Ontology of Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayaga, Lakshmi; Rasmussen, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Computer games are no longer just for entertainment; they have also become a useful instructional strategy for acquiring knowledge. When games are used for purposes other than strict entertainment they become serious games. The goal of serious games is to enable the player to learn a task, master a strategy or develop a skill. Serious games can be…

  16. Design, engineering and utility of biotic games.

    PubMed

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H; Chung, Alice M; Dura, Burak; Hamilton, Andrea L; Lee, Byung C

    2011-01-01

    Games are a significant and defining part of human culture, and their utility beyond pure entertainment has been demonstrated with so-called 'serious games'. Biotechnology--despite its recent advancements--has had no impact on gaming yet. Here we propose the concept of 'biotic games', i.e., games that operate on biological processes. Utilizing a variety of biological processes we designed and tested a collection of games: 'Enlightenment', 'Ciliaball', 'PAC-mecium', 'Microbash', 'Biotic Pinball', 'POND PONG', 'PolymerRace', and 'The Prisoner's Smellemma'. We found that biotic games exhibit unique features compared to existing game modalities, such as utilizing biological noise, providing a real-life experience rather than virtual reality, and integrating the chemical senses into play. Analogous to video games, biotic games could have significant conceptual and cost-reducing effects on biotechnology and eventually healthcare; enable volunteers to participate in crowd-sourcing to support medical research; and educate society at large to support personal medical decisions and the public discourse on bio-related issues. PMID:21085736

  17. "Chocolate-Covered Broccoli"? Games and the Teaching of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Izabela; Roberts, David

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the way games and gaming align themselves with the pedagogy of the humanities have left behind a key discipline: that of literary studies, as opposed to literacy studies, a far more common concern among scholars who have examined the impact of games on university and secondary teaching. This paper considers the reasons for such a lacuna…

  18. Pleasure, Learning, Video Games, and Life: The Projective Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses three questions. First, what is the deep pleasure that humans take from video games? Second, what is the relationship between video games and real life? Third, what do the answers to these questions have to do with learning? Good commercial video games are deep technologies for recruiting learning as a form of profound…

  19. Changing Pace: Outdoor Games for Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consalvo, Carmine M.

    This book aims to assist facilitators and trainers of human resource development in the use of outdoor games as a vehicle for learning. The games address such work-related areas as communication, decision making, problem solving, teamwork, leadership, and goal setting. The introduction offers a commentary on how and why the use of experiential…

  20. Transfer of conflict and cooperation from experienced games to new games: a connectionist model of learning

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    set of games is found to be a necessary condition for deep learning (and transfer) across game classes. Paradoxically, superficial transfer of learning is shown to lead to better outcomes than deep transfer for a wide range of game classes. The simulation results corroborate important experimental findings with human subjects, and make several novel predictions that can be tested experimentally. PMID:25873855

  1. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  2. Combining Modeling and Gaming for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2012-08-22

    Many of our most significant challenges involve people. While human behavior has long been studied, there are recent advances in computational modeling of human behavior. With advances in computational capabilities come increases in the volume and complexity of data that humans must understand in order to make sense of and capitalize on these modeling advances. Ultimately, models represent an encapsulation of human knowledge. One inherent challenge in modeling is efficient and accurate transfer of knowledge from humans to models, and subsequent retrieval. The simulated real-world environment of games presents one avenue for these knowledge transfers. In this paper we describe our approach of combining modeling and gaming disciplines to develop predictive capabilities, using formal models to inform game development, and using games to provide data for modeling.

  3. Computer Games and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

  4. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  5. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  6. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  7. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  8. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  9. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  10. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  11. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  12. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  13. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  14. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  15. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  16. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  17. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  18. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  19. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  20. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  1. 25 CFR 547.16 - What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass, and rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass... HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.16 What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass, and rules? This section...

  2. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  3. 25 CFR 543.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... games? 543.10 Section 543.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... control standards for card games? (a) Supervision. Supervision must be provided as needed during the card... personnel independent of the transaction or independent of the card games department; or (2) A dealer...

  4. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... games? 542.9 Section 542.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... card games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the card game drop and the count thereof shall...

  5. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... games? 542.9 Section 542.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... card games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the card game drop and the count thereof shall...

  6. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  7. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... games? 542.9 Section 542.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... card games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the card game drop and the count thereof shall...

  8. 25 CFR 547.16 - What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass, and rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass... HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.16 What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass, and rules? This section...

  9. 25 CFR 547.16 - What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass, and rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass... HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.16 What are the minimum standards for game artwork, glass, and rules? This section...

  10. 25 CFR 543.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... games? 543.10 Section 543.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... control standards for card games? (a) Supervision. Supervision must be provided as needed during the card... personnel independent of the transaction or independent of the card games department; or (2) A dealer...

  11. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... games? 542.9 Section 542.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... card games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the card game drop and the count thereof shall...

  12. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  13. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  14. NEVADA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Nevada. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. As...

  15. Game-powered machine learning.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data. PMID:22460786

  16. Game-powered machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the “wisdom of the crowds.” Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., “funky jazz with saxophone,” “spooky electronica,” etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data. PMID:22460786

  17. Goal-based dictator game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  18. Reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Thiess, G.H.

    1988-12-27

    A reserve battery is described comprising: a battery cell compartment; an electrolyte reservoir containing pressurized electrolyte fluid; an elongate member formed of rigid material having interior walls defining a closed orifice between the battery cell compartment and the electrolyte fluid reservoir; and the elongate member including a groove adjacent the orifice to define a frangible portion such that upon angular displacement of the elongate member the elongate member is severed at the frangible portion to open the orifice and allow pressurized electrolyte fluid to be conveyed through the orifice to the battery cell compartment.

  19. 14 CFR § 1230.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] § 1230.121 Section § 1230.121 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.121 [Reserved]...

  20. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  1. Turning Shortcomings into Challenges: Brain-Computer Interfaces for Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijholt, Anton; Reuderink, Boris; Oude Bos, Danny

    In recent years we have seen a rising interest in brain-computer interfacing for human-computer interaction and potential game applications. Until now, however, we have almost only seen attempts where BCI is used to measure the affective state of the user or in neurofeedback games. There have hardly been any attempts to design BCI games where BCI is considered to be one of the possible input modalities that can be used to control the game. One reason may be that research still follows the paradigms of the traditional, medically oriented, BCI approaches. In this paper we discuss current BCI research from the viewpoint of games and game design. It is hoped that this survey will make clear that we need to design different games than we used to, but that such games can nevertheless be interesting and exciting.

  2. Learning through social interaction in game technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Waern, Annika; Raybourn, Elaine Marie

    2005-05-01

    The present ITSE journal special issue on 'Learning About Social Interaction through Gaming' is the result of an invitation to the attendees of a one-day workshop on 'Social Learning Through Gaming' co-organized by the guest editors and held at the Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) conference on April 26, 2004 in Vienna, Austria. CHI is one of the premiere conferences on human-computer interaction. CHI 2004 attracted hundreds of delegates from all over the world. The CHI workshop program results from a competitive selection process. The Social Learning through Gaming workshop was filled to capacity and attended by approximately 25 participants from Europe and North America who submitted position papers that were refereed and selected for participation based on the relevancy and innovativeness of the research. The participants came together to share research on play, learning, games, interactive technologies, and what playing and designing games can teach us about social behaviors. The present special issue focuses on learning about social aspects through gaming: learning to socialize through games and learning games through social behavior.

  3. Evolutionary Game Theory and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on the article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. This article offers a fresh perspective on leaders, followers, and their possible origins in nonhuman and primitive human behavior patterns. The connections between group coordination, leadership, and game theory have some…

  4. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  5. Learning with Calculator Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  6. Communication Games in Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)

  7. Games for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

  8. Game Board Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2000-01-01

    Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)

  9. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  10. The game of go as a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier; Kandiah, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the game of go, one of the most ancient and complex board games, from a complex network perspective. We have defined a proper categorization of moves taking into account the local environment, and shown that in this case Zipf's law emerges from data taken from real games. The network shows differences between professional and amateur games, different level of amateurs, or different phases of the game. Certain eigenvectors are localized on specific groups of moves which correspond to different strategies (communities of moves). The point of view developed should allow to better modelize such games and could also help to design simulators which could in the future beat good human players. Our approach could be used for other types of games, and in parallel shed light on the human decision making process.

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics of Biological Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Sigmund, Karl

    2004-02-01

    Darwinian dynamics based on mutation and selection form the core of mathematical models for adaptation and coevolution of biological populations. The evolutionary outcome is often not a fitness-maximizing equilibrium but can include oscillations and chaos. For studying frequency-dependent selection, game-theoretic arguments are more appropriate than optimization algorithms. Replicator and adaptive dynamics describe short- and long-term evolution in phenotype space and have found applications ranging from animal behavior and ecology to speciation, macroevolution, and human language. Evolutionary game theory is an essential component of a mathematical and computational approach to biology.

  12. Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby; Williamson, Rebecca A; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-02-01

    Is the sense of fairness uniquely human? Human reactions to reward division are often studied by means of the ultimatum game, in which both partners need to agree on a distribution for both to receive rewards. Humans typically offer generous portions of the reward to their partner, a tendency our close primate relatives have thus far failed to show in experiments. Here we tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children on a modified ultimatum game. One individual chose between two tokens that, with their partner's cooperation, could be exchanged for rewards. One token offered equal rewards to both players, whereas the other token favored the chooser. Both apes and children responded like humans typically do. If their partner's cooperation was required, they split the rewards equally. However, with passive partners--a situation akin to the so-called dictator game--they preferred the selfish option. Thus, humans and chimpanzees show similar preferences regarding reward division, suggesting a long evolutionary history to the human sense of fairness. PMID:23319633

  13. The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubik, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)

  14. Indian Gaming in South Dakota: Conflict in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Legal gaming on Indian reservations has increased dramatically since the 1987 landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court in "California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians." In this case the Supreme Court upheld by a 6-3 vote the right under federal law for Indians to run gambling operations without state regulation in states where such…

  15. The $-game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting Andersen, J.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a payoff function extending Minority Games (MG) that captures the competition between agents to make money. In contrast with previous MG, the best strategies are not always targeting the minority but are shifting opportunistically between the minority and the majority. The emergent properties of the price dynamics and of the wealth of agents are strikingly different from those found in MG. As the memory of agents is increased, we find a phase transition between a self-sustained speculative phase in which a ``stubborn majority'' of agents effectively collaborate to arbitrage a market-maker for their mutual benefit and a phase where the market-maker always arbitrages the agents. A subset of agents exhibit a sustained non-equilibrium risk-return profile.

  16. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, Nigeria, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Uba, Belinda Vernyuy; Aliyu, Ahmad; Abubakar, Aisha; Uba, Sabo Ado; Gidado, Saheed; Edukugho, Aboyowa; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Kalejaiye, John; Nguku, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector borne parasitic disease transmitted to humans by infected tse-tse flies cause morbidity including delayed child mental development. Reports of nuisance and bites from tse-tse flies by residents of Kachia grazing led to the study to determine the knowledge, practices and prevalence of HAT among residents of the grazing reserve. Methods We conducted active case search in a cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling with probability proportionate to size. We administered structured questionnaire on Knowledge, practices relating to HAT prevention and screened for HAT using card agglutination test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT). Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, a case of HAT as any respondent that tested positive on CATT. We analysed data using Epi-info and MS-excel. Results Of the 300 respondents, mean age 39(±17years) interviewed, 56.3% were males, 12.0% had good knowledge of HAT and 76.3% were exposed to HAT risk factors. Prevention practices included clearing of overgrown bushes around houses (99%), use of insecticidal treated nets (75.7%) and protective clothing (41.0%). Males {Odds Ratio [OR] 5.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8 - 13.6}, age above 40 years {OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.1 - 24.4} and family history of HAT {OR 8.7; 95% CI 2.4 - 32.1} were significantly associated with HAT knowledge. None tested positive on CATT. Conclusion Despite poor knowledge of HAT, residents practiced HAT preventive measures and zero HAT prevalence was recorded. PMID:27222686

  17. Making Games Not Work: Paradoxes Embedded in Game-Based Training and Concepts for Overcoming Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Phillip N.; Cuper, Taryn

    2010-01-01

    An interest in game-based training solutions is natural. All one has to do is watch someone fully engaged in a modern game to see the potential of harnessing that attention for training. However, the reality of game-based training has not fully satisfied these expectations. This paper explains two paradoxes that must be overcome for games to support training. These paradoxes are a result of the realities of the basic human condition clashing with the requirements of learning theory. 80th paradoxes arise from the concept of "engagement" that is central to games. The first comes from a more robust definition of engagement, which is the condition of Flow or Optimal Experience. Flow is the state game developers want to see in users. One aspect of Flow is loss of sense of self as the individual becomes immersed in the experience. The paradox arises because this loss of self directly contradicts the learning requirement of self-reflection. The second paradox comes from theories of play, which state in part that play requires a level of individual freedom. The contradiction arises when game-based play must be harnessed to an organizational training program or regimen. The paper will discuss these paradoxes in the context of an effort to design a game-based training modality to train combat medics and will close with a review of compensating strategies identified by the designers. The paper will provide information important to anyone interested in conceptualizing and designing game-based training.

  18. Quantum repeated games revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable.

  19. Reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Theiss, G.H.

    1990-05-15

    This patent describes a reserve battery. It comprises: a battery cell compartment defined by housing walls surrounding rounding battery cells and having an open top; a lower bulkhead member spanning the open top of the battery cell compartment and having fill tubes depending from a downwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member, one fill tube being provided for each of the battery cells, and each fill tube having internal walls defining a passageway between the interior of the battery cell compartment and an upwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member; an upper bulkhead member having a downwardly facing surface opposite and spaced apart from the upwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member to form a bulkhead cavity; an elastic reservoir bag in an expanded state containing an electrolyte fluid under pressure and having an opening connected to a passageway to the bulkhead cavity; operable means for sealing the passageway between the reservoir bag opening and the cavity; and housing walls defining a containment for the reservoir bag.

  20. Markov Chain Analysis of Musical Dice Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenkov, D.; Dawin, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  1. Who believes electronic games cause real world aggression?

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-04-01

    Electronic games have rapidly become a popular form of human recreation, and the immersive experiences they provide millions have led many to voice concerns that some games, and violent ones in particular, may negatively impact society. Increasingly heated debates make it clear that gaming-related aggression is a topic that elicits strong opinions. Despite a complex and growing literature concerned with violent games, little is known empirically about why some ardently believe, whereas others dismiss, notions that this form of leisure is a source of aggression. The present research recruited three nationally representative samples to investigate this understudied topic. Results showed that belief was normally distributed across the population, prominent among demographic cohorts who did not grow up with games and those who lack concrete gaming experience. Results are discussed in the context of this developing research area, wider social science perspectives, and the place of electronic games in society. PMID:24256132

  2. The Easiest Lights Out Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…

  3. Simulation Games in Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulogne, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the value of simulation games in moral education in four categories: fun and games; games as simulations of real life; games as motivators; and morality and game theory. Also examines the gaming aspects of morality, as well as the physical, psychological, precedent-setting, and internal consequences of an action. (Author/JK)

  4. 78 FR 56708 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Game On!: HIV/STD Prevention Mobile Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces the launch of the Game On!: HIV/STD Prevention Mobile Application (App) Video Game Challenge. We invite video game developers to create an original, innovative, and highly entertaining game for smartphones that educates either adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) or......

  5. Neutrophils: game changers in glomerulonephritis?

    PubMed Central

    Mayadas, Tanya N.; Rosetti, Florencia; Ernandez, Thomas; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Glomerulonephritides represent a diverse array of diseases that have in common immune cell-mediated effector mechanisms that cause organ damage. The contribution of neutrophils to the pathogenesis of proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) is not well recognized. Most equate neutrophils with killing pathogens and causing collateral tissue damage during acute inflammation. However, these phagocytes are endowed with additional characteristics that have been traditionally reserved for cells of the adaptive immune system. They communicate with other cells, exhibit plasticity in their responses and have the potential to coordinate and inform the subsequent immune response, thus countering the notion that they arrive, destroy and then disappear. Therefore, neutrophils, which are the first to arrive at a site of inflammation, are potential game changers in GN. PMID:20667782

  6. The Manufacturing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Margaret

    1972-01-01

    Article describes management training through playing a game which involves the creation and operation of a business organization devoted to manufacturing and sales. Precise details on setting up the game are given. (Author/PD)

  7. Wolf Trek Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Describes a learning center game which is designed to help elementary school students learn about wolves. Includes playing instructions, game board, and questions and answers. Also included is a record of wolf calls narrated by actor Robert Redford. (TW)

  8. Mang Kung Dice Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai-Sum

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Mang Kung Dice Game, popular in China, which uses six special dice. Discusses the probability distribution of possible outcomes. Poses questions about the game to help students understand statistical concepts. (MKR)

  9. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. PMID:27016340

  10. Bacterial Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Erwin; Reichenbach, Tobias

    Microbial laboratory communities have become model systems for studying the complex interplay between nonlinear dynamics of evolutionary selection forces, stochastic fluctuations arising from the probabilistic nature of interactions, and spatial organization. Major research goals are to identify and understand mechanisms that ensure viability of microbial colonies by allowing for species diversity, cooperative behavior and other kinds of "social" behavior. A synthesis of evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic processes provides the mathematical tools and conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of these ecological systems. We give an introduction to the modern formulation of these theories and illustrate their effectiveness, focusing on selected examples of microbial systems. Intrinsic fluctuations, stemming from the discreteness of individuals, are ubiquitous, and can have important impact on the stability of ecosystems. In the absence of speciation, extinction of species is unavoidable, may, however, take very long times. We provide a general concept for defining survival and extinction on ecological time scales. Spatial degrees of freedom come with a certain mobility of individuals. When the latter is sufficiently high, bacterial community structures can be understood through mapping individual-based models, in a continuum approach, onto stochastic partial differential equations. These allow progress using methods of nonlinear dynamics such as bifurcation analysis and invariant manifolds. We conclude with a perspective on the current challenges in quantifying bacterial pattern formation, and how this might have an impact on fundamental research in nonequilibrium physics .

  11. Brain Games for Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberg, Jackie

    2001-01-01

    Presents games for caregivers to use with infants to enhance brain development. Includes games that develop trust and security, language skills, and fine motor skills, as well as games that are fun or stimulate vision. Includes videotape references for parents and caregivers. (KB)

  12. [Dangerous games in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2011-02-01

    Dangerous games inside or outside school are a serious social phenomenon, but unfortunately underrecognized. Aggressive games are a part of school bullying, which is in expansion. Choking games are very dangerous, with many deaths or serious neurologic complications. Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about risky behaviors encountered by their patients, and provide guidance about its dangers. PMID:21146376

  13. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  14. Online Strategy Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

  15. The Librarianship of Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon

    The need for librarianship of instructional gaming increases as the production of literature and games grows, and as gaming becomes progressively legitimatized as an instructional strategy. This paper presents guidelines for bibliographic control and reference services, collection development, cataloging and classification, circulation and…

  16. The Games Children Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The games that children play are not just for fun-they often lead to important skill development. Likewise, word games are fun opportunities for parents and children to spend time together and for children to learn a lot about sounds and words. In this Family Involvement column, the authors describe 12 easy-to-implement word games that parents and…

  17. Games, Logic and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul A.; Penner, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Gaming (the use of formal games for specific academic purposes) is a method for teaching formal thinking processes that is particularly suited to the gifted student. Various games can be used to develop deductive reasoning, the concept of subsets, inductive reasoning, and attention to detail. (Author/SW)

  18. International Cooperative Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Christine

    The book "Of Play and Playfulness" (Eastern Cooperative Recreation School, 1990) is recommended as a source of ideas for second language learning games. It describes folk dances, ideas for crafts, puppetry, games, and a variety of other activities from many countries. Several games from the book, easy to teach in a foreign language or…

  19. Getting into the Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Statistics reveal that students spend more time on electronic games than on any other recreational activity and 32% admit to playing them during class. The gaming revolution contains lessons for teachers, and understanding the pedagogical potential of computer and video games and developing curriculum that supports the educational use of…

  20. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  1. Gaming Gains Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2012-01-01

    The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

  2. Time for Bed Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Babysitting: Time for Bed Game KidsHealth > For Teens > Babysitting: Time for Bed Game Print A A A Text Size What Kids ... kids to bed can be tough sometimes! This game introduces children to the concept of getting enough ...

  3. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  4. The Merchandising Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The decision-making game is built on a model which adheres to the economic principles of supply and demand. Game participants are faced with the task of generating profit in a simulated competitive situation. The game provides the opportunity for participants to gain a greater understanding of: (1) the relationship between income and costs and…

  5. Being a Game Changer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg

    2012-01-01

    One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…

  6. Assessing Game Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaydos, Matthew; Harris, Shannon; Squire, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Player responses to a brief survey gauging their understanding of content after playing an educational game, "Virulent," are presented. Response accuracy was higher for picture-based questions than text-based questions, despite the presentation of both within the game. Given that games may present educational content in multiple ways…

  7. Inventing Music Education Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghere, David; Amram, Fred M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The first British patent describing an educational game designed for musical "amusement and instruction" was granted in 1801 to Ann Young of Edinburgh, Scotland. The authors' discovery of Young's game box has prompted an examination of the nature and purpose of the six games she designed. Ann Young's patent is discussed in the context of…

  8. Educational Games for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…

  9. Games of Rapport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Sandra J.

    1980-01-01

    Board games called Games of Rapport are being developed at the University of Alberta. The first, "Angels and Devils," is designed for play by nursing home residents. Results of a study involving "Angels and Devils" show that board games are useful in communicating rehabilitative objectives and sources of conflict. (Author/BEF)

  10. Learning Through Simulation Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillispie, Philip H.

    A broad overview of the educational applications of simulation games is provided. The first section of the book offers an introduction to the major concepts of such games and develops the idea that it is relatively easy for individuals to design and use their own simulation games. The remainder of the book serves as a teacher's guide for…

  11. Indian & Metis Trivia Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…

  12. Game Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisabeth, Kathryn L.

    Before discussing the development of skills for playing elementary school physical education games, this document lists basic assumptions about children, movement education, games, and elementary school physical education. Four basic concepts, which are common to all team games, are identified: (1) use of personal and moving space and finding…

  13. Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity and…

  14. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks. PMID:26648549

  15. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-12-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks.

  16. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  17. First Video Game

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, Peter

    2008-10-21

    More than fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the electronic tennis game with separate controllers that connected to an analog computer and used an oscilloscope for a screen. The game's creator, William Higinbotham, was a physicist who lobbied for nuclear nonproliferation as the first chair of the Federation of American Scientists.

  18. First Video Game

    ScienceCinema

    Takacs, Peter

    2010-01-08

    More than fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the electronic tennis game with separate controllers that connected to an analog computer and used an oscilloscope for a screen. The game's creator, William Higinbotham, was a physicist who lobbied for nuclear nonproliferation as the first chair of the Federation of American Scientists.

  19. Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Darby; Williamson, Rebecca A.; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2013-01-01

    Is the sense of fairness uniquely human? Human reactions to reward division are often studied by means of the ultimatum game, in which both partners need to agree on a distribution for both to receive rewards. Humans typically offer generous portions of the reward to their partner, a tendency our close primate relatives have thus far failed to show in experiments. Here we tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children on a modified ultimatum game. One individual chose between two tokens that, with their partner’s cooperation, could be exchanged for rewards. One token offered equal rewards to both players, whereas the other token favored the chooser. Both apes and children responded like humans typically do. If their partner’s cooperation was required, they split the rewards equally. However, with passive partners—a situation akin to the so-called dictator game—they preferred the selfish option. Thus, humans and chimpanzees show similar preferences regarding reward division, suggesting a long evolutionary history to the human sense of fairness. PMID:23319633

  20. 25 CFR 543.8-543.15 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 543.8-543.15 Section 543.8-543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING §§ 543.8-543.15...

  1. 25 CFR 543.4-543.5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 543.4-543.5 Section 543.4-543.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING §§ 543.4-543.5...

  2. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    PubMed

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. PMID:24849111

  3. Reserve capacity and exit choosing in pedestrian evacuation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Gao, Ziyou

    2010-03-01

    A modified cellular automata model is proposed to simulate the pedestrian evacuation behavior in a room with multiple exits by considering the reserve capacity of the exit. The main idea is motivated by the original concept of minority game, which means less congested exits may be preferentially chosen together with the floor fields. The model outperforms previous ones under the condition in which pedestrians are distributed heterogeneously. Simulation results show that wise exit choosing with the consideration of reserve capacity may reduce the evacuation time apparently, which is more realistic. Furthermore, the impacts of the room geometry and parameter settings are investigated extensively.

  4. Educational Games in Today's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roger A.

    Educational games have received increasing attention as one teaching technique for individualizing instruction. The use of games for education was borrowed from the business community, which in turn had borrowed the idea from the military. Educational games include several distinct types--simulations, role playing, games and simulation games. Two…

  5. Sex, Lies and Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

  6. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  7. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  8. 25 CFR 543.6 - Does this part apply to small and charitable gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operations? 543.6 Section 543.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... operations provided that: (1) The tribal gaming regulatory authority permits the operation to be exempt from this part; (2) The annual gross gaming revenue of the operation does not exceed $2 million; and (3)...

  9. 25 CFR 542.6 - Does this part apply to small and charitable gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... operations? 542.6 Section 542.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN...: (1) The Tribal gaming regulatory authority permits the operation to be exempt from this part; (2) The annual gross gaming revenue of the operation does not exceed $1 million; and (3) The Tribal...

  10. 25 CFR 542.6 - Does this part apply to small and charitable gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operations? 542.6 Section 542.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN...: (1) The Tribal gaming regulatory authority permits the operation to be exempt from this part; (2) The annual gross gaming revenue of the operation does not exceed $1 million; and (3) The Tribal...