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Sample records for gamma nuclear resonance

  1. Recoilless Nuclear Resonance Absorption of Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mössbauer, Rudolf L.

    It is a high distinction to be permitted to address you on the subject of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption of gamma radiation. The methods used in this special branch of experimental physics have recently found acceptance in many areas of science. I take the liberty to confine myself essentially to the work which I was able to carry out in the years 1955-1958 at the Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg, and which finally led to establishment of the field of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption. Many investigators shared in the preparations of the basis for the research we are concerned with in this lecture. As early as the middle of the last century Stokes observed, in the case of fluorite, the phenomenon now known as fluorescence - namely, that solids, liquids, and gases under certain conditions partially absorb incident electromagnetic radiation which immediately is reradiated. A special case is the so-called resonance fluorescence, a phenomenon in which the re-emitted and the incident radiation both are of the same wavelength. The resonance fluorescence of the yellow D lines of sodium in sodium vapour is a particularly notable and exhaustively studied example. In this optical type of resonance fluorescence, light sources are used in which the atoms undergo transitions from excited states to their ground states (Fig. 1.1). The light quanta emitted in these transitions (A → B) are used to initiate the inverse process of resonance absorption in the atoms of an absorber which are identical with the radiating atoms. The atoms of the absorber undergo a transition here from the ground state (B) to the excited state (A), from which they again return to the ground state, after a certain time delay, by emission of fluorescent light.

  2. Gamma-ray nuclear resonance absorption (γ-NRA) for explosives detection in air cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartsky, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Engler, G.; Goldschmidt, A.; Feldman, G.; Bar, D.; Sayag, E.; Katz, D.; Krauss, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The γ-NRA method has been utilized to detect explosives concealed in aviation containers loaded with a variety of cargo. In γ-NRA, gamma-rays at an energy of 9.17 MeV undergo a resonant nuclear attenuation component proportional to the integrated density of 14N nuclei along the line of sight from source to detector. When inspecting objects in transmission mode, projected images of nitrogen density of their contents can be generated. In an experiment performed earlier this year at the Dynamitron accelerator lab. of Birmingham Univ., U.K., diverse items such as passenger bags, electronic equipment, paper goods and mixed cargo were scanned along with explosives simulants. The results from this run will be presented and anticipated performance ratings of an operational explosives detection system (EDS) discussed.

  3. Resonance production in. gamma gamma. collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Renard, F.M.

    1983-04-01

    The processes ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. hadrons can be depicted as follows. One photon creates a q anti q pair which starts to evolve; the other photon can either (A) make its own q anti q pair and the (q anti q q anti q) system continue to evolve or (B) interact with the quarks of the first pair and lead to a modified (q anti q) system in interaction with C = +1 quantum numbers. A review of the recent theoretical activity concerning resonance production and related problems is given under the following headings: hadronic C = +1 spectroscopy (q anti q, qq anti q anti q, q anti q g, gg, ggg bound states and mixing effects); exclusive ..gamma gamma.. processes (generalities, unitarized Born method, VDM and QCD); total cross section (soft and hard contributions); q/sup 2/ dependence of soft processes (soft/hard separation, 1/sup +- +/ resonances); and polarization effects. (WHK)

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, E. R.

    2009-06-01

    Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

  5. Nuclear relaxation rates study of GTP(gamma F)-tubulin interaction using 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, O

    1989-07-01

    To study the relationship between the exchangeable GTP binding site (E-site) and the high affinity metal binding site we synthesized P3-fluoro P1-5'-guanosine tripaosphate (GTP(gamma F), an analog of GTP. Our results show that this analog binds to the exchangeable GTP binding site of calf brain tubulin. The values of the dissociation constant and the stoichiometry of the GTP(gamma F)-Mn(II) complex as determined by EPR spectroscopy were 1.64 x 10(-4) M and one mole of manganese per mole of nucleotide, respectively. The distance separating the high-affinity binding site for the divalent metal ion and the exchangeable nucleotide binding site was evaluated by using high-resolution 19F-NMR. The 31P- and 19F-NMR spectra of GTP(gamma F) were studied, both the fluorine and the gamma-phosphate were split in a doublet with a coupling constant of 936 Hz. Tubulin purified by the method of Weisenberg (Weisenberg, R.C., and Timashef, S.N. (1970) Biochemistry 9, 4110-4116) was treated with colchicine to stabilize it, GTP(gamma F) was added and the 254.1 MHz 19fluorine relaxation rates measured within the first four hours. Longitudinal and transversal relaxation rates were determined in the presence of colchicine-tubulin-Mn(II), (paramagnetic complex), or the ternary complex with magnesium (diamagnetic complex). The analysis of the temperature-dependent relaxation data indicates that the metal and the exchangeable nucleotide binding sites are separated by a maximal distance of 6 at 35 degrees C, to 8.1 A at 12 degrees C. PMID:2619317

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is currently in phase 4 of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. The micro-NMRG technology is pushing the boundaries of size, weight, power, and performance allowing new small platform applications of navigation grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) technology. Information on the historical development of the technology, basics of operation, task performance goals, application opportunities, and a phase 2 sample of earth rate measurement data will be presented. Funding Provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

  10. Preliminary Study of the Efficacy of Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence with Quasi-Monoenergetic Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Safeguards Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; McNabb, D P; Hall, J M; Gonzalez, J J

    2011-02-17

    We have studied the efficacy of using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF)-based techniques to assay spent nuclear fuel for Pu content using quasi-monoenergetic sources. We have developed two techniques to precisely determine the Pu content in a fuel rod/pin. One of our approaches is virtually free of systematic uncertainties. Using analytical models, we have determined the amount of time required to measure the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel rods and spent fuel assemblies to within 1% precision. We note that Pu content can be determined in a fuel assembly about as fast as in a single fuel pin. The performance of NRF-based assay techniques with improved photon sources, which are currently under development, will also estimated. For follow-on research we propose to: (1) Construct research prototype detection systems for both of the NRF-based assay systems proposed in this paper and measure their calibration curves; (2) Determine the systematic errors associated with both assay methods, explore ways to reduce the errors and fold the results into future performance calculations; (3) Develop an algorithm to assay a fuel assembly; (4) Perform validation measurements using a single pin and scaled assemblies; (5) Research and develop current-mode detection and/or threshold detection techniques to improve assay times; (6) Characterize the flux of newly constructed sources and fold the results into the calculations presented here to determine the feasibility of a variety of proposed sources; and (7) Collaborate with others in the safeguards community to build a prototype system and perform an NRF-based assay demonstration on spent fuel.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Mirijanian, James; Pavell, James

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) is being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). Cold and hot atom interferometer based gyroscopes have suffered from Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) challenges and limits in bandwidth, scale factor stability, dead time, high rotation rate, vibration, and acceleration. NMRG utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as a reference for determining rotation, providing continuous measurement, high bandwidth, stable scale factor, high rotation rate measurement, and low sensitivity to vibration and acceleration in a low SWaP package. The sensitivity to vibration has been partially tested and demonstrates no measured sensitivity within error bars. Real time closed loop implementation of the sensor significantly decreases environmental and systematic sensitivities and supports a compact and low power digital signal processing and control system. Therefore, the NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost SWaP package. The poster will describe the history, operation, and design of the NMRG. General performance results will also be presented along with recent vibration test results.

  12. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Willey, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties.

  13. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of interaction of ligands with Streptococcus faecium dihydrofolate reductase labeled with (. gamma. -/sup 13/C)tryptophan

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.E.; Groff, J.P.; Cocco, L.; Blakley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Streptococcus faecium has been labeled with (..gamma..-/sup 13/C)tryptophan. We have determined changes occurring in the chemical shifts and line widths of the four resonances of the /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of the labeled enzyme, due to its interaction with various ligands. These include the coenzyme, NPDPH and related nucleotides, folate and its polyglutamate derivatives, and many inhibitors including methotrexate and trimethoprim. In addition, paramagnetic relaxation effects produced by a bound spin-labeled analogue of 2'-phosphoadenosine-5'-diphosphoribose on the tryptophan C/sup ..gamma../ carbons have been measured. Distances calculated from the relaxation data have been compared with corresponding distances in the crystallographic model of the NADPH-methotrexate ternary complex of Lactobacillus casei reductase. The paramagnetic relaxation data indicate that the two downfield resonances (1 and 2) correspond to tryptophans (W/sub A/ and W/sub B/) that are more remote from the catalytic site, and from the crystallographic model these are seen to be Trp-115 and Trp-160. The upfield resonances (3 and 4) that show broadening due to chemical exchange correspond to closer residues (W/sub C/ and W/sub D/), and these are identified with Trp-6 and Trp-22. However, the relaxation data do not permit specific assignments within the nearer and farther pairs. Although resonance 3, which is split due to chemical exchange, was formerly assigned to Trp-6, data obtained for the enzyme in the presence of various ligands are better interpreted if resonance 3 is assigned to Trp-22, which is located on a loop that joins elements of secondary structure and forms one side of the ligand-binding cavity.

  15. Gamma resonance absorption. New approach in human body composition studies.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, D; Pierson, R; Goldberg, M; Heymsfield, S; Yasumura, S; Melnychuk, S T; Sredniawski, J

    2000-05-01

    The main stream of body elemental analysis is based on the delayed, prompt, and inelastic neutron interactions with the main elements found in the human body, and subsequent analysis of the measured delayed or prompt gamma ray spectra. This methodology traditionally was, and still is, applied for whole body analysis and requires relatively high radiation doses. A new method, based on gamma nuclear resonance absorption (GNRA), is being established at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of its body composition program. The method is element specific with a high tomographic spatial-resolution capability, at a small fraction of the radiation dose used in the current system. The new system, with its components and capabilities, is described below. PMID:10865747

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    NMR is remarkable in the number of innovations that have appeared and become established within the past five years. This thoroughly up-to-date account of the field explains fundamentals and applications of the NMR phenomenon from the viewpoint of a physical chemist. Beginning with descriptions of basic concepts involved in continuous wave operation, the book goes on to cover spectral analysis, relaxation phenomena, the effects of pulses, the Fourier transform model, double resonance and the effects of chemical exchange and quadrupolar interactions. The book also includes the new techniques for work on solids and for complicated pulse sequences, plus abundant figures and illustrative spectra.

  17. Compact Gamma-Beam Source for Nuclear Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    A compact gamma-beam source dedicated to the development of the nuclear security technologies by use of the nuclear resonance fluorescence is described. Besides, such source is a very promising tool for novel technologies of the express cargoes inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. Gamma-beam with the quanta energies from 0.3MeV to 7.2MeV is generated in the Compton scattering of the "green" laser photons on the electron beam with energies from 90MeV to 430MeV. The characteristic property of the proposed gammabeam source is a narrow spectrum (less than 1%) at high average gamma-yield (of 1013γ/s) due to special operation mode.

  18. Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Ambers, Scott

    2011-06-30

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of gamma rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. NRF promises the unique capability of directly quantifying a specific isotope without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as is required in other measurement techniques. We have analyzed the potential of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique for quantitative measurements of Pu isotopes in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Given the low concentrations of 239Pu in SNF and its small integrated NRF cross sections, the main challenge in achieving precise and accurate measurements lies in accruing sufficient counting statistics in a reasonable measurement time. Using analytical modeling, and simulations with the radiation transport code MCNPX that has been experimentally tested recently, the backscatter and transmission methods were quantitatively studied for differing photon sources and radiation detector types. Resonant photon count rates and measurement times were estimated for a range of photon source and detection parameters, which were used to determine photon source and gamma-ray detector requirements. The results indicate that systems based on a bremsstrahlung source and present detector technology are not practical for high-precision measurements of 239Pu in SNF. Measurements that achieve the desired uncertainties within hour-long measurements will either require stronger resonances, which may be expressed by other Pu isotopes, or require quasi-monoenergetic photon sources with intensities that are approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those currently being designed or proposed.This work is part of a larger effort sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to develop an integrated instrument, comprised of individual NDA techniques with complementary features, that is fully capable of

  19. Nuclear photofission studies with monochromatic {gamma} ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Csige, L.; Gulyas, J.; Habs, D.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2012-07-09

    Two new research facilities will be ready for operation very soon (MEGa-Ray at Liver-more National Laboratory) or start construction (ELI-Nuclear Physics in Bucharest), both providing highly brilliant {gamma} beams with so far unprecedented properties via Compton backscattering of laser photons from a high-quality, relativistic electron beam. With these intense, monochromatic {gamma} beams, a new era of photonuclear physics will be enabled. A new research campaign is proposed to exploit the unprecedented properties of these highly-brilliant, novel {gamma} beams on highly-selective studies of extremely deformed nuclei in the multiple-humped potential energy landscape of the actinides via photofission. With the unique {gamma} beam bandwidth of {Delta}E/E = 10{sup -3}, we can aim at resolving individual resonances which could never be achieved so far due to the limited {gamma} bandwidth of bremsstrahlung beams. Exploratory, non-bremsstrahlung photofission experiments are going to be performed very soon at the HI{gamma}S facility (Duke University, USA) to investigate the fine structure of the sub-barrier transmission resonances of the actinides.

  20. Detecting clandestine material with nuclear resonance fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruet, J.; McNabb, D. P.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hartemann, F. V.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2006-06-01

    We study the performance of a class of interrogation systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to detect specific isotopes. In these systems the presence of a particular nuclide is inferred by observing the preferential attenuation of photons that strongly excite an electromagnetic transition in that nuclide. Estimates for the false positive/negative error rates, radiological dose, and detection sensitivity associated with discovering clandestine material embedded in cargo are presented. The relation between performance of the detection system and properties of the beam of interrogating photons is also considered. Bright gamma-ray sources with fine energy and angular resolution, such as those based on Thomson upscattering of laser light, are found to be associated with uniquely low radiological dose, scan times, and error rates. For this reason a consideration of NRF-based interrogation systems may provide impetus for efforts in light source development for applications related to national security and industry.

  1. Oxygen depth profiling by nuclear resonant scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, G. T.; Sheu, W. J.; Glass, G. A.; Wang, Y. Q.

    1999-06-10

    Nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O at 3.045 MeV ({gamma}=10 keV) has been used for oxygen depth profiling in various thin oxide films. There are two ways by which the oxygen concentration versus depth profile can be obtained from the experimental data: energy spectrum simulation or yield distribution analysis. Energy spectrum simulation is done using the standard RBS software/Rutherford Universal Manipulation Program (RUMP) where only one spectrum is usually needed from the measurement. Yield distribution analysis is accomplished by using a custom developed software/Resonance Analysis Program (RAP) and involves a series of spectra obtained by stepping up the beam energy above the resonance energy. This article aims at comparing the fundamentals of both methods and also discussing their advantages and disadvantages in terms of the data acquisition and the post data analysis. A thermally grown thick SiO{sub 2} film and a thin titanium oxide film grown by corona point discharge were examined.

  2. Oxygen depth profiling by nuclear resonant scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, G.T.; Sheu, W.J.; Glass, G.A. Wang, Y.Q.

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O at 3.045 MeV ({Gamma}=10&hthinsp;keV) has been used for oxygen depth profiling in various thin oxide films. There are two ways by which the oxygen concentration versus depth profile can be obtained from the experimental data: energy spectrum simulation or yield distribution analysis. Energy spectrum simulation is done using the standard RBS software/Rutherford Universal Manipulation Program (RUMP) where only one spectrum is usually needed from the measurement. Yield distribution analysis is accomplished by using a custom developed software/Resonance Analysis Program (RAP) and involves a series of spectra obtained by stepping up the beam energy above the resonance energy. This article aims at comparing the fundamentals of both methods and also discussing their advantages and disadvantages in terms of the data acquisition and the post data analysis. A thermally grown thick SiO{sub 2} film and a thin titanium oxide film grown by corona point discharge were examined. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Evanescent Waves Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Halidi, El Mohamed; Nativel, Eric; Akel, Mohamad; Kenouche, Samir; Coillot, Christophe; Alibert, Eric; Jabakhanji, Bilal; Schimpf, Remy; Zanca, Michel; Stein, Paul; Goze-Bac, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging can be classified as inductive techniques working in the near- to far-field regimes. We investigate an alternative capacitive detection with the use of micrometer sized probes positioned at sub wavelength distances of the sample in order to characterize and model evanescent electromagnetic fields originating from NMR phenomenon. We report that in this experimental configuration the available NMR signal is one order of magnitude larger and follows an exponential decay inversely proportional to the size of the emitters. Those investigations open a new road to a better understanding of the evanescent waves component in NMR with the opportunity to perform localized spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:26751800

  4. Membrane Resonance Enables Stable and Robust Gamma Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Moca, Vasile V.; Nikolić, Danko; Singer, Wolf; Mureşan, Raul C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal mechanisms underlying beta/gamma oscillations (20–80 Hz) are not completely understood. Here, we show that in vivo beta/gamma oscillations in the cat visual cortex sometimes exhibit remarkably stable frequency even when inputs fluctuate dramatically. Enhanced frequency stability is associated with stronger oscillations measured in individual units and larger power in the local field potential. Simulations of neuronal circuitry demonstrate that membrane properties of inhibitory interneurons strongly determine the characteristics of emergent oscillations. Exploration of networks containing either integrator or resonator inhibitory interneurons revealed that: (i) Resonance, as opposed to integration, promotes robust oscillations with large power and stable frequency via a mechanism called RING (Resonance INduced Gamma); resonance favors synchronization by reducing phase delays between interneurons and imposes bounds on oscillation cycle duration; (ii) Stability of frequency and robustness of the oscillation also depend on the relative timing of excitatory and inhibitory volleys within the oscillation cycle; (iii) RING can reproduce characteristics of both Pyramidal INterneuron Gamma (PING) and INterneuron Gamma (ING), transcending such classifications; (iv) In RING, robust gamma oscillations are promoted by slow but are impaired by fast inputs. Results suggest that interneuronal membrane resonance can be an important ingredient for generation of robust gamma oscillations having stable frequency. PMID:23042733

  5. Nuclear isomer suitable for gamma ray laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jha, S.

    1979-01-01

    The operation of gamma ray lasers (gasers) are studied. It is assumed that the nuclear isomers mentioned in previously published papers have inherent limitations. It is further assumed that the judicious use of Bormann effect or the application of the total external reflection of low energy gamma radiation at grazing angle of incidence may permit the use of a gaser crystal sufficiently long to achieve observable stimulated emission. It is suggested that a long lived 0(+) isomer decaying by low energy gamma ray emission to a short lived 2(+) excited nuclear state would be an attractive gaser candidate. It is also suggested that the nuclear isomer be incorporated in a matrix of refractory material having an electrostatic field gradient whose principal axis lies along the length of the medium. This results in the preferential transmission of electric quadrupole radiation along the length of the medium.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  7. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  8. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  9. Studies of Fe/sup 2 +/. -->. Fe/sup 3 +/ transitions during the process of rock weathering by nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, S.P.; Babanin, V.F.; Solov'ev, A.A.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents a method for the mineral and weathering assessment of rocks and carbonaceous matter based in gamma spectroscopy and transitions between iron ions. The method is applied to rocks collected near the Teberda preserve. Four latitudinal bands of rocks parallel to the Greater Caucasus Ridge are identified in this territory. Isomer shift and hyperfine parameters of the Moessbauer spectra are given.

  10. Measurement of the {sup 241}Am({gamma},n){sup 240}Am reaction in the giant dipole resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonchev, A. P.; Howell, C. R.; Hutcheson, A.; Kwan, E.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Hammond, S. L.; Huibregtse, C.; Kelley, J. H.; Kawano, T.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-11-15

    The photodisintegration cross section of the radioactive nucleus {sup 241}Am has been obtained using activation techniques and monoenergetic {gamma}-ray beams from the HI{gamma}S facility. The induced activity of {sup 240}Am produced via the {sup 241}Am({gamma},n) reaction was measured in the energy interval from 9 to 16 MeV utilizing high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The experimental data for the {sup 241}Am({gamma},n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region are compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  11. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence from Uranium above 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, E.; Howell, C. R.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Adekola, A.; Hammond, S. L.; Karwowski, H. J.; Tompkins, J. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Kelley, J. H.; Johnson, B.

    2009-10-01

    The detection of special nuclear materials is critical to the nation's efforts to counter serious threat from nuclear terrorist attacks. A research program has been initiated at TUNL to address the need for new nuclear data on the actinides using the High-Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIγS). The high-intensity nearly monoenergic and 100% polarized γ-ray beams from HγS were utilized to search for dipole states in ^235U and ^238U above 2 MeV. This information is necessary for developing technologies using Nuclear-Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) to nonintrusively scan cargo for specific nuclei. The existence of strong nuclear dipole transitions in the actinides above 2 MeV is important for nuclear forensics, because interrogation photons using NRF are the most penetrating at these energies. Results from our experiments at Eγ> 2.0 MeV on uranium will be presented.

  12. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Three Axis Vector Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The Northrop Grumman Corporation is leveraging the technology developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) to build a combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (EPR-NMR) magnetometer. The EPR-NMR approach provides a high bandwidth and high sensitivity simultaneous measurement of all three vector components of the magnetic field averaged over the small volume of the sensor's one vapor cell. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the EPR-NMR magnetometer including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated to date. General performance results will also be presented.

  13. Resonant Compton scattering and gamma-ray burst continuum spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.

  14. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J; Ambers, Scott D

    2011-02-04

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of {gamma} rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. The promise of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique (NDA) in safeguards applications lies in its potential to directly quantify a specific isotope in an assay target without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as often required by other NDA methods. The use of NRF for detection of sensitive nuclear materials and other contraband has been researched in the past. In the safeguards applications considered here one has to go beyond mere detection and precisely quantify the isotopic content, a challenge that is discussed throughout this report. Basic NRF measurement methods, instrumentation, and the analytical calculation of NRF signal strengths are described in Section 2. Well understood modeling and simulation tools are needed for assessing the potential of NRF for safeguards and for designing measurement systems. All our simulations were performed with the radiation transport code MCNPX, a code that is widely used in the safeguards community. Our initial studies showed that MCNPX grossly underestimated the elastically scattered background at backwards angles due to an incorrect treatment of Rayleigh scattering. While new, corrected calculations based on ENDF form factors showed much better agreement with experimental data for the elastic scattering of photons on an uranium target, the elastic backscatter is still not rigorously treated. Photonuclear scattering processes (nuclear Thomson, Delbruck and Giant Dipole Resonance scattering), which are expected to play an important role at higher energies, are not yet included. These missing elastic scattering contributions were studied and their importance evaluated evaluated against data found in the literature as discussed in Section 3. A transmission experiment

  15. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  18. Resonance properties in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ehehalt, W.; Cassing, W.; Engel, A.; Mosel, U.; Wolf, G. )

    1993-06-01

    We analyze the formation and decay properties of nucleon resonances formed in heavy-ion collisions at 1--2 GeV/[ital u] within a microscopic transport approach. In case of Au+Au reactions the density of [Delta] resonances reaches 0.15 fm[sup [minus]3] in the central cell for a time period of the order of 10 fm/[ital c] such that one can legitimately speak about [ital resonance] [ital matter]. The lifetime of the [Delta]'s is found to be shortened at high density by only 20% due to the in-medium channel [Delta]+[ital N][r arrow][ital N]+[ital N].

  19. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Tomimatsu, Toru Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2015-08-15

    Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.

  20. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  1. Study of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in {sup 124}Sn by means of the ({alpha},{alpha}'{gamma}) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Pietralla, N.; Savran, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Harakeh, M. N.; Stoica, V.; Woertche, H.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R. D.; Scheck, M.; Kruecken, R.; Popescu, L.; Harissopulos, S.; Lagoyannis, A.

    2009-01-28

    In recent years {alpha}-{gamma} coincidence experiments at 136 MeV incident energy on {sup 48}Ca, {sup 140}Ce, {sup 138}Ba and {sup 124}Sn were performed at the KVI in Groningen to study the isospin character of electric dipole excitations below the particle threshold, frequently called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR). An array of HPGe {gamma}-detectors has been used in coincidence with the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) and a resolution of about 10 keV in the {gamma}-ray energy has been achieved. The results show that the excitation patterns of the PDR in the ({alpha},{alpha}') reaction seem to differ significantly from results obtained in Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF)({gamma},{gamma}') measurements. The PDR, which until now has been assigned to one excitation mode, splits up into two parts: One that is excited in ({alpha},{alpha}'{gamma}) and ({gamma},{gamma}') reactions (denoting a dominant isoscalar character), and one that is only excited in ({gamma},{gamma}')(denoting a dominant isovector character). This indicates that two different excitation mechanisms produce these low-lying E1 excitations [1], The preliminary results of the latest measurements on the N = 82 nucleus {sup 138}Ba and the Z = 50 nucleus {sup 124}Sn show that this break up into two parts is a common feature of the PDR in semi-magic nuclei.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging provides anatomical definition of normal and abnormal tissues with a contrast and detection sensitivity superior to those of x-ray computed tomography in the human head and pelvis and parts of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Recent improvements in technology should lead to advances in diagnostic imaging of the breast and regions of the abdomen. Selected-region nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of protons, carbon-13, and phosphorus-31 has developed into a basic science tool for in vivo studies on man and a unique tool for clinical diagnoses of metabolic disorders. At present, nuclear magnetic resonance is considered safe if access to the magnet environment is controlled. Technological advances employing field strengths over 2 teslas will require biophysical studies of heating and static field effects.

  3. Study of Collective Dipole Excitations below the Giant Dipole Resonance at HI{gamma}S

    SciTech Connect

    Tonchev, A. P.; Howell, C. R.; Tornow, W.; Angell, C.; Boswell, M.; Karwowski, H. J.; Chyzh, A.; Kelley, J. H.; Tsoneva, N.; Wu, Y. K.

    2007-02-26

    The High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source utilizing intra-cavity back-scattering of free electron laser photons from relativistic electrons allows one to produce a unique beam of high-flux gamma rays with 100% polarization and selectable energy and energy resolution which is ideal for low-energy {gamma}-ray scattering experiments. Nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments have been performed on N=82 nuclei. High sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 excitations at energies close to the neutron emission threshold have been performed. The method allows the determination of excitation energies, spin, parities, and decay branching ratios of the pygmy dipole mode of excitation. The observations are compared with calculations using statistical and quasi-particle random-phase approximations.

  4. Prompt Gamma Emission in Resonance Neutron Induced Fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, I.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Panteleev, Ts.; Skoy, V. R.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Dermendjiev, E.; Janeva, N.; Pikelner, L. B.; Grigoriev, Yu. V.; Mezentseva, Zh. V.; Ivanov, I.

    The scientific interest in the resonance neutron induced capture and fission reactions on 239Pu is continuously rising during the last decade. From a practical point of view, this is because more precise data on capture and fission cross sections, fission fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions, variation of prompt fission neutron and gamma yields in the resonance neutron region, are needed for the modelling of new generation nuclear power plants and for nuclear spent fuel and waste transmutation. From a heuristic and fundamental point of view, such a research improves our knowledge and understanding of the fission phenomena itself. To achieve these goals more powerful neutron sources and more precise fission product detectors have to be used. At the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP), where already half a century the thermal and resonance neutron induced nuclear reactions are studied, a new electron accelerator driven white spectrum pulsed neutron source IREN has been built and successfully tested. The improved characteristics of this facility, in comparison with those of the former pulse neutron fast reactor IBR-30, will allow measuring some of the neutron-nuclear reaction data with better precision and accuracy. A new experimental setup for detecting gamma rays (and neutrons) has been designed and is under construction. It will consist of 2 rings (arrays) of 12 NaI(Tl) detectors each (or 1 array of 24 detectors) with variable ring diameter and distance between both rings. Such a setup will make possible not only to measure the multiplicity, energy and angular anisotropy of prompt fission gammas, but also to separate the contribution of prompt fission neutrons by their longer time-of-flight from the fissile target to the detectors. The signals from all the 24 detectors will be recorded simultaneously in digitized form and will be stored on the hard disk of the personal computer for further off

  5. Electro and gamma nuclear physics in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    J.P. Wellisch; M. Kossov; P. Degtyarenko

    2003-03-01

    Adequate description of electro and gamma nuclear physics is of utmost importance in studies of electron beam-dumps and intense electron beam accelerators. I also is mandatory to describe neutron backgrounds and activation in linear colliders. This physics was elaborated in Geant4 over the last year, and now entered into the stage of practical application. In the Geant4 Photo-nuclear data base there are at present about 50 nuclei for which the Photo-nuclear absorption cross sections have been measured. Of these, data on 14 nuclei are used to parametrize the gamma nuclear reaction cross-section The resulting cross section is a complex, factorized function of A and e = log(E{gamma}), where E{gamma} is the energy of the incident photon. Electro-nuclear reactions are so closely connected with Photo-nuclear reactions that sometimes they are often called ''Photo-nuclear''. The one-photon exchange mechanism dominates in Electro-nuclear reactions, and the electron can be substituted by a flux of photons. Folding this flux with the gamma-nuclear cross-section, we arrive at an acceptable description of the electro-nuclear physics. Final states in gamma and electro nuclear physics are described using chiral invariant phase-space decay at low gamma or equivalent photon energies, and quark gluon string model at high energies. We will present the modeling of this physics in Geant4, and show results from practical applications.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in Kondo lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curro, Nicholas J.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has emerged as a vital tool to explore the fundamental physics of Kondo lattice systems. Because nuclear spins experience two different hyperfine couplings to the itinerant conduction electrons and to the local f moments, the Knight shift can probe multiple types of spin correlations that are not accessible via other techniques. The Knight shift provides direct information about the onset of heavy electron coherence and the emergence of the heavy electron fluid.

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  8. A Monte Carlo simulation to study a design of a gamma-ray detector for neutron resonance densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, H.; Harada, H.; Koizumi, M.; Kitatani, F.; Takamine, J.; Kureta, M.; Iimura, H.

    2013-11-01

    Neutron resonance densitometry (NRD) has been proposed to quantify nuclear materials in melted fuel (MF) that will be removed from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The problem is complex due to the expected presence of strong neutron absorbing impurities such as 10B and high radiation field that is mainly caused by 137Cs. To identify the impurities under the high radiation field, NRD is based on a combination of neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) and neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA). We investigated with Geant4 the performance of a gamma-ray detector for NRCA in NRD. The gamma-ray detector has a well shape, consisting of cylindrical and tube type LaBr3 scintillators. We show how it measures 478 keV gamma rays derived from 10B(n, αγ) reaction in MF under a high 137Cs-radiation environment. It was found that the gamma-ray detector was able to well suppress the Compton edge of 662-keV gamma rays of 137Cs and had a high peak-to-Compton continuum ratio, by using the tube type scintillator as a back-catcher detector. Then, we demonstrate that with this ability, detection of 478-keV gamma rays from 10B is accomplished in realistic measuring time.

  9. Satellite observation of atmospheric nuclear gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Letaw, J R; Share, G H; Kinzer, R L; Silberberg, R; Chupp, E L; Forrest, D J; Rieger, E

    1989-02-01

    We present a satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the gamma ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over 3 1/2 years, from 1980 to 1983. The excellent statistical accuracy of the data allows 20 atmospheric line features to be identified. The features are superimposed on a continuum background which is modeled using a power law with index -1.16. Many of these features contain a blend of more than one nuclear line. All of these lines (with the exception of the 511-keV annihilation line) are Doppler broadened. Line energies and intensities are consistent with production by secondary neutrons interacting with atmospheric 14N and 16O. Although we find no evidence for other production mechanisms, we cannot rule out significant contributions from direct excitation or spallation by primary cosmic ray protons. The relative intensities of the observed line features are in fair agreement with theoretical models; however, existing models are limited by the availability of neutron cross sections, especially at high energies. The intensity and spectrum of photons at energies below the 511-keV line, in excess of a power law continuum, can be explained by Compton scattering of the annihilation line photons in traversing an average of approximately 21 g cm-2 of atmosphere. PMID:11537397

  10. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.J.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1996-05-01

    A laboratory prototype system has been developed for the experimental evaluation of an explosives detection technique based on nuclear resonance absorption of gamma rays in nitrogen. Major subsystems include a radiofrequency quadrupole proton accelerator and associated beam transport system, a high-power gamma-ray production target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection system, and an image- processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  11. Elastic properties of gamma-Pu by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I

    2009-01-01

    Despite intense experimental and theoretical work on Pu, there is still little understanding of the strange properties of this metal. We used resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method to investigate the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline Pu at high temperatures. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli of the {gamma}-phase of Pu were determined simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth linear and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. We calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519K to 0.252 at 571K.

  12. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence of 237 Np

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, Chris T.; Yee, R.; Joshi, T.; Swanberg, E.; Norman, E. B.; Hicks, C. L.; Klimenko, A.; Korbly, Steve; Wilson, C.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, Glen A.; Bray, T. H.; Copping, R.; Glans, P.A.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, David K.

    2010-11-15

    Identification and characterization of fissile material is of international concern because of the possibility of proliferation. For safeguards applications, techniques providing isotopic information are necessary [1]. However, few techniques can distinguish between fissile isotopes. Nuclear resonance fluorescence is one technique that can be used in applications to identify and quantify isotopic content. NRF has also been proposed in several detector systems as a viable way to identify fissile material in cargo containers [2, 3]. It is necessary to measure the characteristic resonances of each isotope that is to be distinguished in identification and assay applications.

  13. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  14. Applications Using High Flux LCS gamma-ray Beams: Nuclear Security and Contributions to Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear nonproliferation and security are an important issue for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Many countries now collaborate together for preventing serious accidents from nuclear terrorism. Detection of hidden long-lived radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides in a non-destructive manner is useful for nuclear safeguards and management of nuclear wastes as well as nuclear security. After introducing the present situation concerning the nuclear nonproliferation and security in Japan, we plan to show the present activities of JAEA to detect the hidden nuclear materials by means of the nuclear resonance fluorescence with energy-tunable, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) with an electron beam. The energy recovery linac (ERL) machine is now under development with the KEK-JAEA collaboration for realizing the new generation of gamma-ray sources. The detection technologies of nuclear materials are currently developed using the existing electron beam facilities at Duke University and at NewSubaru. These developments in Japan will contribute to the nuclear security program in Japan and to the assay of melted nuclear fuels in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants.

  15. The Diversity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Corey W.; Alekseyev, Viktor Y.; Allwardt, Jeffrey R.; Bankovich, Alexander J.; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Davis, Ronald W.; Du, Lin-Shu; Garcia, K. Christopher; Herschlag, Daniel; Khosla, Chaitan; Kraut, Daniel A.; Li, Qing; Null, Brian; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Sigala, Paul A.; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Varani, Luca

    The discovery of the physical phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in 1946 gave rise to the spectroscopic technique that has become a remarkably versatile research tool. One could oversimplify NMR spectros-copy by categorizing it into the two broad applications of structure elucidation of molecules (associated with chemistry and biology) and imaging (associated with medicine). But, this certainly does not do NMR spectroscopy justice in demonstrating its general acceptance and utilization across the sciences. This manuscript is not an effort to present an exhaustive, or even partial review of NMR spectroscopy applications, but rather to provide a glimpse at the wide-ranging uses of NMR spectroscopy found within the confines of a single magnetic resonance research facility, the Stanford Magnetic Resonance Laboratory. Included here are summaries of projects involving protein structure determination, mapping of intermolecular interactions, exploring fundamental biological mechanisms, following compound cycling in the environmental, analysis of synthetic solid compounds, and microimaging of a model organism.

  16. Nuclear resonance fluorescence of {sup 237}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, C. T.; Yee, R.; Joshi, T. H.; Swanberg, E.; Norman, E. B.; Hicks, C. L. Jr.; Klimenko, A.; Korbly, S.; Wilson, C.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G. A.; Bray, T. H.; Copping, R.; Glans, P. A.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D. K.

    2010-11-15

    Measurements of states excited by nuclear resonance fluorescence in {sup 237}Np were performed using a bremsstrahlung beam. Fifteen new states were observed in the region of 1.7 to 2.5 MeV. They can be used to detect or assay {sup 237}Np nondestructively for applications in security and safeguards. The states are populated with similar strength as those states found previously in {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu but are spread out more in energy.

  17. Resonant Interneurons Can Increase Robustness of Gamma Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Tikidji-Hamburyan, Ruben A.; Martínez, Joan José; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma oscillations are believed to play a critical role in in information processing, encoding, and retrieval. Inhibitory interneuronal network gamma (ING) oscillations may arise from a coupled oscillator mechanism in which individual neurons oscillate or from a population oscillator in which individual neurons fire sparsely and stochastically. All ING mechanisms, including the one proposed herein, rely on alternating waves of inhibition and windows of opportunity for spiking. The coupled oscillator model implemented with Wang–Buzsáki model neurons is not sufficiently robust to heterogeneity in excitatory drive, and therefore intrinsic frequency, to account for in vitro models of ING. Similarly, in a tightly synchronized regime, the stochastic population oscillator model is often characterized by sparse firing, whereas interneurons both in vivo and in vitro do not fire sparsely during gamma, but rather on average every other cycle. We substituted so-called resonator neural models, which exhibit class 2 excitability and postinhibitory rebound (PIR), for the integrators that are typically used. This results in much greater robustness to heterogeneity that actually increases as the average participation in spikes per cycle approximates physiological levels. Moreover, dynamic clamp experiments that show autapse-induced firing in entorhinal cortical interneurons support the idea that PIR can serve as a network gamma mechanism. Furthermore, parvalbumin-positive (PV+) cells were much more likely to display both PIR and autapse-induced firing than GAD2+ cells, supporting the view that PV+ fast-firing basket cells are more likely to exhibit class 2 excitability than other types of inhibitory interneurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Gamma oscillations are believed to play a critical role in information processing, encoding, and retrieval. Networks of inhibitory interneurons are thought to be essential for these oscillations. We show that one class of interneurons with an

  18. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  19. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  20. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    SciTech Connect

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  1. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed. PMID:25456314

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  3. Nuclear quadrupole resonance single-pulse echoes.

    PubMed

    Prescott, David W; Miller, Joel B; Tourigny, Chris; Sauer, Karen L

    2008-09-01

    We report the first detection of a spin echo after excitation of a powder sample by a single pulse at the resonance frequency during nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). These echoes can occur in samples that have an inhomogeneously broadened line, in this case due to the distribution of electric field gradients. The echoes are easily detectable when the Rabi frequency approaches the linewidth and the average effective tipping angle is close to 270 degrees. When limited by a weak radio-frequency field, the single-pulse echo can be used to increase the signal to noise ratio over conventional techniques. These effects can be used to optimize the NQR detection of contraband containing quadrupole nuclei and they are demonstrated with glycine hemihydrochloride and hexhydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). PMID:18571445

  4. Gamma spectrometric assessment of nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krištof, Edvard; Pregl, Gvido

    1990-12-01

    A description is given of a gamma spectrometric technique which has been developed with the aim of determining the amount of a certain radioactive fission product taking into consideration local variations of the linear attenuation coefficient of gamma rays. Also, an experiment using a fuel element of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana is presented.

  5. Insight into protein nuclear magnetic resonance research.

    PubMed

    Stoven, V; Lallemand, J Y; Abergel, D; Bouaziz, S; Delsuc, M A; Ekondzi, A; Guittet, E; Laplante, S; Le Goas, R; Malliavin, T

    1990-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most powerful techniques to investigate the geometry of molecules in solution. It has been widely applied, in recent years, to the study of protein conformation. However, full reconstruction of the 3-D structure of such macro-molecules, still constitutes a real challenge for the spectroscopist. Skills as diverse as biology, spectroscopy, signal processing, or computer sciences, are required. This paper presents various aspects of the research in that domain, and our contribution to it. PMID:2126458

  6. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence off 54Cr: The Onset of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P. C.; Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Krishichayan; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Schilling, M.; Tornow, W.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2016-06-01

    Low-lying electric and magnetic dipole excitations (E1 and M1) below the neutron separation threshold, particularly the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR), have drawn considerable attention in the last years. So far, mostly moderately heavy nuclei in the mass regions around A = 90 and A = 140 were examined with respect to the PDR. In the present work, the systematics of the PDR have been extended by measuring excitation strengths and parity quantum numbers of J = 1 states in lighter nuclei near A = 50 in order to gather information on the onset of the PDR. The nuclei 50,52,54Cr and 48,50Ti were examined via bremsstrahlung produced at the DArmstadt Superconducting electron Linear Accelerator (S-DALINAC) with photon energies up to 9.7 MeV with the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence. Numerous excited states were observed, many of which for the first time. The parity quantum numbers of these states have been determined at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham, NC, USA. Informations to the methods and the experimental setups will be provided and the results on 54Cr achieved will be discussed with respect to the onset of the PDR.

  7. Searching for string resonances in e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Huang Xing; Feng Wanzhe; Goldberg, Haim; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2011-05-15

    If the fundamental mass scale of superstring theory is as low as a few TeVs, the massive modes of vibrating strings, Regge excitations, will be copiously produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We discuss the complementary signals of low-mass superstrings at the proposed electron-positron facility (CLIC), in e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} collisions. We examine all relevant four-particle amplitudes evaluated at the center-of-mass energies near the mass of lightest Regge excitations and extract the corresponding pole terms. The Regge poles of all four-point amplitudes, in particular, the spin content of the resonances, are completely model-independent, universal properties of the entire landscape of string compactifications. We show that {gamma}{gamma}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} scattering proceeds only through a spin-2 Regge state. We estimate that for this particular channel, string scales as high as 4 TeV can be discovered at the 11{sigma} level with the first fb{sup -1} of data collected at a center-of-mass energy {approx_equal}5 TeV. We also show that for e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into fermion-antifermion pairs, string theory predicts the precise value, equal to 1/3, of the relative weight of spin 2 and spin 1 contributions. This yields a dimuon angular distribution with a pronounced forward-backward asymmetry, which will help distinguishing between low-mass strings and other beyond the standard model scenarios.

  8. Characterization of nuclear material by Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Alaerts, G.; Becker, B.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Mondelaers, W.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2016-11-01

    The use of Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis for the characterization of nuclear materials is discussed. The method, which relies on resonance structures in neutron-induced reaction cross sections, can be applied as a non-destructive method to characterise complex nuclear materials such as melted fuel resulting from a severe nuclear accident. Results of a demonstration experiment at the GELINA facility reveal that accurate data can be obtained at a compact facility even in the case of strong overlapping resonances.

  9. 197Au(n,gamma) Cross Section in the Unresolved Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lederer, C.; Koehler, Paul Edward

    2011-03-01

    The cross section of the reaction {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}) was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the n{_}TOF (neutron time-of-flight) facility in the unresolved resonance region between 5 and 400 keV using a pair of C{sub 6}D{sub 6} (where D denotes {sup 2}H) liquid scintillators for the detection of prompt capture {gamma} rays. The results with a total uncertainty of 3.9%-6.7% for a resolution of 20 bins per energy decade show fair agreement with the Evaluated Nuclear Data File Version B-VII.0 (ENDF/B-VII.0), which contains the standard evaluation. The Maxwellian-averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV is in excellent agreement with the one according to the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation and 4.7% higher than the MACS measured independently by activation technique. Structures in the cross section, which had also been reported earlier, have been interpreted as being due to clusters of resonances.

  10. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  11. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc. PMID:15833623

  12. Explosives detection by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1994-10-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). This paper presents abbreviated results from a demonstration of the laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center in May 1994 on RDX-based explosives.

  13. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  15. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Using Different Photon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Ahmed, Mohammad; Bertozzi, William; Hunt, Alan W.; Johnson, James; Jones, James L.; Korbly, Steve; Reedy, Edward; Seipel, Heather; Stave, Sean; Watson, Scott; Weller, Henry

    2008-11-14

    Abstract–Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a photon-based active interrogation approach that provides isotope-specific signatures that can be used to detect and characterize samples. As NRF systems are designed to address specific appli¬cations, an obvious first question to address is the type of photon source to be employed for the application. Our collaboration has conducted a series of NRF measurements using different photon sources to begin to examine this issue. The measurements were designed to be as similar as possible to facilitate a straightforward comparison of the different sources. Measurements were conducted with a high-duty factor electron accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, with a pulsed linear accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, and with a narrow bandwidth photon source using Compton backscattered photons. We present our observations on the advantages and disadvantages of each photon source type. Issues such as signal rate, the signal-to-noise ratio, and absorbed dose are discussed.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Starnes, D.L.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Boumphrey, F.; Hardy, R.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Forty subjects were examined to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination of the spine. The NMR images were compared with plain radiographs, high-resolution computed tomograms, and myelograms. The study included 15 patients with normal spinal cord anatomy and 25 patients whose pathological conditions included canal stenosis, herniated discs, metastatic tumors, primary cord tumor, trauma, Chiari malformations, syringomyelia, and developmental disorders. Saturation recovery images were best in differentiating between soft tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. NMR was excellent for the evaluation of the foramen magnum region and is presently the modality of choice for the diagnosis of syringomyelia and Chiari malformation. NMR was accurate in diagnosing spinal cord trauma and spinal canal block.

  17. [Nuclear magnetic resonance in ischemic cardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Meave, Aloha

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is the "gold standard" technique to quantify the ventricular volume, the ejection fraction, and the myocardial mass. In patients suffering from ischemic cardiopathy, the ejection fraction is the most important prognostic parameter, even above from lessoned arteries index. An adequate diagnose between a non-viable and a viable myocardium is of great importance in the therapeutic approach for ischemic cardiopathy. By administrating a paramagnetic contrast media named gadolinium, fist pass and late-reinforcement techniques, are applied. With these, it is possible to evaluate the perfusion as well as necrotic areas. In order to identify sub-endocardium ischemia, drugs such as adenosine and dipiridamol, are employed as vasodilators. This technique allows the definition of reinforcement extension, being sub-endocardiac, which is an ailment which affects 50% of the myocardium depth, or even, transmural compromise. PMID:18938717

  18. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-11-11

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied.

  19. Nuclear structure studies with gamma-ray beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tonchev, Anton; Bhatia, Chitra; Kelley, John; Raut, Rajarshi; Rusev, Gencho; Tornow, Werner; Tsoneva, Nadia

    2015-05-28

    In stable and weakly bound neutron-rich nuclei, a resonance-like concentration of dipole states has been observed for excitation energies below the neutron-separation energy. This clustering of strong dipole states has been named the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in contrast to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) that dominates the E1 response. Understanding the PDR is presently of great interest in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. High-sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 transitions in closed-shell nuclei using monoenergetic and 100% linearly-polarized photon beams are presented.

  20. Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.S.

    1980-11-01

    The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.

  1. Phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance examination of female reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Noyszewski, E.A.; Raman, J.; Trupin, S.R.; McFarlin, B.L.; Dawson, M.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful method of investigating the relationship between metabolism and function in living tissues. We present evidence that the phosphorus 31 spectra of myometrium and placenta are functions of physiologic state and gestational age. Specific spectroscopic abnormalities are observed in association with disorders of pregnancy and gynecologic diseases. Our results suggest that noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations may sometimes be a useful addition to magnetic resonance imaging examinations, and that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biopsy specimens could become a cost-effective method of evaluating certain biochemical abnormalities.

  2. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Luke W.; Hunt, Alan W.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.

    2012-04-01

    High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is investigated as a non-destructive assay technique for the determination of plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel. This approach exploits the unique isotope-specific signatures contained in the delayed gamma-ray emission spectra detected following active interrogation with an external neutron source. A high fidelity modeling approach is described that couples radiation transport, analytical decay/depletion, and a newly developed gamma-ray emission source reconstruction code. Initially simulated and analyzed was a “one-pass” delayed gamma-ray assay that focused on the long-lived signatures. Also presented are the results of an independent study that investigated “pulsed mode” measurements, to capture the more isotope-specific, short-lived signatures. Initial modeling results outlined in this paper suggest that delayed gamma-ray assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies can be accomplished with a neutron generator of sufficient strength and currently available gamma-ray detectors.

  3. Nuclear probes and intraoperative gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sherman; Zanzonico, Pat

    2011-05-01

    Gamma probes are now an important, well-established technology in the management of cancer, particularly in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node as well as tumor detection may be improved under some circumstances by the use of beta (negatron or positron), rather than gamma detection, because the very short range (∼ 1 mm or less) of such particulate radiations eliminates the contribution of confounding counts from activity other than in the immediate vicinity of the detector. This has led to the development of intraoperative beta probes. Gamma camera imaging also benefits from short source-to-detector distances and minimal overlying tissue, and intraoperative small field-of-view gamma cameras have therefore been developed as well. Radiation detectors for intraoperative probes can generally be characterized as either scintillation or ionization detectors. Scintillators used in scintillation-detector probes include thallium-doped sodium iodide, thallium- and sodium-doped cesium iodide, and cerium-doped lutecium orthooxysilicate. Alternatives to inorganic scintillators are plastic scintillators, solutions of organic scintillation compounds dissolved in an organic solvent that is subsequently polymerized to form a solid. Their combined high counting efficiency for beta particles and low counting efficiency for 511-keV annihilation γ-rays make plastic scintillators well-suited as intraoperative beta probes in general and positron probes in particular Semiconductors used in ionization-detector probes include cadmium telluride, cadmium zinc telluride, and mercuric iodide. Clinical studies directly comparing scintillation and semiconductor intraoperative probes have not provided a clear choice between scintillation and ionization detector-based probes. The earliest small field-of-view intraoperative gamma camera systems were hand-held devices having fields of view of only 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter that used conventional thallium

  4. BROADBAND EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along with computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system. The

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.; Sheldon, P.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-02-01

    The role of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the kidney was analyzed in 18 persons (6 normal volunteers, 3 patients with pelvocaliectasis, 2 with peripelvic cysts, 1 with renal sinus lipomatosis, 3 with renal failure, 1 with glycogen storage disease, and 2 with polycystic kidney disease). Ultrasound and/or computed tomography (CT) studies were available for comparison in every case. In the normal kidney distinct anatomical structures were clearly differentiated by NMR. The best anatomical detail ws obtained with spin echo (SE) imaging, using a pulse sequence interval of 1,000 msec and an echo delay time of 28 msec. However, in the evaluation of normal and pathological conditions, all four intensity images (SE 500/28, SE 500/56, SE 1,000/28, and SE 1,000/56) have to be analyzed. No definite advantage was found in using SE imaging with a pulse sequence interval of 1,500 msec. Inversion recovery imaging enhanced the differences between the cortex and medulla, but it had a low signal-to-noise level and, therefore, a suboptimal overall resolution. The advantages of NMR compared with CT and ultrasound are discussed, and it is concluded that NMR imaging will prove to be a useful modality in the evaluation of renal disease.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric assay of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Kono, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y

    1980-01-01

    Beta-Lactam antibiotics and the crude enzyme were mixed in deuterium oxide and placed in a nuclear magnetic resonance tube. The change of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum during the enzymatic reaction was then analyzed to determine beta-lactamase activity. By using beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and cephamycins as substrates, a comparison of the beta-lactamase activities was made between the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric assay and the iodometric assay. There was a close correlation between these two methods. PMID:6986114

  7. The limitations of resonant Compton scattering as a gamma-ray burst model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant Compton upscattering is commended as a mechanism that produces a hard gamma-ray spectrum while suppressing X-rays. This model, however, has severe physical and observational limitations. Effective X-ray suppression places a lower limit on the electron density; above this limit X-rays scatter multiple times, so the single-scattering approximation of this mechanism is invalid. Multiple scattering produces a spectrum that is much harder than the single-scattering spectrum. As the Thomson optical depth of a power-law electron beam approaches unity, photon spawning commences at a high rate and physically invalidates the underlying electron distribution. The Compton upscattering model is therefore only valid over a narrow range of electron densities. An observational consequence of this model is the absence of the third cyclotron resonance. Resonant scattering produces gamma-rays that propagate nearly along the magnetic field. The resonant cross section of the third harmonic, which is strongly angle dependent, falls below the Compton continuum for these gamma rays. The observation of a third cyclotron resonance in a gamma-ray burst spectrum would eliminate resonant Compton scattering as a gamma-ray burst process.

  8. Precision Measurements of the 278 keV {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}) and the 151 keV {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}) Resonance Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Borowski, M.; Lieb, K. P.; Uhrmacher, M.; Bolse, W.

    2009-01-28

    In thin film technology, analytical methods for monitoring the deposition of oxide and nitride coatings and the effects of corrosive, laser and ion-beam treatments have attracted considerable attention. For depth-profiling the concentrations of light isotopes, resonant nuclear reaction analysis is an excellent non-destructive ion-beam analytical tool. We report here on precision measurements of the 278 keV {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}) and the 151 keV {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}) resonances using the high-resolution proton beam of the Goettingen IONAS accelerator. The deduced resonance energies E{sub R} and total widths {gamma}(in the laboratory system) are E{sub R} = 277.60(27) keV and {gamma} = 1115(33) eV for the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}) resonance, and E{sub R} = 150.97(26) keV and {gamma} = 178(35) eV for the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}) resonance. These values are significantly more precise than the ones quoted in the literature.

  9. Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sleaford, B.W.; Firestone, Richard B.; Summers, N.; Escher, J.; Hurst, A.; Krticka, M.; Basunia, S.; Molnar, G.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Z.; Choi, H.D.

    2010-05-01

    The neutron capture reaction is useful in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly as it gives unambiguous information on its composition. This can be done passively or actively where an external neutron source is used to probe an unknown assembly. There are known capture gamma-ray data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes for various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes that was developed as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project. EGAF has been used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the quasi continuum contribution to the gamma cascades is not experimentally resolved. The continuum contains up to 90percent of all the decay energy an is modeled here with the statistical nuclear structure code DICEBOX. This code also provides a consistency check of the level scheme nuclear structure evaluation. The calculated continuum is of sufficient accuracy to include in the ENDF libraries. This analysis also determines new total thermal capture cross sections and provides an improved RIPL database. For higher energy neutron capture there is less experimental data available making benchmarking of the modeling codes more difficult. We use CASINO, a version of DICEBOX that is modified for this purpose. This can be used to simulate the neutron capture at incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV to improve the gamma-ray spectrum in neutron data libraries used for transport modelling of unknown assemblies.

  10. Nuclear gamma rays from compact objects. [nuclear interactions around neutron stars and black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Higdon, J. C.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Accreting compact objects may be important gamma ray line sources and may explain recent observations of celestial gamma-ray line emission from a transient source in the direction of the galactic anti-center, from the galactic center, and possibly from the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The identification of the lines from the transient source requires a strong redshift. Such a redshift permits the identification of these lines with the most intense nuclear emission lines expected in nature, positron annihilation, and neutron capture on hydrogen and iron. Their production as a result of nuclear interactions in accreting gas around a neutron star is proposed. The gamma-ray line emission from the galactic center and possibly Centaurus A appears to have a surprisingly high luminosity, amounting to perhaps as much as 10% of the total luminosity of these sources. Such high gamma-ray line emission efficiencies could result from nuclear interactions in accreting gas around a massive black hole.

  11. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T. B., LLNL; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-02-03

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress.

  12. FY08 Annual Report for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-06

    FY08 annual report for project the "Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging" project. Reviews accomplishments of last 3 years, including U-235 signature search, comparison of different photon sources, and examination of NRF measurements using monochromatic photon source.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Double Resonance Using Weak Perturbing RF Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, G. Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Describes a nuclear magnetic resonance experimental example of spin tickling; also discusses a direct approach for verifying the relative signs of coupling constants in three-spin cyclopropyl systems. (SL)

  14. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  15. Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies in semi-metallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented on spectrum analysis of nuclear quadrupole resonance of antimony and arsenic tellurides. Numerical solutions for secular equations of the quadrupole interaction energy are also discussed.

  16. Search for Thunderstorm Associated Nuclear Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, J. L.; Millan, R.; Boggs, S.; Eack, K.; Aulich, G.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from further analysis of thunderstorm data taken with a liquid nitrogen-cooled germanium spectrometer with energy range from 13 keV-2.6 MeV that was setup on South Baldy Peak at Langmuir Laboratory in New Mexico during June through August of 2005. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the suggestion made by Greenfield et al. (2003) that delayed gamma ray emissions associated with thunderstorms may be attributed to Chlorine-39 and Chlorine-38. We improve upon results of Boggs et al. (2005) by doing a careful spectral calibration to improve sensitivity.Two methods to determine the presence of chlorine emission lines were used; we created storm length background-subtracted spectra, and also examined the change in count rates in energy bins that correspond to the Chlorine emission energies. Both these methods confirm the conclusions of Boggs et al. that chlorine emission was not detected and any signature of Chlorine production was below the detectability of the detector. These results lead to an upper limit on photon flux in chlorine line emission that can be used to place an upper limit on chlorine production during thunderstorms.

  17. Investigation of Nuclear Gamma Ray Line Emission Associated with Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. E.; Millan, R. M.; Eack, K.; Aulich, G. D.

    2005-12-01

    The first conclusive observations of X-rays associated with thunderstorm activity were made in the 1980's and the prompt emission has been interpreted as bremsstrahlung produced by lightning-accelerated electrons. In 2004, Greenfield et al. reported the first detection of delayed gamma ray emission, with flux peaking 70 minutes after a lightning stroke and decaying exponentially over 50 minutes. They suggested the delayed gamma rays are a result of nuclear reactions in the atmosphere, creating excited Chlorine-39 and decaying with a 56-minute half-life. These results are compelling, but inconclusive; instrumentation capable of measuring the energy spectrum with high precision is necessary to confirm the existence of nuclear line emission associated with lightning. During June-September 2005, we used a spare RHESSI 7 cm-diameter segmented coaxial germanium spectrometer to continuously monitor gamma radiation on South Baldy Peak (10,800 ft) in New Mexico. The detector monitors gamma rays between ~18 keV-10 MeV with an energy resolution of ~2 keV@835 keV. South Baldy is the site of Langmuir Lab and was chosen to take advantage of other lightning research instrumentation located there, including New Mexico Tech's 3D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) which can determine the location of a lightning stroke to within about 50m. We describe the experiment and present the initial results.

  18. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J.; Ambers, Scott D.

    2011-01-14

    The Next Generation Safeguard Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S Department of Energy is supporting a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies and to detect the diversion of pins with non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. The following 14 NDA techniques are being studied: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer, Neutron Multiplicity, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Total Neutron (Gross Neutron), X-Ray Fluorescence, {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Gamma, Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, Passive Prompt Gamma, Self-integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry, and Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis. Understanding and maturity of the techniques vary greatly, ranging from decades old, well-understood methods to new approaches. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that had not previously been studied for SNF assay or similar applications. Since NRF generates isotope-specific signals, the promise and appeal of the technique lies in its potential to directly measure the amount of a specific isotope in an SNF assay target. The objectives of this study were to design and model suitable NRF measurement methods, to quantify capabilities and corresponding instrumentation requirements, and to evaluate prospects and the potential of NRF for SNF assay. The main challenge of the technique is to achieve the sensitivity and precision, i.e., to accumulate sufficient counting statistics, required for quantifying the mass of Pu isotopes in SNF assemblies. Systematic errors, considered a lesser problem for a direct measurement and only briefly discussed in this report, need to be evaluated for specific instrument designs in the future. Also, since the technical capability of using NRF to measure Pu in SNF has not been established, this report does not directly address issues such as cost, size

  19. Primary gamma transitions in 173,174Yb in neutron capture at isolated resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telezhnikov, S. A.; Granja, C.; Hiep, H. T.; Honzátko, J.; Králík, M.; Montero-Cabrera, M.-E.; Pospíšil, S.

    2005-12-01

    Gamma transitions in 174Yb were investigated in radiative neutron capture at 23 isolated and additional 7 partially resolved summed resonances of 173Yb. The time-of-flight technique was used on an enriched target at the IBR-30 reactor at JINR Dubna. A total of 77 primary gamma transitions are reported populating levels in 174Yb up to 2.8 MeV in the spin-parity range 1,2,3,4. Spin and parity assignments of neutron resonances and of populated levels are proposed. In addition to these results, seven primary gamma transitions in 173Yb were also observed from neutron capture at three isolated resonances of 172Yb.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Kong, X; Cai, J-M; Melentijević, K; Stacey, A; Markham, M; Twitchen, D; Isoya, J; Pezzagna, S; Meijer, J; Du, J F; Plenio, M B; Naydenov, B; McGuinness, L P; Jelezko, F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen-vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four (29)Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, C.; Kong, X.; Cai, J.-M.; Melentijević, K.; Stacey, A.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Isoya, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.; Du, J. F.; Plenio, M. B.; Naydenov, B.; McGuinness, L. P.; Jelezko, F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen–vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four 29Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  2. Contraband Detection with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: Feasibility and Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Lange, D

    2007-01-03

    In this report they show that cargo interrogation systems developed to thwart trafficking of illicit nuclear materials could also be powerful tools in the larger fight against contraband smuggling. In particular, in addition to detecting special nuclear materials, cargo scanning systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence to detect specific isotopes can be used to help find: chemical weapons; some drugs as well as some chemicals regulated under the controlled substances act; precious metals; materials regulated under export control laws; and commonly trafficked fluorocarbons.

  3. Atmospheric transport of neutrons and gamma rays from near-horizon nuclear detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, R.C.; Heerema, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    This report continues a study of the transport of neutrons and rays from nuclear detonations at high altitudes to a set of detectors, with an emphasis on the limiting case of sources even beyond the horizon. To improve the calculational efficiency, the standard arrangement of a single source with multiple detectors is transformed to an equivalent one with a single detector and sources at multiple locations. Particular attention is paid to the critical problem of transport at near-horizon angles in an atmosphere whose density decreases exponentially with altitude. As a check, calculations for this region are made using both analytical and Monte Carlo approaches. For sources approaching the horizon, the fluence of gamma rays and neutrons reaching the detector drops gradually as the increasing column density attenuates the direct, unscattered fluence. Near the grazing angle, the direct fluence plummets, but the scattered component continues to decrease slowly and remains observable. Over this range, the timedependent flux of direct-plus-scattered gamma rays changes dramatically in both shape and magnitude, but it probably remains distinct from typical natural backgrounds. The neutron time-of-flight spectrum is dominated by scattering and reflects only the most important aspects of the original source spectrum; its most obvious features are a prominent low-energy tail and the resonance structure produced by nuclear interactions in the atmosphere. In some cases, the fluence of secondary gamma rays produced by these interactions may be larger than that from the source itself.

  4. Summary Comments: Nuclear Physics and Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    The Nuclear Physics and Gamma-ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation (NPNSNP) meeting held in Tokai-mura, Japan from January 28th to 30th, 2014 revealed both the rapid evolution and growth of monoenergetic, laser-Compton, gamma-ray source technology and the emergence of numerous important applications enabled by this technology. More than 500M of large-scale source and development activities were represented at the meeting, including all of the major projects in the United States, Europe and Japan. The meeting was both highly stimulating intellectually and provided an excellent venue for the exploration of new collaborations between groups...

  5. Integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitors for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1993-09-01

    Radiation monitoring is one nuclear-safeguards measure used to protect against the theft of special nuclear materials (SNM) by pedestrians departing from SNM access areas. The integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitor is an ideal radiation monitor for the task when the SNM is plutonium. It achieves high sensitivity for detecting both bare and shielded plutonium by combining two types of radiation detector. One type is a neutron-chamber detector, comprising a large, hollow, neutron moderator that contains a single thermal-neutron proportional counter. The entrance wall of each chamber is thin to admit slow neutrons from plutonium contained in a moderating shield, while the other walls are thick to moderate fast neutrons from bare or lead-shielded plutonium so that they can be detected. The other type of detector is a plastic scintillator that is primarily for detecting gamma rays from small amounts of unshielded plutonium. The two types of detector are easily integrated by making scintillators part of the thick back wall of each neutron chamber or by inserting them into each chamber void. We compared the influence of the two methods of integration on detecting neutrons and gamma rays, and we examined the effectiveness of other design factors and the methods for signal detection as well.

  6. Observation of the competitive double-gamma nuclear decay.

    PubMed

    Walz, C; Scheit, H; Pietralla, N; Aumann, T; Lefol, R; Ponomarev, V Yu

    2015-10-15

    The double-gamma (γγ)-decay of a quantum system in an excited state is a fundamental second-order process of quantum electrodynamics. In contrast to the well-known single-gamma (γ)-decay, the γγ-decay is characterized by the simultaneous emission of two γ quanta, each with a continuous energy spectrum. In nuclear physics, this exotic decay mode has only been observed for transitions between states with spin-parity quantum numbers J(π) = 0(+) (refs 1-3). Single-gamma decays-the main experimental obstacle to observing the γγ-decay-are strictly forbidden for these 0(+) → 0(+) transitions. Here we report the observation of the γγ-decay of an excited nuclear state (J(π) = 11/2(-)) that is directly competing with an allowed γ-decay (to ground state J(π) = 3/2(+)). The branching ratio of the competitive γγ-decay of the 11/2(-) isomer of (137)Ba to the ground state relative to its single γ-decay was determined to be (2.05 ± 0.37) × 10(-6). From the measured angular correlation and the shape of the energy spectra of the individual γ-rays, the contributing combinations of multipolarities of the γ radiation were determined. Transition matrix elements calculated using the quasiparticle-phonon model reproduce our measurements well. The γγ-decay rate gives access to so far unexplored important nuclear structure information, such as the generalized (off-diagonal) nuclear electric polarizabilities and magnetic susceptibilities. PMID:26469051

  7. Ligands for the Nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors, which represent a primary class of drug targets. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key player in various biological processes. PPARγ is widely known as the target protein of the thiazolidinediones for treating type 2 diabetes. Moreover, PPARγ ligands can induce anti-inflammatory and potentially additional beneficial effects. Recent mechanistic insights of PPARγ modulation give hope the next generation of efficient PPARγ-based drugs with fewer side effects can be developed. Furthermore, chemical approaches that make use of synergistic action of combinatorial ligands are promising alternatives for providing tailored medicine. Lessons learned from fine-tuning the action of PPARγ can provide avenues for efficient molecular intervention via many other nuclear receptors to combat common diseases. PMID:26435213

  8. The Dawn of Nuclear Photonics with Laser-based Gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J

    2011-03-17

    A renaissance in nuclear physics is occurring around the world because of a new kind of incredibly bright, gamma-ray light source that can be created with short pulse lasers and energetic electron beams. These highly Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) sources produce narrow, laser-like beams of incoherent, tunable gamma-rays and are enabling access and manipulation of the nucleus of the atom with photons or so called 'Nuclear Photonics'. Just as in the early days of the laser when photon manipulation of the valence electron structure of the atom became possible and enabling to new applications and science, nuclear photonics with laser-based gamma-ray sources promises both to open up wide areas of practical isotope-related, materials applications and to enable new discovery-class nuclear science. In the United States, the development of high brightness and high flux MEGa-ray sources is being actively pursued at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore (LLNL), California near San Francisco. The LLNL work aims to create by 2013 a machine that will advance the state of the art with respect to source the peak brightness by 6 orders of magnitude. This machine will create beams of 1 to 2.3 MeV photons with color purity matching that of common lasers. In Europe a similar but higher photon energy gamma source has been included as part of the core capability that will be established at the Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility in Magurele, Romania outside of Bucharest. This machine is expected to have an end point gamma energy in the range of 13 MeV. The machine will be co-located with two world-class, 10 Petawatt laser systems thus allowing combined intense-laser and gamma-ray interaction experiments. Such capability will be unique in the world. In this talk, Dr. Chris Barty from LLNL will review the state of the art with respect to MEGa-ray source design, construction and experiments and will describe both the ongoing projects

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment.

    PubMed

    Issac, Corinne E; Gleave, Christine M; Nasr, Paméla T; Nguyen, Hoang L; Curley, Elizabeth A; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Moore, Eric W; Chen, Lei; Marohn, John A

    2016-04-01

    We report achieving enhanced nuclear magnetization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment at 0.6 tesla and 4.2 kelvin using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) effect. In our experiments a microwire coplanar waveguide delivered radiowaves to excite nuclear spins and microwaves to excite electron spins in a 250 nm thick nitroxide-doped polystyrene sample. Both electron and proton spin resonance were observed as a change in the mechanical resonance frequency of a nearby cantilever having a micron-scale nickel tip. NMR signal, not observable from Curie-law magnetization at 0.6 T, became observable when microwave irradiation was applied to saturate the electron spins. The resulting NMR signal's size, buildup time, dependence on microwave power, and dependence on irradiation frequency was consistent with a transfer of magnetization from electron spins to nuclear spins. Due to the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field introduced by the cantilever's magnetic tip, the electron spins in the sample were saturated in a microwave-resonant slice 10's of nm thick. The spatial distribution of the nuclear polarization enhancement factor ε was mapped by varying the frequency of the applied radiowaves. The observed enhancement factor was zero for spins in the center of the resonant slice, was ε = +10 to +20 for spins proximal to the magnet, and was ε = -10 to -20 for spins distal to the magnet. We show that this bipolar nuclear magnetization profile is consistent with cross-effect DNP in a ∼10(5) T m(-1) magnetic field gradient. Potential challenges associated with generating and using DNP-enhanced nuclear magnetization in a nanometer-resolution magnetic resonance imaging experiment are elucidated and discussed. PMID:26964007

  10. Resonant microwave cavity for 8.5-12 GHz optically detected electron spin resonance with simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, J. S.; Wienkes, L. R.

    2009-03-01

    We present a newly developed microwave resonant cavity for use in optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) experiments. The cylindrical quasi-TE011 mode cavity is designed to fit in a 1 in. magnet bore to allow the sample to be optically accessed and to have an adjustable resonant frequency between 8.5 and 12 GHz. The cavity uses cylinders of high dielectric material, so-called "dielectric resonators," in a double-stacked configuration to determine the resonant frequency. Wires in a pseudo-Helmholtz configuration are incorporated into the cavity to provide frequencies for simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The system was tested by measuring cavity absorption as microwave frequencies were swept, by performing ODMR on a zinc-doped InP sample, and by performing optically detected NMR on a GaAs sample. The results confirm the suitability of the cavity for ODMR with simultaneous NMR.

  11. Don Clayton and Nuclear Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    For over four decades, Don Clayton has been a driving force in nuclear gamma-ray astronomy. During the 1960's, he published the first papers that gave us the scientific objectives for many balloon-borne and satellite-borne observations to come. He inspired others to work in this field as both theorists and observers. Later, he was a strong advocate for a major observatory; he helped get the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory off the ground. Over the years, he has advised and mentored many who are now among the leaders in our field. I will attempt to summarize his many contributions to theory and the interpretation of observations in this field.

  12. Gamma Ray Mirrors for Direct Measurement of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, Dr. Michael J.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Harrison, Mark J; Soufli, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Direct measurement of the amount of Pu and U in spent nuclear fuel represents a challenge for the safeguards community. Ideally, the characteristic gamma-ray emission lines from different isotopes provide an observable suitable for this task. However, these lines are generally lost in the fierce flux of radiation emitted by the fuel. The rates are so high that detector dead times limit measurements to only very small solid angles of the fuel. Only through the use of carefully designed view ports and long dwell times are such measurements possible. Recent advances in multilayer grazing-incidence gamma-ray optics provide one possible means of overcoming this difficulty. With a proper optical and coating design, such optics can serve as a notch filter, passing only narrow regions of the overall spectrum to a fully shielded detector that does not view the spent fuel directly. We report on the design of a mirror system and a number of experimental measurements.

  13. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOEpatents

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  14. Gamma-resonance Contraband Detection using a high current tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, B. F.; Beis, J.; Dale, D.; Rogers, J.; Ruegg, R.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Melnychuk, S.; Rathke, J.; Sredniawski, J.

    1999-04-26

    TRIUMF and Northrop Grumman have developed a new system for the detection of concealed explosives and drugs. This Contraband Detection System (CDS) is based on the resonant absorption by {sup 14}N of gammas produced using {sup 13}C(p,{gamma}){sup 14}N. The chosen reaction uses protons at 1.75 MeV and the gammas have an energy of 9.17 MeV. By measuring both the resonant and the non-resonant absorption using detectors with good spatial resolution, and applying standard tomographic techniques, we are able to produce 3D images of both the nitrogen partial density and the total density. The images together may be utilized with considerable confidence to determine if small amounts of nitrogen based explosives, heroin or cocaine are present in the interrogated containers. Practical Gamma Resonant Absorption (GRA) scanning requires an intense source of protons. However this proton source must also be very stable, have low energy spread, and have good spatial definition. These demands suggested a tandem as the accelerator of choice. We have therefore constructed a 2 MeV H{sup -} tandem optimized for high current (10 mA) operation, while minimizing the overall size of the accelerator. This has required several special innovations which will be presented in the paper. We will also present initial commissioning results.

  15. Cyclotron resonant scattering in gamma-ray bursts - Line strengths and signature of neutron star rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Wang, J. C. L.; Wasserman, I.

    1992-01-01

    We explain the relative line strengths in gamma-ray bursts in terms of cyclotron resonant scattering. We describe the line signature of neutron star rotation and discuss the possibility that variations seen in the strengths and widths of the lines in GB780325 and GB870303 are due to rotation.

  16. Investigations in cosmic and gamma ray astronomy and nuclear instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) is flying on the Spacelab 2 vehicle as part of a set of instrumentation designed to measure the ambient physical environment on Spacelab in orbit. The NRM measures the natural and induced gamma ray activity. The instrument is constituted of a 25 sq in (NaI (T1)) crystal viewed with a single phototube and surrounded by a plastic anticoincidence shield. It is mounted on a pedestal and placed, with its electronics, on the Spacelab pallet. The detector head was designed and a development model fabricated and tested. Extensive software studies for on board and GSE microprocessors for use with the NRM were also made.

  17. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Wang, J. C. L.; Loredo, T. J.; Wasserman, I.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the GB880205 gamma-ray bursts are presented that have implications for the nature of gamma-ray burst sources. It is shown that cyclotron resonant scattering and Raman scattering account well for the positions, strengths, and shapes of the relative strengths of the first and second harmonics and their narrow widths. These results imply the existence of a superstrong (B of about 2 x 10 to the 12th G) magnetic field in the vicinity of the X-ray emission region of GB880205. Such a superstrong magnetic field points to a strongly magnetic neutron star as the origin of gamma-ray bursts, and to the fact that the gamma-ray sources belong to the Galaxy.

  18. A gamma-ray verification system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, R.G.; Prindle, A.L.; Friensehner, A.V.; Buckley, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a gamma-ray screening system for use by the Materials Management Section of the Engineering Sciences Division at LLNL for verifying the presence or absence of special nuclear material (SNM) in a sample. This system facilitates the measurements required under the ``5610`` series of US Department of Energy orders. MMGAM is an intelligent, menu driven software application that runs on a personal computer and requires a precalibrated multi-channel analyzer and HPGe detector. It provides a very quick and easy-to-use means of determining the presence of SNM in a sample. After guiding the operator through a menu driven set-up procedure, the system provides an on-screen GO/NO-GO indication after determining the system calibration status. This system represents advances over earlier used systems in the areas of ease-of use, operator training requirements, and quality assurance. The system records the gamma radiation from a sample using a sequence of measurements involving a background measurement followed immediately by a measurement of the unknown sample. Both spectra are stored and available for analysis or output. In the current application, the presence of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 208}Tl isotopes are indicated by extracting, from the stored spectra, four energy ``windows`` preset around gamma-ray lines characteristic of the radioactive decay of these nuclides. The system is easily extendible to more complicated problems.

  19. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Isotopic Mapping of Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; McNabb, D P

    2008-08-08

    National security programs have expressed interest in developing systems to isotopically map shipping containers, fuel assemblies, and waste barrels for various materials including special nuclear material (SNM). Current radiographic systems offer little more than an ambiguous density silhouette of a container's contents. In this paper we will present a system being developed at LLNL to isotopically map containers using the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method. Recent experimental measurements on NRF strengths in SNM are discussed.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of potassium dihydrophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uskova, N. I.; Podorozhkin, D. Yu.; Charnaya, E. V.; Nefedov, D. Yu.; Baryshnikov, S. V.; Bugaev, A. S.; Lee, M. K.; Chang, L. J.

    2016-04-01

    A powder sample of potassium dihydrophosphate KH2PO4 has been studied by the 31P NMR method in a wide temperature range covering the ferroelectric phase transition. Changes in the position and shape of the resonance line at the transition to the ferroelectric phase have been revealed. The parameters of the chemical shift tensor of 31P (isotropic shift, anisotropy, and asymmetry) in the ferroelectric phase have been calculated from the experimental data. A sharp increase in the anisotropy of the tensor at the phase transition has been demonstrated. Dielectric measurements have also been carried out to verify the transition temperature.

  1. Delayed gamma radiation from lightning induced nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, M. B.; Sakuma, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kubo, K.

    2004-03-01

    An increase in atmospheric gamma radiation observed with NaI and Ge detectors positioned about 15 m above ground was observed following natural lightning near Tokyo, Japan [1]. Background subtracted gamma ray rates GRR following numerous lightning strokes observed since 2001 persisted for a few hours and subsequently decayed with a half-life of about 50 minutes. Using a 3x3 Ge detector, with 2 KeV resolution, positioned about 2 m from one of the NaI detectors increases in GRR were observed minutes after the onset of lightning with a delayed 50 min exponential decay. Although most of the increase in activity occured at less than a few 100 KeV, on July 11, 2003 a 1267 +/-2 KeV line was observed. Although the statistics of this event were poor, the appearance of this line with an exponential decay of 50 min half-life suggests the possibility that it may be due to 39Cl (1267 MeV; half-life = 55.5 min) via the 40Ar(gamma,p)39Cl, 40Ar(p,2p)39Cl and/or 40Ar(n,d)39Cl reactions. Observations of > 10 MeV gamma rays observed in NaI detectors within 10s of meters from and coincident with rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing suggest that charged particles accelerated in intense electric fields associated with lightning give rise to photons with sufficient energy to initiate nuclear reactions [2]. Further work to explain the cause of this anomalous activity is underway using natural and triggered lightning. 1. M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 3 (2003) pp 1839-184. 2. J. R. Dwyer et al., Science 299, (2003), pp 694-697 and recent communications

  2. Active Detection and Imaging of Nuclear Materials with High-Brightness Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G G; Betts, S M; Berry, R D; Fisher, S E; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P

    2009-02-26

    A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and {gamma}-ray results are presented. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1% bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photo-electron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

  3. Probing vibrational anisotropy with nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlik, J. W.; Barabanschikov, A.; Oliver, A. G.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Zhao, J.; Sage, J. T.; Scheidt, W. R.

    2010-06-14

    A NRVS single-crystal study (NRVS=nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy) has provided detailed information on the in-plane modes of nitrosyl iron porphyrinate [Fe(oep)(NO)] (see picture; oep=octaethylporphyrin). The axial nitrosyl ligand controls the direction of the in-plane iron motion.

  4. Concepts in Biochemistry: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Steve

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the nature of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment, the techniques used, the types of structural and dynamic information obtained, and how one can view and refine structures using computer graphics techniques in combination with NMR data. Provides several spectra and a computer graphics image from B-form DNA. (MVL)

  5. C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance in organic geochemistry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of polycyclic fused systems. The fingerprint qualities of the natural abundance in C-13 NMR spectra permitting unequivocal identification of these compounds is discussed. The principle of structural additivity of C-13 NMR information is exemplified on alpha and beta androstanes, alpha and beta cholestanes, ergostanes, sitostanes, and isodecanes.

  6. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  7. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  8. 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance in carcinostatic phosphamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, S. G.; Bray, P. J.

    1980-02-01

    Nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide monohydrate, isonphosphamide and triphosphamide have been detected at 77 K. The electron distribution in the vicinity of the nitrogens possessing trigonal bonding configurations have been calculated in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory.

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Coupling Constants and Electronic Structure in Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venanzi, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Theory of nuclear magnetic resonance spin-spin coupling constants and nature of the three types of coupling mechanisms contributing to the overall spin-spin coupling constant are reviewed, including carbon-carbon coupling (neither containing a lone pair of electrons) and carbon-nitrogen coupling (one containing a lone pair of electrons).…

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance implementation of a quantum clock synchronization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Long, G.C; Liu Wenzhang; Deng Zhiwei; Lu Zhiheng

    2004-12-01

    The quantum clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm proposed by Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2006 (2000)] has been implemented in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system. The time difference between two separated clocks can be determined by measuring the output states. The experimental realization of the QCS algorithm also demonstrates an application of the quantum phase estimation.

  11. Nuclear quadrupole resonance detection of explosives: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel B.

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a spectroscopic technique closely related to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). These techniques, and NQR in particular, induce signals from the material being interrogated that are very specific to the chemical and physical structure of the material, but are relatively insensitive to the physical form of the material. NQR explosives detection exploits this specificity to detect explosive materials, in contrast to other well known techniques that are designed to detect explosive devices. The past two decades have seen a large research and development effort in NQR explosives detection in the United States aimed at transportation security and military applications. Here, I will briefly describe the physical basis for NQR before discussing NQR developments over the past decade, with particular emphasis on landmine detection and the use of NQR in combating IED's. Potential future directions for NQR research and development are discussed.

  12. An introduction to biomedical nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.B.; Muller, R.N.; Rinck, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Separated into three sections, this book gives an overview on the principles of nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and the imaging procedures based upon this technique, an insight into the parameters which have influence on the NMR image, e.g. relaxation times, flow and contrast, and finally an account of medical applications in the brain, the spine, the cardiovascular system, the abdomen, and in tumor imaging.

  13. X-ray suppression in gamma-ray bursts through resonant Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    An X-ray that scatters with an electron in the first Landau level of a strong magnetic field is converted into a gamma ray. This process has a resonant cross section at X-ray energies and is therefore highly likely to occur even when the first Landau level is sparsely populated. Converted X-rays are cyclotron absorbed, maintaining the equilibrium between the cyclotron photon density and the population of the first Landau level. By suppressing a neutron star's black body emission, this mechanism can produce a gamma-ray burst with a low X-ray flux.

  14. Observation of nuclear reactors on satellites with a balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Terrence J.; Kerrick, Alan D.; Ait-Ouamer, Farid; Tumer, O. Tumay; Zych, Allen D.

    1989-01-01

    Four Soviet nuclear-powered satellites flying over a double Compton gamma-ray telescope resulted in the detection of gamma rays with 0.3-8.0 MeV energies on April 15, 1988, as the balloonborne telescope searched, from a 35-km altitude, for celestial gamma-ray sources. The satellites included Cosmos 1900 and 1932. The USSR is the only nation currently employing moderated nuclear reactors for satellite power; reactors in space may cause significant problems for gamma-ray astronomy by increasing backgrounds, especially in the case of gamma-ray bursts.

  15. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-05-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  16. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac pacing devices.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Francisco; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan M; Sancho-Tello, María J; Olagüe, José; Osca, Joaquín; Cano, Oscar; Arnau, Miguel A; Igual, Begoña

    2010-06-01

    Currently, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is contraindicated in patients with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. This study was carried out because the potential risks in this situation need to be clearly defined. This prospective study evaluated clinical and electrical parameters before and after magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 33 patients (five with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and 28 with pacemakers). In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging was considered clinically essential. There were no clinical complications. There was a temporary communication failure in two cases, sensing errors during imaging in two cases, and a safety signal was generated in one pacemaker at the maximum magnetic resonance frequency and output level. There were no technical restrictions on imaging nor were there any permanent changes in the performance of the cardiac pacing device. PMID:20515632

  18. 75 FR 4877 - In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology (BGNR) (Licensee) is the holder of medical License No. 52-25542-01, issued by the...

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of sphingomyelin bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruzik, K.S.; Sobon, B.; Salamonczyk, G.M. )

    1990-04-24

    Bilayers of D-erythro-(N-stearoylsphingosyl)-1-phosphocholine (C{sub l8}-SPM), previously characterized by differential scanning calorimetry in various phases, were studied by means of wide-line {sup 31}P, {sup 2}H, high-resolution {sup 13}C CP-MAS, and {sup 1}H MAS NMR. The fully relaxed gel phase of C{sub 18}-SPM at temperatures below 306 K displayed {sup 31}P NMR spectra characteristic of the rigid phase with frozen rotation of the phosphocholine head group. Three other gel phases existing in the temperature range 306-318 K displayed spectra with incompletely averaged axially symmetric powder line shapes and were difficult to differentiate on the basis of their {sup 31}P NMR spectra. The gel-to-gel transition at 306 K was found to be fully reversible. The main phase transition at 318 K resulted in the formation of the liquid-crystalline phase for which spectra with axially symmetric line shapes of uniform width were obtained, regardless of the nature of the starting gel phase. {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR spectra revealed significant differences in the molecular dynamics of sphingomyelin in various phases. All carbon atoms of the polar head group in the liquid-crystalline phase gave rise to a separate resonance lines. Numerous carbon atom signals were doubled in the stable phase, demonstrating the existence of two slowly interconverting conformers.

  20. Polarization of nuclear spins by a cold nanoscale resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Mark C.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2011-12-15

    A cold nanoscale resonator coupled to a system of nuclear spins can induce spin relaxation. In the low-temperature limit where spin-lattice interactions are ''frozen out,'' spontaneous emission by nuclear spins into a resonant mechanical mode can become the dominant mechanism for cooling the spins to thermal equilibrium with their environment. We provide a theoretical framework for the study of resonator-induced cooling of nuclear spins in this low-temperature regime. Relaxation equations are derived from first principles, in the limit where energy donated by the spins to the resonator is quickly dissipated into the cold bath that damps it. A physical interpretation of the processes contributing to spin polarization is given. For a system of spins that have identical couplings to the resonator, the interaction Hamiltonian conserves spin angular momentum, and the resonator cannot relax the spins to thermal equilibrium unless this symmetry is broken by the spin Hamiltonian. The mechanism by which such a spin system becomes ''trapped'' away from thermal equilibrium can be visualized using a semiclassical model, which shows how an indirect spin-spin interaction arises from the coupling of multiple spins to one resonator. The internal spin Hamiltonian can affect the polarization process in two ways: (1) By modifying the structure of the spin-spin correlations in the energy eigenstates, and (2) by splitting the degeneracy within a manifold of energy eigenstates, so that zero-frequency off-diagonal terms in the density matrix are converted to oscillating coherences. Shifting the frequencies of these coherences sufficiently far from zero suppresses the development of resonator-induced correlations within the manifold during polarization from a totally disordered state. Modification of the spin-spin correlations by means of either mechanism affects the strength of the fluctuating spin dipole that drives the resonator. In the case where product states can be chosen as energy

  1. Multiple resonant scattering in the Compton upscatter model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant Compton scattering, an increasingly popular mechanism for suppressing X-rays and producing gamma rays, must be treated as a multiple-scattering process for conditions thought characteristic of gamma-ray bursts. Photons that multiply scatter with a beamed power-law electron distribution in a uniform magnetic field produce a flat spectrum between the cyclotron frequency and an optical-depth-dependent critical energy; this critical energy ranges between several hundred keV and several MeV. Above this critical energy, the gamma-ray spectrum has a shape determined by the electron distribution and described by a single-scattering model. Only electron distributions that are nearly proportional to the electron momentum are able to simultaneously suppress X-rays and produce a single-scattering spectrum. As the Thomson optical depth approaches unity, photons that experience multiple scatterings often spawn additional photons at a rate that makes the model unphysical.

  2. Gamma-ray cascade transitions from resonant neutron capture in Cd-111 and Cd-113

    SciTech Connect

    Rusev, Gencho Y.

    2012-08-27

    A neutron-capture experiment on {sup nat}Cd has been carried out at DANCE. Multiple-fold coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra have been collected from J=0, 1 resonances in {sup 111}Cd and {sup 113}Cd. The cascades ending at the ground state can be described by the SLO model while the cascades ending at the 2+ states are better reproduced by the mixed SLO+KMF model.

  3. Impact of a gamma-ray burst on the Schumann resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickolaenko, A. P.; Kudintseva, I. G.; Pechonaya, O.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakamura, T.; Hobara, Ya.; Tanaka, Ya.

    2011-02-01

    We compare the experimental and simulated data on the impact of an extragalactic gamma-ray burst of December 27, 2004 on the global electromagnetic resonance. It is known from measurements of the signals of ultralong-wave radio stations that the ionizing radiation descended the ionosphere over the dayside hemisphere by 20 km. Such a disturbance should change the eigenfrequencies of the Earth-ionosphere cavity and affect the shape of the observed spectrum of extremely low-frequency Earth's radio noise. The results of observations and modeling of the Schumann-resonance variation under the action of a gamma-ray burst are compared. We employ two models. In the simpler one, the ionospheric disturbance is averaged over the entire globe. The second model allows for the day-night nonuniformity. It is shown that both models yield similar predictions and the effect little depends on the day-night nonuniformity. Since the ionosphere carries the positive electric charge, its vertical displacement causes a current which serves as a "parametric" impulse source of the electromagnetic field. The global size of the source results in that the pulse contains only the lower Schumann-resonance frequency. The extremely low-frequency pulse coincides in time with the gamma-ray burst arrival. The results of observations in the Moshiri observatory (Japan) at the time of a gamma-ray burst, which are compared with the calculation for this observatory are presented. It is shown that both a modification of the Schumann resonance sonogram and a parametric extremely low-frequency radio pulse have been detected in the record.

  4. Portable gamma camera for clinical use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Scopinaro, F.

    1996-12-31

    Up today Hamamatsu R3292 is the Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tube (PSPMT) with the largest sensitive area (10 cm of diameter). At the same time it has the minimum size for clinical application in Nuclear Medicine. A portable gamma camera was realized, based on 5 inches PSPMT coupled to a scintillating array. The head has a light weight (15 Kg.) spatial resolution resulted better than that of Anger Camera with good linearity response, good energy resolution and FOV coincident with intrinsic one of PSPMT. To optimize gamma camera response two different scintillating arrays were tested: YAP:Ce and CsI (Tl). Their overall size cover all photochatode active area, and crystal pixel size was 2 mm x 2 mm. The detection efficiency resulted comparable to that of Anger Camera. The best result was obtained by CsI (Tl) scintillating: an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.6 mm FWHM and a relative energy resolution of 17% FWHM. With a standard general purpose collimator a spatial resolution of about 2 mm resulted. Some preliminary results were also obtained in breast scintigraphy.

  5. New studies of nuclear decay {gamma}-rays from novae

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Wiescher, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The cause of the nova outburst is a thermonuclear runaway (TNR) in hydrogen rich material transferred by a companion onto a white dwarf. Studies of this phenomenon have shown that the TNR produces large concentrations of the short lived positron unstable isotopes of the CNO nuclei which are transported to the surface by convection so that early in the outburst we expect significant numbers of radioactive decays to occur at the surface. The resulting {gamma}-ray emission may be detectable from nearby novae early in their outbursts. The TNR is also expected to produce substantial amounts of {sup 7}Be and {sup 22}Na. Their decays also yield potentially detectable levels of {gamma}-ray emission for relatively nearby novae. We are also interested in the role played by novae in the production of the {approximately}2M{circle_dot} of {sup 26}Al found in the galaxy. In order to improve our predictions of this phenomenon, we have performed a new set of calculations of TNR`s on ONeMg and CO white dwarfs with an updated nuclear reaction network and opacities.

  6. Evaluation of gamma radiation shielding for nuclear waste shipping casks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D.; Primeau, S.J.; Wangler, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    A method has been developed for evaluating gamma radiation shielding of shipping casks that are used to transport nuclear waste with ill-defined radionuclide contents. The method is based on calculations that establish individual limits for a comprehensive list of radionuclides in the waste, assuming that each radionuclide is uniformly distributed in a volumetric source in the cask. For multiple radionuclide mixtures, a linear fraction rule is used to restrict the total amount of radionuclides such that the sum of the fractions does not exceed 1. As long as the radionuclide limits and the linear fraction rule are followed, it can be shown that the regulatory dose rate requirements for a cask will be satisfied under normal conditions of transport and in a hypothetical accident during which the shielding thickness of the cask has been reduced by 40%.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems. PMID:10335581

  8. Algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atia, Yosi; Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level; namely, it reduces the qubit system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering, an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of C132-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic-resonance spectroscopy.

  9. Moessbauer medium with a hidden nuclear population inversion and negative absorption of gamma quanta

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, Lev A

    2011-06-30

    We consider physical foundations of an eventual experiment aimed at observing stimulated gamma-photon emission of long-lived Moessbauer isomers through selective frequency modulation of gamma-resonances establishing hidden population inversion without exceeding the number of excited nuclei over unexcited ones and without additional pumping. The examples of suitable nuclei and numerical estimates of the parameters are presented. (active media)

  10. Optical pumping in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.; Reimer, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    An important current trend in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the growing exploitation of optical pumping of nuclear spin polarizations as a means of enhancing and localizing NMR signals. Recent work has been concentrated in two areas, namely optically pumped NMR in semiconductors and optical pumping of noble gases. Progress in these two areas, including technical developments and new applications in physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, and biomedical sciences, is reviewed. Likely directions for future developments are suggested. 58 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Probing soil and aquifer material porosity with nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinedi, Z. R.; Kabala, Z. J.; Skaggs, T. H.; Borchardt, D. B.; Lee, R. W. K.; Chang, A. C.

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements were used to identify different characteristic porosity domains in soil and aquifer materials. The porosity distribution can be inferred from these measurements by a regularization method applicable to any nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation, or by an analytic method applicable only to multiexponential relaxations (D. Orazio et al., 1989). The porosity distribution obtained from NMR relaxation measurements strongly depends on the pore shape factor. For the Borden aquifer material, both the regularized and the analytic pore size distribution obtained from NMR relaxation measurements are consistent with those obtained by Ball et al. (1990) using Hg porosimetry and N2 adsorption. For the Eustis and the Webster soils, the measured porosity domains are qualitatively consistent with those expected based on their respective composition. Our findings suggest that due to the long time required to saturate fine pores, NMR measurements of porosity distribution that are collected at short saturation times are biased toward larger pore sizes.

  12. Chemometric Analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Data

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.; ALAM,M. KATHLEEN

    2000-07-20

    Chemometric analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has increased dramatically in recent years. A variety of different chemometric techniques have been applied to a wide range of problems in food, agricultural, medical, process and industrial systems. This article gives a brief review of chemometric analysis of NMR spectral data, including a summary of the types of mixtures and experiments analyzed with chemometric techniques. Common experimental problems encountered during the chemometric analysis of NMR data are also discussed.

  13. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Experimental Study of Level Density and {gamma}-strength Functions from Compound Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S.

    2008-04-17

    The current status of experimental study of level density and {gamma}-strength functions is reviewed. Three experimental techniques are used. These are measurements of particle evaporation spectra from compound nuclear reactions, the measurements of particle-{gamma} coincidences from inelastic scattering and pick-up reactions and the method of two-step {gamma}-cascades following neutron/proton radiative capture. Recent experimental data on level densities from neutron evaporation spectra are shown. The first results on the cascade {gamma}-spectrum from the {sup 59}Co(p,2{gamma}){sup 60}Ni reaction are presented.

  15. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Hartemann, Frederic V.; McNabb, Dennis P.; Pruet, Jason A.

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  16. Extending Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data for Permeability Estimation in Fine-Grained Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, H.; Dugan, B.

    2008-12-01

    We developed a method for using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T2 data and gamma ray data to estimate lithology-dependent permeability in silt- and clay-rich sediments. This model, based on the Schlumberger-Doll Research (SDR) model, allows for high resolution (<1 m) permeability estimates throughout a logged interval. Our model was calibrated using direct measurements on core samples from Keathley Canyon Lease Block 151 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. From NMR and gamma ray data we are able to determine permeability from 10-18 to 10-14 m2 (0.001 to 10 millidarcies). Thus from discrete core samples and log data we were able to develop a permeability model for the entire sedimentary column (425 m). Lithologic variation was incorporated into the model by varying the A coefficient based on the gamma ray response. This provides a more accurate permeability model than assigning a constant value to A as is typically done. The relationship between A and intrinsic lithologic properties is unclear; simple pore system models suggest that A may be related to specific surface, tortuosity, and pore structure; we investigate simple models to quantify how these properties vary with sediment consolidation and what their relationship is to A. A comprehensive understanding that links NMR data and A to pore-scale properties will provide new constraints on deformation and flow in porous systems, and will contribute to our understanding of sediment properties for fluid flow modeling at local and regional scales.

  17. DC superconducting quantum interference device usable in nuclear quadrupole resonance and zero field nuclear magnetic spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Fan, N.Q.; Clarke, J.

    1993-10-19

    A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced. 7 figures.

  18. DC superconducting quantum interference device usable in nuclear quadrupole resonance and zero field nuclear magnetic spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Non Q.; Clarke, John

    1993-01-01

    A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced.

  19. Detection of DNA strand breaks in gamma-irradiated lymphocytes using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-hong; Lou, Zhi-chao; Wang, Ai-lian; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a sensitive, rapid, simple and low cost method for detection of biological molecules. In this study, SPR technology with alkaline phosphatase as a probe was utilized to measure DNA strand breaks induced by (60)Co gamma rays. The doses were from 0.01-10 Gy with a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min. The results demonstrate that the SPR technology can be used to estimate strand breaks of calf thymus DNA. SPR signals of the calf thymus DNA samples increased with increasing gamma ray doses and the relationship of y = sqrt (3297x + 582.6) (r = 0.99) between the SPR signal and gamma dose was obtained. Estimation of DNA strand breaks in irradiated lymphocytes by SPR also demonstrated an increase in SPR signal with increasing dose and the exponential relationship of y = 169.43 × (1 - exp(-0.89x)) (r = 0.93) was obtained. The initial yield of the SPR signal is about 150.79 mdeg · Gy(-1) and compared to the sensitivity of 0.05 Gy achieved by the neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), the SPR-based assay of DNA strand breaks was found to be more sensitive (0.02 Gy). We therefore propose that SPR technology with alkaline phosphatase as the probe is a sensitive, simple and quick method for detection of DNA strand breaks in gamma-irradiated lymphocytes. PMID:24010534

  20. Enabling in situ thermometry using transmission nuclear resonance fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Transmission nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) has been proposed for use as an assay and detection technique for nuclear security and safeguards applications because of its isotope-specific sensitivity and the penetrating capability of γ -rays. It can also be used for in situ thermometry because the absorbing resonance profile is sensitive to temperature. Using transmission NRF for thermometry could provide a new avenue for studying the ion temperature evolution of laser-induced plasmas using the upcoming ELI-NP facility. It could also be used for applications where thermometry would be otherwise infeasible, such as for determining the average fuel temperature of spent nuclear fuel, a step that would reduce the assay uncertainty using transmission NRF. In this paper, two different transmission NRF thermometry scenarios are presented and analyzed for sensitivity. This analysis demonstrated that thermometry using γ -rays is possible independent of γ -ray beam type and will be feasible with next-generation high-intensity γ -ray sources. Beyond thermometry, an application of temperature effects was found in the improvement of transmission NRF efficacy for assay and detection: using a cryogenic witness target will reduce the required measurement time by 40%.

  1. Integrated cross sections for excitation of nuclear isomers by inelastic photon scattering at giant resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáfár, József; Lakosi, László

    2014-02-01

    In the view of the evidences arising from our experimental and theoretical studies, the long-standing picture of a two-humped excitation function for photoexcitation of isomers cannot be confirmed. Whereas the first maximum (at the photoneutron threshold) of the cross section of nuclear photon scattering can be attributed to inelastic (compound) scattering, the second large peak at about giant dipole resonance is mostly due to the elastic (direct) process. A second large peak or increase reported to appear in isomer production has been shown to be practically vanishing. On realizing such a situation, calculated estimates have been given for saturated integral cross section values for isomer activation, based on photoabsorption cross sections taken from the usual Lorentzian parametrization up to the photoneutron threshold. Results compare reasonably well to available experimental data acquired by gamma-ray spectrometry in a large set of stable nuclides having long-lived isomeric states.

  2. Nuclear Structure of {sup 8}B Studied by Proton Resonance Scatterings on {sup 7}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Amadio, G.; Kubono, S.; Fujikawa, H.; Niikura, M.; Binh, D. N.; Saito, A.; He, J. J.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.; Khiem, L. H.

    2008-05-21

    A new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on {sup 7}Be was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV using the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. The excitation function of {sup 8}B above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B, which is the key reaction in the solar {sup 8}B neutrino production. For more intensive experimental studies with RI beams, the development of a cryogenic gas target system is ongoing at CNS. In this paper a preliminary result of the {sup 7}Be experiment and the present status of the development of the target system are presented.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography with a toroid cavity detector

    SciTech Connect

    Woelk, K.; Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    A new type of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tomography has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The method uses the strong radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity to provide high-resolution NMR spectral information while simultaneously resolving distances on the micron scale. The toroid cavity imaging technique differs from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in that NMR structural information is not lost during signal processing. The new technique could find a wide range of applications in the characterization of surface layers and in the production of advanced materials. Potential areas of application include in situ monitoring of growth sites during ceramic formation processes, analysis of the oxygen annealing step for wires coated with high-temperature superconducting films, and investigation of the reaction chemistry as a function of distance within the diffusion layer for electrochemical processes.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with hyper-polarized noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Penttila, S.I.; Caprihan, A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclei of noble gases can be hyper polarized through a laser-driven spin exchange to a degree many orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by thermal polarization without requiring a strong magnetic field. The increased polarization from the laser pumping enables a good nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a gas. The main goal of this project was to demonstrate diffusion-weighted imaging of such hyper-polarized noble gas with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Possible applications include characterizing porosity of materials and dynamically imaging pressure distributions in biological or acoustical systems.

  5. Measurement of {sup 25}Al+p resonant elastic scattering for studying the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y. K.; Lee, C. S.; Jung, H. S.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, C. C.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Choi, Seonho; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, J. S.; Kim, E. J.; Moon, C.-B.; Teranishi, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; and others

    2012-11-12

    Proton resonant states in {sup 26}Si have been studied by the resonant elastic scattering of {sup 25}Al+p with a {sup 25}Al radioactive ion beam at 2.863 MeV/nucleon bombarding a thick H{sub 2} gas target with the inverse kinematics method at the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), University of Tokyo. The properties of these resonance states are important to better determine the production rates of {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction, which is one of the astrophysically important nuclear reactions to understand the production of the ground state of {sup 26}Al, the emitter of its characteristic 1.809-MeV gamma-ray, under the explosive stellar environments such as novae and X-ray bursts. In this work, several resonances above the proton threshold level have been observed with a high statistics and background free through a covered the range of excitation energies from E{sub x}{approx} 6.8 to 8.2 MeV.

  6. Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Sensors to Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Noemi; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported. PMID:24755519

  7. A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2007-03-01

    The digital circuits required for a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer, including a pulse programmer, a direct digital synthesizer, a digital receiver, and a PC interface, have been built inside a single chip of the field-programmable gate-array (FPGA). By combining the FPGA chip with peripheral analog components, a compact, laptop-sized homebuilt spectrometer has been developed, which is capable of a rf output of up to 400 MHz with amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, and pulse-modulation. The number of rf channels is extendable up to three without further increase in size.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applications to Unconventional Fossil Fuel Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Leu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Technical and economic projections strongly suggest that fossil fuels will continue to play a dominant role in the global energy market through at least the mid twenty-first century. However, low-cost conventional oil and gas will be depleted in that time frame. Therefore new sources of energy will be needed. We discuss two relatively untapped unconventional fossil fuels: heavy oil and gas hydrate. In both cases, nuclear magnetic resonance plays a key role in appraising the resource and providing information needed for designing production processes.

  9. A versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarr, C. E.; Nickerson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A digital pulse programmer producing the standard pulse sequences required for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is described. In addition, a 'saturation burst' sequence, useful in the measurement of long relaxation times in solids, is provided. Both positive and negative 4 V trigger pulses are produced that are fully synchronous with a crystal-controlled time base, and the pulse programmer may be phase-locked with a maximum pulse jitter of 3 ns to the oscillator of a coherent pulse spectrometer. Medium speed TTL integrated circuits are used throughout.

  10. Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies project. [spectrometer design and spectrum analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, A. N.

    1978-01-01

    The participation of undergraduates in nuclear quadrupole resonance research at Grambling University was made possible by NASA grants. Expanded laboratory capabilities include (1) facilities for high and low temperature generation and measurement; (2) facilities for radio frequency generation and measurement with the modern spectrum analyzers, precision frequency counters and standard signal generators; (3) vacuum and glass blowing facilities; and (4) miscellaneous electronic and machine shop facilities. Experiments carried out over a five year period are described and their results analyzed. Theoretical studies on solid state crystalline electrostatic fields, field gradients, and antishielding factors are included.

  11. Nuclear resonance scattering measurement of human iron stores

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Ancona, R.C.; Mossey, R.T.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.

    1985-07-01

    Hepatic iron stores were measured noninvasively in 31 patients (thalassemia, hemodialysis, hemosiderosis, refractory anemia) with suspected iron overload, employing a nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) technique. The thalassemia patients were undergoing desferrioxamine chelation therapy during the NRS measurements. The hemodialysis patients were measured before chelation therapy. Iron levels measured by NRS were in general agreement with those determined in liver biopsies by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In addition, NRS measurements from the thorax of some of these patients suggest that this method may also prove useful for clinical assessment of cardiac iron.

  12. In vivo Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alger, J. R.; Sillerud, L. O.; Behar, K. L.; Gillies, R. J.; Shulman, R. G.; Gordon, R. E.; Shaw, D.; Hanley, P. E.

    1981-11-01

    Natural abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) from human arm and rat tissues have been observed in vivo. These signals arise primarily from triglycerides in fatty tissue. Carbon-13 NMR was also used to follow, in a living rat, the conversion of C-1--labeled glucose, which was introduced into the stomach, to C-1--labeled liver glycogen. The carbon-13 sensitivity and resolution obtained shows that natural abundance carbon-13 NMR will be valuable in the study of disorders in fat metabolism, and that experiments with substrates labeled with carbon-13 can be used to study carbohydrate metabolism in vivo.

  13. Noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of painting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presciutti, Federica; Perlo, Juan; Casanova, Federico; Glöggler, Stefan; Miliani, Costanza; Blümich, Bernhard; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    In this work we demonstrate the potential of single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors to access deeper layers of paintings noninvasively by means of high-resolution depth profiles spanning several millimeters. The performance of the sensor in resolving painting structures was tested on models for which excellent agreement with microscopy techniques was obtained. The depth profiling NMR technique was used in situ to investigate old master paintings. The observation of differences in NMR relaxation times of tempera binders from these paintings and from artificially aged panels raises the possibility to differentiate between original and recently restored areas.

  14. Nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance studies of the stripes materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafe, H.-J.

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic and Quadrupole Resonance (NMR/NQR) is a powerful tool to probe electronic inhomogeneities in correlated electron systems. Its local character allows for probing different environments due to spin density modulations or inhomogeneous doping distributions emerging from the correlations in these systems. In fact, NMR/NQR is not only sensitive to magnetic properties through interaction of the nuclear spin, but also allows to probe the symmetry of the charge distribution and its homogeneity, as well as structural modulations, through sensitivity to the electric field gradient (EFG). We review the results of NMR and NQR in the cuprates from intrinsic spatial variations of the hole concentration in the normal state to stripe order at low temperatures, thereby keeping in mind the influence of doping induced disorder and inhomogeneities. Finally, we briefly discuss NQR evidence for local electronic inhomogeneities in the recently discovered iron pnictides, suggesting that electronic inhomogeneities are a common feature of correlated electron systems.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the circadian clock of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yong-Gang; Tseng, Roger; Kuo, Nai-Wei; LiWang, Andy

    2013-07-01

    The most well-understood circadian clock at the level of molecular mechanisms is that of cyanobacteria. This overview is on how solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has contributed to this understanding. By exciting atomic spin-½ nuclei in a strong magnetic field, NMR obtains information on their chemical environments, inter-nuclear distances, orientations, and motions. NMR protein samples are typically aqueous, often at near-physiological pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The level of information obtainable by NMR depends on the quality of the NMR sample, by which we mean the solubility and stability of proteins. Here, we use examples from our laboratory to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the technique. PMID:23667047

  16. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance quantum calculations of the Jones polynomial

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Raimund; Spoerl, Andreas; Pomplun, Nikolas; Schulte-Herbrueggen, Thomas; Glaser, Steffen J.; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Myers, John M.

    2010-03-15

    The repertoire of problems theoretically solvable by a quantum computer recently expanded to include the approximate evaluation of knot invariants, specifically the Jones polynomial. The experimental implementation of this evaluation, however, involves many known experimental challenges. Here we present experimental results for a small-scale approximate evaluation of the Jones polynomial by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); in addition, we show how to escape from the limitations of NMR approaches that employ pseudopure states. Specifically, we use two spin-1/2 nuclei of natural abundance chloroform and apply a sequence of unitary transforms representing the trefoil knot, the figure-eight knot, and the Borromean rings. After measuring the nuclear spin state of the molecule in each case, we are able to estimate the value of the Jones polynomial for each of the knots.

  17. Spin and Parity Assignment of Neutron Resonances using Gamma-ray Multiplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Agvaanluvsan, U.; Mitchell, G. E.; Baramsai, B.; Chyzh, A.; Walker, C.; Dashdorj, D.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W. E.; Sleaford, B.; Wu, C. Y.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Krticka, M.; Becvar, F.

    2009-03-31

    Decay gamma rays following neutron capture on various isotopes are collected by the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) array, which is located at flight path 14 at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The high segmentation (160 detectors) and close packing of the detector array enable gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The calorimetric properties of the DANCE array coupled with the neutron time-of-flight technique enables one to gate on a specific resonance of a given isotope in the time-of-flight spectrum and obtain the summed energy spectrum for that isotope. The singles gamma-ray spectrum for each multiplicity can be separated by their DANCE cluster multiplicity. The multiplicity distribution contains the signatures of spin and parity of the capture state. Under suitable circumstances where the difference between spins of the initial (capture) and final (ground) state is large enough, the signatures in the multiplicity distribution can be used in improving the spin assignment of the initial state. The spin assignment is applied with varying degree of success to difference isotopes and description of this application for {sup 95}Mo, {sup 151,153}Eu, and {sup 155,157}Gd is reviewed briefly.

  18. Intense {gamma}-Ray Source in the Giant-Dipole-Resonance Range Driven by 10-TW Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Giulietti, A.; Gamucci, A.; Gizzi, L. A.; Labate, L.; Bourgeois, N.; Marques, J. R.; Ceccotti, T.; Dobosz, S.; D'Oliveira, P.; Monot, P.; Popescu, H.; Reau, F.; Martin, P.; Galy, J.; Hamilton, D. J.; Giulietti, D.

    2008-09-05

    A {gamma}-ray source with an intense component around the giant dipole resonance for photonuclear absorption has been obtained via bremsstrahlung of electron bunches driven by a 10-TW tabletop laser. 3D particle-in-cell simulation proves the achievement of a nonlinear regime leading to efficient acceleration of several sequential electron bunches per each laser pulse. The rate of the {gamma}-ray yield in the giant dipole resonance region (8gamma}}<17.5 MeV) was measured, through the radio activation of a gold sample, to be 4x10{sup 8} photons per joule of laser energy. This novel all-optical, compact, and efficient electron-{gamma} source is suitable for photonuclear studies and medical uses.

  19. Intense gamma-ray source in the giant-dipole-resonance range driven by 10-TW laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Giulietti, A; Bourgeois, N; Ceccotti, T; Davoine, X; Dobosz, S; D'Oliveira, P; Galimberti, M; Galy, J; Gamucci, A; Giulietti, D; Gizzi, L A; Hamilton, D J; Lefebvre, E; Labate, L; Marquès, J R; Monot, P; Popescu, H; Réau, F; Sarri, G; Tomassini, P; Martin, P

    2008-09-01

    A gamma-ray source with an intense component around the giant dipole resonance for photonuclear absorption has been obtained via bremsstrahlung of electron bunches driven by a 10-TW tabletop laser. 3D particle-in-cell simulation proves the achievement of a nonlinear regime leading to efficient acceleration of several sequential electron bunches per each laser pulse. The rate of the gamma-ray yield in the giant dipole resonance region (8gamma}<17.5 MeV) was measured, through the radio activation of a gold sample, to be 4 x 10;{8} photons per joule of laser energy. This novel all-optical, compact, and efficient electron-gamma source is suitable for photonuclear studies and medical uses. PMID:18851220

  20. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Basic ideas about how resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) can take place in finite solids are reviewed. These ideas not only provide a basis for conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but they also explain how through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. The underlying formalism predicts that the orientation of the external fields in the SPAWAR protocolootnotetextKrivit, Steven B., New Energy Times, 2007, issue 21, item 10. http://newenergytimes.com/news/2007/NET21.htm^,ootnotetextSzpak, S.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.; Gordon, F.E. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften 94,511(2007)..has direct bearing on the emission of high-energy particles. Resonant EMI also implies that nano-scale solids, of a particular size, provide an optimal environment for initiating Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in the PdD system.

  1. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  2. {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co reaction cross section: Thermal and resonance integral measurements and energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, Nora L.; Mesa, Joel; Vanin, Vito R.; Castro, Ruy M.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co thermal and resonance integral cross section were measured as 51(5) b and 20.0(19) b, respectively, by irradiating aliquots of {sup 57}Co solution sealed inside quartz bottles near the core of the IEA-R1 IPEN research reactor and counting the gamma-ray residual activity. The irradiations were monitored using Au-Al alloy foils, with and without Cd cover. The gamma-ray measurements were performed with a shielded HPGe detector. Westcott formalism was applied for the average neutron flux determination. The cross section energy dependence was evaluated using the multilevel Breit-Wigner expression considering the first two resonances and the statistical model for energies above the second resonance. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross section with neutron temperatures between 5 and 100 keV were also evaluated.

  3. Electron-nuclear double resonance on copper (II) tetraimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Camp, Harlan L.; Sands, Richard H.; Fee, James A.

    1981-09-01

    We have investigated the electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) from frozen aqueous solutions of 65Cu++(imidazole)4, 65Cu++ (imidazole-15N)4, and 65Cu++(imidazole-Dn)4, where n = 1, 2, 3, and 4 for selectively deuterated imidazole. We have observed ENDOR associated with the imidazole protons and the two imidazole nitrogens. The selective deuteration has allowed us to attempt identification of the weakly coupled protons responsible for the ENDOR spectrum, and a comparison of the overall line shape of that spectrum taken at two extreme points of the EPR spectrum suggests that some of the imidazole planes are tilted with respect to the plane of the complex. The ENDOR arising from the nitrogen nearest the copper is primarily isotropic with A(g⊥) = 41.6±1.5 MHz and A(g∥) = 39.8±1.5 MHz. The resonance shows little structure and seems consistent with a picture that requires some inequivalence among the various imidazoles. The remote nitrogen ENDOR reveals both hyperfine and quadrupole effects with approximately isotropic A(14N) = 1.79 MHz, Qz'z'?0.360 MHz, and Qx'x'y'x'?0.349 MHz. These values are in agreement with the results of the nuclear modulation effect [J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4921 (1978)]. The values for the quadrupole constants are thought to be accurate within 10% and are the same as are found in free imidazole. It is also demonstrated that, in this instance, ENDOR and the nuclear modulation effect are complementary in that they have each provided different parts of the same hyperfine spectrum.

  4. Investigating resonances above and below the threshold in nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; Trippella, O.

    2015-10-01

    Resonances in nuclear cross sections dramatically change their trends. Therefore, the presence of unexpected resonances might lead to unpredicted consequences on astrophysics and nuclear physics. In nuclear physics, resonances allow one to study states in the intermediate compound systems, to evaluate their cluster structure, for instance, especially in the energy regions approaching particle decay thresholds. In astrophysics, resonances might lead to changes in the nucleosynthesis flow, determining different isotopic compositions of the nuclear burning ashes. For these reasons, the Trojan Horse method has been modified to investigate resonant reactions. Thanks to this novel approach, for the first time normalization to direct data might be avoided. Moreover, in the case of sub threshold resonances, the Trojan Horse method modified to investigate resonances allows one to deduce the asymptotic normalization coefficient, showing the close connection between the two indirect approaches.

  5. Investigating resonances above and below the threshold in nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; Trippella, O.

    2015-10-15

    Resonances in nuclear cross sections dramatically change their trends. Therefore, the presence of unexpected resonances might lead to unpredicted consequences on astrophysics and nuclear physics. In nuclear physics, resonances allow one to study states in the intermediate compound systems, to evaluate their cluster structure, for instance, especially in the energy regions approaching particle decay thresholds. In astrophysics, resonances might lead to changes in the nucleosynthesis flow, determining different isotopic compositions of the nuclear burning ashes. For these reasons, the Trojan Horse method has been modified to investigate resonant reactions. Thanks to this novel approach, for the first time normalization to direct data might be avoided. Moreover, in the case of sub threshold resonances, the Trojan Horse method modified to investigate resonances allows one to deduce the asymptotic normalization coefficient, showing the close connection between the two indirect approaches.

  6. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1989-01-01

    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  7. {sup 197}Au(n,gamma) cross section in the resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Audouin, L.; David, S.; Ferrant, L.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Fujii, K.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.

    2010-04-15

    The (n,gamma) cross section of {sup 197}Au has been measured at n{sub T}OF in the resolved resonance region, up to 5 keV, with the aim of improving the accuracy in an energy range where it is not yet considered standard. The measurements were performed with two different experimental setup and detection techniques, the total energy method based on C{sub 6}D{sub 6} detectors, and the total absorption calorimetry based on a 4pi BaF{sub 2} array. By comparing the data collected with the two techniques, two accurate sets of neutron-capture yields have been obtained, which could be the basis for a new evaluation leading to an extended cross-section standard. Overall good agreement is found between the n{sub T}OF results and evaluated cross sections, with some significant exceptions for small resonances. A few resonances not included in the existing databases have also been observed.

  8. Unconventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques using nanostructured diamond surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Victor; Jarmola, Andrey; Budker, Dmitry; Santori, Charles; Huang, Zhihong; Beausoleil, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technologies rely on obtaining high nuclear magnetization, motivating low operating temperatures and high magnetic fields. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) techniques traditionally require another superconducting magnet and THz optics. We seek to use chip-scale devices to polarize nuclei in liquids at room temperature. The technique relies on optical pumping of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers and subsequent transfer of polarization to nuclei via hyperfine interaction, spin diffusion, and heteronuclear polarization transfer. We expect efficient polarization transfer will be realized by maximizing the diamond surface area. We have fabricated densely-packed (50 % packing fraction), high-aspect-ratio (10+) nanopillars over mm2 regions of the diamond surface. Pillars designed to have a few-hundred-nanometer diameter act as optical antennas, reducing saturation intensity. We also report progress in using nanopillar arrays as sensitive optical detectors of nano-scale NMR by measuring NV center Zeeman shifts produced by nearby external nuclei. The enhanced surface area increases the effective density of NV centers which couple to external nuclei. Combining these techniques may enable, e.g., identification of trace analytes and molecular imaging.

  9. Simulations of nuclear resonance fluorescence in GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Harrawood, Brian P.; Rusev, Gencho; Agasthya, Greeshma A.; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2014-11-01

    The nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) technique has been used effectively to identify isotopes based on their nuclear energy levels. Specific examples of its modern-day applications include detecting spent nuclear waste and cargo scanning for homeland security. The experimental designs for these NRF applications can be more efficiently optimized using Monte Carlo simulations before the experiment is implemented. One of the most widely used Monte Carlo physics simulations is the open-source toolkit GEANT4. However, NRF physics has not been incorporated into the GEANT4 simulation toolkit in publicly available software. Here we describe the development and testing of an NRF simulation in GEANT4. We describe in depth the development and architecture of this software for the simulation of NRF in any isotope in GEANT4; as well as verification and validation testing of the simulation for NRF in boron. In the verification testing, the simulation showed agreement with the analytical model to be within 0.6% difference for boron and iron. In the validation testing, the simulation showed agreement to be within 20.5% difference with the experimental measurements for boron, with the percent difference likely due to small uncertainties in beam polarization, energy distribution, and detector composition.

  10. Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies of the SORC sequence and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakody, J.R.P.

    1993-12-31

    The behavior of induction signals during steady-state pulse irradiation in {sup 14}N NQR was investigated experimentally. Because Strong Off-resonance Comb (SORC) signals recur as long as the pulsing continues, very efficient signal-averaging can result. The dependence of these steady-state SORC signals on pulse parameters and on frequency offset are presented, together with a discussion of the applicability of the method. Also as part of the NQR work, cocaine base has been detected using conventional NQR techniques. The experimental results show that SORC detection can be of sufficient sensitivity to form the basis of narcotics screening devices for both mail and airline baggage. A new NMR technique, to obtain the correlation time of the random thermal motion of a polymer at temperatures near the glass transition has been introduced. The temperature dependence is a result of thermal motion. For slow-motion of a polymer chain near the glass transition, the CSA parameter begins to decrease. This motional narrowing can be interpreted to yield the correlation time of the thermal motion. In this work nitrocellulose isotopically highly enriched with {sup 15}N was studied at four different temperatures between 27{degrees} and 120{degrees} Celsius and the correlation times for polymer backbone motions were obtained. Naflon films containing water (D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2} {sup 17}O) and methanol (CH{sub 3}OD, CH{sub 3} {sup 17}OH), have been studied using deuteron and oxygen-17 NMR spectroscopy. Glassy behavior of the water domains at low temperature is evidenced by the specific nature of the {sup 2}H NMR lineshapes. Activation energies extracted from {sup 2}H spin-lattice relaxation data on the high temperature side of the T{sub 1} minimum exhibit a steady increase with increasing water content. In spite of a high degree of molecular mobility, angular-dependent spectra of both unstretched and stretched samples reflect considerable anisotrophy of the host polymer.

  11. Coherent nuclear resonant scattering by {sup 61}Ni using the nuclear lighthouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, T.; Leupold, O.; Wille, H.-C.; Rueffer, R.; Quast, K.W.; Burkel, E.; Roehlsberger, R.

    2005-04-01

    We have observed coherent nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation from the 67.41-keV level of {sup 61}Ni. The time evolution of the forward scattering signal was recorded by employing the nuclear lighthouse effect. This method is used to investigate Moessbauer isotopes in a coherent scattering process with synchrotron radiation at high transition energies. The decay of the excited ensemble of nuclei in Ni metal shows quantum beats that allowed the determination of the magnetic hyperfine field at the {sup 61}Ni nucleus. Moreover, we determined the lifetime of the 67.41-keV level of {sup 61}Ni to be 7.4(1) ns.

  12. Spreadsheet analysis of gamma spectra for nuclear material measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mosby, W.R.; Pace, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A widely available commercial spreadsheet package for personal computers is used to calculate gamma spectra peak areas using both region of interest and peak fitting methods. The gamma peak areas obtained are used for uranium enrichment assays and for isotopic analyses of mixtures of transuranics. The use of spreadsheet software with an internal processing language allows automation of routine analysis procedures increasing ease of use and reducing processing errors while providing great flexibility in addressing unusual measurement problems. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Studies of the Sorc Sequence and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Polymers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakody, Jayakody R. Pemadasa

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of induction signals during steady -state pulse irradiation in ^{14} N NQR was investigated experimentally. Because Strong Off-resonance Comb (SORC) signals recur as long as the pulsing continues, very efficient signal-averaging can result. The dependence of these steady-state SORC signals on pulse parameters and on frequency offset are presented, together with a discussion of the applicability of the method. Also as part of the NQR work, Cocaine base has been detected using conventional NQR techniques. The experimental results show that SORC detection can be of sufficient sensitivity to form the basis of narcotics screening devices for both mail and airline baggage. A new NMR technique, to obtain the correlation time of the random thermal motion of a polymer at temperatures near the glass transition has been introduced. The temperature dependence is a result of thermal motion. For slow-motion of a polymer chain near the glass transition, the CSA parameter begins to decrease. This motional narrowing can be interpreted to yield the correlation time of the thermal motion. In this work Nitrocellulose isotopically highly enriched with ^{15}N was studied at four different temperatures between 27^ circ and 120^circ Celsius and the correlation times for polymer backbone motions were obtained. Nafion films containing, water (D_2 O and H_2^{17}O) and methanol (CH_3OD, CH _3^{17}OH), have been studied using Deuteron and Oxygen-17 NMR spectroscopy. Glassy behavior of the water domains at low temperature is evidenced by the specific nature of the ^2H NMR lineshapes. Activation energies extracted from ^2H spin-lattice relaxation data on the high temperature side of the T_1 minimum exhibit a steady increase with increasing water content. In spite of a high degree of molecular mobility, angular-dependent spectra of both unstretched and stretched samples reflect considerable anisotropy of the host polymer. Activation volumes corresponding to a specific dynamical

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis and molecular properties of berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Ju; Lee, Ken S.; Hurley, Sharon J.

    An extensive theoretical study of berberine has been performed at the ab initio HF/6-31G**, HF/6-311G**, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels with and without solvent effects. The optimized structures are compared with X-ray data. We found that the optimized structures with solvent effects are in slightly better agreement with X-ray data than those without solvent effects. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of berberine were calculated by using the gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) (with and without solvent effects), CSGT, and IGAIM methods. The calculated chemical shifts were compared with the two-dimensional NMR experimental data. Overall, the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with the experimental results. The harmonic vibrational frequencies for berberine were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G** level.

  15. Observation of superconductivity in hydrogen sulfide from nuclear resonant scattering.

    PubMed

    Troyan, Ivan; Gavriliuk, Alexander; Rüffer, Rudolf; Chumakov, Alexander; Mironovich, Anna; Lyubutin, Igor; Perekalin, Dmitry; Drozdov, Alexander P; Eremets, Mikhail I

    2016-03-18

    High-temperature superconductivity remains a focus of experimental and theoretical research. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to be superconducting at high pressures and with a high transition temperature. We report on the direct observation of the expulsion of the magnetic field in H2S compressed to 153 gigapascals. A thin (119)Sn film placed inside the H2S sample was used as a sensor of the magnetic field. The magnetic field on the (119)Sn sensor was monitored by nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that an external static magnetic field of about 0.7 tesla is expelled from the volume of (119)Sn foil as a result of the shielding by the H2S sample at temperatures between 4.7 K and approximately 140 K, revealing a superconducting state of H2S. PMID:26989248

  16. Quantitative velocity distributions via nuclear magnetic resonance flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Keelan T.; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Johns, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of Tikhonov regularisation as a data inversion technique to determine the velocity distributions of flowing liquid streams. Regularisation is applied to the signal produced by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow measurement system consisting of a pre-polarising permanent magnet located upstream of an Earth's magnetic field NMR detection coil. A simple free induction decay (FID) NMR signal is measured for the flowing stream in what is effectively a 'time-of-flight' measurement. The FID signal is then modelled as a function of fluid velocity and acquisition time, enabling determination of the velocity probability distributions via regularisation. The mean values of these velocity distributions were successfully validated against in-line rotameters. The ability to quantify multi-modal velocity distributions was also demonstrated using a two-pipe system.

  17. Authentication of Medicines Using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Barras, Jamie; Althoefer, Kaspar; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2016-01-01

    The production and sale of counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical products, such as essential medicines, is an important global public health problem. We describe a chemometric passport-based approach to improve the security of the pharmaceutical supply chain. Our method is based on applying nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy to authenticate the contents of medicine packets. NQR is a non-invasive, non-destructive, and quantitative radio frequency (RF) spectroscopic technique. It is sensitive to subtle features of the solid-state chemical environment and thus generates unique chemical fingerprints that are intrinsically difficult to replicate. We describe several advanced NQR techniques, including two-dimensional measurements, polarization enhancement, and spin density imaging, that further improve the security of our authentication approach. We also present experimental results that confirm the specificity and sensitivity of NQR and its ability to detect counterfeit medicines. PMID:26841409

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron and copper disease states

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Clanton, J.A.; Smith, F.W.; Hutchison, J.; Mallard, J.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-11-01

    The tissue levels of paramagnetic ions are an important factor in the determination of T/sub 1/ values as observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The increased levels of iron present in human disease states such as hemochromatosis lead to decreased T/sub 1/ values. The mean liver T/sub 1/ of three patients with iron storage disease was determined to be 130 msec, significantly different from the value of 154 msec, the mean for 14 normal controls. Whether NMR will be able to detect the increased copper levels in liver and brain in Wilson disease remains for further clinical trials to evaluate. NMR imaging, however, does serve as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of states of iron overload and as a technique to follow progression of disease or response to medical therapy.

  19. Measurement of heat transfer coefficients by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, David H; Gore, John C

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate an experimental method for the measurement of heat transfer coefficient for a fluid system by magnetic resonance imaging. In this method, the temporal variation of thermally induced nuclear shielding is monitored and the average heat transfer coefficient is measured as a function of fluid velocity. We examine the cases of natural convection and forced convection at fluid velocity up to 0.8 m s(-1). These cases correspond to low dimensionless Biot (Bi) number where the heat transfer is limited by thermal convection. We demonstrate the NMR method for two simple geometries, a cylinder and a sphere, to experimentally determine the heat transfer coefficient (h) in two NMR imaging and spectroscopy systems through measuring three NMR parameters, the chemical shift, magnetization and spin self diffusion coefficient. PMID:18524523

  20. Desktop fast-field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometer.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Duarte Mesquita; Marques, Gil Domingos; Cascais, José Manuel; Sebastião, Pedro José

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a new type of Fast Field Cycling (FFC) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometer with low power consumption (200W) and cycle to cycle field stability better than 10(-4) is described. The new high-permeability magnet was designed to allow for good magnetic field homogeneity and allows for the sample rotation around an axis perpendicular to magnetic field, operating with magnetic fields between 0 and 0.21T. The power supply of the new relaxometer was specially developed in order to have steady state accurate currents and allow for magnetic field switching times less than 3ms. Additional control circuits were developed and included to compensate the Earth magnetic field component parallel to the field axis and to compensate for parasitic currents. The main aspects of the developed circuits together with some calibrating experimental results using the liquid crystal compounds 5CB and 8CB are presented and discussed. PMID:20688489

  1. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements in Frog Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Edward D.; Homer, Louis D.

    1974-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements are reported for frog muscle as a function of temperature and Larmor frequency. Each T1ρ, T2, and T1 measurement covered a time domain sufficient to identify the average relaxation time for most intracellular water. Using regression analysis the data were fit with a model where intracellular water molecules are exchanging between a large compartment in which mobility is similar to ordinary water and a small compartment in which motion is restricted. The regression results suggest that: the restricted compartment exhibits a distribution of motions skewed toward that of free water; the residence time of water molecules in the restricted compartment is approximately 1 ms; and, the activation entropy for some water molecules in the restricted compartment is negative. PMID:4547668

  2. Serum metabonomics of acute leukemia using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Shamsi, Tahir; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2016-01-01

    Acute leukemia is a critical neoplasm of white blood cells. In order to differentiate between the metabolic alterations associated with two subtypes of acute leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we investigated the serum of ALL and AML patients and compared with two controls (healthy and aplastic anemia) using 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. Thirty-seven putative metabolites were identified using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. The use of PLS-DA and OPLS-DA models gave results with 84.38% and 90.63% classification rate, respectively. The metabolites responsible for classification are mainly lipids, lactate and glucose. Compared with controls, ALL and AML patients showed serum metabonomic differences involving aberrant metabolism pathways including glycolysis, TCA cycle, lipoprotein changes, choline and fatty acid metabolisms. PMID:27480133

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation of stroke: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.N.; Willcott, M.R.; Schneiders, N.J.; Ford, J.J.; Derman, H.S.

    1983-10-01

    Nine patients who had acute and subacute stroke were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using a 6-MHz Bruker Instruments proton scanner. A modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence was used for signal detection. The resultant string of spin-echoes was Fourier transformed into projections that were subsequently back-projected to a series of spin-echo images. From these images, spin density and T/sub 2/ were calculated for each pixel. The NMR scans revealed stroke in each of the patients, while CT demonstrated only eight of the lesions. T/sub 2/ was prolonged in all of the ischemic regions and is the most sensitive NMR parameter in detecting stroke. These preliminary results suggest that NMR scanning of patients who have acute stroke may be cliniclly useful, and that the T/sub 2/ component of the NRM signal is most important.

  4. Serum metabonomics of acute leukemia using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Shamsi, Tahir; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur

    2016-01-01

    Acute leukemia is a critical neoplasm of white blood cells. In order to differentiate between the metabolic alterations associated with two subtypes of acute leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we investigated the serum of ALL and AML patients and compared with two controls (healthy and aplastic anemia) using (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. Thirty-seven putative metabolites were identified using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. The use of PLS-DA and OPLS-DA models gave results with 84.38% and 90.63% classification rate, respectively. The metabolites responsible for classification are mainly lipids, lactate and glucose. Compared with controls, ALL and AML patients showed serum metabonomic differences involving aberrant metabolism pathways including glycolysis, TCA cycle, lipoprotein changes, choline and fatty acid metabolisms. PMID:27480133

  5. Protein conformation and proton nuclear-magnetic-resonance chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Pardi, A; Wagner, G; Wüthrich, K

    1983-12-15

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the polypeptide backbone protons in basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor from bovine organs and the inhibitors E and K from the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis have been analyzed. Using the corresponding shifts in model peptides, the chemical shifts observed in the proteins were decomposed into random-coil shifts and conformation-dependent shifts. Correlations between contributions to the latter term and the polypeptide conformation were investigated by using the crystal structure of the bovine inhibitor. In addition to the well-known ring-current effects, a correlation was found between chemical shifts of amide and C alpha protons and the length of the hydrogen bonds formed by these protons with nearby oxygen atoms as acceptor groups. There remain sizeable and as yet unexplained residual conformation shifts. Overall, the present treatment provides a satisfactory qualitative explanation for the outstandingly large shifts of backbone hydrogen atoms in these diamagnetic proteins. PMID:6198174

  6. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in process engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Alexander, Paul

    1996-03-01

    During the past decade, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques to problems of relevance to the process industries has been identified. The particular strengths of NMR techniques are their ability to distinguish between different chemical species and to yield information simultaneously on the structure, concentration distribution and flow processes occurring within a given process unit. In this paper, examples of specific applications in the areas of materials and food processing, transport in reactors and two-phase flow are discussed. One specific study, that of the internal structure of a packed column, is considered in detail. This example is reported to illustrate the extent of new, quantitative information of generic importance to many processing operations that can be obtained using NMR imaging in combination with image analysis.

  7. Theory and computation of nuclear magnetic resonance parameters.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Juha

    2007-10-28

    The art of quantum chemical electronic structure calculation has over the last 15 years reached a point where systematic computational studies of magnetic response properties have become a routine procedure for molecular systems. One of their most prominent areas of application are the spectral parameters of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, due to the immense importance of this experimental method in many scientific disciplines. This article attempts to give an overview on the theory and state-of-the-art of the practical computations in the field, in terms of the size of systems that can be treated, the accuracy that can be expected, and the various factors that would influence the agreement of even the most accurate imaginable electronic structure calculation with experiment. These factors include relativistic effects, thermal effects, as well as solvation/environmental influences, where my group has been active. The dependence of the NMR spectra on external magnetic and optical fields is also briefly touched on. PMID:17925967

  8. Nuclear resonance fluorescence imaging in non-intrusive cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, William; Ledoux, Robert J.

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence is able to non-intrusively interrogate a region space and measure the isotopic content of the material in that space for any element with atomic number greater than that of helium. The technique involves exposing material to a continuous energy distribution of photons and detecting the scattered photons that have a discrete energy distribution unique to an isotope. The interrogating photons, which range from 2 to 8 MeV, are the most penetrating probes and can "see" through many inches of steel. Determination of the chemical components of the material occupying a region of space greatly enhances the identification of threats such as explosives, fissile materials, toxic materials and weapons of mass destruction. Systems can be designed to involve minimal operator intervention, to minimize dose to the sample, and to provide high throughput at commercial seaports, airports and other entry points.

  9. Quantitative velocity distributions via nuclear magnetic resonance flow metering.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Keelan T; Fridjonsson, Einar O; Stanwix, Paul L; Johns, Michael L

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of Tikhonov regularisation as a data inversion technique to determine the velocity distributions of flowing liquid streams. Regularisation is applied to the signal produced by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow measurement system consisting of a pre-polarising permanent magnet located upstream of an Earth's magnetic field NMR detection coil. A simple free induction decay (FID) NMR signal is measured for the flowing stream in what is effectively a 'time-of-flight' measurement. The FID signal is then modelled as a function of fluid velocity and acquisition time, enabling determination of the velocity probability distributions via regularisation. The mean values of these velocity distributions were successfully validated against in-line rotameters. The ability to quantify multi-modal velocity distributions was also demonstrated using a two-pipe system. PMID:27343484

  10. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cardiac metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Seeholzer, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed the increasing use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques for following the metabolic fate of compounds specifically labeled with /sup 13/C. The goals of the present study are: (1) to develop reliable quantitative procedures for measuring the /sup 13/C enrichment of specific carbon sites in compounds enriched by the metabolism of /sup 13/C-labeled substrates in rat heart, and (2) to use these quantitative measurements of fractional /sup 13/C enrichment within the context of a mathematical flux model describing the carbon flow through the TCA cycle and ancillary pathways, as a means for obtaining unknown flux parameters. Rat hearts have been perfused in vitro with various combinations of glucose, acetate, pyruvate, and propionate to achieve steady state flux conditions, followed by perfusion with the same substrates labeled with /sup 13/C in specific carbon sites. The hearts were frozen at different times after addition of /sup 13/C-labeled substrates and neutralized perchloric acid extracts were used to obtain high resolution proton-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectra at 90.55 MHz. The fractional /sup 13/C enrichment (F.E.) of individual carbon sites in different metabolites was calculated from the area of the resolved resonances after correction for saturation and nuclear Overhauser effects. These F.E. measurements by /sup 13/C NMR were validated by the analysis of /sup 13/C-/sup 1/H scalar coupling patterns observed in /sup 1/H NMR spectra of the extracted metabolites. The results obtained from perfusion of hearts glucose plus either (2-/sup 13/C) acetate or (3-/sup 13/C) pyruvate are similar to those obtained by previous investigators using /sup 14/C-labeled substrates.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.B. . Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-11-01

    The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

  12. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  13. Frequency selective detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, Samuel D.; Jakobsson, Andreas; Smith, John A. S.; Althoefer, Kaspar A.

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the 14N nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. The technique has been hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and is further aggravated by the presence of RF interference (RFI). To ensure accurate detection, proposed detectors should exploit the rich form of the NQR signal. Furthermore, the detectors should also be robust to any remaining residual interference, left after suitable RFI mitigation has been employed. In this paper, we propose a new NQR data model, particularly for the realistic case where multiple pulse sequences are used to generate trains of spin echoes. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum likelihood (AML) detectors, enabling the algorithm to optimally exploit the data model of the entire echo train and also incorporate knowledge of the temperature dependent spin-echo decay time. The AML-based detectors ensure accurate detection and robustness against residual RFI, even when the temperature of the sample is not precisely known, by exploiting the dependencies of the NQR resonant lines on temperature. Further robustness against residual interference is gained as the proposed detector is frequency selective; exploiting only those regions of the spectrum where the NQR signal is expected. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed Frequency selective Echo Train AML (FETAML) detector offers a significant improvement as compared to other existing detectors.

  14. Study of free radicals in gamma irradiated cellulose of cultural heritage materials using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Rodrigues, Orlando, Jr.; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Santos, Paulo de Souza; Vasquez, Pablo A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Main subject of this article was to study room temperature stable radicals in Co-60 gamma irradiated contemporary paper using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer (EPR). XRD was used to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the morphology of book paper. SEM images presented regions with cellulose fibers and regions with particles agglomeration on the cellulose fibers. Those agglomerations were rich in calcium, observed by EDS. XRD analysis confirmed presence of calcium carbonate diffraction peaks. The main objective of this study was to propose a method using conventional kinetics chemical reactions for the observed radical formed by ionizing radiation. Therefore, further analyses were made to study the half-life and the kinetics of the free radical created. This method can be suitably applied to study radicals on cultural heritage objects.

  15. Gamma-resonance study of the reaction of iron ions with synthetic L-dopa melanin

    SciTech Connect

    Bagirov, R.M.; Stukan, R.A.; Lapina, V.A.; Dontsov, A.E.; Ostrovskii, M.A.

    1986-07-01

    The reaction of Fe/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 2 +/ ions with synthetic L-dopa melanin, which is a model compound of natural melanin (the melanoprotein granules in the pigment epithelial cells in vertebrate and human eyes), has been studied by gamma-resonance spectroscopy. The investigations showed that L-dopa melanin is capable of effectively binding iron ions and that it displays oxidative or reducing properties with respect to Fe, depending on the composition of the subsystem of the Fe ions and the ambient pH. Trivalent Fe/sup 3 +/ ions form stronger complexes with L-dopa melanin than do Fe/sup 2 +/ ions. The coordination takes place mainly with the carboxyl groups and the amino and imino groups of the polymer. The conformational state of the polymer apparently changes as the pH is varied.

  16. Resonant Compton cooling and annihilation line production in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, R. D.; Harding, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a synchrotron self-Compton emission model for gamma-ray bursts which produces narrow annihilation features for a variety of field strengths, primary electron injection energies, and injection rates. In this model, primary electrons are injected and cooled by synchrotron emission in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field, resulting in a pair cascade. Multiple resonant scattering with cyclotron photons efficiently traps and cools pairs in the ground state to an average energy where the Compton energy loss rate is zero, which is in agreement with previous estimates of a Compton temperature. The particle distributions in the ground state are determined by numerically solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the steady state. In the case of isotropic injection of primary electrons, a significant narrow-line feature appears in the overall emission. In the case of beamed injection, the annihilation line is broadened to the extent that it would not be observable.

  17. Partial wave analysis of the reaction gamma p -> p omega$ and the search for nucleon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    M. Williams, D. Applegate, M. Bellis, C.A. Meyer

    2009-12-01

    An event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction gamma p -> p omega has been performed on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high precision spin density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of omega-> pi+ pi - pi0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel pi0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F[15](1680) and D[13](1700) near threshold, as well as the G[17](2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J(P)=5/2(+) state around 2 GeV, a "missing" state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.

  18. Resonance structure in the {gamma}{gamma} invariant mass spectrum in pC, dC, and dCu interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Abraamyan, Kh. U.; Baznat, M. I.; Friesen, A. V.; Gudima, K. K.; Kozhin, M. A.; Lebedev, S. A.; Nazarenko, M. A.; Nikitin, S. A.; Ososkov, G. A.; Reznikov, S. G.; Sigov, A. S.; Sissakian, A. N.; Sorin, A. S.; Toneev, V. D.

    2012-06-15

    Along with {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} mesons, a resonance structure in the invariant mass spectrum of two photons atM{sub {gamma}{gamma}} = 360 {+-} 7 {+-} 9 MeV is observed in dC interactions at momentum 2.75 GeV/c per nucleon. This resonance structure is not observed in pC collisions at the beam momentum 5.5 GeV/c. The result obtained in the reaction dC is confirmed by the second experiment carried out on the deuteron beam at momentum 3.83 GeV/c per nucleon with a copper target. Some other checks of the observed effect are presented.

  19. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. C. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Loredo, T. J.; Wasserman, I. M.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    Fits of theoretical spectra from Monte Carlo radiation-transfer calculations to dips at approximately 20 and 40 keV in a spectrum of the gamma-ray burst source GB 880 205 give best-fit values and 68 percent-confidence intervals for the magnetic field of (1.71 + or - 0.07) x 10 to the 12th G, the electron density of (1.2 + or - 0.6) x 10 to the 21st electrons/cm-squared, and the cosine of the viewing angle relative to the field of 0.31 + or - 0.05. The dips observed at approximately 20 keV in the spectra are interpreted as cyclotron resonant scattering, in which electrons undergo radiative 0 to 1 to 0 Landau transitions initiated by photons near the first harmonic. Physical self-consistency fixes the temperature, and the equilibrium temperature equals 5.3 + 0.3 or - 0.2 keV. These results suggest that this gamma-ray burst and many others which exhibit a low-energy dip originate from strongly magnetic neutron stars and are galactic in origin.

  20. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  1. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  2. Characterization of borate glasses by W-band pulse electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, George; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2008-10-21

    (100-x) mol % B{sub 2}O{sub 3} x mol %Me{sub 2}O (Me=Li,Na,K) glasses, exposed to {gamma}-{sup 60}Co irradiation to produce paramagnetic states, were characterized by W-band (95 GHz) pulse electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy in order to characterize local structures occurring in the range of compositions between x=16 and x=25 at which the 'boron oxide' anomaly occurs. The high resolution of nuclear frequencies allowed resolving the {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B ENDOR lines. In the samples with x=16 and x=20 glasses, {sup 11}B hyperfine couplings of 16, 24, and 36 MHz were observed and attributed to the tetraborate, triborate, and boron oxygen hole center (BOHC) structures, respectively. The x=25 samples showed hyperfine couplings of 15 MHz for the tetraborate and 36 MHz for BOHC. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicted for these structures negative hyperfine couplings, which were confirmed by W-band ENDOR. This suggests that a spin polarization mechanism accounts for the negative hyperfine structure splitting.

  3. Characterization of borate glasses by W-band pulse electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kordas, George; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2008-10-21

    (100-x) mol % B(2)O(3) x mol % Me(2)O (Me = Li,Na,K) glasses, exposed to gamma-(60)Co irradiation to produce paramagnetic states, were characterized by W-band (95 GHz) pulse electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy in order to characterize local structures occurring in the range of compositions between x=16 and x=25 at which the "boron oxide" anomaly occurs. The high resolution of nuclear frequencies allowed resolving the (7)Li and (11)B ENDOR lines. In the samples with x=16 and x=20 glasses, (11)B hyperfine couplings of 16, 24, and 36 MHz were observed and attributed to the tetraborate, triborate, and boron oxygen hole center (BOHC) structures, respectively. The x=25 samples showed hyperfine couplings of 15 MHz for the tetraborate and 36 MHz for BOHC. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicted for these structures negative hyperfine couplings, which were confirmed by W-band ENDOR. This suggests that a spin polarization mechanism accounts for the negative hyperfine structure splitting. PMID:19045204

  4. Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombier, A.-C.; Amharrak, H.; Fourmentel, D.; Ravaux, S.; Régnier, D.; Gueton, O.; Hudelot, J.-P.; Lemaire, M.

    2013-03-01

    The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.

  5. A dual neutron/gamma source for the Fissmat Inspection for Nuclear Detection (FIND) system.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee; King, Michael; Rossi, Paolo; McDaniel, Floyd Del; Morse, Daniel Henry; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Raber, Thomas N.

    2008-12-01

    Shielded special nuclear material (SNM) is very difficult to detect and new technologies are needed to clear alarms and verify the presence of SNM. High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded SNM, such as highly enriched uranium (HEU), since neutrons can penetrate gamma-ray shielding and gamma-rays can penetrate neutron shielding. Both source particles then induce unique detectable signals from fission. In this LDRD, we explored a new type of interrogation source that uses low-energy proton- or deuteron-induced nuclear reactions to generate high fluxes of mono-energetic gammas or neutrons. Accelerator-based experiments, computational studies, and prototype source tests were performed to obtain a better understanding of (1) the flux requirements, (2) fission-induced signals, background, and interferences, and (3) operational performance of the source. The results of this research led to the development and testing of an axial-type gamma tube source and the design/construction of a high power coaxial-type gamma generator based on the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction.

  6. Developing hyperpolarized krypton-83 for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Zackary I.

    This dissertation discusses the production of highly nonequilibrium nuclear spin polarization, referred to as hyperpolarization or hp, in the nuclear spin I = 9/2 noble gas isotope krypton-83 using spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP). This nonequilibrium polarization yields nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals that are enhanced three or more orders of magnitude above those of thermally polarized krypton and enables experiments that would otherwise be impossible. Krypton-83 possesses a nuclear electric quadrupole moment that dominates the longitudinal (T1) relaxation due to coupling of the quadrupole moment to fluctuating electric field gradients generated by distortions to the spherical symmetry of the electronic environment. Relaxation slows polarization buildup and limits the maximum signal intensity but makes krypton-83 a sensitive probe of its environment. The gas-phase krypton-83 longitudinal relaxation rate increases linearly with total gas density due to binary collisions. Density independent relaxation, caused by the formation of krypton-krypton van der Waals molecules and surface adsorption, also contributes to the observed rate. Buffer gases suppress van der Waals molecule mediated relaxation by breaking apart the weakly bound krypton dimers. Surface relaxation is gas composition independent and therefore more difficult to suppress. However, this relaxation mechanism makes hp krypton-83 sensitive to important surface properties including surface-to-volume ratio, surface chemistry, and surface temperature. The presence of surfaces with high krypton adsorption affinities (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces) accelerates the relaxation times and can produce T1 contrast in hp krypton-83 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tobacco smoke deposited on surfaces generates strong T1 contrast allowing the observation of smoke deposition with spatial resolution. Conversely, water adsorption on surfaces significantly lengths the T1 times due competitive surface adsorption

  7. Probing nuclear shapes close to the fission limit with the giant dipole resonance in {sup 216}Rn

    SciTech Connect

    Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Brekiesz, M.; Krolas, W.; Meczynski, W.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M.; Million, B.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Benzoni, G.; Leoni, S.; Wieland, O.; Brambilla, S.; Herskind, B.; Kicinska-Habior, M.; Dubray, N.; Dudek, J.; Schunck, N.

    2004-12-01

    The gamma-ray decay of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in the compound nucleus {sup 216}Rn formed with the reaction {sup 18}O+{sup 198}Pt at the bombarding energy of 96 MeV was investigated. High-energy gamma-ray spectra in coincidence with both prompt and delayed low-energy transitions were measured. The obtained GDR width at the average temperature {approx_equal}1 MeV was found to be larger than that at T=0 MeV and to be approximately constant as a function of spin. The measured width value of 7 MeV is found to be consistent with the predictions based on calculations of the nuclear shape distribution using the newest approach for the treatment of the fission barrier within the liquid drop model. The present study is the first investigation of the giant dipole resonance width from the fusion-evaporation decay channel in this nuclear mass range.

  8. Instructions for calibrating gamma detectors using the Canberra-Nuclear Data Genie Gamma Spectroscopy System

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    A straight forward protocol provides a way to guide the calibration of a gamma detector for a particular geometry and material. Several programs have used the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility of the Health and Ecological Assessment Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to count a variety of large environmental samples contained in several unique geometries. The equipment and calibration requirements needed to analyze these types of samples are explained. This document describes the calibration protocol that has been developed and describes how it is used to calibrate the detectors.

  9. Discovery of Cyclotron Resonance Features in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Swank, Jean H.; Parke, William; Zane, Silvia; Turolla, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence of cyclotron resonance features from the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20 in outburst, detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in the spectrum of a long, complex precursor that preceded a strong burst. The features consist of a narrow 5.0 keV absorption line with modulation near its second and third harmonics (at 11.2 keV and 17.5 keV respectively). The line features are transient and are detected in the harder part of the precursor. The 5.0 keV feature is strong, with an equivalent width of approx. 500 eV and a narrow width of less than 0.4 keV. Interpreting the features as electron cyclotron lines in the context of accretion models leads to a large mass-radius ratio (M/R greater than 0.3 solar mass/km) that is inconsistent with neutron stars or that requires a low (5-7) x 10(exp 11) G magnetic field that is unlikely for SGRs. The line widths are also narrow compared with those of electron cyclotron resonances observed so far in X-ray pulsars. In the magnetar picture, the features are plausibly explained as ion cyclotron resonances in an ultra-strong magnetic field that have recently been predicted from magnetar candidates. In this view, the 5.0 keV feature is consistent with a proton cyclotron fundamental whose energy and width are close to model predictions. The line energy would correspond to a surface magnetic field of 1.0 x 10(exp 15) G for SGR 1806-20, in good agreement with that inferred from the spin-down measure in the source.

  10. Discovery of Cyclotron Resonance Features in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, A. I.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Swank, Jean H.; Parke, William; Zane, Silvia; Turolla, Roberto; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence for cyclotron resonance features from the Soft Gamma Repeater SCR 1806-20 in outburst, detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in the spectrum of a long, complex precursor that preceded a strong burst. The features consist of a narrow 5.0 keV absorption line with modulation near its second and third harmonics (at 11.2 keV and 17.5 keV respectively). The line features are transient and are detected in the harder part of the precursor. The 5.0 keV feature is strong, with an equivalent width of approx. 500 eV, and a narrow width of < 0.4 keV. Interpreting the features as electron cyclotron lines in the context of accretion models leads to a large mass-radius ratio (M/R > 0.3 Solar Mass/km) that is inconsistent with neutron stars, or requires a low (5 - 7) x 10(exp 11) G magnetic field that is unlikely for SGRs. The line widths are also narrow compared to those of electron cyclotron resonances observed so far in X-ray pulsars. In the magnetar picture, the features are plausibly explained as ion cyclotron resonances in an ultra-strong magnetic field, which have recently been predicted from magnetar candidates. In this view, the 5.0 keV feature is consistent with a proton cyclotron fundamental whose energy and width are close to model predictions. The line energy would correspond to a surface magnetic field of 1.0 x 10(exp 15) G for SGR 1806-20, in good agreement with that inferred from the spin-down measure in the source.

  11. The orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 acts as a novel transcriptional corepressor of PPAR{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gwang Sik; Lee, Gha Young; Nedumaran, Balachandar; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, Kyung Tae; Park, Sang Chul; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Jae Bum Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2008-05-30

    DAX-1 is an atypical nuclear receptor (NR) which functions primarily as a transcriptional corepressor of other NRs via heterodimerization. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} is a ligand-dependent NR which performs a key function in adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated a novel cross-talk mechanism between DAX-1 and PPAR{gamma}. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that DAX-1 inhibits the transactivity of PPAR{gamma} in a dose-dependent manner. DAX-1 directly competed with the PPAR{gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} for binding to PPAR{gamma}. Endogenous levels of DAX-1 were significantly lower in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes as compared to preadipocytes. Using a retroviral expression system, we demonstrated that DAX-1 overexpression downregulates the expression of PPAR{gamma} target genes, resulting in an attenuation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that DAX-1 acts as a corepressor of PPAR{gamma} and performs a potential function in the regulation of PPAR{gamma}-mediated cellular differentiation.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G A

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  13. Analysis of the transient response of nuclear spins in GaAs with/without nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasly, Mahmoud; Lin, Zhichao; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative to studying the steady-state responses of nuclear spins in solid state systems, working within a transient-state framework can reveal interesting phenomena. The response of nuclear spins in GaAs to a changing magnetic field was analyzed based on the time evolution of nuclear spin temperature. Simulation results well reproduced our experimental results for the transient oblique Hanle signals observed in an all-electrical spin injection device. The analysis showed that the so called dynamic nuclear polarization can be treated as a cooling tool for the nuclear spins: It works as a provider to exchange spin angular momentum between polarized electron spins and nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, leading to an increase in the nuclear polarization. In addition, a time-delay of the nuclear spin temperature with a fast sweep of the external magnetic field produces a possible transient state for the nuclear spin polarization. On the other hand, the nuclear magnetic resonance acts as a heating tool for a nuclear spin system. This causes the nuclear spin temperature to jump to infinity: i.e., the average nuclear spins along with the nuclear field vanish at resonant fields of 75As, 69Ga and 71Ga, showing an interesting step-dip structure in the oblique Hanle signals. These analyses provide a quantitative understanding of nuclear spin dynamics in semiconductors for application in future computation processing.

  14. Polaron hopping in olivine phosphates studied by nuclear resonant scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Sally June

    Valence fluctuations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ were studied in a solid solution of LixFePO4 by nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron x rays while the sample was heated in a diamond-anvil pressure cell. The spectra acquired at different temperatures and pressures were analyzed for the frequencies of valence changes using the Blume-Tjon model of a system with a fluctuating Hamiltonian. These frequencies were analyzed to obtain activation energies and an activation volume for polaron hopping. There was a large suppression of hopping frequency with pressure, giving an anomalously large activation volume. This large, positive value is typical of ion diffusion, which indicates correlated motions of polarons, and Li+ ions that alter the dynamics of both. In a parallel study of NaxFePO4, the interplay between sodium ordering and electron mobility was investigated using a combination of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and nuclear resonant scattering. Conventional Mossbauer spectra were collected while the sample was heated in a resistive furnace. An analysis of the temperature evolution of the spectral shapes was used to identify the onset of fast electron hopping and determine the polaron hopping rate. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out in the same temperature range. Reitveld analysis of the diffraction patterns was used to determine the temperature of sodium redistribution on the lattice. The diffraction analysis also provides new information about the phase stability of the system. The temperature evolution of the iron site occupancies from the Mossbauer measurements, combined with the synchrotron diffraction results give strong evidence for a relationship between the onset of fast electron dynamics and the redistribution of sodium in the lattice. Measurements of activation barriers for polaron hopping gave fundamental insights about the correlation between electronic carriers and mobile ions. This work established that polaron-ion interactions

  15. Mass optimization studies of gamma shield materials for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Banjac, V.; Heger, A.S. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    A mass optimization study of the total shield mass requirements for gamma attenuation for a space nuclear power system is carried out. The reference system is a nuclear electric power-generating reactor with a 10[sup 16] [gamma]/s source term and reference dimensions based on the Russian TOPAZ-II. Seven potential shield materials are analyzed, and the total gamma shield masses are presented for a desired dose equivalent of 5.0 mrem/h at the end of the shield. A three-dimensional shielding code, QAD-CGGP, is used to model the reactor and the truncated cone shield. Gamma energies of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 MeV are analyzed, and the required shield masses are normalized to the lowest value, giving a mass index.'' Comparison of the required masses and mass indices for both direct radiation and buildup dose is presented. For all three gamma energies, depleted uranium has a mass index of 1.0 and provides the required shielding with the lowest mass requirement. Mass indices between 1.2 and 1.7 are characteristic of tungsten and lead, making them potential substitutes for depleted uranium in the case of smaller reactor power levels.

  16. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  17. Search for the electromagnetic decay of {Delta}(1232) resonance in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Gulino, M.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A.C.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R.; Barbera, R.; Gulino, M.; Riggi, F.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R.; Bonasera, A.

    1998-01-01

    In order to inquire into the existence and significance of non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in the intermediate-energy regime, the production of protons and high-energy photons (E{sub {gamma}}{gt}30 MeV) emitted in the reaction {sup 36}Ar+{sup 27}Al at 95 MeV/nucleon has been studied. The quantitative analysis of the ({gamma}-p) invariant-mass and relative-angle distributions shows evidences of {Delta}(1232)-resonance excitation and {Delta}{r_arrow}N{gamma} decay. Experimental data are in agreement with microscopic theoretical calculations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Optically Pumped Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Quantum Hall Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S. E.; Tycko, R.; Dabbagh, G.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    1996-03-01

    Optical pumping enables the direct detection of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal of ^71Ga nuclei located in an electron doped GaAs quantum well.footnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1368 (1994) Using this technique, measurements of the Knight shiftfootnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5112 (1995) and spin-lattice relaxation timefootnote R. Tycko et al., Science 268, 1460 (1995) have been carried out in the Quantum Hall regimes. It is clear from these measurements that probing the electronic spin degree of freedom can lead to new insights about the effect of interactions on the many-body ground state and low-lying excited states of these systems. For example, the Knight shift measurements provided the first experimental support for the recent theoretical predictionsfootnote S. L. Sondhi et al., Phys. Rev. B 47, 16419 (1993); H. A. Fertig et al., Phys. Rev. B 50, 11018 (1994) that the charged excitations of the ν = 1 ground state are novel spin textures called skyrmions. The current status of this picture will be discussed.

  19. Optically Pumped Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Quantum Hall Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S. E.; Khandelwal, P.; Kuzma, N. N.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    1997-03-01

    Optical pumping enables the direct detection of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal of ^71Ga nuclei located in an electron doped GaAs quantum well.footnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1368 (1994) Using this technique, measurements of the Knight shift (K_S)footnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5112 (1995) and spin-lattice relaxation time (T_1)footnote R. Tycko et al., Science 268, 1460 (1995) have been carried out in the Quantum Hall regimes. This talk will focus on our latest measurements of KS and T1 near Landau level filling ν=1, which extend our earlier results to higher magnetic fields (B=12 Tesla) and lower temperatures (T < 1 Kelvin). We will compare these results to the theoretical predictionsfootnote S. L. Sondhi et al., Phys. Rev. B 47, 16419 (1993); H. A. Fertig et al., Phys. Rev. B 50, 11018 (1994) that the charged excitations of the ν = 1 ground state are novel spin textures called skyrmions. The current status of this picture will be discussed.

  20. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of water in aggrecan solutions

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Richard J.; Damion, Robin A.; Baboolal, Thomas G.; Smye, Stephen W.; Ries, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggrecan, a highly charged macromolecule found in articular cartilage, was investigated in aqueous salt solutions with proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates were determined at two different field strengths, 9.4 T and 0.5 T, for a range of temperatures and aggrecan concentrations. The diffusion coefficients of the water molecules were also measured as a function of temperature and aggrecan concentration, using a pulsed field gradient technique at 9.4 T. Assuming an Arrhenius relationship, the activation energies for the various relaxation processes and the translational motion of the water molecules were determined from temperature dependencies as a function of aggrecan concentration in the range 0–5.3% w/w. The longitudinal relaxation rate and inverse diffusion coefficient were approximately equally dependent on concentration and only increased by upto 20% from that of the salt solution. The transverse relaxation rate at high field demonstrated greatest concentration dependence, changing by an order of magnitude across the concentration range examined. We attribute this primarily to chemical exchange. Activation energies appeared to be approximately independent of aggrecan concentration, except for that of the low-field transverse relaxation rate, which decreased with concentration. PMID:27069663

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns

    1999-01-21

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

  2. Polarization enhanced Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance with an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Michael W.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Espy, Michelle A.; Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) has been demonstrated for the detection of 14-N in explosive compounds. Application of a material specific radio-frequency (RF) pulse excites a response typically detected with a wire- wound antenna. NQR is non-contact and material specific, however fields produced by NQR are typically very weak, making demonstration of practical utility challenging. For certain materials, the NQR signal can be increased by transferring polarization from hydrogen nuclei to nitrogen nuclei using external magnetic fields. This polarization enhancement (PE) can enhance the NQR signal by an order of magnitude or more. Atomic magnetometers (AM) have been shown to improve detection sensitivity beyond a conventional antenna by a similar amount. AM sensors are immune to piezo-electric effects that hamper conventional NQR, and can be combined to form a gradiometer for effective RF noise cancellation. In principle, combining polarization enhancement with atomic magnetometer detection should yield improvement in signal-to-noise ratio that is the product of the two methods, 100-fold or more over conventional NQR. However both methods are even more exotic than traditional NQR, and have never been combined due to challenges in operating a large magnetic field and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensor in proximity. Here we present NQR with and without PE with an atomic magnetometer, demonstrating signal enhancement greater than 20-fold for ammonium nitrate. We also demonstrate PE for PETN using a traditional coil for detection with an enhancement factor of 10. Experimental methods and future applications are discussed.

  3. Nuclear resonance tomography with a toroid cavity detector

    DOEpatents

    Woelk, Klaus; Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A toroid cavity detection system for determining the spectral properties and distance from a fixed point for a sample using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The detection system consists of a toroid with a central conductor oriented along the main axis of the toroidal cylinder and perpendicular to a static uniform magnetic field oriented along the main axis of the toroid. An rf signal is inputted to the central conductor to produce a magnetic field perpendicular to the central axis of the toroid and whose field strength varies as the inverse of the radius of the toroid. The toroid cavity detection system can be used to encapsulate a sample, or the detection system can be perforated to allow a sample to flow into the detection device or to place the samples in specified sample tubes. The central conductor can also be coated to determine the spectral property of the coating and the coating thickness. The sample is then subjected to the respective magnetic fields and the responses measured to determine the desired properties.

  4. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kathryn E; Birdwell, Justin E

    2013-08-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world's energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1-T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale. PMID:23719372

  5. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on brain edema

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, S.; Horikawa, Y.; Tanaka, C.; Hirakawa, K.; Nishikawa, H.; Yoshizaki, K.

    1982-06-01

    The water in normal and edematous brain tissues of rats was studied by the pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, measuring the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and the transverse relaxation time (T2). In the normal brain, T1 and T2 were single components, both shorter than in pure water. Prolongation and separation of T2 into two components, one fast and one slow, were the characteristic findings in brain edema induced by both cold injury and triethyl tin (TET), although some differences between the two types of edema existed in the content of the lesion and in the degree of changes in T1 and T2 values. Quantitative analysis of T1 and T2 values in their time course relating to water content demonstrated that prolongation of T1 referred to the volume of increased water in tissues examined, and that two phases of T2 reflected the distribution and the content of the edema fluid. From the analysis of the slow component of T2 versus water content during edema formation, it was demonstrated that the increase in edema fluid was steady, and its content was constant during formation of TET-induced edema. On the contrary, during the formation of cold-injury edema, water-rich edema fluid increased during the initial few hours, and protein-rich edema fluid increased thereafter. It was concluded that proton NMR relaxation time measurements may provide new understanding in the field of brain edema research.

  6. Spherical tensor analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance signals.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jacco D; Carravetta, Marina; Antonioli, Gian Carlo; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2005-06-22

    In a nuclear magnetic-resonance (NMR) experiment, the spin density operator may be regarded as a superposition of irreducible spherical tensor operators. Each of these spin operators evolves during the NMR experiment and may give rise to an NMR signal at a later time. The NMR signal at the end of a pulse sequence may, therefore, be regarded as a superposition of spherical components, each derived from a different spherical tensor operator. We describe an experimental method, called spherical tensor analysis (STA), which allows the complete resolution of the NMR signal into its individual spherical components. The method is demonstrated on a powder of a (13)C-labeled amino acid, exposed to a pulse sequence generating a double-quantum effective Hamiltonian. The propagation of spin order through the space of spherical tensor operators is revealed by the STA procedure, both in static and rotating solids. Possible applications of STA to the NMR of liquids, liquid crystals, and solids are discussed. PMID:16035785

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance and transcutaneous electromagnetic blood flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Battocletti, J H; Halbach, R E; Salles-Cunha, S X; Sances, A

    1983-09-01

    Static and alternating magnetic fields are employed in blood flowmeters using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) principles and electromagnetic induction by a moving conductor (TEM). Both techniques require high steady magnetic fields, obtained either from permanent magnets or from electromagnets. A relatively homogeneous magnetic field is needed for NMR, but, though important for calibration, homogeneity is not critical for TEM. NMR is more complex than TEM since it requires radio-frequency and audio-frequency magnetic fields. However, the TEM method requires surface electrodes in contact with the skin, or needle electrodes placed subcutaneously, whereas NMR is contactless. The NMR flowmeter can be calibrated directly, but appropriate and approximate models must be assumed and then solved by computer to quantify blood flow by the TEM flowmeter. Flow in individual vessels is measured a priori in the TEM flowmeter by virtue of the assumed models. To measure flow in individual vessels by NMR, a scanning or ranging method is required, which logically leads to blood flow imaging. The levels of steady, radio-frequency, and audio-frequency magnetic fields used in the two types of flowmeters are low enough so as not to cause any apparent stimulus to human volunteers and patients tested. PMID:6228667

  8. Gradient coil system for nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Frese, G.; Siebold, H.

    1984-08-28

    A gradient coil system for an image-generating, nuclear magnetic resonance tomographic apparatus, particularly a zeugmatographic apparatus. The gradient coil system is arranged on a support body of rotational symmetry, illustratively a hollow cylindrical support body, having an axis which extends along the z-direction of an x, y, z coordinate system which has an origin in the center of imaging region. The gradient coil system contains two pairs of toroidal individual coils which are arranged symmetrically with respect to an x-y plane which extends through the center of the imaging region and which are arranged perpendicular to the z-axis. The direction of current flow in the individual coils of a coil pair is opposite to the direction of flow in the individual coils of the other coil pair. Moreover, further sets of coils are provided for generating field gradient Gx in the x-direction, and Gy in the y-direction. The hollow cylindrical shape of the support body on which the individual coils are arranged permit an imaging region having a substantially spherical volume with a substantially constant field gradient Gz to be achieved. Each of the coils has a predetermined linkage factor which corresponds to the product of the current flowing through the number of coil turns of the coil. Those coils which are arranged further from the plane of symmetry have a substantially larger linkage factor than the coils which are nearer to the plane of symmetry.

  9. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world’s energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1–T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale.

  10. Advances in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background Drug discovery is a complex and unpredictable endeavor with a high failure rate. Current trends in the pharmaceutical industry have exasperated these challenges and are contributing to the dramatic decline in productivity observed over the last decade. The industrialization of science by forcing the drug discovery process to adhere to assembly-line protocols is imposing unnecessary restrictions, such as short project time-lines. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance are responding to these self-imposed limitations and are providing opportunities to increase the success rate of drug discovery. Objective/Method A review of recent advancements in NMR technology that have the potential of significantly impacting and benefiting the drug discovery process will be presented. These include fast NMR data collection protocols and high-throughput protein structure determination, rapid protein-ligand co-structure determination, lead discovery using fragment-based NMR affinity screens, NMR metabolomics to monitor in vivo efficacy and toxicity for lead compounds, and the identification of new therapeutic targets through the functional annotation of proteins by FAST-NMR. Conclusion NMR is a critical component of the drug discovery process, where the versatility of the technique enables it to continually expand and evolve its role. NMR is expected to maintain this growth over the next decade with advancements in automation, speed of structure calculation, in-cell imaging techniques, and the expansion of NMR amenable targets. PMID:20333269