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1

Assessment of health risk levels associated with terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A decree on radiation safety and protection have been signed by the Federal Government of Nigeria that established a regulatory body to control the importation, application, transportation and disposal of radioactive materials in the environment. The fundamental function of the body is embodied on radiation protection of the country's population and the environment. However, the protection and assessment of any radiation pollution in the environment to a large extent is based on the knowledge of the baseline of radiation dose rate levels due to natural radionuclides. This study assesses the risks associated with terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate levels in some cities across the major geological formations of the country. Results showed that in the Northern region the number of individuals at risk of incurring cancer ranged between 0.25 and 3.25 yr with an average value of 1.46+/-0.45, while in the southwestern region it ranged between 0.76 and 5.50 yr(-1) with a mean value of 1.66+/-0.63 and in the southeastern region it was between 0.17 and 0.89 yr(-1) with a mean value of 0.35+/-0.14. Assuming uniform exposure for the entire population of 98.5 million, it has been estimated that about 160 individuals annually are at risk of incurring cancer due to exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:11488386

Jibiri, N N

2001-07-01

2

Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using gamma-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure.  

PubMed

This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is 42.9+/-9.4 Bq.kg(-1), 14.7+/-1.7 Bq.kg(-1) and 149.5+/-3.1 Bq.kg(-1) respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h(-1) and 59.1 nGy.h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 +/-9 nGy.h(-1). This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h(-1). Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 muSv.y(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 53.1+/-11 muSv.y(-1). The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels. PMID:20177570

Senthilkumar, B; Dhavamani, V; Ramkumar, S; Philominathan, P

2010-01-01

3

Some problems of extracting level density and radiative strength functions from the gamma-spectra in nuclear reactions  

E-print Network

The most important systematical errors in determination of level density and radiative strength functions for deformed nuclei have been estimated from the gamma-ray spectra in nuclear reactions like the stripping or pickup reactions.

V. A. Khitrov; A. M. Sukhovoj; Pham Dinh Khang; Vo Thi Anh; Vuong Huu Tan; Nguyen Canh Hai; Nguyen Xuan Hai

2003-05-13

4

Study of radiation dose induced by cosmic-ray origin low-energy gamma rays and electrons near sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time, it has been known that low-energy continuous gamma radiation is present in open air at the Earth's surface. In previous investigations it was assumed that this radiation is produced almost exclusively by gamma photons emitted due to the natural radioactivity, which are backscattered by air above ground. We show that significant amount of this radiation (related to energy region 30-300 keV) that peaks at about 90 keV, is produced by cosmic-rays, with the photon flux of about 3000 m-2 s-1. We find that the contribution of this omnipresent low-energy gamma radiation of cosmic-ray origin, including the corresponding low-energy electron flux, to the doses of general population are non-negligible components of overall doses induced by cosmic rays near sea level.

Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Slivka, J.; Anicin, I.

2015-02-01

5

House characteristics associated with gamma radiation and radon daughter working levels in eastern Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

Working levels (WL) of radon daughters and ..gamma.. measurements in basements are described for approx.1200 houses near the Reading Prong. House variables studied included condition and construction materials of basement floors and walls, basement heights and areas, heating systems, air conditioning, water supply, and presence of drains and sump pumps. WL's were poorly predicted by house characteristics or ..gamma.. measurements, while ..gamma.. levels were well predicted by house characteristics and WL. Except for windowless basements, associated with both high ..gamma.. andl high WL measurements, factors predicting high ..gamma.. levels tended to be associated with low WL's and vice versa. Dirt basement floors and fieldstone basement walls were strongly associated with high ..gamma.. levels, as were poor wall conditions in multivariate analyses. Gamma levels were low in electrically heated homes. High WL's were strongly associated with electric heat, low WL's with basement walls of fieldstone and/or in poor condition. Large house volumes and well water supply were also associated with higher WL's. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Stebbings, J.H.; Dignam, J.J.; Reilly, M.A.; Gerusky, T.M.; Hartman, T.T.; Anast, G.A.

1987-01-01

6

Effect of gamma radiation on the ripening and levels of bioactive amines in bananas cv. Prata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green Prata bananas at the full three-quarter stage were exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 0.0 (control), 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and stored at 16±1 °C and 85% relative humidity. Samples were collected periodically and analyzed for peel color, pulp-to-peel ratio and levels of starch, soluble sugars and bioactive amines. Degradation of starch and formation of fructose and glucose followed first- and zero-order kinetics, respectively. Higher irradiation doses caused increased inhibitory effect on starch degradation and glucose formation. However, doses of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy caused browning of the peel, making the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 1.0 kGy was the most promising dose: it did not affect peel color, the pulp-to-peel ratio or the levels of the amines spermidine, serotonin and putrescine. However, it slowed down starch degradation and the formation and accumulation of fructose and glucose, delaying the ripening of the fruit for 7 days.

Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.; Adão, Regina C.

2013-06-01

7

Outdoor 220Rn, 222Rn and terrestrial gamma radiation levels: investigation study in the thorium rich Fen Complex, Norway.  

PubMed

The present study was done in the Fen Complex, a Norwegian area rich in naturally occurring radionuclides, especially in thorium ((232)Th). Measurement of radioactivity levels was conducted at the decommissioned iron (Fe) and niobium (Nb) mining sites (TENORM) as well as at the undisturbed wooded sites (NORM), all open for free public access. The soil activity concentrations of (232)Th (3280-8395 Bq kg(-1)) were significantly higher than the world and the Norwegian average values and exceeded the Norwegian screening level (1000 Bq kg(-1)) for radioactive waste, while radium ((226)Ra) was present at slightly elevated levels (89-171 Bq kg(-1)). Terrestrial gamma dose rates were also elevated, ranging 2.6-4.4 ?Gy h(-1). Based on long-term surveys, the air concentrations of thoron ((220)Rn) and radon ((222)Rn) reached 1786 and 82 Bq m(-3), respectively. Seasonal variation in the outdoor gamma dose rates and Rn concentrations was confirmed. Correlation analyses showed a linear relationship between air radiation levels and the abundance of (232)Th in soil. The annual outdoor effective radiation doses for humans (occupancy 5 h day(-1)) were estimated to be in the range of 3.0-7.7 mSv, comparable or higher than the total average (summarized indoor and outdoor) exposure dose for the Norwegian population (2.9 mSv year(-1)). On the basis of all obtained results, this Norwegian area should be considered as enhanced natural radiation area (ENRA). PMID:22105600

Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

2012-01-01

8

Estimation of maximum permissible errors in the total gamma-spectra intensities at determination from them of level density and radiative strength functions  

E-print Network

From a comparison of the total gamma-spectra calculated for different functional dependencies of level density and radiative strength functions, there were obtained both their square root relative differences and analogous data for the used parameters. The analysis of these data showed that the total uncertainty in determination of gamma-spectra intensities which is necessary to obtain reliable values of parameters of cascade gamma-decay, most probably, must not exceed one percent.

A. M. Sukhovoj; V. A. Khitrov

2010-09-24

9

Environmental assessment of gamma-radiation levels in stream sediments around Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt.  

PubMed

A total surface area of ?170 km(2) including 28 localities around Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, were investigated by ?-ray spectroscopy. The concentrations of NORM were found to be five to seven-fold that in dune sands in different regions in Sinai. While relatively higher levels of (238)U, (234)Th, (226)Ra, and (232)Th are associated with the existing monzo-syenogranite, the concentration of (40)K is more uniformly distributed in the studied area. Locations with higher concentrations of (137)Cs are mainly located in the northern part. The (238)U, (234)Th and (226)Ra isotopes in the (238)U-series are in secular equilibrium. The absorbed dose rates and gamma-radiation hazard indices in all locations were higher than the world average value and unity, respectively. Properly regulated land use is recommended for a buffer zone in the northern part of the study area. PMID:22683899

Al-Sharkawy, A; Hiekal, M Th; Sherif, M I; Badran, H M

2012-10-01

10

Diffuse gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma-radiation observed by SAS-2 satellite away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV has shown that it consists of two components. One component is generally correlated with galactic latitudes, the atomic hydrogen column density was deduced from 21 cm measurements, and the continuum radio emission, believed to be synchrotron emission. It has an energy spectrum similar to that in the plane and joins smoothly to the intense radiation from the plane. It is therefore presumed to be of galactic origin. The other component is apparently isotropic, at least on a coarse scale, and has a steep energy spectrum. No evidence is found for a cosmic ray halo surrounding the galaxy in the shape of a sphere or oblate spheroid with galactic dimensions. Constraints for a halo model with significantly larger dimensions are set on the basis of an upper limit to the gamma-ray anisotropy.

Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

1977-01-01

11

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

12

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17

13

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

14

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16

15

Unraveling low-level gamma radiation--responsive changes in expression of early and late genes in leaves of rice seedlings at litate Village, Fukushima.  

PubMed

In the summer of 2012, 1 year after the nuclear accident in March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we examined the effects of gamma radiation on rice at a highly contaminated field of Iitate village in Fukushima, Japan. We investigated the morphological and molecular changes on healthy rice seedlings exposed to continuous low-dose gamma radiation up to 4 µSv h(-1), about 80 times higher than natural background level. After exposure to gamma rays, expression profiles of selected genes involved in DNA replication/repair, oxidative stress, photosynthesis, and defense/stress functions were examined by RT-PCR, which revealed their differential expression in leaves in a time-dependent manner over 3 days (6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). For example, OsPCNA mRNA rapidly increased at 6, 12, and 24 h, suggesting that rice cells responded to radiation stress by activating a gene involved in DNA repair mechanisms. At 72 h, genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway (OsPAL2) and cell death (OsPR1oa) were strongly induced, indicating activation of defense/stress responses. We next profiled the transcriptome using a customized rice whole-genome 4×44K DNA microarray at early (6h) and late (72 h) time periods. Low-level gamma radiation differentially regulated rice leaf gene expression (induced 4481 and suppressed 3740 at 6 h and induced 2291 and suppressed 1474 genes at 72 h) by at least 2-fold. Using the highly upregulated and downregulated gene list, MapMan bioinformatics tool generated diagrams of early and late pathways operating in cells responding to gamma ray exposure. An inventory of a large number of gamma radiation-responsive genes provides new information on novel regulatory processes in rice. PMID:25124817

Hayashi, Gohei; Shibato, Junko; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Cho, Kyoungwon; Kubo, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Satoh, Kouji; Kimura, Shinzo; Ozawa, Shoji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Endo, Satoru; Ichikawa, Katsuki; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Shioda, Seiji; Fukumoto, Manabu; Rakwal, Randeep

2014-01-01

16

Risk assessment of baseline outdoor gamma dose rate levels study of natural radiation sources in Bursa, Turkey.  

PubMed

Within the scope of this study, gamma radiation dose rate measurements have been carried out in the province of Bursa. The mean outdoor (terrestrial and cosmic) gamma dose rate in this area was 90 nGy h(-1). The cosmic gamma dose rate was measured to be 16 nGy h(-1) at the Iznik lake in the region. The mean annual effective dose due to outdoor gamma radiations was determined to be 110.4 µSv. The collective effective dose equivalent was calculated to be 3.21 × 10(2) man Sv per year. The average relative excess lifetime risk of fatal cancer was calculated at 4.50 × 10(-4) for the people living in the city. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides such as (238)U series, (232)Th series, (40)K and fission products like (137)Cs in surface soil samples were measured by using an HPGe-based gamma spectrometry system. The mean activity concentration of (238)U series, (232)Th series, (40)K and (137)Cs were found to be 55.9 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 23.6 Bq kg(-1) for (214)Pb, 22.5 Bq kg(-1) for (214)Bi, 31.3 Bq kg(-1) for (208)Tl, 32.9 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ac, 430 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K and 5.4 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. The radiation hazards associated with the radionuclides were estimated at an average of 136 Bq kg(-1) by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)). The mean calculated value of the external hazard index (H(ex)) for the soil was found to be 0.37. PMID:20833673

Karahan, Gursel

2010-12-01

17

Measurement of terrestrial gamma radiation dose-rate (TGRD) level in soil samples from the district of Rembau, Malaysia, using high-purity Germanium detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses the gamma radiation levels and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U and 40K in soil samples collected from the district of Rembau, Malaysia using High-purity Germanium (HPGe) Detectors. A 105 measurement were performed on surface soil using NaI (Tl) gamma-ray detector with crystal size 1"x1", covering about 83% land of the Rembau district. The concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U and 40K in soil samples collected were determined by using HPGe detector based on high-resolution gamma spectrometry system at Malaysia Nuclear Agency. The range of natural gamma radiation measured was from 114±14 nGy h?1 to 857±14 nGy h?1. The range of activity concentrations of U, Th and °K in soil from the studied areas varies from 151-401 Bq kg?1, 113-342 Bq kg?1 and 674-1526 Bq kg?1 with mean values of 245 Bq kg?1, 186 Bq kg?1 and 1152 Bq kg1 respectively. The mean values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate measured in Rembau district is 383±18 nGy h?1 compared to the Malaysian average is 92 nGy h?1 and world average is 59 nGy h?1 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The average annual dose from such terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates to an individual in Rembau district, assuming a tropical rural setting is estimated to be 0.78 mSv per year, which is considered to be within the normal range for doses from natural sources. An isodose map for the Rembau district has been plotted.

Norbani, N. E.; Abdullah Salim, N. A.; Rahman, A. T. Abdul

2014-11-01

18

Gamma radiation from radio pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probable magnetospheric location and source of the gamma ray emission from some young radiopulsars is discussed. The suggested evolution of this emission as a function of pulsar period gives a diminished gamma-ray luminosity for a more rapidly spinning pre-Crab pulsar. A greatly enhanced one, similar to that of unidentified Cos B sources, is predicted for a slightly slower post-Vela pulsar, followed by a relatively rapid quenching of the gamma-ray luminosity at still longer periods. Possible anomalous exo-magnetospheric pulsed MeV and TeV-PeV radiation from the Crab pulsar is considered.

Ruderman, Malvin

1990-01-01

19

Evaluation of gamma radiation levels for reducing pathogenic bacteria and fungi in animal sewage and laboratory effluents.  

PubMed Central

Sewage samples collected from animal wastes and from effluents at an animal disease laboratory were inoculated with known numbers of pathogenic organisms and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Surviving test organisms were quantitatively determined by selective and enrichment techniques. The experiment was modeled as a quantal assay in which probit analysis was applied to obtain D10 values. The D10 value represents the irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%. The D10 value ranged from 13.4 krad for Campylobacter fetus to 156.6 krad for Streptococcus faecalis in animal sewage. However, the D10 value for the laboratory effluent was generally lower. Based on the estimated D10 values, the rating of the test organisms in decreasing order of radiosensitivity appeared as follows: Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter laridis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Salmonella muenster, Candida albicans, Clostridium difficile and Streptococcus faecalis. If the D5 and D1 values were utilized, this listing would be only slightly altered. PMID:3651881

Garcia, M M; Brooks, B W; Stewart, R B; Dion, W; Trudel, J R; Ouwerkerk, T

1987-01-01

20

Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

Gingo, P. J.

1969-01-01

21

Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in surface soils from Jaduguda uranium mineralization zone, Jharkhand, India, using ?-ray spectrometry, and determination of outdoor dose to the population  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface soil samples around selected villages of Jaduguda were investigated and compared with the radioactivity level in the region. Concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K were determined by a gamma ray spectrometer using the HPGe detector with 50% relative efficiency, and the radiation dose to the local population was estimated. The average estimated activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the surface soil were 53.8, 44.2 and 464.2 Bq kg?1 respectively. The average absorbed dose rate in the study area was estimated to be 72.5 nGy h-1, where as the annual effective dose to the population was 0.09 mSv y-1. A correlation analysis was made between measured dose rate and individual radionuclides, in order to delineate the contribution of the respective nuclides towards dose rate. The radio-elemental concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium estimated for the soils, in the study area, indicated the enrichment of uranium series nuclide. The results of the present study were subsequently compared with international and national recommended values. PMID:21170189

Maharana, Mandakini; Krishnan, Narayani; Sengupta, D.

2010-01-01

22

Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in surface soils from Jaduguda uranium mineralization zone, Jharkhand, India, using ?-ray spectrometry, and determination of outdoor dose to the population.  

PubMed

The concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface soil samples around selected villages of Jaduguda were investigated and compared with the radioactivity level in the region. Concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K were determined by a gamma ray spectrometer using the HPGe detector with 50% relative efficiency, and the radiation dose to the local population was estimated. The average estimated activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K in the surface soil were 53.8, 44.2 and 464.2 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The average absorbed dose rate in the study area was estimated to be 72.5 nGy h-1, where as the annual effective dose to the population was 0.09 mSv y-1. A correlation analysis was made between measured dose rate and individual radionuclides, in order to delineate the contribution of the respective nuclides towards dose rate. The radio-elemental concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium estimated for the soils, in the study area, indicated the enrichment of uranium series nuclide. The results of the present study were subsequently compared with international and national recommended values. PMID:21170189

Maharana, Mandakini; Krishnan, Narayani; Sengupta, D

2010-10-01

23

Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

Sigg, R.A.

1994-12-13

24

Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

Sigg, Raymond A. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

25

Annual effective dose from environmental gamma radiation in Bushehr city  

PubMed Central

Background Present study was an attempt to measure outdoor and indoor gamma dose rates in Bushehr city to determine corresponding annual effective dose and, to assess effect of active nuclear power plant located in Bushehr city on background radiation level of this city. Methods All measurements were performed by G.M (Geiger Muller) detector (X5C plus) calibrated in Iran Atomic Energy Agency. In order to avoid effects of ground on outdoor and indoor measurements, G.M detector was placed one meter higher than ground level. Also, during the outdoor measurements, G.M detector was used at least six meters away from the walls of any building nearby to avoid unwanted effects of the materials used in the buildings on measurements. Results Average gamma dose rates of outdoor and indoor measurements were determined as 51.8?±?8.8 nSv/h and 60.2?±?7.2 nSv/h, respectively. Annual effective dose due to background gamma radiation was calculated as 0.36 mSv which was lower than average global level. Conclusions The average annual effective dose from background gamma radiation in Bushehr city was less than global level. Comparison of the results of present study, as follow up, with previous attempt performed in 2004 to determine effective dose of environmental gamma radiation in Bushehr province revealed that, during eight years, nuclear power plant located in this city has not significantly increased level of annual effective dose of Bushehr city. PMID:24393421

2014-01-01

26

Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

27

Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation

Heriberto Plaza-Rosado

1991-01-01

28

Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

1989-01-01

29

Radiolysis of sulfoxides. [Gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made on the extractability of petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) and their closest analog tetramethylene sulfoxide (TMSO) upon ..gamma.. irradiation. A two-phase system was used, one phase being either neat PSO or diluted with twice its amount of o-xylene and the other an aqueous solution of UOâ(NOâ)â in 0.1 M HNOâ, with a 1:1 ratio by volume of the

V. N. Korobeinikova; G. G. Bikbaeva; Yu. I. Murinov; Yu. E. Nikitin; V. P. Kazadov

2009-01-01

30

Inspection of cargo containers using gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigate, with the aid of Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments, a technique for the detection of narcotics in large cargo containers using gamma-radiation. The transmission and back-scattering of photons, at different energies, is used to provide information useful for identifying the presence of bulk quantities of commonly encountered narcotics.

Hussein, Esam M. A.; Gokhale, Prasad; Arendtsz, Nina V.; Lawrence, Andre H.

1997-02-01

31

Primary stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to gamma radiation.  

PubMed

As the environment is inevitably exposed to ionizing radiation from natural and anthropogenic sources, it is important to evaluate gamma radiation induced stress responses in plants. The objective of this research is therefore to investigate radiation effects in Arabidopsis thaliana on individual and subcellular level by exposing 2-weeks-old seedlings for 7 days to total doses of 3.9 Gy, 6.7 Gy, 14.8 Gy and 58.8 Gy and evaluating growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid concentrations and antioxidative enzyme capacities. While the capacity of photosystem II (PSII measured as Fv/Fm) remained intact, plants started optimizing their photosynthetic process at the lower radiation doses by increasing the PSII efficiency (?PSII) and the maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) and by decreasing the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). At the highest radiation dose, photosynthetic parameters resembled those of control conditions. On subcellular level, roots showed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) capacities under gamma irradiation but catalase (CAT), syringaldazine peroxidase (SPX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities, on the other hand, decreased. In the leaves no alterations were observed in SOD, CAT and SPX capacities, but GPX was highly affected. Based on these results it seems that roots are more sensitive for oxidative stress under gamma radiation exposure than leaves. PMID:24333636

Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Horemans, Nele; Wannijn, Jean; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

2014-03-01

32

Gamma Radiation Induced Calibration Shift for Four Cryogenic Thermometer Types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic temperature sensors utilized in space environments are exposed to ionizing radiation with the total dose dependent upon the length of the mission. Based upon their minimal size and robust packaging, four models of cryogenic Resistance Thermometer Devices (RTDs) manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. were tested to determine their reliability for space applications with regard to radiation. Samples of Cernox™ RTDs (CX-1050-SD), ruthenium oxide RTDs (models RX-102A-AA and RX-103A-AA), and silicon diode thermometers (model DT-670-SD) were irradiated at room temperature by a cesium-137 gamma source to total doses ranging from 5 Gy to 10 kGy. This paper presents the resulting temperature shifts induced by the gamma radiation as a function of total dose over the 1.4 K to 325 K temperature range. These data show that 1) Cernox™ RTDs exhibit high radiation hardness to 10 kGy from 1.4 K to 325 K, 2) ruthenium oxide RTDs show moderate radiation hardness to 10 kGy below 10 K, and 3) silicon diodes temperature sensors exhibit some radiation tolerance to low levels of radiation (especially below 70 K), but quickly shift calibration at radiation levels above 300 Gy, especially above 100 K.

Courts, S. Scott; Yeager, C. J.

2004-06-01

33

Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminiscent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminscent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO.sub.4) or cerussite (PbCO.sub.3) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes.

Hofstetter, Kenneth J. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

34

Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminescent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminescent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO[sub 4]) or cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes. 3 figs.

Hofstetter, K.J.

1994-08-09

35

GammaCam{trademark} radiation imaging system  

SciTech Connect

GammaCam{trademark}, a gamma-ray imaging system manufactured by AIL System, Inc., would benefit a site that needs to locate radiation sources. It is capable of producing a two-dimensional image of a radiation field superimposed on a black and white visual image. Because the system can be positioned outside the radiologically controlled area, the radiation exposure to personnel is significantly reduced and extensive shielding is not required. This report covers the following topics: technology description; performance; technology applicability and alternatives; cost; regulatory and policy issues; and lessons learned. The demonstration of GammaCam{trademark} in December 1996 was part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) whose objective is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

NONE

1998-02-01

36

THE DETERMINATION OF THE NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE MOMENTS OF THE 247-kev LEVEL OF CADMIUM111 BY MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCULAR POLARIZATION OF $gamma$ RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of the nuclear electric quadrupole moment with an ; electric field gradient at the position of the nucleus changes the angular ; correlation of two successive gamma rays and also produces a circular ; polarization of the gamma rays. By measuring this polarization it is possible ; to distinguish between electric and magnetic attenuation of the gamma cascade.

H.-J. Behrend; D. Budnick

1962-01-01

37

30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047...

2013-07-01

38

30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047...

2010-07-01

39

30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047...

2012-07-01

40

30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047...

2014-07-01

41

30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047...

2011-07-01

42

Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS’s requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time and reach back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron’s identiFINDER™, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18-cm x 2.54-cm cylinders) as gamma detector, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack™ that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity (comparable to that of a 7.62-cm x 7.62-cm sodium iodide crystal at low gamma energy ranging from 30 keV to 3,000 keV), better resolution (< 3.0 percent at 662 keV), faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system auto triggers saving of relevant spectral data and software-triggers the digital camera to take a snapshot. The spectral data including in situ analysis and the imagery data will be packaged in a suitable format and sent to a command post using an imbedded cell phone.

Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

2007-08-31

43

Afterglow Radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are huge fluxes of gamma rays that appear randomly in the sky about once a day. It is now commonly accepted that GRBs are caused by a stellar object shooting off a powerful plasma jet along its rotation axis. After the initial outburst of gamma rays, a lower intensity radiation remains, called the afterglow. Using the data from a hydrodynamical numerical simulation that models the dynamics of the jet, we calculated the expected light curve of the afterglow radiation that would be observed on earth. We calculated the light curve and spectrum and compared them to the light curves and spectra predicted by two analytical models of the expansion of the jet (which are based on the Blandford and McKee solution of a relativistic isotropic expansion; see Sari's model [1] and Granot's model [2]). We found that the light curve did not decay as fast as predicted by Sari; the predictions by Granot were largely corroborated. Some results, however, did not match Granot's predictions, and more research is needed to explain these discrepancies.

Desmond, Hugh; /Leuven U. /SLAC

2006-08-28

44

Characterization of gamma radiation inducible thioredoxin h from Spirogyra varians.  

PubMed

In this study, thioredoxin h (Trxh) was isolated and characterized from the fresh water green alga Spirogyra varians, which was one amongst the pool of proteins induced upon gamma radiation treatment. cDNA clones encoding S. varians thioredoxin h were isolated from a pre-constructed S. varians cDNA library. Trxh had a molecular mass of 13.5kDa and contained the canonical WCGPC active site. Recombinant Trxh showed the disulfide reduction activity, and exhibited insulin reduction activity. Also, Trxh had higher 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction activity with Arabidopsis thioredoxin reductase (TR) than with Escherichia coli TR. Specific expression of the Trxh gene was further analyzed at mRNA and protein levels and was found to increase by gamma irradiation upto the absorbed dose of 3kGy, suggesting that Trxh may have potential functions in protection of biomolecules from gamma irradiation. PMID:23830452

Yoon, Minchul; Yang, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Seung-Sik; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Choi, Jong-il

2013-08-15

45

Fracture resistance of gamma radiation sterilized cortical bone allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiation is widely used for sterilization of human cortical bone allografts. Previous studies have reported that cortical bone becomes brittle due to gamma radiation sterilization. This embrittlement raises concern about the performance of a radiation sterilized allograft in the presence of a stress concentration that might be surgically introduced or biologically induced. The purpose of this study was to

Ozan Akkus; Clare M. Rimnac

2001-01-01

46

77 FR 62267 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Gamma Radiation Surveys  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Existing Information Collection; Gamma Radiation Surveys AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Gamma radiation occurs where radioactive materials are...rocks, soils, and ground water. Gamma radiation hazards may be found near radiation...

2012-10-12

47

Effects of gamma-Radiation on Select Lipids and Antioxidants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation encountered on an extended duration space mission (estimates of 3 Sieverts for a mission to Mars) poses a threat not only to human health, but also to the quality, nutritional value, and palatability of the food system. Free radicals generated by radiation interaction with foods may initiate many unwanted reactions including: 1) autoxidation in lipids that alters flavor, odor, and concentrations of essential fatty acids, and 2) depletion of antioxidants food products and dietary supplements. Studies have shown that antioxidants may provide long term health protection from oxidative stress caused by radiation exposure; therefore, consumption of antioxidants will be important. Stability of essential fatty acids is also important for astronauts long-term health status. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on lipids and antioxidants by monitoring oxidation and reducing power, respectively, in model systems. Select oils and antioxidants were exposed to levels of gamma-radiation ranging from 0 to 1000 Gy (1 Gy = 1 Sv) using a Gammacell 220 and stored at ambient or elevated temperatures (65 C) for up to 3 months prior to analysis. A Fricke dosimeter was used to verify differences between the radiation doses administered. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation in soybean and peanut oils were monitored using conjugated diene and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBARs) assays. Changes in fatty acid composition and formation and vitamin E levels were also measured. The reducing power of antioxidant compounds, including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Significant differences (alpha =0.05) were present between all radiation doses tested using the Fricke dosimeter. Increasing radiation doses above 3 Sv resulted in significantly (alpha =0.05) elevated levels of oxidation and free fatty acids in soybean and peanut oils. Decreases in concentrations of essential fatty acids upon increasing radiation doses were also observed. Increasing radiation doses caused significant (alpha =0.05) decreases in reducing power and hence the effectiveness of vitamins C and E as well as beta-carotene. This work establishes a need for quantifying the effects of space relevant radiation doses in the development of a food system for an extended duration mission and for identifying threshold radiation levels that will impact the useful shelf-life of the variety of foods that will be sent. Eventual rancidity of lipids and the loss of antioxidant bioprotective effects are major concerns for the acceptability and nutritional profile of a food system.

Gandolph, Jacob; Mauer, Lisa; Perchonok, Michele

2006-01-01

48

On the omnipresent background gamma radiation of the continuous spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background spectrum of a germanium detector, shielded from the radiations arriving from the lower and open for the radiations arriving from the upper hemisphere, is studied by means of absorption measurements, both in a ground level and in an underground laboratory. The low-energy continuous portion of this background spectrum that peaks at around 100 keV, which is its most intense component, is found to be of very similar shape at the two locations. It is established that it is mostly due to the radiations of the real continuous spectrum, which is quite similar to the instrumental one. The intensity of this radiation is in our cases estimated to about 8000 photons/(m2s·2?·srad) in the ground level laboratory, and to about 5000 photons/(m2s·2?·srad) in the underground laboratory, at the depth of 25 m.w.e. Simulations by GEANT4 and CORSIKA demonstrate that this radiation is predominantly of terrestrial origin, due to environmental gamma radiations scattered off the materials that surround the detector (the "skyshine radiation"), and to a far less extent to cosmic rays of degraded energy.

Banjanac, R.; Maleti?, D.; Jokovi?, D.; Veselinovi?, N.; Dragi?, A.; Udovi?i?, V.; Ani?in, I.

2014-05-01

49

GAMMA RADIATION: A SANITATING TREATMENT OF AFB CONTAMINATED BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT GAMMA RADIATION SANITATION IN BEEKEEPING MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although American Foulbrood is well known, this disease is still a relevant cause of beehive and economic losses to beekeepers. Gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source provides an effective means of treating AFB contaminated beekeeping material for its reuse in apiary. Contaminated equipment (hive, frames, wax, honey) was irradiated at three different dosages: 10, 15 and 25 kGray. The infectivity

Alessandra Baggio; Albino Gallina; Nicoletta Dainese; Chiara Manzinello; Franco Mutinelli; Giorgia Serra; Roberto Colombo; Emanuele Carpana; Anna Gloria Sabatini; Klaus Wallner; Roberto Piro; Emanuele Sangiorgi

50

Optical Sensors for Monitoring Gamma and Neutron Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For safety and efficiency, nuclear reactors must be carefully monitored to provide feedback that enables the fission rate to be held at a constant target level via adjustments in the position of neutron-absorbing rods and moderating coolant flow rates. For automated reactor control, the monitoring system should provide calibrated analog or digital output. The sensors must survive and produce reliable output with minimal drift for at least one to two years, for replacement only during refueling. Small sensor size is preferred to enable more sensors to be placed in the core for more detailed characterization of the local fission rate and fuel consumption, since local deviations from the norm tend to amplify themselves. Currently, reactors are monitored by local power range meters (LPRMs) based on the neutron flux or gamma thermometers based on the gamma flux. LPRMs tend to be bulky, while gamma thermometers are subject to unwanted drift. Both electronic reactor sensors are plagued by electrical noise induced by ionizing radiation near the reactor core. A fiber optic sensor system was developed that is capable of tracking thermal neutron fluence and gamma flux in order to monitor nuclear reactor fission rates. The system provides near-real-time feedback from small- profile probes that are not sensitive to electromagnetic noise. The key novel feature is the practical design of fiber optic radiation sensors. The use of an actinoid element to monitor neutron flux in fiber optic EFPI (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric) sensors is a new use of material. The materials and structure used in the sensor construction can be adjusted to result in a sensor that is sensitive to just thermal, gamma, or neutron stimulus, or any combination of the three. The tested design showed low sensitivity to thermal and gamma stimuli and high sensitivity to neutrons, with a fast response time.

Boyd, Clark D.

2011-01-01

51

Gamma-ray lines from radiative dark matter decay  

SciTech Connect

The decay of dark matter particles which are coupled predominantly to charged leptons has been proposed as a possible origin of excess high-energy positrons and electrons observed by cosmic-ray telescopes PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Even though the dark matter itself is electrically neutral, the tree-level decay of dark matter into charged lepton pairs will generically induce radiative two-body decays of dark matter at the quantum level. Using an effective theory of leptophilic dark matter decay, we calculate the rates of radiative two-body decays for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles. Due to the absence of astrophysical sources of monochromatic gamma rays, the observation of a line in the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum would constitute a strong indication of a particle physics origin of these photons. We estimate the intensity of the gamma-ray line that may be present in the energy range of a few TeV if the dark matter decay interpretation of the leptonic cosmic-ray anomalies is correct and comment on observational prospects of present and future Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, in particular the CTA.

Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Weniger, Christoph, E-mail: mathias.garny@ph.tum.de, E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de, E-mail: david.tran@ph.tum.de, E-mail: weniger@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

2011-01-01

52

System-Level Radiation Hardening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

Ladbury, Ray

2014-01-01

53

EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison of alanine dosimetry systems for absorbed dose to water measurements in gamma- and x-radiation at radiotherapy levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) are involved in the European project 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', a project of the European Metrology Research Programme. Within this project, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetric method has been chosen for performing measurements in small fields such as those used in IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). In this context, these three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) wished to compare the result of their alanine dosimetric systems (detector, modus operandi etc) at radiotherapy dose levels to check their consistency. This EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison has been performed with the support of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) which collected and distributed the results as a neutral organization, to ensure the comparison was 'blind'. Irradiations have been made under reference conditions by each laboratory in a 60Co beam and in an accelerator beam (10 MV or 12 MV) in a water phantom of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm in a square field of 10 cm × 10 cm at the reference depth. Irradiations have been performed at known values of absorbed dose to water (Dw) within 10% of nominal doses of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, i.e. between 4.5 Gy and 5.5 Gy and between 9 Gy and 11 Gy, respectively. Each participant read out their dosimeters and assessed the doses using their own protocol (calibration curve, positioning device etc) as this comparison aims at comparing the complete dosimetric process. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the EPR/alanine dosimetry systems operated by National Metrology Institutes as a method of assuring therapy level doses with the accuracy required. The maximum deviation in the ratio of measured to applied dose is less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Garcia, Tristan; Anton, Mathias; Sharpe, Peter

2012-01-01

54

Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

2000-03-01

55

Prompt gamma radiation as a new tool to measure reactor power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method, based on reactor prompt gamma radiation detection, for reactor power measurement is introduced and validated. To verify, the ex-core gamma radiation spectrum from the Iranian Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (HWZPR) were measured by HPGe and NaI detectors each suitably positioned. The collective prompt gamma count rates for all or for a portion of each of 2?×2? NaI detector spectra were obtained for seven power level readings from calibrated reactor power monitors. A good linear behavior was found between gamma count rate and reactor power. The method of calibrated prompt gamma reactor power determination is a stable and reliable tool, on-line, sensitive to sudden variation of power, working in pulse mode, increasing redundancy and diversity and so improving the reactor safety. The prompt gamma counting system can be adopted and installed in other nuclear reactors to measure power.

jalali, Majid; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; davati, Mojtaba Mostajabod

2013-10-01

56

Interaction of deep impurities with radiation defects in n-Si at gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of research on peculiarities of radiation defect formation in single crystal n-Si, doped by deep level impurities (Cu, Ni, Ir, Rh, Pt and Au), at irradiation by gamma-quanta of 60 Co. A property of gamma-irradiation to create only vacancies and self-interstitial atoms is used to understand the nature of deep levels with participation of these impurities and primary elemental radiation defects. The role of covalence radii and diffusion coefficients in efficiency of radiation defect formation is discussed.

Makhkamov, S.; Karimov, M.; Khakimov, Z. M.; Odilova, N. D.; Makhmudov, S. A.; Kurbanov, A. O.; Begmatov, K. A.

2005-08-01

57

An integrated view of gamma radiation effects on marine fauna: from molecules to ecosystems.  

PubMed

Accidental release of nuclides into the ocean is causing health risks to marine organisms and humans. All life forms are susceptible to gamma radiation with a high variation, depending on various physical factors such as dose, mode, and time of exposure and various biological factors such as species, vitality, age, and gender. Differences in sensitivity of gamma radiation are also associated with different efficiencies of mechanisms related to protection and repair systems. Gamma radiation may also affect various other integration levels: from gene, protein, cells and organs, population, and communities, disturbing the energy flow of food webs that will ultimately affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Depending on exposure levels, gamma radiation induces damages on growth and reproduction in various organisms such as zooplankton, benthos, and fish in aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, harmful effects of gamma-irradiated aquatic organisms are described and the potential of marine copepods in assessing the risk of gamma radiation is discussed with respect to physiological adverse effects that even affect the ecosystem level. PMID:25382502

Won, Eun-Ji; Dahms, Hans-U; Kumar, K Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

2014-11-11

58

Gamma-Radiation Background Onboard Russian Orbital Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large manned space flight missions have several advantages for carrying out astrophysical and cosmic ray experiments, including the ability to install heavy instruments with large dimensions, increased electrical power and telemetry capacity, and the operation of fixed instruments by qualified personnel (astronauts). The main disadvantage in the use of heavy orbital stations for these experiments is the high level of background radiation generated by the interaction of station material with primary cosmic rays, high energy particles that exist in the magnetosphere of Earth, and albedo radiation from Earth. In some cases, additional radiation may originate from man-made radiation sources installed at the stations. For many years MEPhI have maintained experiments onboard manned Russian space flight missions to study primary gamma-rays at two energy intervals: 0.1 - 8 MeV and 30-600 MeV and electrons with energy more than 30 MeV. During these experiments significant time was spent investigating high energy background radiation onboard the stations. To measure 30-600 MeV gamma-rays, the gas-Cherenkov-scintillation telescope Elena was used. The angular view of this telescope was 10 deg, with a geometrical factor of 0.5 cm2sr. This telescope was operated onboard the orbital stations Salyut-6 and Salyut-7. Usually these stations were operated together with the space missions Soyuz and Progress. For background measurements, cosmonauts installed the telescope at various locations on Salyut, Soyuz and Progress, and oriented it in various directions respectively to the station's axes. During these experiments, the orbital stations were not oriented.

Dmitrenko, V. V.; Galper, A. M.; Gratchev, V. M.; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V. G.; Krivov, S. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.; Yurkin, Yn. T.

59

A Device for Search of Gamma-Radiation Intensive Sources at the Radiation Accident Condition  

SciTech Connect

The procedure designed for measuring angular distributions of gamma radiation and for search of gamma radiation intensive sources is described. It is based on application of the original multidetector device ShD-1, for measuring an angular distribution in a complete solid angle (4 pi). The calibration results and data on the angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation at the roof of Chornobyl NPP ''Shelter'' are presented.

Batiy, Valeriy; Klyuchnykov, A; Kochnev, N; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.

2005-08-08

60

Lung cancer in relation to airborne radiation levels  

SciTech Connect

A 1986 aeroradiometric survey of the eastern two-thirds of Washington County, Maryland provided and opportunity to study lung cancers in relation to gamma radiation levels. In the first approach, lung cancer deaths between 1963 and 1975 in four areas of the county categorized as low, moderately low, moderately high, and high showed relative risks of 1.00, 0.93, 1.01, and 1.43, respectively, after adjustment of sex, age, and smoking. A second approach used lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1975 and 1989, controls matched to cases by race, sex, and age, and aerometric radiation readings above the individual residences. In four levels of increasing gamma radiation, odds ratios adjusted for smoking were 1.00, 0.84, 0.90, and 0.92, respectively. No differences were statistically significant.

Helsing, K.J.; Natta, P.V.; Comstock, G.W. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Hagerstown (United States)); Kalin, Heidi (Virginia Polytechnical Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (United States)) Chee, E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1992-01-01

61

Gamma-ray pulsars: Radiation processes in the outer magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe an emission model for gamma ray pulsars based on curvature radiation-reaction limited charges in the outer magnetosphere. They show how pair production on thermal surface flux can limit the acceleration zones. Estimates for the efficiency of GeV photon production eta gamma and the gamma-ray beaming fraction are derived, including their dependence on pulsar parameters. In general eta

Roger W. Romani

1996-01-01

62

Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

1980-11-01

63

Distinguishing Neutrons and Gammas with MSL's Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation environment on the Martian surface is a complex mixture of charged primary and secondary radiation and of neutral secondary radiation. This neutral component amounts to a significant fraction of the surface radiation field and consists of neutrons and gamma rays. The neutron component is especially important from a radiation protection point of view, but is experimentally difficult to distinguish from the gamma rays. The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL's) rover Curiosity measures both neutrons and gammas. It consists of a compact arrangement of a dense, more gamma-sensitive CsI sctintillator, and a high-proton-content plastic scintillator, which in turn is more sensitive to neutrons. Using sophisticated inversion techniques, the RAD measurements can be inverted to provide reliable estimates for the neutron and gamma spectra on Mars. In this work we will discuss the status of the inversion techniques and calibration data, and relate them with predictions for the neutral component of the Martian surface radiation field.

Guo, J.; Hassler, D.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zeitlin, C.; Boettcher, S.; Martin, C.; Brinza, D.; Koehler, J.; Böhm, E.; Kharytonov, A.; Ehresmann, B.

2012-12-01

64

Breeding biology of Tree Swallows and House Wrens in a gradient of gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a gradient of gamma radiation from 38.7 mC kg⁻¹.d⁻¹ to background levels of 0.05 ..mu..C. kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹ to background levels of 0.05 ..mu..C . kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹, Tree Swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor) and House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) avoided nesting in areas of high radiation. Nest boxes selected by swallows and wrens had a mean exposure rate of only 9.3

R. Zach; K. R. Mayoh

1982-01-01

65

Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth`s atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters` worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location.

Osterhuber, R. [Univ. of California, Soda Springs, CA (United States). Central Sierra Snow Lab.; Fehrke, F. [California Dept. of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA (United States); Condreva, K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1998-05-01

66

Some Radiation Techniques Used in the GU-3 Gamma Irradiator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different radiation techniques, measurement of dose and its distibution throughout the irradiated materials are the main problems treated in this paper. The oscillometry method combined with the ionization chamber, as an absolute dosimeter, is used for calibration of routine ECB dosimeters. The dose uniformity, for the used radiation techniques in our GU-3 Gamma Irradiator with Cs-137, is from 93% up to 99%.

Dodbiba, Andon; Ylli, Ariana; Stamo, Iliriana; Kongjika, Efigjeni

2007-04-01

67

Trypanosoma cruzi Gene Expression in Response to Gamma Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosoma cruzi is an organism highly resistant to ionizing radiation. Following a dose of 500 Gy of gamma radiation, the fragmented genomic DNA is gradually reconstructed and the pattern of chromosomal bands is restored in less than 48 hours. Cell growth arrests after irradiation but, while DNA is completely fragmented, RNA maintains its integrity. In this work we compared the

Priscila Grynberg; Danielle Gomes Passos-Silva; Marina de Moraes Mourão; Roberto Hirata Jr; Andrea Mara Macedo; Carlos Renato Machado; Daniella Castanheira Bartholomeu; Glória Regina Franco

2012-01-01

68

Portable radiation monitor assures cleanup levels  

SciTech Connect

Sevenson Environmental Services, Niagara Falls, NY, is a contractor at the EPA Superfund site at Montclair, NJ. Working with the Army Corps of Engineers, they are cleaning up radium waste left by a watch factory from the early 1900s. With the hazards of radium unknown at the time, radium in its many forms was spread throughout the region. As sand, it was used for concrete, as ash for packing material, and sometimes as landfill. When a hazardous site is found, Sevenson excavates the contaminated material and replaces it with clean fill. A Reuter-Stokes RSS-112 portable gamma monitoring system is used to ensure radiation is at sample background levels. Using a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC), the RSS-112 measures exposure rates from background to serious alarm levels over a wide energy range. Measurement takes place every five seconds. The portable system is 50% lighter than its predecessor and includes 300 point data storage, graphic display panel, 120-hour battery life between recharges, and RS-232 interface for downloading to a PC.

Hasbach, A.

1995-10-01

69

Proton and gamma radiation tests on nonlinear crystals.  

PubMed

We report on the results of proton and gamma irradiation tests performed on nonlinear crystals for second- (SHG) and third-harmonic generation. Beta-barium borate (BBO), lithium triborate (LBO), and KTP crystals were exposed to three different energies of proton radiation (8, 70, and 300 MeV) and incremental doses of gamma radiation (up to 139 krad) in order to investigate the change in SHG performance and transmission spectra. BBO and LBO crystals turned out to be a suitable choice for SHG under radiative conditions. PMID:11905572

Roth, Ulrich; Tröbs, Michael; Graf, Thomas; Balmer, Jürg E; Weber, Heinz P

2002-01-20

70

Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company] [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL] [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.] [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

2010-01-01

71

Distribution of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in the eastern coastal area of Odisha, India.  

PubMed

Terrestrial gamma radiation is one of the important radiation exposures on the earth's surface that results from the three primordial radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The elemental concentration of these elements in the earth's crust could result in the anomalous variation of the terrestrial gamma radiation in the environment. The geology of the local area plays an important role in distribution of these radioactive elements. Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured around the eastern coastal area of Odisha with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. The values of the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly at different locations in the study area. The values of the terrestrial gamma dose rate ranged from 77 to 1651 nGy h(-1), with an average of 230 nGy h(-1). During the measurement of the terrestrial gamma dose rate, sand and soil samples were also collected for the assessment of natural radionuclides. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K from these samples were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with a NaI(Tl) detector. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 15.6 to 69 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 46.7 Bq kg(-1), from 28.9 to 973 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 250 Bq kg(-1) and from 139 to 952 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 429, respectively. The detailed significance of these studies has been discussed from the radiation protection point of view. PMID:22874894

Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Prasad, G; Omori, Y; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Ramola, R C

2012-11-01

72

Changes in the biological properties of an ordinary chernozem exposed to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of changes in the number of microorganisms and biochemical properties of an ordinary chernozem were studied in model experiments 3, 30, and 90 days after the soil was subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 0.12-2.0 Mrad. The microscopic fungi are the most radiosensitive soil microorganisms. In 90 days of incubation after the gamma radiation, the number of microorganisms remained lower than that in the control variant by 31-96% in accordance with the dose. The enzyme activity of the ordinary chernozem, as compared to that of the microorganisms, was more resistant to the gamma radiation. The integral index of the soil biological state (ISBSI) decreased by 20-63% upon the radiation depending on the dose applied. After 90 days, the ISBSI value was close to the control variant (doses of 0.1-0.5 Mrad), whereas, in the variants with high doses of radiation (1.0 and 2.0 Mrad), its values were 46 and 59% lower, respectively, than in the control. The rate of restoring of the biological properties was related to the dose of radiation: the less the dose, the quicker the rate of restoration of the biological properties of the ordinary chernozem. However, at the high levels of gamma radiation, some biological properties were not restored even after 90 days.

Denisova, T. V.; Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'Kov, V. F.

2007-09-01

73

High resolution room temperature ionization chamber xenon gamma radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique thin walled dual-type gridded ionization chamber gamma radiation detector using ultra pure Xe gas as the detection medium is described. The detector was operated at room temperature and the energy spectra of 60Co, 137Cs, 22Na and 133Ba were obtained. An energy resolution of (16 keV) 2.4% FWHM was determined for the 662 keV 137Cs gamma peak which is

Gary Tepper; Jon Losee

1995-01-01

74

Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

Bera, A.; Almeida-Muradian, L. B.; Sabato, S. F.

2009-07-01

75

Calculated thickness of tungsten alloy required for specified attenuation of gamma radiation from Cs-137  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional method of evaluating and calibrating health physics instruments is to use a calibrator that consists of a single high-activity gamma radiation source with different attenuators to select the radiation level desired for testing. To have accurate radiation intensities inside the calibrator cavity, the attenuators must be designed from precise absorption calculations. This paper reports calculations made to determine the thickness of tungsten alloy metal required for specific attenuation. These calculations include the buildup contribution by secondary scattering radiation, and they are compared to values calculated with the buildup factor omitted.

Chiles, M. M.; Allin, G. W.; Pace, J. V., III

1991-11-01

76

SNAP-8 post shutdown gamma radiation approximations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector responses were calculated for normalized sources in the Perkins and King energy group structure for a SNAP 8 power system on a NASA space station. Gamma decay rates were then calculated by using an expanded, updated list of isotopic decay data, and from these, actual detector responses were found for the SNAP 8 system. The results indicate that energy-dependent calculations must be made to determine decay gamma dose rates for actual reactor configurations. A simplified method for making these calculations has been devised.

Byrn, N. R.; Smith, H. T.; Manning, H. S.

1972-01-01

77

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Evidence of TeV Gamma-Ray Radiation in Binary  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Evidence of TeV Gamma-Ray Radiation in Binary CYGNUS X-3 V-ALATOO mountain observatory (altitude 3338m), has been collecting Very High Energy gamma-ray data from Galactic structure on micro and macro scales. The gamma-astronomy is a unique experimental possibility of high

Enomoto, Ryoji

78

POLYMERIZATION OF RIBOMONONUCLEOTIDES BY $gamma$RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

After gamma irradiation (0.9- 18.0 x 10⁴ r) of ; ribomononucleotides in aqueous solution a decrease in absorbancy at 260 m mu of ; at least two different components was observed. The decrease is an exponential ; function of the dose. Alkaline and enzymic hydrolysis with RNAase or ; phosphodiesterase of the irradiated samples produced an hyperchromic effect. ; Paper

G. Contreras; R. Espejo; E. Mery; A. Ohlbaum; J. Toha

1962-01-01

79

EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON RIBONUCLEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribonuclease (RNase) has been inactivated by irradiation with gamma rays ; and by chemically generated OH radicals. Chromatographic patterns obtained from ; the two series of samples were very similar with respect to distribution of ; protein and also with respect to distribution of enzymic activity. The findings ; support the view that OH radicals are principal intermediates in the

E. Slobodian; M. Fleisher; W. Newman; S. Rubenfeld

1962-01-01

80

Measurements of background gamma radiation on Spacelab 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nuclear radiation monitor (NRM) which was flown as part of the verification instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission (July 29 - August 6, 1985) recorded spectra every 20 seconds and counting rates in coarse energy bands on finer time scales. The gamma radiation environment on Spacelab is characterized by cosmic-ray and trapped proton secondary radiation in the Spacelab/Shuttle, earth albedo radiation, and delayed induced radioactivity in the detector and surrounding materials. It is found that passages through South Atlantic Anomaly protons produce a well-defined background enhancement.

Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Gregory, J. C.

1987-01-01

81

Radiation burst from a single {gamma}-photon field  

SciTech Connect

The radiation burst from a single {gamma}-photon field interacting with a dense resonant absorber is studied theoretically and experimentally. This effect was discovered for the fist time by P. Helisto et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2037 (1991)] and it was named the ''gamma echo''. The echo is generated by a 180 Degree-Sign phase shift of the incident radiation field, attained by an abrupt change of the position of the absorber with respect to the radiation source during the coherence time of the photon wave packet. Three distinguishing cases of the gamma echo are considered; i.e., the photon is in exact resonance with the absorber, close to resonance (on the slope of the absorption line), and far from resonance (on the far wings of the resonance line). In resonance the amplitude of the radiation burst is two times larger than the amplitude of the input radiation field just before its phase shift. This burst was explained by Helisto et al. as a result of constructive interference of the coherently scattered field with the phase-shifted input field, both having almost the same amplitude. We found that out of resonance the scattered radiation field acquires an additional component with almost the same amplitude as the amplitude of the incident radiation field. The phase of the additional field depends on the optical thickness of the absorber and resonant detuning. Far from resonance this field interferes destructively with the phase-shifted incident radiation field and radiation quenching is observed. Close to resonance the three fields interfere constructively and the amplitude of the radiation burst is three times larger than the amplitude of the input radiation field.

Shakhmuratov, R. N. [Kazan Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 10/7 Sibirsky Trakt, Kazan 420029 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Vagizov, F. [Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Kocharovskaya, O. [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

2011-10-15

82

New decay branches of the radiative capture reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,{gamma}){sup 28}Si  

SciTech Connect

Resonances in the {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,{gamma}){sup 28}Si radiative capture process at energies around the Coulomb barrier have been probed using the very selective 0 deg. Dragon spectrometer at Triumf and its associated BGO {gamma}-array. For the first time the full level scheme involved in this process has been measured and shows previously unobserved {gamma}-decay to doorway states around 11 MeV in {sup 28}Si.

Lebhertz, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Beck, C.; Michalon, A.; Rousseau, M. [IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Marley, P. L.; Glover, R. G.; Kent, P. E. [University of York, York (United Kingdom); Hutcheon, D. A.; Davis, C.; Pearson, J. E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

2009-01-28

83

GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra  

SciTech Connect

The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

Winn, W.G.

1999-07-28

84

The role of contacts in semiconductor gamma radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the operation of semiconductor gamma radiation detectors, equipped with ohmic contacts, which allow free electron flow between the contacts and bulk material, will not be sensitive to low hole mobility, hole collection efficiency, or hole trapping. Such fast-operating detectors may be readily integrated into monolithic arrays. The detection mechanism and various material aspects are discussed and

Uri Lachish

1998-01-01

85

GAMMA RADIATION TREATMENT OF WATERS FROM LIGNITE MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Discussed in this report are results of laboratory investigations carried out with the application of gamma radiation for the purification of waters drained from surface lignite mines. These waters are polluted to a considerable extent with suspended matter of various sizes, a la...

86

Integrated beta and gamma radiation dose calculations for the ferrocyanide waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the total integrated beta and gamma radiation doses in all the ferrocyanide waste tanks. It also contains estimated gamma radiation dose rates for all single-shell waste tanks containing a liquid observation well.

Parra, S.A.

1994-11-30

87

Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The telescopes on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) have observed PSR B1055-52 a number of times between 1991 and 1998. From these data, a more detailed picture of the gamma radiation from this source has been developed, showing several characteristics which distinguish this pulsar: the light curve is complex; there is no detectable unpulsed emission; the energy spectrum is flat, with no evidence of a sharp high-energy cutoff up to greater than 4 GeV. Comparisons of the gamma-ray data with observations at longer wavelengths show that no two of the known gamma-ray pulsars have quite the same characteristics; this diversity makes interpretation in terms of theoretical models difficult.

Thompson, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cordes, J.; DAmico, N.; Esposito, J. A.; Finley, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hermsen, W.; Kanbach, G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kuiper, L.; Lin, Y. C.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; Matz, S. M.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Michelson, P. F.; Nolan, P. L.

1999-01-01

88

Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The telescopes on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CCRO) have observed PSR B1055-52 a number of times between 1991 and 1998. From these data, a more detailed picture of the gamma radiation from this source has been developed, showing several characteristics which distinguish this pulsar: the light curve is complex; there is no detectable unpulsed emission; the energy spectrum is flat, with no evidence of a sharp high-energy cutoff up to greater than 4 GeV. Comparisons of the gamma-ray data with observations at longer wavelengths show that no two of the known gamma-ray pulsars have quite the same characteristics; this diversity makes interpretation in terms of theoretical models difficult.

Thompson, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cordes, J.; DAmico, N. D.; Esposito, J. A.; Finley, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hermsen, W.; Kanbach, G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kuiper, L.; Lin, Y. C.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; Matz, S. M.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Michelson, P. F.; Nolan, P. L.

1998-01-01

89

Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×103 CFU/cm2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments.

Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

2013-07-01

90

Transmission of gamma radiation through heterogeneous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an experimental determination of the buildup factor in heterogeneous media consisting of different combinations of materials (polyethylene, Al, Fe, Pb) for an Isotropie Co60 point source (mean radiative energy 1.25 Mev). The experiment showed that the existing recommendations usually give unsatisfactory results in calculating dosages for shielding consisting of two layers of different materials, especially at large

D. L. Broder; Yu. P. Kayurin; A. A. Kutuzov

1962-01-01

91

THERMAL RADIATION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the light curves and spectrum of the photospheric thermal radiation from ultrarelativistic gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets are calculated using two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of jets from a collapsar. As the jet advances, the density around the head of the jet decreases, and its Lorentz factor reaches as high as 200 at the photosphere and 400 inside the photosphere. For an on-axis observer, the photosphere appears concave due to the low density and high beaming factor of the jet. The luminosity varies because of the abrupt change in the position of the photosphere due to the internal structure of the jet. Comparing our results with GRB 090902B, the flux level of the thermal-like component is similar to our model, although the peak energy appears slightly higher (but still within a factor of two). From the comparison, we estimate that the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB 090902B is {Gamma} {approx} 2.4 x 10{sup 2}(r/10{sup 12} cm), where r is the radius of the photosphere. The spectrum for an on-axis observer is harder than that for an off-axis observer. There is a time lag of a few seconds for high energy bands in the light curve. This may be the reason for the delayed onset of GeV emission seen in GRB 080916C. The spectrum below the peak energy is a power law and the index is 2.3-2.6, which is softer than that of a single temperature Planck distribution but still harder than that of the typical value of the observed spectrum.

Mizuta, Akira [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nagataki, Shigehiro; Aoi, Junichi, E-mail: mizuta@post.kek.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2011-05-01

92

Radiative decay into $\\gamma P$ of the low lying axial-vector mesons  

E-print Network

We evaluate the radiative decay into a pseudoscalar meson and a photon of the whole set of the axial-vector mesons dynamically generated from the vector-pseudoscalar meson ($VP$) interaction. We take into account tree level and loop diagrams coming from the axial-vector decay into a vector and a pseudoscalar meson. We find a large span for the values of the radiative widths of the different axial-vector mesons. In particular, we evaluate the radiative decay into $K \\gamma$ of the two $K_1(1270)$ states, recently claimed theoretically, and discuss the experimental values quoted so far on the assumption of only one state.

Nagahiro, H; Oset, E

2008-01-01

93

Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2012-01-01

94

Observations of diffuse galactic gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

A new window for studying our Galaxy has emerged after over two decases of concerted effort with satellite and balloon-borne gammay-ray experiments. These experiments have discovered what appears to be a diffuse glow along the Galactic plane in lines at 0.511 and 1.809 MeV. I summarize these observations, with emphasis on measurements made with the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM). The GRS is currently being used to study other diffuse Galactic emissions including the positronium continuum, radioactive lines from recent supernovae and novae, and de-excitation lines from interactions of cosmic-ray protons with interstellar carbon and oxygen.

Share, G.H.

1988-09-25

95

Gamma-ray decay of levels in /sup 53/Cr  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray decay of levels in the stable isotope /sup 53/Cr has been studied using /sup 53/Cr(n,n'..gamma..) reactions for incident neutron energies between threshold and 10 MeV. Of the 65 gamma rays or gamma-ray groups observed for neutron interactions with /sup 53/Cr, 50 have been placed or tentatively placed among 34 levels in /sup 53/Cr up to an excitation energy of 4.36 MeV. Deduced branching ratios are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements except for decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level. For the decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level we are unable to explain variations in the branching ratios of the transition gamma rays as a function of incident neutron energy within the framework of the presently known level structure of /sup 53/Cr and suggest the possibility of a second energy level at E/sub x/ = 1537 keV. 59 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Dickens, J.K.; Larson, D.C.

1987-11-01

96

Gamma radiation resistant Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1998 completed a study of emerging technologies that could be applicable to measurement systems in nuclear power plants [H. M. Hashemian [et al.], "Advanced Instrumentation and Maintenance Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants," NUREG/CR-5501 (1998)]. This study concluded that advanced fiber optic sensing technology is an emerging technology that should be investigated. It also indicated that there had been very little research related to performance evaluation of fiber optic sensors in nuclear plant harsh environments, although substantial research has been performed on nuclear radiation effects on optical fibers in the last two decades. A type of Fabry-Perot fiber optic temperature sensor, which is manufactured by Fiso Technologies in Canada, is qualified to be a candidate for potential applications in nuclear radiation environment due to its unique signal processing technique and its resistance to power loss. The gamma irradiation effects on this type of sensors are investigated in this article. Two sensors were irradiated in a gamma irradiation field and one of them was irradiated up to a total gamma dose of 133 Mrad. The sensor on-line performance was monitored during each gamma irradiation test. Furthermore, the sensor static and dynamic performance before and after each irradiation test were evaluated according to the Standard ISA-dS67.06.01 ("Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety-Related Instrument Channels in Nuclear Power Plants", Standard ISA-dS67.06.01, Draft 7, Instrument Society of America, 1999). Although several abnormal phenomena were observed, analysis shows that gamma irradiation is not accredited to the abnormal behavior, which implies that this type of sensor is suitable to a gamma irradiation environment with a high gamma dose.

Liu, Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph

2002-08-01

97

Gamma radiation survey of the LDEF spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft in January 1990 after nearly six years in orbit offered a unique opportunity to study the long term buildup of induced radioactivity in the variety of materials on board. We conducted the first complete gamma-ray survey of a large spacecraft on LDEF shortly after its return to earth. A surprising observation was the Be-7 activity which was seen primarily on the leading edge of the satellite, implying that it was picked up by LDEF in orbit. This is the first known evidence for accretion of a radioactive isotope onto an orbiting spacecraft. Other isotopes observed during the survey, the strongest being Na-22, are all attributed to activation of spacecraft components. Be-7 is a spallation product of cosmic rays on nitrogen and oxygen in the upper atmosphere. However, the observed density is much greater than expected due to cosmic-ray production in situ. This implies transport of Be-7 from much lower altitudes up to the LDEF orbit.

Phillips, G. W.; King, S. E.; August, R. A.; Ritter, J. C.; Cutchin, J. H.; Haskins, P. S.; Mckisson, J. E.; Ely, D. W.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Piercey, R. B.

1992-01-01

98

Thermal stability of grafted fibers. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables.

Sundardi, F.; Kadariah; Marlianti, I.

1983-10-01

99

Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. Inn order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, susbequentely submitted to irradiaiton. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocured in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain).

Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P. J.; Andrade, H. F.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Rogero, J. R.

1998-06-01

100

Oxidation of naringenin by gamma-radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of rad OH with naringenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone) in the presence of air induced the formation of the hydroxylation product eriodictyol (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone). Its yield was dependent on pH. The initial degradation yield of naringenin was Gi(-Nar)=(2.5±0.2)×10 -7 mol dm -3 J -1. For the reaction with rad OH, a rate constant k ( rad OH+naringenin)=(7.2±0.7)×10 9 M -1 s -1 was determined. In the presence of N 2O and NaN 3/N 2O, no eriodyctiol was formed. Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavon) was detected as decay product of the naringenin phenoxyl radicals. In Ar-saturated solutions, naringenin exhibited a pronounced radiation resistance, G(-naringenin) ˜0.3×10 -7 mol dm -3 J -1.

Nagy, Tristan O.; Ledolter, Karin; Solar, Sonja

2008-06-01

101

Recent results on the effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of DWPF glass  

SciTech Connect

The effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of a simulated nuclear waste glass from the Savannah River Site has been carefully investigated. Three large pieces of glass were irradiated with a Co-60 source to three doses up to a maximum dose of 3.1 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. Internal samples of the large pieces of irradiated and unirradiated glass were leached in deionized water to investigate durability changes and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate microstructure changes. Leach tests were performed in triplicate at 90{degree}C with crushed glass samples in deionized water. A statistical analysis of the results indicated to the 95% confidence level that the radiation did not affect the glass durability. Careful examination by TEM indicated no effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure of the glass although severe damage could be induced by the electron beam from the microscope. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bibler, N.E.; Tosten, M.H.; Beam, D.C.

1989-12-31

102

Recent results on the effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of DWPF glass  

SciTech Connect

The effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of a simulated nuclear waste glass from the Savannah River Site has been carefully investigated. Three large pieces of glass were irradiated with a Co-60 source to three doses up to a maximum dose of 3.1 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. Internal samples of the large pieces of irradiated and unirradiated glass were leached in deionized water to investigate durability changes and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate microstructure changes. Leach tests were performed in triplicate at 90{degree}C with crushed glass samples in deionized water. A statistical analysis of the results indicated to the 95% confidence level that the radiation did not affect the glass durability. Careful examination by TEM indicated no effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure of the glass although severe damage could be induced by the electron beam from the microscope. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bibler, N.E.; Tosten, M.H.; Beam, D.C.

1989-01-01

103

Parity conserving gamma asymmetry in n-p radiative capture  

E-print Network

The importance of n-p radiative capture, utilizing polarized cold neutrons, as a means of measuring the weak pion coupling constant is reviewed. Parity conserving processes of the form k_gamma*[s_n,k_n] can contribute to the s_n*k_gamma photon asymmetry in any such experiment, if the apparatus is not perfectly symmetric. For an incident laboratory neutron energy of 0.003 eV a value of A^{PC}_{gamma}=0.67*10^{-8} is obtained for two different potential models (Argonne AV14 and Nijmegen Reid93). Serving as an extreme test case, the Reid soft core potential yields 0.61*10^{-8}, close to the result of the contemporary forces. Implications for extracting the weak pion coupling constant and for monitoring the beam polarization are discussed.

Attila Csoto; B. F. Gibson; G. L. Payne

1997-04-28

104

Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation shielding. The computational method used is based on the fast neutron distribution generated by the BRYNTRN and HZETRN transport codes for Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) at solar minimum conditions and intense solar flares in space systems components. The gamma dose rates for soft tissue are calculated for water and aluminum space vehicle slab shields considering volumetric source self-attenuation and exponential buildup factors. In the case of the lunar habitat with regolith shielding, a completely exposed spherical habitat was assumed for mathematical convenience and conservative calculations. Activation analysis of the food supply used as radiation shielding is presented for four selected nutrients: potassium, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. Radioactive isotopes that could represent a health hazard if ingested are identified and their concentrations are identified. For nutrients soluble in water, it was found that all induced radioactivity was below the accepted maximum permissible concentrations.

Plaza-Rosado, Heriberto

1991-09-01

105

Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation shielding. The computational method used is based on the fast neutron distribution generated by the BRYNTRN and HZETRN transport codes for Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) at solar minimum conditions and intense solar flares in space systems components. The gamma dose rates for soft tissue are calculated for water and aluminum space vehicle slab shields considering volumetric source self-attenuation and exponential buildup factors. In the case of the lunar habitat with regolith shielding, a completely exposed spherical habitat was assumed for mathematical convenience and conservative calculations. Activation analysis of the food supply used as radiation shielding is presented for four selected nutrients: potassium, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. Radioactive isotopes that could represent a health hazard if ingested are identified and their concentrations are identified. For nutrients soluble in water, it was found that all induced radioactivity was below the accepted maximum permissible concentrations.

Plaza-Rosado, Heriberto

1991-01-01

106

Gamma heating measurements in a mixed radiation field  

SciTech Connect

Gamma hearing measurements have been made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons and (n,n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. The assembly is composed of 144 magnesium sleeves (5cm {times} 5cm {times} 60cm {times} 3 mm thick) filled with graphite to simulate a fusion blanket test module. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the assembly using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition (CBA) mode. The neutron induced atomic recoil signal was rejected by observing the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different LET. The experiment was modelled using the one-dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The operating limits of this technique were identified by comparing measurements made at different positions in the assembly and then comparing these measurements to the calculated flux. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Chiu, H.K. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-09-01

107

Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

1990-01-01

108

The Gamma-ray galactic diffuse radiation and Cerenkov telescopes  

SciTech Connect

By using the PYTHIA version of the Lund Monte Carlo program, we study the photon yield of proton-proton collisions in the energy range between 10 GeV and 1 TeV. The resulting photon spectrum turns out to scale roughly with incident energy. Then, by folding the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray protons with the distribution of HI and CO, the Galactic diffuse emission of {gamma}-rays above 100 GeV is mapped. Prospects for observing that diffuse radiation with atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes are discussed. Present instruments are able to detect the {gamma}-ray glow of the Galactic center. The latter will be mapped by the next generation of telescopes if their energy threshold is decreased. However, a detailed survey of the Galactic ridge will be a real challenge, even in the long term. The MILAGRO project seems more appropriate. Finally, we investigate the {gamma}-ray emission from weakly interacting massive particles clustering at the Galactic center. It has been speculated that those species are a major component of the halo dark matter. We show that their {gamma}-ray signal is swamped in the Galactic diffuse radiation and cannot be observed at TeV energies. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Astronomical Society.}

Chardonnet, P. [Theoretical Physics Group ENSLAPP, BP110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)] [Theoretical Physics Group ENSLAPP, BP110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); [Universite de Savoie, BP1104, 73011 Chambery Cedex (France); Salati, P. [Theoretical Physics Group ENSLAPP, BP110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)] [Theoretical Physics Group ENSLAPP, BP110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); [Universite de Savoie, BP1104, 73011 Chambery Cedex (France); [Institut Universitaire de France; Silk, J. [545 Campbell Hall, Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [545 Campbell Hall, Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Grenier, I. [Departement dAstrophysique, Centre dEtudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Departement dAstrophysique, Centre dEtudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Smoot, G. [Building 50, Room 205, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Building 50, Room 205, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1995-12-01

109

Modeling the radiation doses from terrestrial gamma-ray flashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are intense bursts of gamma-rays that originate from thunderclouds, from altitudes that commercial aircraft fly. Based upon the fluence of gamma-rays measured by the RHESSI spacecraft, Dwyer et al. [2010] inferred radiation doses to individuals inside aircraft in the 0.001 - 0.1 Sv range, depending upon the assumed size of the TGF source region. The largest doses occur when an aircraft is directly struck by the energetic electron beam that produces the TGF. The relativistic feedback discharge model is a self-consistent model that includes the generation of runaway electrons via the positron and x-ray feedback mechanisms and the electric field changes due to the resulting ionization and low-energy electron and ion currents. This model has successfully explained many properties of TGFs, including the gamma-ray intensities, durations, multi-pulsed structures as well as discharge currents and radio emissions. In this presentation we discuss new radiation dose calculations based upon the relativistic feedback discharge model and compare these calculations to previous work.

Dwyer, Joseph; Liu, Ningyu; Rassoul, Hamid

2013-04-01

110

Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

2012-01-01

111

Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Effects and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some exposure to gamma irradiation. Non-condensable gas formation from radiation may breakdown water over time and render a portion of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature with accelerated gamma irradiation exposures on the same order of magnitude that is expected in eight years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon; evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some non-condensable gas was evident, however thermosyphon performance was not affected because the non-condensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of non-condensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the non-condensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of selected thermosyphons at temperature and in a vacuum chamber revealed that the non-condensable gas likely diffused out of the thermosyphons over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

Sanzi, James L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Goodenow, Debra A.

2012-01-01

112

Radon flux maps for the Netherlands and Europe using terrestrial gamma radiation derived from soil radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, radon (222Rn) is a valuable tracer to study atmospheric processes and to validate global chemical transport models. However, the use of radon as a proxy in atmospheric and climate research is limited by the uncertainties in the magnitude and distribution of the radon flux density over the Earth's surface. Terrestrial gamma radiation is a useful proxy for generating radon flux maps. A previously reported radon flux map of Europe used terrestrial gamma radiation extracted from automated radiation monitoring networks. This approach failed to account for the influence of local artificial radiation sources around the detector, leading to under/over estimation of the reported radon flux values at different locations. We present an alternative approach based on soil radionuclides which enables us to generate accurate radon flux maps with good confidence. Firstly, we present a detailed comparison between the terrestrial gamma radiation obtained from the National Radiation Monitoring network of the Netherlands and the terrestrial gamma radiation calculated from soil radionuclides. Extending further, we generated radon flux maps of the Netherlands and Europe using our proposed approach. The modelled flux values for the Netherlands agree reasonably well with the two observed direct radon flux measurements (within 2? level). On the European scale, we find that the observed radon flux values are higher than our modelled values and we introduce a correction factor to account for this difference. Our approach discussed in this paper enables us to develop reliable and accurate radon flux maps in countries with little or no information on radon flux values.

Manohar, S. N.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Herber, M. A.

2013-12-01

113

Effect of gamma irradiation conditions on the radiation-induced degradation of isobutylene–isoprene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gamma irradiation conditions on the radiation-induced degradation of uncrosslinked, commercial isobutylene–isoprene rubbers has been investigated in this study. Influence of dose rate and irradiation atmosphere on the degradation of butyl rubber has been followed by viscosimetric and chromatographic analyses. Limiting viscosity number of all butyl rubbers decreased sharply up to 100 kGy and leveled off at around

M. ?en; C. Uzun; Ö. Kantoglu; S. M. Erdo?an; V. Deniz; O. Güven

2003-01-01

114

Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers. Final report: [Draft  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards.

Matanoski, G.M.

1991-06-01

115

Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Zabanov, S.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01

116

Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (n = 16), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50%) of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb) and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl) were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86?mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311?mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5?kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0?kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0?kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides. PMID:24711991

Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Jahan, Iffat; Karim, Nurul; Alam, Mohammad Khorshed; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad

2014-01-01

117

Determination of carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable samples and the efficiency of gamma-radiation in their removal.  

PubMed

In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (n = 16), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50%) of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb) and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl) were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86?mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311?mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40-48%, 35-43%, and 30-45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5?kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0?kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85-90%, 80-91%, and 90-95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0?kGy can remove 80-95% of some pesticides. PMID:24711991

Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Jahan, Iffat; Karim, Nurul; Alam, Mohammad Khorshed; Abdur Rahman, Mohammad; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad

2014-01-01

118

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

119

Vital parameters related low level laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first work hypotesis is that biosensors on the patient detecting heart, breath rate and skin parameters, modulate laser radiation to enhance the therapeutic outcome; in the second work hypotesis: biofeedback could be effective, when integrated in the low level laser energy release.

Palmieri, Beniamino; Capone, Stefania

2011-08-01

120

The origin of the diffuse background gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV, and evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation were observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of big-bang cosmology, and connect these processes with the galaxy formation theory. A test of the theory is in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeK to 100 GeV energy range which are made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. The theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon-symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are discussed.

Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.

1974-01-01

121

The origin of the diffuse background gamma-radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations have now provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV. There is some evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation have been observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of the big-band cosmology and tie in these processes with galaxy fromation theory. A crucial test of the theory may lie in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV energy range which may be made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. A discussion of the theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are given.

Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.

1974-01-01

122

Breeding biology of tree swallows and house wrens in a gradient of gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a gradient of gamma radiation ranging from 38.7 mC.kg⁻¹.d⁻¹ to background levels of 0.05 ..mu..C.kg⁻¹.d⁻¹, Tree Swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor) and House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) avoided nesting in areas of high radiation. Nest boxes selected by swallows and wrens had a mean exposure rate of only 9.3 and 6.6 ..mu..C.kg⁻¹.d⁻¹, respectively. Lateral and canopy vegetation indices and nest hole height

R. Zach; K. R. Mayoh

1982-01-01

123

Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

2011-09-01

124

Gamma-ray pulsars: Radiation processes in the outer magnetosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an emission model for gamma ray pulsars based on curvature radiation-reaction limited charges in the outer magnetosphere. We show how pair production on thermal surface flux can limit the acceleration zones. Estimates for the efficiency of GeV photon production eta gamma and the gamma-ray beaming fraction are derived, including their dependence on pulsar parameters. In general eta gamma increases with pulsar age, but is decreased for low magnetic fields and for small magnetic inclinations. We argue that this produces GeV pulse profiles, curvature spectra and detection statistics consistent with the observations. We also describe the optical through X-ray pulsar synchrotron spectrum and the spectral variations with pulsar phase. A test computation for Vela-like parameters reproduces phase-resolved GeV spectra consistent with those observed by EGRET. Finally we comment on very high energy pulsed emission and particle production and note extensions needed to allow a more complete pulsar model.

Romani, Roger W.

1996-01-01

125

Gamma thermometer based reactor core liquid level detector  

SciTech Connect

A system is provided which employs a modified gamma thermometer for determining the liquid coolant level within a nuclear reactor core. The gamma thermometer which normally is employed to monitor local core heat generation rate (reactor power), is modified by thermocouple junctions and leads to obtain an unambiguous indication of the presence or absence of coolant liquid at the gamma thermometer location. A signal processor generates a signal based on the thermometer surface heat transfer coefficient by comparing the signals from the thermocouples at the thermometer location. The generated signal is a direct indication of loss of coolant due to the change in surface heat transfer when coolant liquid drops below the thermometer location. The loss of coolant indication is independent of reactor power at the thermometer location. Further, the same thermometer may still be used for the normal power monitoring function.

Burns, Thomas J. (Knoxville, TN)

1983-01-01

126

Gamma thermometer based reactor core liquid level detector  

SciTech Connect

A system is provided which employs a modified gamma thermometer for determining the liquid coolant level within a nuclear reactor core. The gamma thermometer which normally is employed to monitor local core heat generation rate (reactor power), is midified by thermocouple junctions and leads to obtain an unambiguous indication of the presence or absence of coolant liquid at the gamma thermometer location. A signal processor generates a signal based on the thermometer surface heat transfer coefficient by comparing the signals from the thermocouples at the thermometer location. The generated signal is a direct indication of loss of coolant due to the change in surface heat transfer when coolant liquid drops below the thermometer location. The loss of coolant indication is independent of reactor power at the thermometer location. Further, the same thermometer may still be used for the normal power monitoring function.

Burns, T.J.

1983-09-20

127

Sensitometry of the response of a new radiochromic film dosimeter to gamma radiation and electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new radiation-sensitive imaging material, called GafChromic™ Dosimetry Media, offers advances in high-dose radiation dosimetry and high-resolution radiography for gamma radiation and electrons. The potential uses in radiation processing, radiation sterilization of medical devices, population control of insects by irradiation, food irradiation, blood irradiation for organ-transplant immuno-suppression, clinical radiography, and industrial radiography have led to the present sensitometric study over the breadth of the wide dynamic range of this new routine detector and imaging material, namely, absorbed doses from 10 Gy to 5 × 10 4 Gy. The thin-coated film is colorless before irradiation, and registers a deep-blue image upon irradiation, with two absorption bands at about 650 nm (major band) and 600 nm (minor band). The response to electrons, in terms of increase in absorbance per unit absorbed dose, is the same as that to gamma radiation within the estimated uncertainty of the measurements (± 5%, 95% confidence level). The spatial resolving power is > 1200 lines/mm. After the first 24 hours, the image is stable over many months (within ± 5% in absorbance), however, the system should be irradiated and analyzed at approximately the temperatures used during calibration, because of temperature dependence during irradiation and readout, and temperatures greater than 55°C should be avoided.

McLaughlin, W. L.; Yun-Dong, Chen; Soares, C. G.; Miller, A.; Van Dyk, G.; Lewis, D. F.

1991-04-01

128

Probing Radiation Damage at the Molecular Level  

SciTech Connect

Radiation damage of DNA and other cellular components has traditionally been attributed to ionisation via direct impact of high-energy quanta or by complex radical chemistry. However recent research has shown that strand breaks in DNA may be initiated by secondary electrons and is strongly dependent upon the target DNA base identity. Such research provides the fascinating perspective that it is possible that radiation damage may be described and understood at an individual molecular level introducing new possibilites for therapy and perhaps providing an insight into the origins of life.

Mason, N. J.; Smialek, M. A.; Moore, S. A. [Centre of Atomic and Molecular Engineering, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Folkard, M. [Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V. [Institute of Storage Ring Facilities, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK 8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

2006-12-01

129

Effect of gamma radiation on the survival of fungal and actinomycetal florae contaminating medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the effect of gamma radiation on the viability of fungi and actinomycetes that contaminate medicinal plants. The relationship between the total lipids of some fungi and actinomycetes and their sensitivity to gamma radiation is also investigated. The data reveal that the viable counts of these florae decrease approximately exponentially with the radiation dose, the effective dose for

Nagy H. Aziz; M. Z. El-Fouly; M. R. Abu-Shady; L. A. A. Moussa

1997-01-01

130

Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Low-Dose Gamma Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied low dose radiation induced gene expression alterations in a primary human fibroblast cell line using Agilent's whole human genome microarray. Cells were irradiated with 60Co ?-rays (0; 0.1; 0.5 Gy) and 2 hours later total cellular RNA was isolated. We observed differential regulation of approximately 300-500 genes represented on the microarray. Of these, 126 were differentially expressed at both doses, among them significant elevation of GDF-15 and KITLG was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Based on the transcriptional studies we selected GDF-15 to assess its role in radiation response, since GDF-15 is one of the p53 gene targets and is believed to participate in mediating p53 activities. First we confirmed gamma-radiation induced dose-dependent changes in GDF-15 expression by qRT-PCR. Next we determined the effect of GDF-15 silencing on radiosensitivity. Four GDF-15 targeting shRNA expressing lentiviral vectors were transfected into immortalized human fibroblast cells. We obtained efficient GDF-15 silencing in one of the four constructs. RNA interference inhibited GDF-15 gene expression and enhanced the radiosensitivity of the cells. Our studies proved that GDF-15 plays an essential role in radiation response and may serve as a promising target in radiation therapy.

Hegyesi, Hargita; Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling, Boglárka; Kis, Enik?; Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza

131

Ceramic Matrix Composites Performances Under High Gamma Radiation Doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic matrix composites reinforced by continuous ceramic fibers (CMCs) represent a class of advanced materials developed for applications in automotive, aerospace, nuclear fusion reactors and in other specific systems for harsh environments. In the present work, the silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites, manufactured by Chemical Vapour Infiltration process at FN S.p.A. plant, have been evaluated in term of gamma radiation hardness at three different absorbed doses (up to around 3MGy). Samples behavior has been investigated before and after irradiation by means of mechanical tests (flexural strength) and by surface and structural analyses (X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR-ATR, EPR).

Cemmi, A.; Baccaro, S.; Fiore, S.; Gislon, P.; Serra, E.; Fassina, S.; Ferrari, E.; Ghisolfi, E.

2014-06-01

132

Cryo-gamma radiation inactivation of bovine herpesvirus type-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioresistance of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), suspended in free serum Glasgow-MEM medium and frozen at -78°C was studied. The number of surviving virus at a given dose of gamma-radiation was determined by a plaque assay system. D 10 values were calculated before and after removal of cell debris. The D 10 values obtained were 4.72 kGy and 7.31 kGy before and after removal of cell debris, respectively. Our results indicate that the inactivated viral particles could be used for vaccine preparation or diagnostic reagents.

Degiorgi, C. Fernández; Smolko, E. E.; Lombardo, J. H.

1999-07-01

133

Natural Radiation from Soil using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the distribution of natural radioactivity in the soil of Interlagos, in São Paulo city and Billings Reservoir, in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil. The main contribution of the effective radiation dose is due to the elements of the 238Th decay series, with smaller contributions from 40K and the elements of the series of 238U. The results indicate the dose in all of the studied areas is around the average international dose due to external exposure to gamma rays (0.48 mSv/yr) proceeding from natural terrestrial elements.

Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; de Paula, A. L. C.; Medina, N. H.

2009-06-01

134

Heavy ion radiative capture: 12C(12C,{gamma})  

SciTech Connect

The heavy ion radiative capture reaction 12C(12C,{gamma}) has been investigated around a beam energy of 16 MeV. The total cross-section has been measured with the Fragment Mass Analyser at Argonne National Laboratory and found to be somewhat larger than has previously been measured. A subsequent measurement with the Gammasphere array has shown that a considerable proportion of this extra cross-section relates to a highly non-statistical decay through high-lying states in 24Mg.

Jenkins, D.G.; Fulton, B.R.; Pearson, J. [Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lister, C.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Freeman, S.; Hammond, N.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Moore, E.F.; Wuosmaa, A.H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Freer, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Haas, F. [IReS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

2004-02-27

135

Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

Been, J. F.

1972-01-01

136

Some problems in determining level density and radiative strength functions in light and near-magic nuclei  

E-print Network

The values of some functional dependencies of level density and radiative strength functions that reproduce the experimental intensities of the two-step gamma-cascades to the ground and first excited states of 28Al have been determined. It was shown that the assumption about independence of the dipole cascade transitions radiative strength functions on energy of decaying level leads to rather essential error in observation of both level density and radiative strength functions.

A. M. Sukhovoj; V. A. Khitrov; Li Chol; Pham Dinh Khang; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Vuong Huu Tan

2005-11-07

137

Antioxidative and radioprotective potential of rutin and quercetin in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

The radioprotective potential of bioflavonoid, rutin (RUT) and quercetin (QRT) was investigated in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. The radioprotective potential of RUT and QRT was assessed in pre-treatment group of mice followed on radiation-induced changes in glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also analyzed. Elevation in the GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, and decreased LPO levels were observed in RUT and QRT pretreated group when compared to the irradiated animals. Furthermore, it was observed that RUT and QRT treatment was found to inhibit various free radicals generated in vitro, viz., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), O2, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS)+, and OH in a concentration-dependent manner. This study clearly demonstrates the free radical scavenging action of RUT and QRT, indicating that it may have its potential as a radioprotective agent. Furthermore, the presence of a phenolic group in RUT and QRT is known to contribute to scavenging the radiation-induced free radicals and inhibition of oxidative stress. Present findings demonstrate the potential of RUT and QRT in mitigating radiation-induced oxidative stress, which may be attributed to the inhibition of radiation-induced decline in the endogenous antioxidant levels and scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals. PMID:23776312

Patil, Shrikant L.; Mallaiah, Somashekarappa Hiriyur; Patil, Rajashekar K.

2013-01-01

138

This work centers around a state of the art gamma and neutron radiation detector, which is able to display radiation information about its surrounding at every second. Information about the count  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT This work centers around a state of the art gamma and neutron radiation detector, which is able to display radiation information about its surrounding at every second. Information about the count level is displayed along with the energy range of the detected radiation. Currently, similar

Abidi, Mongi A.

139

Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

2006-04-01

140

Uv- and Gamma-Radiation Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis Thaliana  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis seedlings repair UV-induced DNA damage via light-dependent and -independent pathways. The mechanism of the ``dark repair'' pathway is still unknown. To determine the number of genes required for dark repair and to investigate the substrate-specificity of this process we isolated mutants with enhanced sensitivity to UV radiation in the absence of photoreactivating light. Seven independently derived UV sensitive mutants were isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population. These fell into six complementation groups, two of which (UVR1 and UVH1) have previously been defined. Four of these mutants are defective in the dark repair of UV-induced pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidinone dimers. These four mutant lines are sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of gamma radiation, suggesting that this repair pathway is also involved in the repair of some type of gamma-induced DNA damage product. The requirement for the coordinate action of several different gene products for effective repair of pyrimidine dimers, as well as the nonspecific nature of the repair activity, is consistent with nucleotide excision repair mechanisms previously described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and nonplant higher eukaryotes and inconsistent with substrate-specific base excision repair mechanisms found in some bacteria, bacteriophage, and fungi. PMID:9383080

Jiang, C. Z.; Yen, C. N.; Cronin, K.; Mitchell, D.; Britt, A. B.

1997-01-01

141

Performance of radiation survey meters in X- and gamma-radiation fields.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the different types of radiation detectors commonly used for radiation protection purposes as survey meters. The study was performed on survey meters that use different detectors as ionisation chamber, Geiger Mueller (GM) counter and scintillation detector. For each survey meter, energy dependence and angular response in X- and gamma-radiation fields was tested. The following commercially available survey meters were investigated: ionisation chambers Victoreen 451P, Babyline 31 and VA-J-15A, Geiger counter MRK-M87, 6150 AD6 and FAG FH 40F2 and scintillation counter 6150 ADB. As a source of gamma radiation, (137)Cs and (60)Co were used whereas X-ray radiation fields were generated using an X-ray unit. The radiation characteristics of the survey meters were mostly in compliance with references estimated by standard IEC 1017-2. However, some of them showed larger deviation at lower energies. GM counters exhibit strong energy dependence for low-energy photons. PMID:25063785

Ceklic, Sandra; Arandjic, Danijela; Zivanovic, Milos; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarevic, Djordje

2014-11-01

142

Radiation protection from whole-body gamma irradiation (6.7 Gy): behavioural effects and brain protein-level changes by an aminothiol compound GL2011 in the Wistar rat.  

PubMed

GL2011 is a naturally occurring thiol compound and a series of thiol compounds have been proposed as radioprotectors. Radioprotective efficacy of a triple intraperitoneal dose of GL2011 of 100 mg/kg body weight of Wistar rats, 30 min prior to and 3 and 6 h following irradiation (6.7 Gy) was evaluated. Four groups of animals were used, vehicle-treated non-irradiated (VN), GL2011-treated and irradiated (GI), GL2011-treated and non-irradiated (GN) and vehicle-treated and irradiated (VI) (n = 30 per group). The radioprotective efficacy of GL2011 was determined by measuring 28-day survival and intestinal crypt cell survival. Neuroprotection in terms of behaviour was evaluated using the behavioural observational battery, open field test and elevated plus maze paradigm. An RNA microarray was carried out in order to show differences at the RNA level between VI and VN groups. Brain protein changes were identified using a gel-based proteomics method and major brain receptor complex levels were determined by blue-native gels followed by immunoblotting. 28-Day survival rate in VI was 30 %, in GI survival was 93 %, survival of VN and GN was 100 %. Jejunal crypt cell survival was significantly enhanced in GI. Protein-level changes of peroxiredoxin-5, Mn-superoxide dismutase 2, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1, septin 5 and dopamine D2 receptor complex levels were paralleling radiation damage and protection. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that GL2011 improves survival rates and jejunal crypt survival, provides partial neuroprotection at the behavioural level and modulates proteins known to be involved in protection against oxidative stress-mediated cell damage. PMID:24682445

Ganesan, Minu Karthika; Jovanovic, Milos; Secerov, Bojana; Ignjatovic, Marija; Bilban, Martin; Andjus, Pavle; Pavle, Andjus; Refaei, Amal El; Jung, Gangsoo; Li, Lin; Sase, Ajinkya; Chen, Weiqiang; Bacic, Goran; Lubec, Gert

2014-07-01

143

Lycopene protects the structure of the small intestine against gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The small intestine displays numerous morphological and functional alterations after exposure to ionizing radiations. Oxidative stress and changes in monoamines levels may contribute toward some of these alterations. The objective of the current work is to evaluate the efficacy of lycopene on radiation-induced damage in the small intestine. Lycopene (5 mg/kg BW) was given to male albino rats, via gavages for 7 days before whole body exposure to gamma ray (6 Gy). Irradiated animals, sacrificed 7 days after irradiation, showed sloughing villi, ulcers, and ruptured goblet cells, shrinkage of submucosa layers, more fibers and fibroblasts. Histopathological changes were associated with a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and alteration in xanthine oxidoreductase system (XOR). In parallel, significant decreases in reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were recorded. Gamma irradiation has also induced a significant decrease in the level of monoamines: serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (EPI) associated with an increase in monoamine-oxidase (MAO) activity. Lycopene pretreatment has significantly improved the oxidant/antioxidant status, which was associated with significant regeneration of the small intestine, and improved monoamines levels. Based on these results, it is concluded that lycopene may protect the small intestine against radiation-induced damage. PMID:20041432

Saada, Helen N; Rezk, Renée G; Eltahawy, Noaman A

2010-06-01

144

Biological radiation dose from secondary particles in a Milky Way gamma-ray burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are a class of highly energetic explosions emitting radiation in a very short timescale of a few seconds and with a very narrow opening angle. Although, all GRBs observed so far are extragalactic in origin, there is a high probability of a GRB of galactic origin beaming towards the Earth in the past ~0.5 Gyr. We define the level of catastrophic damage to the biosphere as approximation 100 kJ m-2, based on Thomas et al. (2005a, b). Using results in Melott & Thomas (2011), we estimate the probability of the Earth receiving this fluence from a GRB of any type, as 87% during the last 500 Myr. Such an intense burst of gamma rays would ionize the atmosphere and deplete the ozone (O3) layer. With depleted O3, there will be an increased flux of Solar UVB on the Earth's surface with potentially harmful biological effects. In addition to the atmospheric damage, secondary particles produced by gamma ray-induced showers will reach the surface. Among all secondary particles, muons dominate the ground-level secondary particle flux (99% of the total number of particles) and are potentially of biological significance. Using the Monte Carlo simulation code CORSIKA, we modelled the air showers produced by gamma-ray primaries up to 100 GeV. We found that the number of muons produced by the electromagnetic component of hypothetical galactic GRBs significantly increases the total muon flux. However, since the muon production efficiency is extremely low for photon energies below 100 GeV, and because GRBs radiate strongly for only a very short time, we find that the biological radiation dose from secondary muons is negligible. The main mechanism of biological damage from GRBs is through Solar UVB irradiation from the loss of O3 in the upper atmosphere.

Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.; Karam, Andrew

2014-07-01

145

Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of 131I Radiation Relative to 60Co Gamma Rays  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 131I radiation relative to 60Co gamma rays in glioblastoma spheroid cells. Materials and Methods: : In this experimental study, glioblastoma spheroid cells were exposed to 131I radiation and 60Co gamma rays. Radiation induced DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. Samples of spheroid cells were treated by radiation from 131I for four different periods of time to find the dose-response equation. Spheroid cells were also exposed by 200 cGy of 60Co gamma rays as reference radiation to induce DNA damage as endpoint. Results: Resulted RBE of 131I radiation relative to 60Co gamma rays in 100 µm giloblastoma spheroid cells was equal to 1.16. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggests that 131I photons and electrons can be more effective than 60Co gamma rays to produce DNA damage in glioblastoma spheroid cells. PMID:24027663

Neshasteh-Riz, Ali; Mahmoud Pashazadeh, Ali; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie

2013-01-01

146

gamma-radiation-induced gammaH2AX formation occurs preferentially in actively transcribing euchromatic loci.  

PubMed

The central dogma in radiation biology is that nuclear DNA is the critical target with respect to radiosensitivity. In accordance with the theoretical expectations, and in the absence of a conclusive model, the general consensus in the field has been to view chromatin as a homogeneous template for DNA damage and repair. This paradigm has been called into question by recent findings indicating a disparity in gamma-irradiation-induced gammaH2AX foci formation in euchromatin and heterochromatin. Here, we have extended those studies and provide evidence that gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in actively transcribing euchromatin following gamma-irradiation. PMID:19859659

Vasireddy, Raja S; Karagiannis, Tom C; El-Osta, Assam

2010-01-01

147

Trypanosoma cruzi Gene Expression in Response to Gamma Radiation  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi is an organism highly resistant to ionizing radiation. Following a dose of 500 Gy of gamma radiation, the fragmented genomic DNA is gradually reconstructed and the pattern of chromosomal bands is restored in less than 48 hours. Cell growth arrests after irradiation but, while DNA is completely fragmented, RNA maintains its integrity. In this work we compared the transcriptional profiles of irradiated and non-irradiated epimastigotes at different time points after irradiation using microarray. In total, 273 genes were differentially expressed; from these, 160 were up-regulated and 113 down-regulated. We found that genes with predicted functions are the most prevalent in the down-regulated gene category. Translation and protein metabolic processes, as well as generation of precursor of metabolites and energy pathways were affected. In contrast, the up-regulated category was mainly composed of obsolete sequences (which included some genes of the kinetoplast DNA), genes coding for hypothetical proteins, and Retrotransposon Hot Spot genes. Finally, the tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, a gene involved in double-strand DNA break repair process, was up-regulated. Our study demonstrated the peculiar response to ionizing radiation, raising questions about how this organism changes its gene expression to manage such a harmful stress. PMID:22247781

Grynberg, Priscila; Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; Mourão, Marina de Moraes; Hirata Jr, Roberto; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Machado, Carlos Renato; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Franco, Glória Regina

2012-01-01

148

Modeling Gamma-Radiation from Thunderclouds and Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes are sub-millisecond bursts of energetic radiation originating from thunderclouds in the earth's atmosphere [e.g., Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994; Dwyer et al., Space Sci. Rev., 10.1007/s11214-012-9894-0, 2012]. Recent analysis of TGF observations and lightning radio emission indicates that the production of TGFs is normally associated with the initial lightning leader development inside thunderclouds [e.g., Shao et al., J. Geophys. Res., 115, A00E30, 2010; Lu et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L11806, 2010; Cummer et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L14810, 2011]. In addition to relatively short TGFs, thunderclouds and lightning can also make minute long gamma-ray glows according to ground-based [e.g., Chilingarian et al., Phys. Rev. D, 82, 043009, 2010] and airborne measurements [e.g., Smith et al., J. Geophys. Res., 116, D20124, 2011]. A viable theory for explaining the gamma-ray production by thunderclouds and lightning is the relativistic feedback discharge mechanism introduced by Dwyer [Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2055, 2003]. A comprehensive modeling study of TGFs based on this theory was recently reported in [Dwyer, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A02308, 2012], where many observed TGF aspects were successfully reproduced. In this talk, we report simulation results from a new TGF modeling code developed at Florida Tech that implements the same model as the work of Dwyer [2012]. The code is built on a streamer code that has been used for studying streamer discharges in sprites, lightning and laboratory experiments [e.g., Liu and Pasko, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A04301, 2004]. Components for modeling the transport of runaway electrons and positrons, the feedback process, the gamma-ray production, and the lightning leader propagation have been added. The new code can fully model transport of low energy electrons and ions, ionization, attachment, and recombination. Several simulation cases are reported, showing how single and multiple pulsed TGFs can be produced. Finally, we compare the present work with the gamma-ray observations and the modeling study by Dwyer [2012].

Liu, N.; Dwyer, J. R.

2012-12-01

149

Effects of acute gamma radiation on the reproductive ability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Earthworms are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are the parts of nutritional webs, and are present in relatively high numbers. Four months old Eisenia fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, namely 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 & 60 Gy to study the effects of radiation on different reproductive parameters. The number of cocoons laid and the hatchlings emerged were recorded for all the selected doses. There was no reduction in cocoon production, however; decreasing size and weight of the cocoons was observed from the samples exposed to 20 Gy and above doses. Significant reductions in the hatchlings were recorded in earthworms exposed to 10 Gy and above doses. The dose response curves for a percentage reduction in hatchlings were constructed. Exposure to radiation dose of 1 and 2 Gy did not show any reduction, however, there was ?10%, ?50% and ?90% decrease in the hatchlings in samples exposed to 3, 15 and 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses respectively. Delayed hatchability was also reported at al exposure level. Histology of irradiated earthworms revealed that the structural damage in the seminal vesicles was prominent at the exposed dose of 3 Gy onwards with complete degeneration on exposure to 60 Gy of gamma radiation. PMID:25461510

Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Harini, B P; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

2015-02-01

150

Adult myeloid leukaemia, geology, and domestic exposure to radon and gamma radiation: a case control study in central Italy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether indoor randon or gamma radiation might play a part in myeloid leukaemia as suggested by studies based on crude geographical or geological data for exposure assessment. METHODS: For six months randon and gamma radiation was measured with solid state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters in dwellings of 44 adult male cases of acute myeloid leukaemia and 211 controls (all subjects deceased). Conditional logistic regression ORs (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for quartiles of radon and gamma radiation and for municipality and dwelling characteristics. RESULTS: The risk of leukaemia was associated with an increasing urbanisation index (p value for trend = 0.008). An increased OR was found among those living in more modern houses (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.6). Confirming the findings of a previous study in the same area, geological features bore a positive association with myeloid leukemia, even by adjusting for level of urbanisation. Contrary to expectations from the previous study, however, no association appeared between myeloid leukaemia and radon and gamma radiation; for the highest quartiles of exposure, ORs were 0.56 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.4) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.4), respectively. Considering only subjects who had lived > or = 20 years in the monitored home and adjusting for urbanisation, there was still no effect of exposure to radiation. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the limited numbers, the results do not in general refute a possible risk of myeloid leukaemia from exposure to indoor radon or gamma radiation, but decrease the credibility of such a relation in the area studied and also of other studies suggesting an effect without monitoring indoor radiation. Some other fairly strong determinants have appeared--that is, level of urbanisation and living in modern houses-- that might need further consideration.   PMID:9614394

Forastiere, F.; Sperati, A.; Cherubini, G.; Miceli, M.; Biggeri, A.; Axelson, O.

1998-01-01

151

On the omnipresent background gamma radiation of the continuous spectrum  

E-print Network

The background spectrum of a germanium detector, shielded from the radiations arriving from the lower and open for the radiations arriving from the upper hemisphere is studied, both in a ground level and in an underground laboratory. It is established that the continuous portion of this background spectrum is mostly due to the radiations that arrive from the upper hemisphere of the continuous spectrum similar to the instrumental one. The intensity of this radiation of an average energy of about 120 keV is estimated to about 8000 photons/m2s 2\\pi srad in a ground level laboratory, and to about 5000 photons/m2s 2\\pi srad at the depth of 25 m.w.e. Rough estimates of the dose that it contributes to the skin are about 1.5 nSv/h and 1 nSv/h respectively. Simulations by GEANT4 and CORSIKA demonstrate that this radiation is both of cosmic and terrestrial origin, mixed in proportion that still has to be determined.

Banjanac, R; Jokovi?, D; Veselinovi?, N; Dragi?, A; Udovi?i?, V; Ani?in, I

2013-01-01

152

On the omnipresent background gamma radiation of the continuous spectrum  

E-print Network

The background spectrum of a germanium detector, shielded from the radiations arriving from the lower and open for the radiations arriving from the upper hemisphere is studied, both in a ground level and in an underground laboratory. It is established that the continuous portion of this background spectrum is mostly due to the radiations that arrive from the upper hemisphere of the continuous spectrum similar to the instrumental one. The intensity of this radiation of an average energy of about 120 keV is estimated to about 8000 photons/m2s 2\\pi srad in a ground level laboratory, and to about 5000 photons/m2s 2\\pi srad at the depth of 25 m.w.e. Rough estimates of the dose that it contributes to the skin are about 1.5 nSv/h and 1 nSv/h respectively. Simulations by GEANT4 and CORSIKA demonstrate that this radiation is both of cosmic and terrestrial origin, mixed in proportion that still has to be determined.

R. Banjanac; D. Maleti?; D. Jokovi?; N. Veselinovi?; A. Dragi?; V. Udovi?i?; I. Ani?in

2013-05-14

153

Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq  

SciTech Connect

The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Center, Tuwaitha, Baghdad, (Iraq))

1992-05-01

154

Radiation resistance of a gamma-ray irradiated nonlinear optic chromophore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation resistance of organic electro-optic and optoelectronic materials for space applications is receiving increased attention. An earlier investigation reported that guest-host poled polymer EO modulator devices composed of a phenyltetraene bridge-type chromophore in amorphous polycarbonate (CLD/APC) did not exhibit a decrease in EO response (i.e., an increase in modulation-switching voltage- V?) following irradiation by low dose [10-160 krad(Si)] 60Co gamma-rays. To provide further evidences to the observed radiation stability, the post-irradiation responses of 60Co gamma-rays on CLD1/APC thin films are examined by various chemical and spectroscopic methods including: a solubility test, thin-layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption, and infra-red absorption. The results indicate that CLD1 and APC did not decompose under gamma-ray irradiation at dose levels ranging from 66-274 krad(Si) and from 61-154 krad(Si), respectively which support the previously reported data.

Zhang, Cheng; Taylor, Edward W.

2009-11-01

155

\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma  

E-print Network

\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma yyy yyy \\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma yyy

Laske, Gabi

156

Breeding biology of Tree Swallows and House Wrens in a gradient of gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

In a gradient of gamma radiation from 38.7 mC kg/sup -1/.d/sup -1/ to background levels of 0.05 ..mu..C. kg/sup -1/ . d/sup -1/ to background levels of 0.05 ..mu..C . kg/sup -1/ . d/sup -1/, Tree Swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor) and House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) avoided nesting in areas of high radiation. Nest boxes selected by swallows and wrens had a mean exposure rate of only 9.3 and 6.6 ..mu..C . kg/sup -1/ . d/sup -1/, respectively. Lateral and canopy vegetation indices and nest hole height and direction could not explain the observed pattern of box selection. Of the boxes with low exposure rates, swallows selected those with little vegetation cover, whereas wrens chose boxes and heavy cover. It appears that the birds responded to radiation levels as low as 100 times background, but it is not clear whether they actually detected radiation or simply responded to secondary clues. The number of swallows and wrens fledged per box was unrelated to radiation exposure. The same was true for number of eggs, hatching success, fledging success, incubation time, and nestling time. Breeding success was reduced because of infertile eggs, eggs with dead embryos, cracked eggs, predation, adverse weather, abandonment, and parasites. The logistic model was ideally suited for describing gains in mass in nestling swallows and wrens. Growth of nestlings was not related to radiation exposure as indicated by the growth rate constant, asymptotic mass, and the proportion of variation explained by the logistic model. Breeding and growth performance were similar in studies not involving experimental radiation.

Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

1982-12-01

157

Biological radiation dose from secondary particles in a Milky Way gamma ray burst  

E-print Network

Gamma ray bursts (GBRs) are a class of highly energetic explosions emitting radiation in a very short timescale of a few seconds and with a very narrow opening angle. Although, all GRBs observed so far are extragalactic in origin, there is a high probability of a GRB of galactic origin beaming towards the Earth in the past ~ 0.5 Gyr. Such an intense burst of gamma rays would ionize the atmosphere and deplete the ozone layer. With depleted ozone, there will be an increased flux of solar UVB on the Earth\\~Os surface with harmful biological effects. In addition to the atmospheric damage, secondary particles produced by gamma ray-induced showers will reach the surface. Amongst all secondary particles, muons dominate the ground-level secondary particle flux (99% of the total number of particles) and are potentially of biological significance. Using the Monte Carlo simulation code CORSIKA, we modeled the air showers produced by gamma ray primaries up to 100 GeV. We found that the number of muons produced by hypothe...

Atri, Dimitra; Karam, Andrew

2013-01-01

158

Effects of proton and gamma radiation on lymphocyte populations and acute response to antigen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The clinical use of proton radiation in the management of cancer, as well as benign disorders, is rapidly increasing. The major goal of this study was to compare the effects of proton and gamma (60Co) radiation on cell-mediated and humoral immunological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single dose of 3 Gray (Gy) protons or gamma-rays and intraperitoneally injected 1 day later with sheep red blood cells (sRBC). On 4, 10, 15, and 29 days after exposure, subsets from each group were euthanised; nonirradiated controls (with and without sRBC injection) were included. Body and relative spleen weights, leukocyte counts, spontaneous blastogenesis, lymphocyte populations, and anti-sRBC titers were evaluated. RESULTS: The data showed significant depression (p < 0.05) in nearly all assays on days 4 and 10 after irradiation. B lymphocytes (CD19+) were the most radiosensitive, although reconstitution back to normal levels was observed by day 15. T cell (CD3+) and T helper cell (CD4+) recovery was evident by day 29, whereas the T cytotoxic cell (CD8+) count remained significantly below normal. Natural killer cells (NK1.1+) were relatively radioresistant. Anti-sRBC antibody production was slow and low titers were obtained after irradiation. No significant differences were noted between the two types of radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data show that whole-body irradiation with protons or gamma-rays, at the dose employed, results in marked, but transient, immunosuppression. However, at the time points of testing and with the assays used, little or no differences were found between the two forms of radiation.

Kajioka, E. H.; Gheorghe, C.; Andres, M. L.; Abell, G. A.; Folz-Holbeck, J.; Slater, J. M.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

1999-01-01

159

Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

2012-08-01

160

JITTER RADIATION MODEL OF THE CRAB GAMMA-RAY FLARES  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-ray flares of the Crab nebula detected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites challenge our understanding of the physics of pulsars and their nebulae. The central problem is that the peak energy of the flares exceeds the maximum energy E {sub c} determined by synchrotron radiation loss. However, when turbulent magnetic fields exist with scales {lambda}{sub B} smaller than 2{pi}mc {sup 2}/eB, jitter radiation can emit photons with energies higher than E {sub c}. The scale required for the Crab flares is about two orders of magnitude less than the wavelength of the striped wind. We discuss a model in which the flares are triggered by plunging the high-density blobs into the termination shock. The observed hard spectral shape may be explained by the jitter mechanism. We make three observational predictions: first, the polarization degree will become lower in flares; second, no counterpart will be seen in TeV-PeV range; and third, the flare spectrum will not be harder than {nu}F {sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1}.

Teraki, Yuto; Takahara, Fumio, E-mail: teraki@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2013-02-15

161

Dose-dependent hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to sublethal doses of gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Due to the production of free radicals, gamma radiation may pose a hazard to living organisms. The high-dose radiation effects have been extensively studied, whereas the ecotoxicity data on low-dose gamma radiation is still limited. The present study was therefore performed using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to characterize effects of low-dose (15, 70 and 280 mGy) gamma radiation after short-term (48h) exposure. Global transcriptional changes were studied using a combination of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs; in this article the phrase gene expression is taken as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression can also be regulated, e.g., at protein stability and translational level) were determined and linked to their biological meanings predicted using both Gene Ontology (GO) and mammalian ortholog-based functional analyses. The plasma glucose level was also measured as a general stress biomarker at the organism level. Results from the microarray analysis revealed a dose-dependent pattern of global transcriptional responses, with 222, 495 and 909 DEGs regulated by 15, 70 and 280 mGy gamma radiation, respectively. Among these DEGs, only 34 were commonly regulated by all radiation doses, whereas the majority of differences were dose-specific. No GO functions were identified at low or medium doses, but repression of DEGs associated with GO functions such as DNA replication, cell cycle regulation and response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed after 280mGy gamma exposure. Ortholog-based toxicity pathway analysis further showed that 15mGy radiation affected DEGs associated with cellular signaling and immune response; 70mGy radiation affected cell cycle regulation and DNA damage repair, cellular energy production; and 280mGy radiation affected pathways related to cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune functions. Twelve genes representative of key pathways found in this study were verified by qPCR. Potential common MoAs of low-dose gamma radiation may include induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and disturbance of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Although common MoAs were proposed, a number of DEGs and pathways were still found to be dose-specific, potentially indicating multiple mechanisms of action (MOAs) of low-dose gamma radiation in fish. In addition, plasma glucose displayed an apparent increase with increasing radiation doses, although the results were not significantly different from the control. These findings suggested that sublethal doses of gamma radiation may cause dose-dependent transcriptional changes in the liver of Atlantic salmon after short-term exposure. The current study predicted multiple MoA for gamma radiation and may aid future impact assessment of environmental radioactivity in fish. PMID:25146236

Song, You; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

2014-11-01

162

Migration levels of PVC plasticisers: Effect of ionising radiation treatment.  

PubMed

Migration levels of commercial plasticisers [di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC)] from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the EU specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid and 10% v/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10days (EEC, 1993). Determination of the analytes was performed by applying the analytical methodology based on surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction prior to gas chromatographic-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) recently proposed by our group. The study focuses on the determination of the effect of gamma radiation on plasticiser migration into the selected simulants. PVC cling film used was subjected to ionising treatment with a [(60)Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25kGy. DEHA and ATBC migration into the EU aqueous simulating solvents was limited, yielding final concentrations in the respective ranges 10-100?g/l and 171-422?g/l; hence, ATBC demonstrated a stronger interaction with all three simulants compared to DEHA. Migration data, with respect to ATBC, showed that the most aggressive simulant seemed to be the 10% ethanol, while in the case of DEHA the 3% aqueous acetic acid exhibited the highest extraction efficiency; distilled water demonstrated the lowest migration in both cases. With regard to PVC treatment with gamma rays, high radiation doses up to 25kGy produced a statistically significant (p<0.05) effect on the migration of both plasticisers. PMID:25214336

Zygoura, Panagiota D; Paleologos, Evangelos K; Kontominas, Michael G

2011-09-01

163

Influence on cell proliferation of background radiation or exposure to very low, chronic gamma radiation. [Paramecium tetraurelia; Synechococcus lividus  

SciTech Connect

Investigations carried out on the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia and the cyanobacteria Synechococcus lividus, which were shielded against background radiation or exposed to very low doses of gamma radiation, demonstrated that radiation can stimulate the proliferation of these two single-cell organisms. Radiation hormesis depends on internal factors (age of starting cells) and external factors (lighting conditions). The stimulatory effect occurred only in a limited range of doses and disappeared for dose rates higher than 50 mGy/y.

Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Conter, A.; Croute, F.; Caratero, C.; Gaubin, Y.

1987-05-01

164

Sensitometry of the response of a new radiochromic film dosimeter to gamma radiation and electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new radiation-sensitive imaging material, called GafChromic™ Dosimetry Media, offers advances in high-dose radiation dosimetry and high-resolution radiography for gamma radiation and electrons. The potential uses in radiation processing, radiation sterilization of medical devices, population control of insects by irradiation, food irradiation, blood irradiation for organ-transplant immuno-suppression, clinical radiography, and industrial radiography have led to the present sensitometric study over

W. L. McLaughlin; Chen Yun-Dong; C. G. Soares; A. Miller; G. van Dyk; D. F. Lewis

1991-01-01

165

Breeding biology of tree swallows and house wrens in a gradient of gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

In a gradient of gamma radiation ranging from 38.7 mC.kg/sup -1/.d/sup -1/ to background levels of 0.05 ..mu..C.kg/sup -1/.d/sup -1/, Tree Swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor) and House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) avoided nesting in areas of high radiation. Nest boxes selected by swallows and wrens had a mean exposure rate of only 9.3 and 6.6 ..mu..C.kg/sup -1/.d/sup -1/, respectively. Lateral and canopy vegetation indices and nest hole height and direction could not explain the observed pattern of box selection. Of the boxes with low exposure rates, swallows selected those with little vegetation cover, whereas wrens chose boxes with heavy cover. It appears that the birds responded to radiaton levels as low as 100 times background but it is not clear whether they actually detected radiation or simply responded to secondary clues. The number of swallows and wrens fledged per box was unrelated to radiation exposure. The same was true for number of eggs, hatching success, fledging success, incubation time, and nestling time. Breeding success was reduced because of infertile eggs, eggs with dead embryos, cracked eggs, predation, adverse weather, abandonment, and parasites. The logistic model was ideally suited for describing gains in mass in nestling swallows and wrens. Growth of nestlings was not related to radiation exposure as indicated by the growth rate constant, asymptotic mass, and the proportion of variation explained by the logistic model. The data show that birds avoided adverse effects of radiation by judicious box selection. However, there were indications that at higher breeding densities birds may use high-exposure boxes, where breeding success or growth of nestlings may become reduced due to radiation.

Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

1982-12-01

166

Airborne gamma-radiation survey of the Jabel Ishmas Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An airborne gamma-radiation survey system, which includes digital recording and automatic data processing procedures developed by the U. S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabian Project, is used to collect spectral gamma-radiation data as an aid to regional geologic mapping of pediment areas on the Arabian Shield. The areal extent of rock units can generally be distinguished by the intensity of their radiation pattern. Rocks of ultramafic composition have low radiation response, whereas more felsic rocks reflect higher radiation response. Interpretations based on radiometric data enable the geologist to gain some understanding about the geologic setting of an area before he begins field mapping.

Flanigan, Vincent J.

1975-01-01

167

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

168

Gamma spectroscopic analysis and associated radiation hazards of building materials used in Egypt.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure of the population can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of naturally occurring radionuclides of terrestrial origin. Using gamma-ray spectrometry, the natural radioactivity levels of 55 samples of natural and manufactured Egyptian building materials have been investigated. The samples were collected from local market and construction sites. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined. The activities were in the ranges 11.7-35.6, 12.4-55.2 and 60-350 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The activities are compared with available reported data from other countries and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Ra(eq), the external hazard index H(ex) and the absorbed dose rate in air D in each sample was evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. All building materials have shown Ra(eq) (range from 37.76 to 116.87 Bq kg(-1)) lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The absorbed dose rate in indoor air is lower than the international recommended value of 55 nGy h(-1) for all test samples. All the materials examined are acceptable for use as building materials as defined by the OECD criterion. PMID:19841012

El-Taher, A

2010-02-01

169

Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial.

Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

1986-05-01

170

MEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT  

E-print Network

of high and very high doses of ionizing radiation is crucial for the monitoring of the existing Nuclear transducers, humidity sensors and , of course, radiation detectors and dosimeters. On the other hand, we-CEN in Belgium. Figure 1: Gamma radiation dose inside the vessel of the research nuclear reactor in Belgium

Boyer, Edmond

171

A gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na/(7)Be activity ratio measurement.  

PubMed

In this study, a digital gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer was developed and examined for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na and (7)Be in air-filter sample monitoring. The spectrometer consists of two bismuth germanate scintillators (BGO) and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The spectrometer design allows a more selective measurement of (22)Na with a significant background reduction by gamma-gamma coincidence events processing. Hence, the system provides a more sensitive way to quantify trace amounts of (22)Na than normal high resolution gamma spectrometry providing a critical limit of 3 mBq within a 20 h count. The use of a list-mode data acquisition technique enabled simultaneous determination of (22)Na and (7)Be activity concentrations using a single measurement by coincidence and anticoincidence mode respectively. PMID:24412563

Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Stukel, Matthew; Mekarski, Pawel

2014-04-01

172

Gamma Ray Telescope Senses High-Energy Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from NASA describes the GLAST satellite, which is equipped with a gamma-ray telescope, and shares some background about the kinds of extreme universal phenomena indicated by the presence of gamma rays.

WNET

2011-11-02

173

Evidence for a Solar Influence on Gamma Radiation from Radon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon confined to an airtight vessel at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between January 28 2007 and May 10 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of strong periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year-1 and 12.5 year-1. We consider it significant that these same oscillations have previously been detected in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Physiklisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. We have suggested that these oscillations are due to some form of solar radiation (possibly neutrinos) that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. Time-frequency analysis also yields quite different results from daytime and nighttime data. These procedures have also been applied to data collected from subsurface geological sites in Israel, Tenerife, and Italy, which have a variety of geological and geophysical scenarios, different elevations, and depths below the surface ranging from several meters to 1000 meters. In view of these results, and in view of the fact that there is at present no clear understanding of the behavior of radon in its natural environment, there would appear to be a need for multi-disciplinary research. Investigations that clarify the nature and mechanisms of solar influences may help clarify the nature and mechanisms of geological influences.

Sturrock, P. A.; Steinitz, G.; Fischbach, E.; Javorsek, D.; Jenkins, J.

2012-12-01

174

THE YIELD OF $gamma$RAY RADIATIVE CAPTURE FROM IRON  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of measurement is reported for the determination of the yield ; of capture gamma rays from the surface of the iron shield of a neutron reactor by ; a single-crystal scintillation gamma spectrometer. The results of these ; measurements on the capture gamma rays of iron were normalized to an energy of ; 7.5 Mev over the range

A. T. Bakov; S. P. Belov; U. A. Kazanski; V. I. Popov

1962-01-01

175

Observation of the radiative decay D*+-> D+gamma  

E-print Network

We have observed a signal for the decay D*(+) --> D(+)gamma at a significance of 4 standard deviations. From the measured branching ratio B(D*(+) --> D(+)gamma)/B(D*(+) --> D(+)pi(0)) = 0.055 +/- 0.014 +/- 0.010 we find B(D*(+) --> D(+)gamma) = 0...

Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Darling, C.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan; Zhou, L.

1998-05-01

176

Gamma radiation from blazar PKS 0537-441  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed high-energy gamma rays from PKS 0537-441 during observations in 1991 July-August. Upper limits from later EGRET observations suggest time variability.

Thompson, D. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

1993-01-01

177

Experimental search for the radiative capture reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} from the dd{mu} muonic molecule state J = 1  

SciTech Connect

A search for the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} in the dd{mu} muonic molecule was performed using the experimental installation TRITON with BGO detectors for {gamma}-quanta. A high-pressure target filled with deuterium was exposed to the negative muon beam of the JINR Phasotron to detect {gamma}-quanta with the energy 23.8 MeV. An experimental estimation for the yield of radiative deuteron capture from the dd{mu} state J = 1 was obtained at the level of {eta}{sub {gamma}} {<=} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} per fusion.

Baluev, V. V. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Bogdanova, L. N. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation 'Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,' (Russian Federation); Bom, V. R. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Demin, D. L., E-mail: demin@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Eijk, C. W. E. van [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Grishechkin, S. K. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Mikhailyukov, K. L. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Rudenko, A. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, Yu. I. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Volnykh, V. P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Yukhimchuk, A. A. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2011-07-15

178

Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H2g) and carbon dioxide (CO2g). TMA and H2g are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMAaq was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMAaq), monomethylamine (MMAaq) and ammonia (NH). CO2g is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMAg.

Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dauvois, V.; Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C.

2013-10-01

179

Pantothenol protects rats against some deleterious effects of gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Rats were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60Co source, receiving 0.25 Gy at weekly intervals. During 2 d before each irradiation, the animals received daily intragastric doses of 26 mg pantothenol or 15 mg beta-carotene per kg body weight. One hour after the third irradiation session, the animals were killed and their livers were analyzed. In animals not supplied with pantothenol, the irradiation resulted in a significant decrease of total liver lipids and a 50% decrease in phospholipids. Liver cholesterol was decreased by about 20%. Irradiation produced lipid peroxidation as expressed by doubling of the amounts of conjugated dienes and ketone dienes and of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds. The amount of CoA in liver was decreased by 24% and that of reduced glutathione by 40%. The NAD+/NADH ratio was increased by 60% and the activity of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) was decreased by 26%. The amount of pantothenic acid and its derivatives (expressed as pantolactone-generating compounds) in blood decreased by about 80%. In rats to which pantothenol was administered, the content of pantothenic acid in blood was tripled compared to nonirradiated (control) rats, and all the biochemical parameters measured in liver were the same as in nonirradiated animals. PMID:9607598

Slyshenkov, V S; Omelyanchik, S N; Moiseenok, A G; Trebukhina, R V; Wojtczak, L

1998-04-01

180

APPLICATION OF JITTER RADIATION: GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT POLARIZATION  

SciTech Connect

A high degree of polarization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission has been confirmed in recent years. In this paper, we apply jitter radiation to study the polarization feature of GRB prompt emission. In our framework, relativistic electrons are accelerated by turbulent acceleration. Random and small-scale magnetic fields are generated by turbulence. We further determine that the polarization property of GRB prompt emission is governed by the configuration of the random and small-scale magnetic fields. A two-dimensional compressed slab, which contains a stochastic magnetic field, is applied in our model. If the jitter condition is satisfied, the electron deflection angle in the magnetic field is very small and the electron trajectory can be treated as a straight line. A high degree of polarization can be achieved when the angle between the line of sight and the slab plane is small. Moreover, micro-emitters with mini-jet structures are considered to be within a bulk GRB jet. The jet 'off-axis' effect is intensely sensitive to the observed polarization degree. We discuss the depolarization effect on GRB prompt emission and afterglow. We also speculate that the rapid variability of GRB prompt polarization may be correlated with the stochastic variability of the turbulent dynamo or the magnetic reconnection of plasmas.

Mao, Jirong [Astrophysical Big Bang Lab, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wang, Jiancheng, E-mail: jirong.mao@riken.jp [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province (China)

2013-10-10

181

Effect of gamma radiation on the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed crops.  

PubMed

Samples of food crops (peanut, peeled pistachio, unpeeled pistachio, rice, and corn) and feed (barley, bran, corn) were autoclave-sterilized, and inoculated with 10(6) of spore suspension of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus fungus known to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) . Following a 10-day period of incubation at 27 C to allow for fungal growth, food and feed samples were irradiated with gamma radiation at the doses 4, 6, and 10 kGy. Results indicated that degradation of AFB1 was positively correlated with the increase in the applied dose of gamma ray for each tested sample. At a dose of 10 kGy percentages of AFB1 degradation reached highest values at 58.6, 68.8, 84.6, 81.1 and 87.8% for peanuts, peeled pistachios, unpeeled pistachios, corn and rice samples, respectively. In feed samples percentages of AFB1 degradation were 45, 66, and 90% in barley, 47, 75, and 86% in bran, and 31, 72, and 84% in corn for the doses of 4, 6, and 10 kGy, respectively. AFB1 degradation in food samples correlated negatively with oil content in irradiated samples. Thus, in peanuts, which contained the highest oil content, percentage of AFB1 degradation at 10 kGy was not more than 56.6%, whereas, the corresponding value in corn, which contained the lowest oil content, reached as high as 80%. The above results indicate the possibility of using gamma radiation as a means of degradation of AFB1 in food and feed crops to levels lower than the maximum allowed levels. PMID:24031308

Ghanem, I; Orfi, M; Shamma, M

2008-10-01

182

Virtuality Distributions in application to gamma gamma* to pi^0 Transition Form Factor at Handbag Level  

SciTech Connect

We outline basics of a new approach to transverse momentum dependence in hard processes. As an illustration, we consider hard exclusive transition process gamma*gamma -> to pi^0 at the handbag level. Our starting point is coordinate representation for matrix elements of operators (in the simplest case, bilocal O(0,z)) describing a hadron with momentum p. Treated as functions of (pz) and z^2, they are parametrized through a virtuality distribution amplitude (VDA) Phi (x, sigma), with x being Fourier-conjugate to (pz) and sigma Laplace-conjugate to z^2. For intervals with z^+=0, we introduce transverse momentum distribution amplitude (TMDA) Psi (x, k_\\perp), and write it in terms of VDA Phi (x, \\sigma). The results of covariant calculations, written in terms of Phi (x sigma) are converted into expressions involving Psi (x, k_\\perp. Starting with scalar toy models, we extend the analysis onto the case of spin-1/2 quarks and QCD. We propose simple models for soft VDAs/TMDAs, and use them for comparison of handbag results with experimental (BaBar and BELLE) data on the pion transition form factor. We also discuss how one can generate high-k_\\perp tails from primordial soft distributions.

Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [ODU, JLAB

2014-07-01

183

Potential for radiation damage to carbon steel storage tanks for high level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

A low intensity radiation field is generated by the high level waste that is stored within carbon steel lined tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The highest level of radiation damage to the tank walls from gamma and spontaneous neutron emissions is estimated to be less than 1.0E-6 displacements per atom (DPA) for a 100 year exposure to fresh, ``high heat`` SRS waste assuming continuous replenishment of the radionuclides. This damage level is below the limit for measurable radiation damage to the mechanical properties of carbon steel. Structural assessment of tanks for storage of high level waste may be based on nominal or code values of the mechanical properties of the steels from which the tanks were constructed.

Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.; Thomas, J.K.

1993-07-30

184

Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring  

SciTech Connect

For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required.

Yamamoto, Seiichi [Kobe City College of Technology, 8-3, Gakuen-Higashi-machi, Nishi-ku, Kobe, 651-2194 (Japan); Hatazawa, Jun [Osaka University of Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-11-15

185

Some neutron and gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium cermet fuel for isotopic power sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma and neutron measurements on various types of plutonium sources are presented in order to show the effects of O-17, O-18 F-19, Pu-236, age of the fuel, and size of the source on the gamma and neutron spectra. Analysis of the radiation measurements shows that fluorine is the main contributor to the neutron yields from present plutonium-molybdenum cermet fuel, while both fluorine and Pu-236 daughters contribute significantly to the gamma ray intensities.

Neff, R. A.; Anderson, M. E.; Campbell, A. R.; Haas, F. X.

1972-01-01

186

Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering  

DOEpatents

A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter

2014-12-30

187

A gamma-ray testing technique for spacecraft. [considering cosmic radiation effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulated cosmic radiation effect on a spacecraft structure is evaluated by gamma ray testing in relation to structural thickness. A drawing of the test set-up is provided and measurement errors are discussed.

Gribov, B. S.; Repin, N. N.; Sakovich, V. A.; Sakharov, V. M.

1977-01-01

188

Galactic cosmic ray radiation levels in spacecraft on interplanetary missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the Langley Research Center Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) transport computer code (HZETRN) and the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model, crew radiation levels inside manned spacecraft on interplanetary missions are estimated. These radiation-level estimates include particle fluxes, LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent within various organs of interest in GCR protection studies. Changes in these radiation levels resulting from the use of various different types of shield materials are presented.

Shinn, J. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Wood, J.S.

1994-01-01

189

Flash polymerization of silicone oils using gamma radiation for conserving waterlogged wood  

E-print Network

the SFD-I /SFD-5 mix. These bulked samples were exposed to gamma radiation emitted from a nuclear research reactor and received gamma doses ranging from 30 Gy to 228 Gy with dose rates ranging from 0.6 Gy/min to 5.1 Gy/min. Following irradiation, thin...

Gidden, Richmond Paul

1996-01-01

190

Luffa fibers and gamma radiation as improvement tools of polymer Gonzalo Martnez-Barrera a,  

E-print Network

irradiated-fiber concentration, respect to plain concrete (without fibers and non-irradiated). Conversely an opposite effect occurs when polymer concrete is gamma irradiated, i.e. both the degree of polymerizationLuffa fibers and gamma radiation as improvement tools of polymer concrete Gonzalo Martínez

North Texas, University of

191

Extending the response of the sum coincidence spectrometer to multiple gamma radiation cascades  

E-print Network

EXTENDING THE RESPONSE OF THE SUM COINCIDENCE SPECTROMETEP TO MULTIPLE GAMMA RADIATION CASCADES A Thesis By VICTOR DEAN HELTON Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AEcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, l964, Major Subject: Physics EXTENDING THE RESPONSE OF THE SUM COINCIDENCE SPECTROMETER TO MULTIPLE GAMMA RADIATION CASCADES A Thesis By VICTOR DEAN HELTON Approved as to style and content by: i / C airman...

Helton, Victor Dean

1964-01-01

192

Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

2003-04-01

193

A comparison of gamma and proton radiation effects in 200 GHz SiGe HBTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of gamma irradiation on third-generation, 200 GHz SiGe HBTs. Pre- and post-radiation dc figures-of-merit are used to quantify the tolerance of the raised extrinsic base structure to Co-60 gamma rays for varying device geometries. Additionally, the impact of technology scaling on the observed radiation response is addressed through comparisons to second generation, 120 GHz SiGe HBTs.

Akil K. Sutton; Becca M. Haugerud; A. P. Gnana Prakash; Bongim Jun; John D. Cressler; Cheryl J. Marshall; Paul W. Marshall; Ray Ladbury; Fernando Guarin; Alvin J. Joseph

2005-01-01

194

Airborne time-series measurement of soil moisture using terrestrial gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial gamma radiation data and independent ground-based core soil moisture data are analyzed. They reveal the possibility of using natural terrestrial gamma radiation collected from a low-flying aircraft to make reliable real-time soil moisture measurements for the upper 20 cm of soil. The airborne data were compared to the crude ground-based soil moisture data set collected at the core sites.

Carroll, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.; Peck, Eugene L.

1988-01-01

195

Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 °C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

2009-09-01

196

Deinococcus puniceus sp. nov., a Bacterium Isolated from Soil-Irradiated Gamma Radiation.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, coccus-shaped, crimson-color-pigmented bacterium was isolated from soil irradiated with 5 kGy gamma radiation and was designated strain DY1(T). Cells showed growth at 10-30 °C and pH 7-11 and were oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain DY1(T) belonged to the genus Deinococcus with sequence similarities to Deinococcus aquatilis CCUG 53370(T) (96.2 %) and Deinococcus navajonensis KR-114(T) (94.1 %). Strain DY1(T) showed low level of DNA relatedness with D. aquatilis CCUG 53370(T) (41.3 ± 3.9 %). The DNA G + C content of DY1(T) was 58.7 mol%. Predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c/?6c), C16:0, and C17:0. The major amino acids were D-alanine, L-glutamic acid, glycine, and L-ornithine in the peptidoglycan. The major polar lipids were unknown phosphoglycolipids (PGL). Strain DY1(T) has resistance to gamma radiation and was found to be a novel species. Therefore, the strain was designated as DY1(T) (=KCTC 33027(T) = JCM 18576(T)), and the name Deinococcus puniceus sp. nov. is herein proposed. PMID:25477066

Lee, Jae-Jin; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Im, Seonghun; Kim, Myung Kyum

2015-04-01

197

Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. ELISA's were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation.

Green, Lora M.; Patel, Zarana; Murray, Deborah K.; Rightnar, Steven; Burell, Cheryl G.; Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.

2002-01-01

198

The effect of gamma radiation on the ultrastructure of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation is being used to increase the storage life of fresh foods. Various doses of gamma radiation were administered to Jewel cultivar sweet potatoes and the effects were monitored by direct observation and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Potatoes were divided into two groups: those irradiated immediately after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 KGy) and those irradiated one week after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 kGy). Potatoes were examined and viewed each month for 7 months. Gross observations included weight, color and texture of the sweet potatoes. Those potatoes irradiated immediately after harvest spoiled faster than those irradiated one week after harvest. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated several cellular modifications accompanying spoilage. Cell collapse was greatest at the higher radiation doses during the periods of 1 to 5 months post-irradiation. The shape and size of starch granules varied with storage time and radiation levels. The mitochondria, cell walls and plasma membranes appeared normal as seen by transmission electron microscopy until 6 months post-irradiation for potatoes irradiated both immediately after harvest and one week after harvest. Thereafter, degradative changes were observed.

Brown, A.

1986-12-01

199

Radiation streaming and skyshine evaluation for a proposed low-level radioactive waste assured isolation facility.  

PubMed

Texas is investigating the idea of building a long term waste storage facility, also known as an Assured Isolation Facility. This is an above-ground, retrievable low-level radioactive waste storage facility. A preliminary, scoping-level analysis has been extended to consider more complex scenarios of radiation streaming and skyshine by using MCNP to model the facility in greater detail. Using bounding source term assumptions, the radiation doses and dose rates are found to exceed applicable limits by an order of magnitude. By altering the facility design to fill in the hollow cores of the prefabricated concrete slabs used in the roof over the "high-gamma" rooms where the waste with greatest gamma radiation intensity is stored, dose rates outside the facility decrease by an order of magnitude. With the modified design, the annual dose at the site fenceline is less than the 1 mSv annual limit for exposure of the public. Within the site perimeter, modifying the roof results in an order of magnitude drop in the dose rate for personnel outside the facility and on the facility roof, as well as a significant drop inside the facility. Radiation streaming inside the facility can be lowered almost two orders of magnitude by placing operational restrictions to keep at least two rows of waste containers in front of the high-gamma room to cut down on the size of the path for streaming. PMID:13678291

Arno, Matthew; Hamilton, Ian S

2003-10-01

200

Constraining |V(td)|/|V(ts)| Using Radiative Penguin B -> V(K*/rho/omega)gamma Decays  

SciTech Connect

Exclusive radiative penguin B decays, B {yields} (K*{sup 0}/K*{sup +}) and B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma}, are flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) processes. Studies of these decays are of special interest in testing Standard Model (SM) predictions and searching for other beyond-the-SM FCNC interactions. Using 89 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs from BABAR, we measure the branching fraction ({Beta}), CP-asymmetry ({Alpha}), and isospin asymmetry ({Delta}{sub 0-}) of B {yields} (K*{sup 0}/K*{sup +}){gamma} as follows: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0}{gamma}) = 3.92 {+-} 0.20(stat.) {+-} 0.24(syst.); {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K*{sup +}{gamma}) = 3.87 {+-} 0.28(stat.) {+-} 0.26(syst.); {Alpha}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) = -0.013 {+-} 0.36(stat.) {+-} 0.10(syst.); {Delta}{sub 0-}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) = 0.050 {+-} 0.045(stat.) {+-} 0.028(syst.) {+-} 0.024(R{sup +/0}). The 90% confidence intervals for the CP-asymmetry and the isospin-asymmetry in the B {yields} K*{gamma} decay are given as: -0.074 < {Alpha}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) < 0.049, -0.046 < {Delta}{sub 0-} (B {yields} K*{gamma}) < 0.146. We also search for B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma} decays using 211 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs from BABAR. No evidence for these decays is found. We set the upper limits at 90% confidence level for these decays: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}) < 0.4 x 10{sup -6}; {Beta}(B{sup +}{yields} {rho}{sup =}{gamma}) < 1.8 x 10{sup -6}; {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma}) < 1.0 x 10{sup -6}; {bar {Beta}}(B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma}) < 1.2 x 10{sup -6}. These results are in good agreement with the SM predictions. The branching fractions of these decays are then used to constrain the ratio |V{sub td}|/|V{sub ts}|.

Tan, Ping; /Wisconsin U., Madison

2006-03-08

201

Search for radiative penguin decays B(+)-->rho(+)gamma, B(0)-->rho(0)gamma, and B(0)-->omegagamma.  

PubMed

A search for the decays B-->rho(770)gamma and B0-->omega(782)gamma is performed on a sample of 211 x 10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BB events collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) storage ring. No evidence for the decays is seen. We set the following limits on the individual branching fractions: B(B+-->rho(+)gamma)<1.8 x 10(-6), B(B0-->rho(0)gamma)<0.4 x 10(-6), and B(B0-->omegagamma)<1.0 x 10(-6) at the 90% confidence level. We use the quark model to limit the combined branching fraction B [B-->(rho/omega)gamma]<1.2 x 10(-6), from which we determine a constraint on the ratio of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements |V(td)|/|V(ts)|. PMID:15698065

Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Vetere, M Lo; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Diberder, F Le; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Cormack, C M; Harrison, P F; Lodovico, F Di; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M

2005-01-14

202

Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

1989-01-01

203

Isodose mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.  

PubMed

A terrestrial gamma radiation survey for the state of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya was conducted to obtain baseline data for environmental radiological health practices. Based on soil type, geological background and information from airborne survey maps, 95 survey points statistically representing the study area were determined. The measured doses varied according to geological background and soil types. They ranged from 17 nGy h(-1) to 500 nGy h(-1). The mean terrestrial gamma dose rate in air above the ground was 182 ± 81 nGy h(-1). This is two times higher than the average dose rate of terrestrial gamma radiation in Malaysia which is 92 nGy h(-1) (UNSCEAR 2000). An isodose map was produced to represent exposure rate from natural sources of terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:24787672

Sanusi, M S M; Ramli, A T; Gabdo, H T; Garba, N N; Heryanshah, A; Wagiran, H; Said, M N

2014-09-01

204

[Cytotoxicity of PVC tubes sterilized in ethylene oxide after gamma radiation exposure].  

PubMed

Do materials sterilized using gamma rays become toxic when re-sterilized in ethylene oxide? This question guided the objective of this study, which was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effect of PVC sterilized by gamma radiation and re-sterilized with EO by the agar diffusion method in cell cultures. Nine PVC tubes were subjected to gamma radiation sterilization and were re-sterilized in EO. The tubes were divided into a total of 81 units of analysis that were tested so as to represent the internal and external surfaces and mass of each tube. It was concluded that the PVC materials sterilized in gamma radiation and re-sterilized in EO are not cytotoxic. PMID:23743920

de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Ikeda, Tamiko Ichikawa; Gonçalves, Cláudia Regina; Cruz, Aurea Silveira

2013-04-01

205

Comptonization of diffuse ambient radiation by a relativistic jet: The source of gamma rays from blazars?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent Energy Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) observations of blazars have revealed strong, variable gamma-ray fluxes with no signatures of gamma-ray absorption by pair production. This radiation probably originates from the inner parts of relativistic jets which are aimed nearly toward us. On sub-parsec scales, the jet will be pervaded by radiation from the broad-line region, as well as by photons from the central continuum source (some of which will be scattered by thermal plasma). In a frame moving with the relativistic outflow, the energy of this ambient radiation would be enhanced. This radiation would be Comptonized by both cold and relativistic electrons in the jet, yielding (in the observer's frame) a collimated beam of X-rays and gamma rays. On the assumption that this process dominates self-Comptonization of synchrotron radiation, we develop a self-consistent model for variable gamma-ray emission, involving a single population of relativistic electrons accelerated by a disturbance in the jet. The spectral break between the X-ray and gamma-ray band, observed in 3C 279 and deduced for other blazars, results from inefficient radiative cooling of lower energy electrons. The existence of such a break strongly favors a model involving Comptonization of an external radiation field over a synchrotron self-Compton model. We derive constraints on such model parameters as the location and speed of the source, its dimensions and internal physical parameters, the maximum photon energies produced in the source, and the density and distribution of ambient radiation. Finally, we discuss how observations might discriminate between our model and alternative ones invoking Comptonization of ambient radiation.

Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rees, Martin J.

1994-01-01

206

AMINO ACIDS IN COMETS AND METEORITES: STABILITY UNDER GAMMA RADIATION AND PRESERVATION OF THE  

E-print Network

AMINO ACIDS IN COMETS AND METEORITES: STABILITY UNDER GAMMA RADIATION AND PRESERVATION, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome, Italy. 5 CSIC, Spain. Abstract Amino acids. We present laboratory studies testing the stability of amino acids against radiation photolysis. All

207

Gamma Ray Bursts from Interaction of Relativistic Flows with Radiation Fields  

E-print Network

Relativistic flows resulting from sudden explosive events upscatter ambient interstellar photons of local radiation fields. For Lorentz factor $ > 100$ and dense optical - UV radiation fields the emergent signal is a typical gamma ray burst. Presumably the explosions occur in dense globular clusters or in galactic nuclei, at cosmological distances.

Amotz Shemi

1994-04-20

208

Preparation of cotton knitted fabric by gamma radiation: A new approach.  

PubMed

This study attempts to introduce the exploitation of gamma radiation for the processing of cotton knitted fabric. A systematic investigation into the situations suitable for eco-friendly preparation (scouring and bleaching) of cotton fabric was carried out. Fabric used in this experiment includes cotton knitted single jersey structure of 160gsm. The grey cotton knitted fabric was immersed in different (0 - 30g/L) amount of hydrogen peroxide solution for 10min. Subsequently, the samples were irradiated under Co-60 gamma radiation of absorbed dose (5-20kGy) at a dose rate 5kGy/h. Water absorbency, whiteness index (WI), weight loss, bursting strength, elongation at burst and dye uptake were taken as the measure of extent of scouring and bleaching performance of the intended fabric. The new technology yielded product with acceptable whiteness and water absorbency which is suitable for pale shade dyeing. The optimum results were achieved for the sample irradiated at a total dose 5kGy treated with 10g/L H2O2 solution. The water absorbency and WI value were 2.4s and 39.43, respectively, as well as 82.2% dye exhaustion was obtained having the bursting strength 203.20kPa for this option. But higher dose of radiation was found responsible for lowering the bursting strength of the fabric. However, the irradiated samples demonstrated the good dye-ability indicating the excellent level dyeing with Bezaktive Red S-3B and Novacron Yellow ST-3R reactive dyes. PMID:25662692

Bashar, M Mahbubul; Siddiquee, Md Abu Bakar; Khan, Mubarak A

2015-04-20

209

Terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (TGRD) from surface soil in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseline data on background radiation levels allows for future assessment of possible changes in natural radionuclide concentrations, either as a result of geological processes or radioactive contamination. We have measured terrestrial gamma radiation dose-rates (TGRD) from surface soils throughout accessible areas in the Peninsular Malaysia state of Negeri Sembilan (NS). Dose rate measurements were carried out using a NaI (TI) scintillation survey meter, encompassing 1708 locations, covering about 73% of the 6645 km2 of the land area in NS. This has allowed development of a TGRD contour map, plotted using WinSurf software. The range of measured TGRD was from 71±3 nGy/h up to 1000±11 nGy/h. The greatest measured TGRD was obtained in an area covered by soil types originating from igneous rock of granitic formations, while the least value of TGRD was observed in an area covered by limestone composed of calcite mineral, mostly found near river and coastal areas. Mean values of TGRD across the seven districts of NS ranged from 244±7 nGy/h to 458±13 nGy/h, the global mean being 330±8 nGy/h compared to a mean value of 92 nGy/h and 59 nGy/h for Malaysia and the world, respectively. The average annual dose from such terrestrial gamma radiation dose-rates to an individual residing in NS, assuming a tropical rural setting, is estimated to be 0.96 mSv per year.

Norbani, Nor Eliana; Abdullah Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Wan Idris, Wan Mohd Rizlan; Jaafar, Mohd Zuli; Bradley, David A.; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek

2014-11-01

210

Study of bulk damage in high resistivity silicon detectors irradiated by high dose of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation  

SciTech Connect

High dose (> 200 Mrad) {gamma}-radiation induced displacement damage (or bulk damage) in high resistivity (6--10 k{Omega}-cm) silicon detectors has been studied. It has been found that detector bulk leakage current increases with {gamma} dose at a rate of 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} A/cm{sup 3}/Mrad. This introduction rate of bulk leakage current makes the introduction of generation centers by 210 Mrad of {gamma}-radiation comparable to that by 1 {times} 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} of neutron radiation. Significant carrier removal (or donor removal), about 100%, was found in detectors irradiated to 215 Mrad. Space charge sign inversion (SCSI) (or type inversion) was observed in detectors irradiated to {ge} 215 Mrad using transient current technique (TCT). As many as seven deep levels have been observed by current deep level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS). There was little or no annealing (or reverse annealing) for detectors irradiated to 215 Mrad. Some annealing for detectors irradiated to 500 Mrad have been observed.

Li, Z.; Li, C.J.

1996-04-01

211

Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450 deg. C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

Fokapic, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrda, D.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Mihaljev, Z. [Scientific Veterinary Institute, Rumenacki put 20, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Cupic, Z. [Research Institute for Reproduction, A.I. and Embryo Transfer Temerin, 21235 Temerin, Industrijska zona bb. (Serbia)

2007-04-23

212

Reflectivity of linear and nonlinear gamma radiated apodized chirped Bragg grating under ocean  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect Co{sup 60} gamma radiation is investigated on the effective refractive index of apodized chirped Bragg grating. Nine apodization profiles are considered. Comparison between the reflectivity of the gamma radiated and non radiated fiber Bragg grating has been carried out. The electric field of signals propagating through the apodized chirped fiber Bragg grating (ACFBG) is first calculated from which, new values for the refractive index are determined. The nonlinear effects appear on the ACFBG reflectivity. The effect of nonlinearity and undersea temperature and pressure on the grating is also studied.

Hamdalla, Taymour A. [Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia)

2012-09-06

213

Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is concerned with the health risks to astronauts, particularly those risks related to radiation exposure. Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of (A) peripheral leukocyte distribution; (B) plasma cytokine levels; (C) cytokine production profiles following whole blood stimulation of either T cells or monocytes.

Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2011-01-01

214

Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation  

SciTech Connect

Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

Ossenkopp, K.P.; Giugno, L. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

1989-10-01

215

Mortality of the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) after exposure to /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owyheei Cole, irradiated with 3.5 kR to 268 kR of /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation, were maintained at simulated summer (27/sup 0/C) and winter (7/sup 0/C) temperature regimes. After thirty days, the cool series was warmed to 27/sup 0/C and observed for mortality along with the warm series.Though mortality was delayed in the cool series, each series reached 50% mortality at similar rates. Because the harvester ant is extremely tolerant to radiation and experimental rates used far exceed possible environmental exposure, it is unlikely that ant colonies dwelling among low-level nuclear waste storage sites will be deleteriously affected by radiation. This species has the capability of tunneling to a depth well within the range of some buried waste. Since these harvester ants are potential transporters of buried waste, they should be considered as a biotic factor in radioactive waste management operations in semi-arid regions.

Gano, K.A.

1981-01-01

216

Mortality of the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) after exposure to /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owyheei Cole, irradiated with 3.5 kR to 268 kR of /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation, were maintained at simulated summer (27/sup 0/C) and winter (7/sup 0/C) temperature regimes. After thirty days, the cool series was warmed to 27/sup 0/C and observed for mortality along with the warm series. Though mortality was delayed in the cool series, each series reached 50% mortality at similar rates. Because the harvester ant is extremely tolerant to radiation and experimental rates used far exceed possible environmental exposure, it is unlikely that ant colonies dwelling among low-level nuclear waste storage sites will be deleteriously affected by radiation. This species has the capability of tunneling to a depth well within the range of some buried waste. Since these harvester ants are potential transporters of buried waste, they should be considered as a biotic factor in radioactive waste management operations in semi-arid regions.

Gano, K.A.

1981-01-01

217

Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions at room temperature.

Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

1981-07-01

218

Ionizing radiation induced changes in phenotype, photosynthetic pigments and free polyamine levels in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.  

PubMed

Effects of gamma rays on the free polyamine (PA) levels were studied in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Seeds exposed to different doses of gamma rays were checked for damage on phenotype, germination frequency and alteration in photosynthetic pigments. Free polyamine levels were estimated from seeds irradiated in dry and water imbibed conditions. Polyamine levels of seedlings grown from irradiated seeds, and irradiated seedlings from unexposed seeds were also measured. Damage caused by gamma irradiation resulted in decrease in final germination percentage and seedling height. Photosynthetic pigments decreased in a dose dependent manner as marker of stress. Polyamines decreased in irradiated dry seeds and in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. Radiation stress induced increase in free polyamines was seen in irradiated imbibed seeds and irradiated seedlings. Response of polyamines towards gamma rays is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the plant. PMID:23454839

Sengupta, Mandar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

2013-05-01

219

Radiative Opacities and Photosphere Models for Soft GammaRay  

E-print Network

of the electron Thomson scattering cross section for ra­ diation polarized perpendicular to the magnetic field consider the radiative processes for conditions expected in photo­ spheres of neutron stars (NSs with allowance for these effects. RADIATIVE OPACITIES We consider the radiative processes in a completely ionized

220

Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material  

SciTech Connect

Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

1991-12-31

221

Astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering: Dust scattered gamma radiation from gamma ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary, and perhaps the first, study of astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering in a gamma-ray emitting celestial object like a gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been made. At energies?100 MeV the elastic scattering of gamma-ray photons off the molecular dust surrounding the GRB site is dominated by Delbrück scattering. Expressions for Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray flux as a function of time has been obtained for a few selected energies by assuming a simple model of GRB. These are compared with Compton-scattered flux. At certain situations, interestingly, the former is found to exceed the latter for the first few milliseconds of the burst. The issue of detectability of Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray echo from the cloud of a GRB is discussed. Although it is observed that the detection of such an echo is not within the capability of the presently operating gamma-ray missions such as Fermi LAT, a rough estimate shows that one can be optimistic that future generation gamma-ray telescopes might be able to see such photons' contribution to the total flux.

Kunwar, B.; Bhadra, A.; Gupta, S. K. Sen

2014-02-01

222

Absorption of 10--200 Gev Gamma Rays by Radiation from BLR in Blazars  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the photon-photon pair production optical depth for gamma-rays with energies from 10 to 200 GeV emitted by powerful blazars due to the diffuse radiation field of broad line region (BLR). There are four key parameters in the BLR model employed to determine the $\\gamma-\\gamma$ attenuation optical depth of these gamma-rays. They are the gamma-ray emitting radius $R_{\\gamma}$, the BLR luminosity $L_{\\rm{BLR}}$, the BLR half thickness $h$ and the ratio $\\tau_{\\rm{BLR}}/f_{\\rm{cov}}$ of the Thomson optical depth to the covering factor of BLR. For FSRQs, on average, it is impossible for gamma-rays with energies from 10 to 200 GeV to escape from the diffuse radiation field of the BLR. If $\\it GLAST$ could detect these gamma-rays for most of FSRQs, the gamma-ray emitting region is likely to be outside the cavity formed by the BLR. Otherwise, the emitting region is likely to be inside the BLR cavity. As examples, we estimate the photon-photon absorption optical depth of gamma-rays with energies from 10 to 200 GeV for two powerful blazars, HFSRQ PKS 0405$-$123 and FSRQ 3C 279. Comparing our results with $\\it GLAST$ observations in the future could test whether the model employed and the relevant assumptions in this paper are reliable and reasonable, and then limit constraints on the position of the gamma-ray emitting region relative to the BLR and the properties of the BLR.

H. T. Liu; J. M. Bai

2008-07-20

223

Formulation of a nasogastric liquid feed and shelf-life extension using gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Nasogastric liquid feed formulation (NGLF) was developed for immunocompromised patients who are vulnerable targets of pathogenic assault. NGLF consisted of cereals, pulses, vegetables, and milk powder to provide balanced nutrients; however, the shelf life was only a few hours because this product was highly prone to microbial contamination and proliferation due to its high water content and rich nutrients. Postpreparation storage and distribution was very difficult, even at chilled temperatures. To overcome this problem, the NGLF was irradiated at various doses (2.5 to 10 kGy). Gamma irradiation at 10 kGy reduced the microbial load to nondetectable levels, and the product could be stored up to 1 month without any detectable increase in microbial load. The sensory evaluation did not indicate differences between the nonirradiated fresh, irradiated fresh, and stored samples. Nutritional quality in terms of total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, proteins, calories, vitamins A and C, and the micronutrients calcium, iron, and zinc was not affected by irradiation. NGLF also possessed antimutagenic potential against ethylmethanesulphonate-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli cells as evaluated by the rifampin resistance assay. This property of NGLF remained unchanged even after exposure to a 10-kGy dose of gamma radiation. Thus, irradiated NGLF seemed to be a safe and wholesome food for immunocompromised patients. PMID:25198591

Hajare, Sachin N; Gautam, Satyendra; Nair, Anjali B; Sharma, Arun

2014-08-01

224

Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes, Relativistic Runaway, and High-Energy Radiation in the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy radiation from tens of keV to tens of MeV in energy, the transition region from x-rays to gamma rays, has been observed in association with high electric fields in air in many contexts: from the ground, associated with thunderstorms and with individual flashes of natural and rocket-triggered lightning [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] from sparks in the laboratory [9, 10, 11, 12], from Earth orbit in the form of millisecond Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) [13, 14], and at intermediate altitudes from aircraft and balloons [15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. The gamma radiation in all cases is almost certainly bremsstrahlung generated by the collision of accelerated electrons with nuclei in the atmosphere. The penetrating gamma-rays can provide a mechanism for coupling between the troposphere, mesosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere in the form of energetic particles and ionization.

Smith, David M.

2009-04-01

225

Radiation damage effects on X- and gamma-ray N+NPP+ silicon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes some results concerning technology and behaviour of Xand gamma-ray N+PP+ silicon detectors used in physics research, industrial and medical radiography, and non-destructive testing. Devices manufactured under this technology proved to be stable after an exposure in high intensity gamma field with the dose range of 10 krad-5 Mrad. Nuclear radiation resistance was studied by irradiation with 60Co

V. Cimpoca; M. Petris; R. Ruscu; R. Moraru; M. Breten; M. Cimpoca

1997-01-01

226

New techniques of low level environmental radiation monitoring at JLab  

SciTech Connect

We present the first long-term environmental radiation monitoring results obtained using the technique of pulse mode readout for the industry-standard Reuter-Stokes RSS-1013 argon-filled high pressure ionization chambers (HPIC). With novel designs for the front-end electronics readout and customized signal processing algorithms, we are capable of detecting individual events of gas ionization in the HPIC, caused by interactions of gammas and charged particles in the gas. The technique provides enough spectroscopic information to distinguish between several different types of environmental and man-made radiation. The technique also achieves a high degree of sensitivity and stability of the data, allowing long-term environmental radiation monitoring with unprecedented precision.

P. Degtiarenko, V. Popov

2010-07-01

227

Small scale local gamma ray features. [galactic radiation spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to draw implications from nearby gamma-ray emission, the different ways that can be used to obtain an estimate of the amount of matter on each line of sight are investigated. It is shown that, within present uncertainties, the cosmic ray intensity inside molecular clouds within 1 kpc from the sun is the same as the cosmic ray intensity measured at the sun. In the last part, what can be learned from a comparison of far infrared and gamma-ray data is discussed.

Puget, J. L.; Ryter, C.; Serra, G.

1977-01-01

228

Patient doses in {gamma}-intracoronary radiotherapy: The Radiation Burden Assessment Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine accurately the radiation burden of both patients and staff from intracoronary radiotherapy (IRT) with {sup 192}Ir and to investigate the importance of IRT in the patient dose compared with interventional X-rays. Methods and materials: The Radiation Burden Assessment Study (RABAS) population consisted of 9 patients undergoing {gamma}-IRT after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and 14 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty only as the control group. For each patient, the dose to the organs and tissues from the internal and external exposure was determined in detail by Monte Carlo N-particle simulations. Patient skin dose measurements with thermoluminescence dosimeters served as verification. Staff dosimetry was performed with electronic dosimeters, thermoluminescence dosimeters, and double film badge dosimetry. Results: With respect to the patient dose from IRT, the critical organs are the thymus (58 mGy), lungs (31 mGy), and esophagus (27 mGy). The mean effective dose from IRT was 8 mSv. The effective dose values from interventional X-rays showed a broad range (2-28 mSv), with mean values of 8 mSv for the IRT patients and 13 mSv for the control group. The mean dose received by the radiotherapist from IRT was 4 {mu}Sv/treatment. The doses to the other staff members were completely negligible. Conclusion: Our results have shown that the patient and personnel doses in {gamma}-IRT remain at an acceptable level. The patient dose from IRT was within the variations in dose from the accompanying interventional X-rays.

Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: hubert.thierens@Ughent.be; Reynaert, Nick [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Bacher, Klaus [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Eijkeren, Marc van [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Taeymans, Yves [Department of Cardiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2004-10-01

229

Dipole analysis on EGRET data of extragalactic gamma ray background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dipole analysis on the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) data seems to be one of the numerous subjects that can be investigated for the extragalactic gamma ray background radiation. By the end of the first one and half years after launch, the all-sky survey program of GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory) will be completed. The EGRET detector will cover the full sky area fairly well by that time. A set of gamma ray data suitable for dipole moment calculations will be available. Furthermore, there now exist in the literature several dipole anisotropy results calculated for optical and infrared observations on the distribution of galaxies in the full sky. The results of dipole moment analysis from gamma ray observation can be compared with those at other wavebands, and hopefully some deeper understanding can be gained on the large scale structure of the Universe.

Lin, Ying-Chi

1990-01-01

230

Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system  

DOEpatents

A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

2013-02-12

231

A Grey Radiative Transfer Procedure For Gamma-ray Transfer in Supernovae  

E-print Network

The gamma-ray transfer in supernovae for the purposes of energy deposition in the ejecta can be approximated fairly accurately as frequency-integrated (grey) radiative transfer using a mean opacity as shown by Swartz, Sutherland, & Harkness (SSH). In SSH's grey radiative transfer procedure (unoptimized) the mean opacity is a pure absorption opacity and it is a constant aside from a usually weak composition dependence. In this paper, we present a variation on the SSH procedure which uses multiple mean opacities which have both absorption and scattering components. There is a mean opacity for each order of Compton scattering. A local-state (LS) approximation permits an analytic solution for the gamma-ray transfer of scattered gamma-ray fields. The LS approximation is admittedly crude, but the scattered fields are always of lesser importance to the energy deposition. We call our procedure the LS grey radiative transfer procedure or LS procedure for short. For a standard Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) model the uncertainty in gamma-ray energy deposition is estimated to be of order 10 % or less. The LS procedure code used for this paper can be obtained by request from the author. For completeness and easy reference, we include in this paper a review of the gamma-ray opacities important in supernovae, a discussion of the appropriate mean opacity prescription, and a discussion of the errors arising from neglecting time-dependent and non-static radiative transfer effects.

David J. Jeffery

1998-11-23

232

Radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions  

SciTech Connect

The radiation environment in a typical SSC detector has been evaluated using the best available particle production models coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The problems studied include direct charged particle dose, dose inside a calorimeter from the cascades produced by incident photons and hadrons, the flux of neutrons and photons backscattered from the calorimeter into a central cavity, and neutron flux in the calorimeter. The luminosity lifetime at the SSC is dominated by collision losses in the interaction regions, where the luminosity is equivalent to losing an entire full-energy proton beam into the apparatus every six days. The result of an average p-p collision can be described quite simply. The mean charged multiplicity is about 110, and the particles are distributed nearly uniformly in pseudorapidity ({eta}) over all the angles of interest. The transverse momentum distribution is independent of angle, and for our purposes may be written as p{perpendicular}exp(-p{perpendicular}/{beta}). The mean value of p{perpendicular} may be as high as 0.6 GeV/c. Most of the radiation is produced by the very abundant low-p{perpendicular} particles. The dose or neutron fluence produced by individual particles in this energy region are simulated over a wide variety of conditions, and several measurements serve to confirm the simulation results. In general, the response (a dose, fluence, the number of backscattered neutrons, etc.) for an incident particle of momentum p can be parameterized in the form Np{sup {alpha}}, where 0.5 < {alpha}< 1.0. The authors believe most of their results to be accurate to within a factor of two or three, sufficiently precise to serve as the basis for detailed designs.

Groom, D.E. [ed.

1988-06-10

233

(Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high {Tc} superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect.

Not Available

1992-01-01

234

Neutron and gamma radiation effects in proton exchanged optical waveguides.  

PubMed

The effect of neutron and gamma ray irradiations on the optical properties of proton exchanged Z-cut lithium niobate optical planar waveguides were investigated. The damage thresholds were found by optical characterization for waveguides exchanged either in pure or diluted proton source. PMID:19451950

Passaro, Vittorio; Armenise, Mario

2002-09-01

235

Gamma Radiation Induced Calibration Shift for Four Cryogenic Thermometer Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic temperature sensors utilized in space environments are exposed to ionizing radiation with the total dose dependent upon the length of the mission. Based upon their minimal size and robust packaging, four models of cryogenic Resistance Thermometer Devices (RTDs) manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. were tested to determine their reliability for space applications with regard to radiation. Samples of

S. Scott Courts; C. J. Yeager

2004-01-01

236

Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil  

SciTech Connect

We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sao Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sao Paulo, and soil from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Medina, N. H.; Aguiar, V. A. P. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-08-04

237

Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sa~o Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sa~o Paulo, and soil from Sa~o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

2010-08-01

238

Chronic exposure to gamma radiation of wild populations of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

Free-ranging, wild meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were exposed to gamma radiation from a (137)Cs irradiator in a series of experiments conducted on six 1-ha meadows within a mixed deciduous forest in Manitoba, Canada. Over a period of 1-1.5 years in each of three experiments, vole populations were monitored with capture-mark-release techniques at nominal exposure rates of 200x, 9000x and 40,000x background. No effects on population or individual characteristics were detected up to the highest exposure rate (81 mGy/d). At this level, third generation voles were monitored up to a lifetime dose of about 5.7 Gy, at a measured dose rate of 44 mGy/d. Smaller numbers of overwintered animals survived and reproduced normally at doses up to 10 Gy. These results are discussed in terms of low-LET, external chronic radiation effects on rodents in the laboratory and the field, relative to current views on appropriate benchmarks for the protection of biota. PMID:15193792

Mihok, Steve

2004-01-01

239

Gamma radiation increases endonuclease-dependent L1 retrotransposition in a cultured cell assay.  

PubMed

Long Interspersed Elements (LINE-1s, L1s) are the most active mobile elements in the human genome and account for a significant fraction of its mass. The propagation of L1 in the human genome requires disruption and repair of DNA at the site of integration. As Barbara McClintock first hypothesized, genotoxic stress may contribute to the mobilization of transposable elements, and conversely, element mobility may contribute to genotoxic stress. We tested the ability of genotoxic agents to increase L1 retrotransposition in a cultured cell assay. We observed that cells exposed to gamma radiation exhibited increased levels of L1 retrotransposition. The L1 retrotransposition frequency was proportional to the number of phosphorylated H2AX foci, an indicator of genotoxic stress. To explore the role of the L1 endonuclease in this context, endonuclease-deficient tagged L1 constructs were produced and tested for their activity in irradiated cells. The activity of the endonuclease-deficient L1 was very low in irradiated cells, suggesting that most L1 insertions in irradiated cells still use the L1 endonuclease. Consistent with this interpretation, DNA sequences that flank L1 insertions in irradiated cells harbored target site duplications. These results suggest that increased L1 retrotransposition in irradiated cells is endonuclease dependent. The mobilization of L1 in irradiated cells potentially contributes to genomic instability and could be a driving force for secondary mutations in patients undergoing radiation therapy. PMID:16507671

Farkash, Evan A; Kao, Gary D; Horman, Shane R; Prak, Eline T Luning

2006-01-01

240

Examining a link between SPEs and ground level radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have previously found a correlation between solar proton events (SPEs) and congenital malformations (CMs). A similar correlation has also been found between long term solar variability and CMs. We examine the ionizing radiation dose from these events as well as the largest events on record to determine whether these events are capable of producing these effects. We show that the total ionizing radiation dose (consisting of neutrons and muons) at ground level is insufficient for production of the observed increases in CM rate under the current paradigm regarding ionizing radiation from muons and neutrons. Current research on the subject shows that our assumptions regarding muonic ionizing radiation may be underestimating their biologic effect. We recommend further experimentation regarding the radiation dose due to muons, as this may prove to be a more substantial contribution to our radiation environment than previously assumed.

Overholt, Andrew

2015-01-01

241

Caffeine enhanced measurement of mutagenesis by low levels of [gamma]-irradiation in human lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known action of caffeine in synergizing mutagenesis (including chromosome aberrations) of agents like ionizing radiation by inhibition of cellular repair processes has been incorporated into a rapid procedure for detection of mutagenicity with high sensitivity. Effects of 5-10 rads of [gamma]-irradiation, which approximate the human lifetime dose accumulation from background radiation, can be detected in a two-day procedure using

T. P. Puck; R. Johnson; C. A. Waldren; H. Morse

1993-01-01

242

Microwave and gamma radiation observations of soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique dielectric properties of water at microwave wavelengths afford the possibility for remotely sensing the moisture content in the surface layer of the soil. The surface emissivity and reflectivity for the soils at these wavelengths are strong functions of its moisture content. The changes in emissivity can be observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry) and the change in reflectivity can be observed by active microwave techniques (radar). The difference in the natural terrestrial gamma ray flux measured for wet and dry soil may be used to determine soil moisture. The presence of water moisture in the soil causes an effective increase in soil density, resulting in an increased attenuation of the gamma flux for wet soil and a corresponding lower flux above the ground surface.

Schmugge, T. J.; Njoku, E. G.; Peck, E.; Ulaby, F. T.

1979-01-01

243

Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

2006-06-20

244

Comparison of gamma radiation performance of a range of CMOS a\\/D converters under biased conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation effects on analog and mixed signal semiconductor devices are a major concern in space and nuclear applications. Significant degradation has been observed in A\\/D converters in a radiation environment. In fact, recent advances in A\\/D converters have further reduced the radiation tolerance of these converters on account of their complex circuitry. This paper studies the effects of gamma radiation

Vivek Agarwal; Sagar D. Birkar

2005-01-01

245

High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose that the important relationship between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at over 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a kinematic focusing mechanism, based on Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet, that preferentially emits gamma rays in the superluminal direction.

Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.; Mastichiadis, A.

1992-01-01

246

SCINTILLATION METHOD FOR DOSIMETRY OF ROENTGEN AND GAMMA RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high radiation sensitivity of an air-equivalent scintillator is ; discussed. The possibility of creating a scintillation dosimeter with a high ; radiation sensitivity not worse than plus or minus 6.0% in the energy range 30-; 130 kev with efficiency not less than 0.1 mr\\/hr is considered. The possibility ; of increasing the efficiency is also discussed. (tr-auth);

M. I. Arsaev; N. E. Sulimova

1963-01-01

247

Jitter radiation in gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows: emission and self-absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic electrons moving into a highly tangled magnetic field emit jitter radiation. We present a detailed computation of the jitter radiation spectrum, including self-absorption, for electrons inside Weibel-like shock generated magnetic fields. We apply our results to the case of the prompt and afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts. We show that jitter emission can reproduce most of the observed features

Jared C. Workman; Brian J. Morsony; Davide Lazzati; Mikhail V. Medvedev

2008-01-01

248

Jitter Radiation as a Possible Mechanism for Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows: Spectra and Light Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard model of gamma-ray burst afterglows assumes that the radiation observed as a delayed emission is of synchrotron origin, which requires the shock magnetic field to be relatively homogeneous on small scales. An alternative mechanism-jitter radiation, which traditionally has been applied to the prompt emission-substitutes for synchrotron when the magnetic field is tangled on a microscopic scale. Such are

Mikhail V. Medvedev; Davide Lazzati; Brian C. Morsony; Jared C. Workman

2007-01-01

249

Jitter radiation in gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows: emission and self-absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic electrons moving into a highly tangled magnetic field emit\\u000ajitter radiation. We present a detailed computation of the jitter radiation\\u000aspectrum, including self-absorption, for electrons inside Weibel-like shock\\u000agenerated magnetic fields. We apply our results to the case of the prompt and\\u000aafterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts. We show that jitter emission can\\u000areproduce most of the observed features

Jared C. Workman; Brian J. Morsony; Davide Lazzati; Mikhail V. Medvedev

2007-01-01

250

Testicular damage and regeneration in rats following low-level gamma irradiation  

E-print Network

TESTICULAR DAMAGE AND REGENERATION IN RATS FOLLOWING LOW-LEVEL GAMMA IRRADIATION A Thesis by Wesley Howard Maxwell Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Zoology TESTICULAR DAMAGE AND REGENERATION IN RATS FOLLOWING LOW-LEVEL GAMMA IRRADIATION A Thesis by Wesley Howard Maxwell Approved as to style and content by: 'airman f Committee) (Head of Department...

Maxwell, Wesley Howard

1974-01-01

251

Response of organic liquid scintillators to fast neutrons and gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid organic scintillators are cocktails of aromatic fluorophores in an aromatic solvent. They find widespread use in Liquid Scintillation Counters with applications in medical diagnostics as well as fundamental nuclear and particle physics. Ultima Gold™ XR, a commercially available organic liquid scintillator from Perkin Elmer, can be used in both aqueous and non-aqueous systems and is typically used for beta detection in medical diagnostics. Its performance under gamma radiation and neutron radiation is less well-characterized. Special and normal Ultima Gold™ XR liquid scintillators were exposed in separate experiments to fast neutrons and high energy photons from a nuclear reactor and to gamma rays from a Co-60 source. To perform the measurements in the radiation chamber, a custom light collection system consisting of a fiber optic cable, spectrometer and a diffuse reflecting optical cavity was fabricated. Advanced calibration procedures, traceable to NIST standards, were developed to determine photon fluxes and flux densities of the scintillators under ionizing radiation conditions. The scintillator emission spectra under gamma radiation from a Co-60 source and neutron radiation from a pool-type nuclear reactor were recorded and compared. Results on the spectrometer design and comparison of the spectra under different exposure are presented.

Hoertz, Paul G.; Mills, Karmann; Davis, Lynn; Baldasaro, Nicholas; Gupta, Vijay

2013-03-01

252

Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin-papain membranes without glycerol was 14.30±6.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in the absorption capacity. Moisture vapour transmission rate of the membranes was 4285.77±455.61 g/m2/24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25-35 kGy. The irradiated chitin-papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin-papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity.

Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

2012-11-01

253

Identification and control of spacecraft radiation sources of interference to X-ray and gamma-ray experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 15 and 16 will carry instruments for the purpose of measuring X-ray and gamma ray fluxes from the lunar surface and in cis-lunar space. The intensity levels expected are low over most of the energy range of interest, requiring that background contributions be minimized. The radiation sources on Apollo determined and their interference with these instruments evaluated. The results were used as a basis for dealing with this problem and for recommendations applicable to future manned and unmanned missions.

Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.

1972-01-01

254

Assessment of external gamma exposure and radon levels in a dwelling constructed with phosphogypsum plates.  

PubMed

Phosphogypsum, a fertilizer industry by-product, is being worldwide stockpiled, posing environmental concerns. Since this material contains natural radionuclides in significant concentrations, its use as a building material has radiological implications. In order to confirm the feasibility of the use of a new material mainly composed by phosphogypsum, an experimental house was built, having some of its rooms entirely lined with this material. Measurements of samples of phosphogypsum plates from different origins resulted in values of 0.2 to 2.6 for the external radiation index, thus justifying a more detailed investigation. In this paper, the application of a previously developed computational model to forecast external doses indoors is described. A comprehensive radiological evaluation is being performed, including measurement of the external gamma exposure and radon concentrations in one of the rooms of the house. The results show that the annual increment in the effective dose to an inhabitant of the house will remain below the 1 mSv limit for every reasonable scenario. The radon measurements were carried out over a period of 18 months, in order to determine the long-term average levels of the indoor radon concentrations. The results obtained are below 200 Bq m(-3), the recommended investigation level for radon. PMID:21458158

Máduar, M F; Campos, M P; Mazzilli, B P; Villaverde, F L

2011-06-15

255

Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on crawfish tail meat using cryogenic freezing and gamma radiation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including crawfish. Cryogenic freezing and gamma radiation are two technologies which can be used to improve the microbiological safety and shelf-life of foods. In the U.S. the majority of non-c...

256

Response of shortgrass plains vegetation to gamma radiation. I. Chronic irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native shortgrass plains vegetation was exposed to chronic gamma ; radiation with exposure rates varying from 0.01 to 650 R\\/hr starting in April ; 1969. The dominant species in the plant community was Bouteloua gracilis (blue ; grama). Density and frequency were recorded and these data were converted into ; community indices of coefficient of community (CC) and diversity (D).

L. Jr. Fraley; F. W. Whicker

1973-01-01

257

Microbiological, chemical, and sensory quality changes in Pico de gallo as affected by gamma radiation  

E-print Network

This study was undertaken to gain a greater understanding of the effects of gamma radiation and storage at 2'C on the microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of pico de gallo. Samples of pico de gallo were exposed to cobalt'o at a dose of I...

Miller, Gerald Howard

1994-01-01

258

Effect of Gamma and UV Radiation on Properties of EPDM\\/GTR\\/HDPE Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene propylene dine monomer (EPDM) was blended with both ground tire rubber (GTR) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) prepared at different ratios and then exposed to gamma and ultraviolet radiations. The mechanical, physical, and thermal properties were investigated with respect to the kind of irradiation and blend compositions. A scanning electron microscope was also used to examine the morphology of the

M. M. Abou Zeid; S. T. Rabie; A. A. Nada; A. M. Khalil; R. H. Hilal

2008-01-01

259

THE EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON JPN PROPELLANT. Memorandum Report No. 122  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strips of JPN propellart were subjected to the gamma radiation of cobalt-; 60 sources at Brooknaven National Laboratory. These strips were chemically ; analyzed and physically tested. Significant changes were observed in the ; viscosity of the nitrocellulose, the available centralites and the stability of ; the propellant. The main transformation product of the ethyl centralitc ; stabilizer was 4-nitrocentralite.

A. Owyang; H. Rosenwasser

1956-01-01

260

MICRONUCLEI IN BINUCLEATED LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO GAMMA RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed to investigate the induction of micronuclei (MN) in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) after in vitro or in vivo exposure to 60Co gamma radiation. or the in vitro experiments, 4 ml of blood from male C57BL/6J mice were either irradiated in 6 ml Fa...

261

Radiation degradation and frictional properties of gamma sterilized PVC (copper-T)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) components used in medical devices as flanges may lose their frictional property on gamma sterilization due to radiation degradation. Frictional load, glass transition temperature, linear expansion coefficient, dynamic load expansion and specific heat measurements have been carried out on PVC flanges to investigate the effect of irradiation and formulations have been developed for eliminating the undesired effects.

L. Varshney; N. Balan; S. V. Choughule; P. K. Jothish; K. Krishnamurthy

1996-01-01

262

An Electronically-collimated Gamma-ray Detector for Localization of Radiation Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small hand-held radiation detectors that can image a gamma-ray source and yet can be transported by a single operator could have numerous applications, either in medical intraoperative procedures or in nuclear security field work. We report on the design of a device intended for such applications and we present results of simulations that indicate expected performance for such a compact

Blair Smith; Kenneth L. Matthews II; Adam Lackie; W. H. Hill; Wei-Hsung Wang; M. L. Cherry

2006-01-01

263

Kinetics of the radiation-induced radicals in gamma irradiated solid cefazolin sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room and high temperature kinetic and spectroscopic features of the radical species produced in gamma irradiated cefazolin sodium (here after CS) were investigated in detail using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to determine the feasibility of its sterilization by radiation and to explore the dosimetric properties of this semi-synthetic representative of cephalosporins. Irradiated CS exhibits an unresolved ESR doublet as

S. Yurus; M. Korkmaz

2005-01-01

264

A simple detector for locating radiography and radiotherapy gamma emitting radiation sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides a simple design of collimated Geiger-Muller tube detector which is simple to construct and would be useful in the recovery of lost gamma radiation sources. The detector is compatible with the majority of ratemeters in present use.

P H Burgess

1983-01-01

265

Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of (GAMMA) radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates) are discussed. Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses.

266

Gamma radiation effects on physical properties of parchment documents: Assessment of Dmax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parchments are important documents that give testimony for History; therefore these materials should be respected and preserved. Considering incremental biodeterioration problems that have to be faced daily, the Archive of the University of Coimbra (AUC) is involved in different scientific projects in order to evaluate and determine new methods for document decontamination and preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation effects on the colour and texture of the AUC parchment documents. The assessment of these effects was used to estimate the maximum gamma radiation dose (Dmax) that could guarantee parchment documents' decontamination treatment, without significant alteration of their physical properties. Parchment samples were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy. The texture and colour of samples were assessed before and after the irradiation procedure, using a texture analyser and an electronic colorimeter. Hardness and springiness were determined based on texture spectra. Lightness (L*), Chroma (C), greenness vs. redness (a*) and yellowness vs. blueness (b*) values were obtained from colorimetric measures. Results indicate no significant effects of gamma radiation on the texture and colour of parchment for the studied doses.

Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; João Trigo, Maria; Ferreira, Armando; Manuela Carolino, Maria; Portugal, António; Luísa Botelho, Maria

2012-12-01

267

Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidation and Tocopherols Decrease in In-Shell, Peeled and Blanched Peanuts  

PubMed Central

In-shell, peeled and blanched peanut samples were characterized in relation to proximate composition and fatty acid profile. No difference was found in relation to its proximate composition. The three major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. In order to investigate irradiation and storage effects, peanut samples were submitted to doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy, stored for six months at room temperature and monitored every three months. Peanuts responded differently to irradiation, particularly with regards to tocopherol contents, primary and secondary oxidation products and oil stability index. Induction periods and tocopherol contents were negatively correlated with irradiation doses and decreased moderately during storage. ?-Tocopherol was the most gamma radiation sensitive and peeled samples were the most affected. A positive correlation was found among tocopherol contents and the induction period of the oils extracted from irradiated samples. Gamma radiation and storage time increased oxidation compounds production. If gamma radiation is considered an alternative for industrial scale peanut conservation, in-shell samples are the best feedstock. For the best of our knowledge this is the first article with such results; this way it may be helpful as basis for future studies on gamma radiation of in-shell crops. PMID:22489128

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

268

Gamma radiation in the reduction of S almonella spp. inoculated on minimally processed watercress ( Nasturtium officinalis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumer attitudes towards foods have changed in the last two decades increasing requirements for freshlike products. Consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have freshlike characteristics and satisfy this new consumer demand. Besides freshness, the minimally processing also provide convenience required by the market. Salad vegetables can be source of pathogen such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp. The minimal processing does not reduce the levels of pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to improve the microbiological safety and the shelf-life of minimally processed vegetables using gamma radiation. Minimally processed watercress inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella spp was exposed to 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.5 kGy. Irradiated samples were diluted 1:10 in saline peptone water and plated onto tryptic soy agar that were incubated at 37°C/24 h. D 10 values for Salmonella spp. inoculated in watercress varied from 0.29 to 0.43 kGy. Therefore, a dose of 1.7 kGy will reduce Salmonella population in watercress by 4 log 10. The shelf-life was increased by 1 {1}/{2} day when the product was exposed to 1 kGy.

Martins, C. G.; Behrens, J. H.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B.; Landgraf, M.

2004-09-01

269

The effects of physicochemical properties on gamma emitting natural radionuclide levels in the soil profile of Istanbul.  

PubMed

The inventory of gamma-emitting radionuclides was determined in soil samples collected at six depth levels, from 15 locations in Istanbul metropolis. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U, (40)K were measured by means of gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U, (40)K in the 30-cm depth soil were found as 32.1, 27.4, 393.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean value of the absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) from the outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation, Ra equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), and the external hazard index (H(ex)) were calculated as 48.7 nGy h(-1), 59.7 muSv, 104.1 Bq kg(-1), and 0.28, respectively. The effects of organic matter content, textural properties, and pH value of soil samples on the natural radionuclide levels were also investigated. The relations between natural radionuclide level and the physical and chemical properties of studied soil samples were mainly clarified with cluster analysis and Pearson correlation. PMID:19242808

Belivermis, Murat; Kiliç, Nder; Cotuk, Yavuz; Topcuo?lu, Sayhan

2010-04-01

270

Radiation effect on silicon transistors in mixed neutrons-gamma environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gamma and neutron irradiations on two different types of transistors, Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), were investigated. Irradiation was performed using a Syrian research reactor (RR) (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR)) and a gamma source (Co-60 cell). For RR irradiation, MCNP code was used to calculate the absorbed dose received by the transistors. The experimental results showed an overall decrease in the gain factors of the transistors after irradiation, and the JFETs were more resistant to the effects of radiation than BJTs. The effect of RR irradiation was also greater than that of gamma source for the same dose, which could be because neutrons could cause more damage than gamma irradiation.

Assaf, J.; Shweikani, R.; Ghazi, N.

2014-10-01

271

Orbital Observatory GLAST - New Step in the Study of Cosmic Gamma Radiation: Mission Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation is a overview of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now named Fermi Space Telescope. The new telescope is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2008. It contains the high energy gamma-ray telescope LAT (Large Area Telescope) and the GMB (GLAST Burst Monitor). The science objectives of GLAST cover almost every area of high energy astrophysics, including Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), including Extragalactic background light (EBL), Gamma-ray bursts (GRB), Pulsars, Diffuse gamma-radiation, EGRET unidentified sources, Solar physics, Origin of Cosmic Rays and, Dark Matter and New Physics. Also included in this overview is a discussion of the preparation to the analysis of the science data.

Moiseev, Alexander

2008-01-01

272

Radiation measurement above the lunar surface by Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar surface is filled with various ionizing radiations such as high energy galactic particles, albedo particles and secondary radiations of neutrons, gamma rays and other elementary particles. A high-resolution Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (KGRS) was carried on the Japan’s lunar explorer SELENE (Kaguya), the largest lunar orbiter since the Apollo missions. The KGRS instrument employed, for the first time in lunar exploration, a high-purity Ge crystal to increase the identification capability of elemental gamma-ray lines. The Ge detector is surrounded by BGO and plastic counters as for anticoincidence shields. The KGRS measured gamma rays in the energy range from 200 keV to 13 MeV with high precision to determine the chemical composition of the lunar surface. It provided data on the abundance of major elements over the entire lunar surface. In addition to the gamma-ray observation by the KGRS, it successfully measured the global distribution of fast neutrons. In the energy spectra of gamma-rays observed by the KGRS, several saw-tooth- peaks of Ge are included, which are formed by the collision interaction of lunar fast neutrons with Ge atoms in the Ge crystal. With these saw-tooth-peaks analysis, global distribution of neutrons emitted from the lunara surface was successfully created, which was compared with the previous results obtained by Lunar Prospector neutron maps. Another anticoincidence counter, the plastic counter with 5 mm thickness, was used to veto radiation events mostly generated by charged particles. A single photomultiplier serves to count scintillation light from the plastic scintillation counter. The global map of counting rates observed by the plastic counter was also created, implying that the radiation counting rate implies the geological distribution, in spite that the plastic counter mostly measures high energy charged particles and energetic neutrons. These results are presented and discussed.

Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kusano, Hiroki; Hareyama, Matoko; Ideguchi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Sota; Shibamura, Eido

273

Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on seafood by gamma radiation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ionizing radiation is used on a global basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of irradiation to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to irradiate produce to improve its microbiologica...

274

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

275

Evaluation of the spatial distribution of gammaH2AX following ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

An early molecular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is phosphorylation of the Ser-139 residue within the terminal SQEY motif of the histone H2AX. This phosphorylation of H2AX is mediated by the phosphatidyl-inosito 3-kinase (PI3K) family of proteins, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-protein kinase catalytic subunit and ATM and RAD3-related (ATR). The phosphorylated form of H2AX, referred to as gammaH2AX, spreads to adjacent regions of chromatin from the site of the DSB, forming discrete foci, which are easily visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Analysis and quantitation of gammaH2AX foci has been widely used to evaluate DSB formation and repair, particularly in response to ionizing radiation and for evaluating the efficacy of various radiation modifying compounds and cytotoxic compounds. Given the exquisite specificity and sensitivity of this de novo marker of DSBs, it has provided new insights into the processes of DNA damage and repair in the context of chromatin. For example, in radiation biology the central paradigm is that the nuclear DNA is the critical target with respect to radiation sensitivity. Indeed, the general consensus in the field has largely been to view chromatin as a homogeneous template for DNA damage and repair. However, with the use of gammaH2AX as molecular marker of DSBs, a disparity in gamma-irradiation-induced gammaH2AX foci formation in euchromatin and heterochromatin has been observed. Recently, we used a panel of antibodies to either mono-, di- or tri- methylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me1, H3K9me2, H3K9me3) which are epigenetic imprints of constitutive heterochromatin and transcriptional silencing and lysine 4 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2, H3K4me3), which are tightly correlated actively transcribing euchromatic regions, to investigate the spatial distribution of gammaH2AX following ionizing radiation. In accordance with the prevailing ideas regarding chromatin biology, our findings indicated a close correlation between gammaH2AX formation and active transcription. Here we demonstrate our immunofluorescence method for detection and quantitation of gammaH2AX foci in non-adherent cells, with a particular focus on co-localization with other epigenetic markers, image analysis and 3D-modeling. PMID:20736911

Vasireddy, Raja S; Tang, Michelle M; Mah, Li-Jeen; Georgiadis, George T; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

2010-01-01

276

Hormetic effects of gamma radiation on the stress axis of natural populations of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that low doses of gamma radiation have beneficial, hormetic effects on the stress axis (the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis) of free-ranging meadow vole populations (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Voles were exposed to chronic gamma radiation from a 137Cs field irradiator. In isolated populations, voles received one of three treatments over a four-year period: Controls (0.19-0.42 microGy/h--levels that were 2-5x above background levels [0.1 microGy/h] and live-trapped in all years--1982--1985), low doses (22.6 microGy/h--50-200x background, live-trapped from November 1982--April 1985), or high doses (3,840 microGy/h--40,000x background, live-trapped from November 1983--April 1985). Voles exposed to a low dose had levels of free and total corticosterone that were significantly higher than those in the control or high-dose groups. Differences in response to radiation between the sexes were apparent for maximum corticosterone-binding capacity, with females exposed to low doses having higher binding capacity than control or high-dose females, whereas males exposed to low doses had lower binding capacity than control or high-dose males. Low-dose voles had higher counts of neutrophils than either the controls or high-dose voles; hematocrit was greater in the controls than in irradiated voles. These results indicate that voles display a hormetic response to radiation, wherein low doses of an otherwise harmful agent produce a beneficial effect. The stimulation of the stress axis resulting in the increased secretion of glucocorticoids, which may protect against the excessive actions of the immune and inflammatory responses, may be a key mechanism producing this effect. PMID:15719993

Boonstra, Rudy; Manzon, Richard G; Mihok, Steve; Helson, Julie E

2005-02-01

277

Polyaniline nanofilms as a monitoring label and dosimetric device for gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

In this work, an optical dosimeter for gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) based on the color change of polyaniline nanofilms in the emeraldine oxidation state was developed by spin coating of the polymer films on glass substrates. After irradiation, the nanofilms were characterized by UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy as a function of the {sup 60}Co radiation dose. The deep blue color, characteristic of undoped polyaniline films before irradiation subsequently becomes green as the film is irradiated, and the film absorption coefficient exhibits a linear dependence with logarithm of the irradiation dose from 1 to 10 kGy. These results strongly suggest that polyaniline nanofilms can be used as a qualitative and quantitative dosimeter for gamma radiation in the analyzed dose range.

Laranjeira, J.M.G.; Khoury, H.J.; Azevedo, W.M. de; Vasconcelos, E.A. de; Silva, E.F. da

2003-03-15

278

Evaluation of phenolic compounds in maté ( Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The maté ( Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrão or tererê, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of tererê beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of tererê beverage processed by gamma radiation.

Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T. C. F.; Fanaro, G. B.; Souza, M. F. F.; Bastos, D. H. M.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

2009-07-01

279

Radiation-induced bystander effects in the Atlantic salmon (salmo salar L.) following mixed exposure to copper and aluminum combined with low-dose gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the combined effects of low doses of heavy metals and radiation. However, such "multiple stressor" exposure is the reality in the environment. In the work reported in this paper, fish were exposed to cobalt 60 gamma irradiation with or without copper or aluminum in the water. Doses of radiation ranged from 4 to 75 mGy delivered over 48 or 6 h. Copper doses ranged from 10 to 80 ?g/L for the same time period. The aluminum dose was 250 ?g/L. Gills and skin were removed from the fish after exposure and explanted in tissue culture flasks for investigation of bystander effects of the exposures using a stress signal reporter assay, which has been demonstrated to be a sensitive indicator of homeostatic perturbations in cells. The results show complex synergistic interactions of radiation and copper. Gills on the whole produce more toxic bystander signals than skin, but the additivity scores show highly variable results which depend on dose and time of exposure. The impacts of low doses of copper and low doses of radiation are greater than additive, medium levels of copper alone have a similar level of effect of bystander signal toxicity to the low dose. The addition of radiation stress, however, produces clear protective effects in the reporters treated with skin-derived medium. Gill-derived medium from the same fish did not show protective effects. Radiation exposure in the presence of 80 ?g/L led to highly variable results, which due to animal variation were not significantly different from the effect of copper alone. The results are stressor type, stressor concentration and time dependent. Clearly co-exposure to radiation and heavy metals does not always lead to simple additive effects. PMID:24352529

Mothersill, Carmel; Smith, Richard W; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole Christian; Land, Ole Christian; Seymour, Colin B; Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit

2014-03-01

280

Cloud Induced Enhancement of Ground Level Solar Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol and cloud cover are typically associated with long and short-term variability of all three solar radiation components at the ground level. Although aerosol attenuation can be a substantial factor for Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) in some microclimates, the strongest factor for ground level irradiance attenuation is cloud cover which acts on time-scales associated with strong solar power generation fluctuations. Furthermore, the driving effects of clouds on radiative energy budgets include shortwave cooling, as a result of absorption of incoming solar radiation, and longwave heating, due to reduced emission of thermal radiation by relatively cool cloud tops. Under special circumstances, the presence of clouds in the circumsolar region may lead to the reverse; a local increase in the diffuse downwelling solar radiation due to directional scattering from clouds. This solar beam effect exceed the losses resulting from the backscattering of radiation into space. Such conditions result in radiation levels that temporarily exceed the localized clear sky values. These phenomena are referred to as Cloud Enhancement Events (CEEs). There are currently two fundamental CEE mechanisms discussed in the literature. The first involves well-defined, and optically thick cloud edges close to, but not obscuring, the solar disk. The effect here is of producing little or no change in the normal beam radiation. In this case, cloud edges in the vicinity of the sun create a non-isotropic increase in the local diffuse radiation field with respect to the isotropic scattering of a clear-sky atmosphere. The second type of CEE allows for partial or full obstruction of the solar disk by an optically thin diffuser such as fine clouds, haze or fog; which results in an enhanced but still nearly isotropic diffuse radiation field. In this study, an entire year of solar radiation data and total sky images taken at 30 second resolution at the University of California, Merced (UCM) is used in conjunction with optimized clear sky models, statistical analysis, and wavelet transform methods to investigate the solar radiation Ramp Rates (RRs) associated with both of the fundamental CEE mechanisms. Results indicate that CEEs account for nearly 5% of the total daytime hours in this dataset and produce nearly 4% of the total energy over the year. In addition, wavelet transform techniques suggest that CEEs at UCM location operate on timescales ranging from 2 to 4 minutes. Our results allow estimation of the probability and magnitude of these RRs as well the percentage of annual excess energy production resulting from CEEs which could be used to offset ancillary services required to operate PV power systems.

Inman, R.; Chu, Y.; Coimbra, C.

2013-12-01

281

THE PHOTOSPHERIC RADIATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: INTERPRETING FOUR OBSERVED CORRELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We show that the empirical E{sub p}-L, {Gamma}-L, E{sub p}-{Gamma}, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}}-E{sub p} correlations (where L is the time-averaged luminosity of the prompt emission, E{sub p} is the spectral peak energy, {Gamma} is the bulk Lorentz factor, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}} is the emission efficiency of gamma-ray bursts, GRBs) are well consistent with the relations between the analogous parameters predicted in the photospheric radiation model of the prompt emission of GRBs. The time-resolved thermal radiation of GRB 090902B does follow the E{sub p}-L and {Gamma}-L correlations. A reliable interpretation of the four correlations in alternative models is still lacking. These may point toward a photospheric origin of prompt emission of some GRBs.

Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming; Zhang Fuwen [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang Binbin, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: bbzhang@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2012-08-10

282

A ground level gamma-ray burst observed in association with rocket-triggered lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the observation of an intense gamma-ray burst observed on the ground at sea level, produced in association with the initial-stage of rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing at Camp Blanding, FL. The burst was observed simultaneously on three NaI(Tl)\\/photomultiplier tube detectors that were located 650 m from the triggered lightning channel with gamma-ray

J. R. Dwyer; H. K. Rassoul; M. Al-Dayeh; L. Caraway; B. Wright; A. Chrest; M. A. Uman; V. A. Rakov; K. J. Rambo; D. M. Jordan; J. Jerauld; C. Smyth

2004-01-01

283

Resonant level lifetime in GaAs-AlAs double-barrier structures including. Gamma. - X mixing  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative model for calculation of the lifetime of quasibound states, including the {Gamma}-{ital X} transfer, in a AlAs-GaAs-AlAs double-barrier structure is presented. When device is designed that a {Gamma}-like energy level approaches to an {ital X}-like energy level, anticrossing of the {Gamma}-{ital X} transition occurs and the lifetime of the state can be several orders larger than that of a pure {Gamma} system.

Zheng, T.F. (Department of Natural Science, Manatee College, Bradenton, Florida 34207 (USA)); Cai, W.; Hu, P. (Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (USA)); Lax, M. (Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (USA) AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (USA)); Shum, K.; Alfano, R.R. (Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Departments of Electrical Engineering and Physics, City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (USA))

1991-06-15

284

Effects of gamma radiation on Serratia marcescens; a comparison of effects of two different exposure rates  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SL'RNATIA MARCESCENS A COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT EXPOSURE RATES A Thesis by CHRISTY ANNETTE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...) Christy A. Moore, B, S, Northwestern State College Directed by: Dr. . R. D. Neff The survival curves of gamma-irradiated pigmenting and non- pigmcnting stzains of 'srz'rztia. mancssosns were determiz. ed using exposure rates of 175R/minute and 23, 520...

Moore, Christy Annette

1972-01-01

285

Dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Delta region of Nigeria.  

PubMed

In situ gamma spectroscopy has been employed to characterise natural radiation in the soil at 32 locations in the Delta region of Nigeria. The outdoor gamma dose rates in the air due to 40K, 238U and 232Th in the soil were 1.5 +/- 0.9 nGy h(-1), 6.9 +/- 1.6 nGy h(-1) and 16.3 +/- 3.1 nGy h(-1) respectively. The estimated total annual outdoor effective dose to the people in the region was 31.6 microSv y(-1). PMID:14974607

Arogunjo, A M; Farai, I P; Fuwape, I A

2004-01-01

286

DNA sequence analysis of gamma radiation-induced deletions and insertions at the APRT locus of hamster cells  

SciTech Connect

Gamma radiation-induced gene rearrangements at the Chinese hamster ovary cell locus coding for the purine salvage enzyme adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) consist of both simple deletions and more complex alterations that are presumably the result of multiple strand breaks. To characterize these mutations at the DNA sequence level, fragments altered by deletion and insertion mutations were obtained by cloning in lambda phage vectors or by using the polymerase chain reaction. The radiation-induced deletions characterized here eliminate 3-4 kb and have at least one breakpoint in an AT-rich region or near short direct or inverted repeats. Insertions involve small fragments (102 and 456 bp) of repetitive DNA that appear to be related to B2 (short interspersed repetitive) and long interspersed repeat families. The novel fragments bear little resemblance to each other or to sequences at the integration sites, and their introduction is accompanied by a small target site deletion.

Miles, C.; Sargent, G.; Phear, G.; Meuth, M. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Clare Hall Laboratories, Hertfordshire (England))

1990-01-01

287

Effect of exposure to low-dose [gamma] radiation during late organogenesis in the mouse fetus  

SciTech Connect

The adominal region of pregnant Swiss mice was exposed to 0.05 to 0.50 of [gamma] radiation on day 11.5 postcoitus. The animals were sacrificed on day 18 gestation and the fetuses were examined for mortality, growth retardation, changes in head size and brain weight, and incidence of microphthalmia. No marked increase in fetal mortality or growth retardation was observed below 0.25 Gy; the increase in these parameters was significant only at 0.50 Gy. A significant reduction in head size and brain weight and a significant increase in the incidence of microphthalmia were observed at doses above 0.15 Gy. Detectable levels of microcephaly and microphthalmia were evident even at 0.10 Gy. A linear dose response was seen for these effects in the dose range of 0.05 to 0.15 Gy. It is concluded that the late period of organogenesis in the mouse, especially between days 10 and 12 postcoitus, is a particularly sensitive phase in the development of the skull, brain and eye. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Devi, P.U.; Baskar, R.; Hande, M.P. (Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India))

1994-04-01

288

Current response of a TlBr detector to {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-ray radiation  

SciTech Connect

The current response of a TlBr detector to {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-ray radiation has been studied in the dose-rate range 0.033-3.84 Gy/min and within the voltage range 1-300 V; the detectors are based on pure and doped TlBr crystals grown from the melt by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method. The mass fraction of Pb or Ca introduced into the TlBr crystals was 1-10 ppm for Pb and 150 ppm for Ca. The current response of nominally undoped TlBr samples was nearly linear over two decades of studied dose rates. Deep hole levels associated with cationic vacancies V{sub c}{sup -} determine the dependence of the current response on the voltage in the high electric fields. The parameters of the carriers' transport {mu}{tau} are determined. The TlBr crystals grown in vacuum and in the bromine vapor exhibit a large mobility-lifetime product of 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}, respectively. The value of {mu}{tau} is in the range (4-9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1} for crystals doped with a divalent cation.

Gazizov, I. M., E-mail: gazizov@isotop.dubna.ru [Institute for Physico-Technical Problems (Russian Federation); Zaletin, V. M. [Dubna University (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, V. M.; Khrunov, V. S. [Institute for Physico-Technical Problems (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

289

Effect of gamma irradiation conditions on the radiation-induced degradation of isobutylene-isoprene rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gamma irradiation conditions on the radiation-induced degradation of uncrosslinked, commercial isobutylene-isoprene rubbers has been investigated in this study. Influence of dose rate and irradiation atmosphere on the degradation of butyl rubber has been followed by viscosimetric and chromatographic analyses. Limiting viscosity number of all butyl rubbers decreased sharply up to 100 kGy and leveled off at around the same molecular weight, independent of dose rate. Slightly higher decrease in viscosity was observed for samples irradiated in air than in nitrogen especially at low dose rate irradiation. Cross-linking G( X), and chain scission G( S) yields of butyl rubbers were calculated by using weight- and number-average molecular weights of irradiated rubber determined by Size Exclusion Chromatography analyses. G-value results showed that chain scission reactions in isobutylene-isoprene rubber in air atmosphere are more favorable than in nitrogen atmosphere, and that lower dose rate enhances chain scission over cross-linking.

?en, M.; Uzun, C.; Kanto?lu, Ö.; Erdo?an, S. M.; Deniz, V.; Güven, O.

2003-08-01

290

Search for Dimuon Decays of a Light Scalar Boson in Radiative Transitions Y -> gamma A^0  

SciTech Connect

We search for evidence of a light scalar boson in the radiative decays of the {Upsilon}(2S) and {Upsilon}(3S) resonances: {Upsilon}(2S, 3S) {yields} {gamma}A{sup 0}, A{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. Such a particle appears in extensions of the Standaard Model, where a light CP-odd Higgs boson naturally couples strongly to b-quarks. We find no evidence for such processes in the mass range 0.212 {<=} m{sub A{sup 0}} {<=} 9.3 GeV in the samples of 99 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(2S) and 122 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(3S) decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory and set stringent upper limits on the effective coupling of the b quark to the A{sup 0}. We also limit the dimuon branching fraction of the {eta}{sub b} meson: {Beta}({eta}{sub b} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) < 0.9% at 90% confidence level.

Aubert, B.

2009-06-02

291

Foods for a Mission to Mars: Investigations of Low-Dose Gamma Radiation Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food must be safe, nutritious, and acceptable throughout a long duration mission to maintain the health, well-being, and productivity of the astronauts. In addition to a developing a stable pre-packaged food supply, research is required to better understand the ability to convert edible biomass into safe, nutritious, and acceptable food products in a closed system with many restrictions (mass, volume, power, crew time, etc.). An understanding of how storage conditions encountered in a long-term space mission, such as elevated radiation, will impact food quality is also needed. The focus of this project was to contribute to the development of the highest quality food system possible for the duration of a mission, considering shelf-stable extended shelf-life foods, bulk ingredients, and crops to be grown in space. The impacts of space-relevant radiation doses on food, bulk ingredient, and select candidate crop quality and antioxidant capacity were determined. Interestingly, increasing gamma-radiation doses (0 to 1000 Gy) did not always increase dose-related effects in foods. Intermediate radiation doses (10 to 800Gy) often had significantly larger impact on the stability of bulk ingredient oils than higher (1000Gy) radiation doses. Overall, most food, ingredient, and crop systems investigated showed no significant differences between control samples and those treated with 3 Gy of gamma radiation (the upper limit estimated for a mission to Mars). However, this does not mean that all foods will be stable for 3-5 years, nor does it mean that foods are stable to space radiation comprising more than gamma rays.

Gandolph, J.; Shand, A.; Stoklosa, A.; Ma, A.; Weiss, I.; Alexander, D.; Perchonok, M.; Mauer, L. J.

2007-01-01

292

Observation of a gamma-ray flash at ground level in association with a cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bright, sub-millisecond bursts of gamma-rays, originating within the Earth's atmosphere. Most TGFs have been detected by spacecraft in low-Earth orbit. Only two TGFs have previously been observed from within our atmosphere: one at ground level and one from an aircraft at 14.1 km. We report on a new TGF-like gamma-ray flash observed at ground level, detected by the 19-station Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA) at the University of Florida/Florida Tech International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT). The gamma-ray flash, which had a duration of 52.7 ?s, occurred on June 30, 2009 during a natural negative cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke, 191 ?s after the start of the stroke. This event is the first definitive association of a gamma-ray flash with natural CG lightning and is among the most direct links to a specific lightning process so far. For this event, 19 gamma-rays were recorded, with the highest energy exceeding 20 MeV. The high-energy radiation exhibited very different behavior from the typical x-ray emission from lightning. Specifically, the gamma-ray flash had a much harder energy spectrum, consistent with relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) multiplication; it did not arrive in sub-microsecond bursts, typical of leader emission from lightning, and it occurred well after the start of the return stroke, which has not been previously observed for the x-ray emission from lightning. Nevertheless, we present evidence that the source region for the gamma ray flash was the same as that for the preceding leader x-ray bursts.

Dwyer, J. R.; Schaal, M. M.; Cramer, E.; Arabshahi, S.; Liu, N.; Rassoul, H. K.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.

2012-10-01

293

Dose quantities and instrumentation for measuring environmental gamma radiation during emergencies.  

PubMed

The dosimetry for exposure to gamma radiation in the environment is reviewed, including the factors used to convert measurements of traceable quantities to effective dose equivalent. A value of 0.70 Sv Gy-1 is widely used to convert air kerma or absorbed dose-to-air to effective dose equivalent, but recent work shows that a value of 0.86 Sv Gy-1 is more appropriate for deposited radionuclides. The arguments are reviewed and the implications of using operational dose equivalent quantities defined by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements are considered. For planar deposited sources in the environment, it is shown that the use of ambient dose equivalent quantities without applying conversion factors, could significantly overestimate effective dose equivalent. In contrast, the adoption of the new effective dose quantity defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60 will have a small impact on conversion factors for gamma radiation in the environment. Practical aspects of measurement are also considered, and five instruments suitable for measuring environmental gamma radiation have been evaluated in the laboratory and in field tests. The instruments include models with scintillation detectors, a Geiger-Müller detector, and a high-pressure ionization chamber, the choice being influenced by those commonly used in European Community countries for routine and emergency monitoring. The main disadvantage of all the instruments is the lack of spectral information, so a straightforward emergency instrument capable of discriminating between natural and artificial radionuclides has also been evaluated. PMID:8491600

Clark, M J; Burgess, P H; McClure, D R

1993-05-01

294

High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

1987-02-27

295

High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN); Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blakeman, Edward D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

296

Measurements of longitudinal gamma ray distribution using a multichannel fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerenkov radiation occurs when charged particles are moving faster than the speed of light in a transparent dielectric medium. In optical fibers, Cerenkov radiation can also be generated due to the fiber’s dielectric components. Accordingly, the radiation-induced light signals can be obtained using the optical fibers without any scintillating material. In this study, we fabricated a multichannel, fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) system using silica optical fibers (SOFs), plastic optical fibers (POFs), an optical spectrometer, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MA-PMTs) and a scanning system to measure the light intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma rays. To evaluate the fading effects in optical fibers, the spectra of Cerenkov radiation generated in the SOFs and POFs were measured based on the irradiation time by using an optical spectrometer. In addition, we measured the longitudinal distribution of gamma rays emitted from the cylindrical type Co-60 source by using MA-PMTs. The result was also compared with the distribution of the electron flux calculated by using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNPX).

Shin, S. H.; Jeon, D.; Kim, J. S.; Jang, J. S.; Jang, K. W.; Yoo, W. J.; Moon, J. H.; Park, B. G.; Kim, S.; Lee, B.

2014-11-01

297

A comparative study of gamma radiation effects on ultra-low input bias current linear circuits under biased conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-low input bias current linear circuits are used in several applications requiring them to work under varying conditions of temperature, humidity, radiation etc. which influence their performance. This paper presents a first time study of gamma radiation effects on ultra low input bias current linear circuits under biased conditions for small signal dc applications. Under biased conditions, radiation-induced photo currents

Vivek Agarwal; V. P. Sundarsingh; V. Ramachandran

2005-01-01

298

Damage of office supply, personal use items, and over-the-counter medical devices after sterilization by ethylene oxide gas, electron beam, and gamma radiation.  

PubMed

After letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores entered the U.S. mail in 2001, a problem emerged regarding how to decontaminate the letters, packages, and personal items in offices that received these letters. The effects of three sterilization methods (i.e. ethylene oxide gas [EO], electron beam [e-beam] radiation, and gamma radiation) were evaluated for a variety of office supply and equipment, personal use items, and over-the-counter medical devices. No single sterilization method was suitable for all items that could be mailed or found in an office. Damage or discoloration was evident for some items by each sterilization method. There were changes in the color of certain items, such as some of the packaging material, some pacifiers, some of the fabrics, and the nylon stockings after e-beam and gamma radiation. Both e-beam and gamma radiation damaged all film samples. Following EO sterilization and normal aeration, there were a number of samples with high (above 250 microg/g) levels of EO and samples with detectable ethylene chlorohydrin levels. The data would suggest that certain items exposed to EO sterilization must be further aerated prior to use, or discarded. Generic descriptions of products (such as plastics) or grouping of items (such as condoms) were not sufficient to predict what is safe in terms of EO residual levels remaining on an item. Successful decontamination of a wide variety of items will require careful selection of different sterilization methods. PMID:15635999

Lucas, Anne D; Merritt, Katharine; Hitchins, Victoria M

2004-01-01

299

41 CFR 50-204.35 - Application for variations from radiation levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Application for variations from radiation levels. 50-204.35 Section...STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.35 Application for variations from radiation levels. (a) In accordance...

2010-07-01

300

41 CFR 50-204.35 - Application for variations from radiation levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Application for variations from radiation levels. 50-204.35 Section...STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.35 Application for variations from radiation levels. (a) In accordance...

2013-07-01

301

41 CFR 50-204.35 - Application for variations from radiation levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Application for variations from radiation levels. 50-204.35 Section...STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.35 Application for variations from radiation levels. (a) In accordance...

2014-07-01

302

41 CFR 50-204.35 - Application for variations from radiation levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Application for variations from radiation levels. 50-204.35 Section...STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.35 Application for variations from radiation levels. (a) In accordance...

2011-07-01

303

41 CFR 50-204.35 - Application for variations from radiation levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...true Application for variations from radiation levels. 50-204.35 Section...STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.35 Application for variations from radiation levels. (a) In accordance...

2012-07-01

304

Level Schemes, Lifetimes, and Gamma Ray Transition Rates in NEODYMIUM-142 and SAMARIUM-144 from the  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of vibrations in nuclei has been the topic of studies for many years, but information on these fundamental excitations remains incomplete. For example, members belonging to the two-phonon quadrupole triplet are well established, but evidence is lacking for excitations attributed to the coupling of two octupole phonons. Since octupole excitations should persist in regions near closed shells and the octupole phonon is low-lying and collective in the N = 82 isotones, ^{142}Nd and ^ {144}Sm were chosen as the place to search for these elusive two-phonon states. Both nuclei are semi -magic and, above all, stable which allows them to be studied by the method at hand--inelastic neutron scattering, or (n,n^'gamma), spectroscopy. Gamma -ray excitation function measurements permitted the placement of gamma rays to the nuclear levels, and spins and parities were assigned on the basis of gamma-ray angular distributions. Many new levels were found in both nuclei, and spins of several known levels were clarified. Additionally, the determination of level lifetimes by observing the Doppler shift of de -exciting gamma rays enabled the inference of reduced gamma-ray transition rates. Also predicted to lie near the same energy region as the two-phonon octupole states is a quintet of negative -parity levels belonging to the multiplet which results from the coupling of the quadrupole phonon with the octupole phonon. A search was then undertaken to find these levels having spins and parities of 1^{-} to 5^{-}. For ^{144}Sm , candidates for members of the two-phonon octupole quartet and quadrupole-octupole quintet are proposed. No positive identification of two-phonon octupole states in ^{142}Nd was possible because of ambiguities in the level scheme. Both nuclei exhibit E1 transition rates considerably faster than those previously measured for A = 90-150 nuclei.

Gatenby, Richard Alan

1990-01-01

305

The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after low dose radiation exposure. Cells viability/cytotoxicity analysis data are currently being analyzed to determine how these endpoints are affected under our experimental conditions. The results from this study will be translatable to risk assessment for assigning limits to radiation workers, pre-dosing for more effective radiotherapy and the consequences of long duration space flight. The data from this study has been presented a various scientific meetings/workshops and a manuscript, containing the findings, is currently being prepared for publication. Due to unforeseen challenges in collecting the data and standardizing experimental procedures, the second and third aims have not been completed. However, attempts will be made, based on the availability of funds, to continue this project so that these aims can be satisfied.

Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

2012-05-14

306

Performance of neutron and gamma personnel dosimetry in mixed radiation fields  

SciTech Connect

From 1974 to 1980, six personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies (PDIS) were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the performance of personnel dosimeters in a variety of neutron and gamma fields produced by operating the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the steady state mode with and without spectral modifying shields. A total of 58 different organizations participated in these studies which produced approximately 2000 measurements of neutron and gamma dose equivalents on anthropomorphic phantoms for five different reactor spectra. Based on these data, the relative performance of three basic types of neutron dosimeters (nuclear emulsion film, thermoluminescent (TLD), and track-etch) and two basic types of gamma dosimeters (film and TLD) in mixed radiation fields was assessed.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.

1981-01-01

307

Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

2011-09-01

308

On the Nature of Nonthermal Radiation from Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursters  

E-print Network

Relativistic electron-positron winds with strong magnetic fields are considered as a source of radiation for cosmological $\\gamma$-ray bursters. Such a wind is generated by a millisecond pulsar with a very strong magnetic field. An electron-positron plasma near the pulsar is optically thick and in quasi-thermodynamic equilibrium. It is shown that the main part of radiation from the pulsar wind is nonthermal and generates in the following way. Kinetic energy which is released in the process of deceleration of the neutron star rotation transforms mainly to the magnetic field energy. The magnetic field is frozen in the outflowing plasma if the distance to the pulsar is smaller than $\\sim 10^{13}$ cm. This field transfers the energy from the pulsar environment to the region outside the $\\gamma$-ray photosphere of the electron-positron wind. At a distance of more than $\\sim 10^{13}$ cm the magnetohydrodynamic approximation for the pulsar wind is broken, and intense electromagnetic waves are generated. The frequency of these waves is equal to the frequency of the pulsar rotation. Outflowing particles are accelerated in the field of intense electromagnetic waves to Lorentz factors of the order of $10^6$ and generate nonthermal synchro-Compton radiation. The typical energy of nonthermal photons is $\\sim 1$ MeV. A high-energy tail of the $\\gamma$-ray spectrum may be up to $\\sim 10^4$ MeV. Baryonic matter is ejected occasionally from the pulsar magnetosphere. The baryonic matter ejection and subsequent suppression of the $\\gamma$-ray emission may be responsible for the time structure of $\\gamma$-ray bursts.

Vladimir V. Usov

1993-12-13

309

Somatic aberration induction in Tradescantia occidentalis by neutrons, x- and gamma-radiations. I. Dosimetry.  

PubMed

The dosimetry is described for an investigation of the induction of somatic aberrations in Tradescantia occidentalis by substantially mono-energetic neutrons in the energy range 100 keV to 15 MeV, by 200 keV X-rays and cobalt-60 gamma-radiation. Spectrometry was carried out for both neutrons and X-rays. Neutron fluence was measured by uranium fission chambers. Two types of ionization chamber were employed for dose measurement. One chamber was manufactured of CH-plastic and filled with acetylene and the other of graphite and filled with carbon dioxide. Dosimetry for X- and gamma-radiation was by means of lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters calibrated against a Victoreen ionization chamber. PMID:1084865

Dennis, J A; Delafield, H J; Peaple, L H; Boot, S J

1976-04-01

310

PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION AS THE DOMINANT RADIATION MECHANISM IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a set of numerical simulations of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets associated with massive, compact stellar progenitors. The simulations extend to large radii and allow us to locate the region in which the peak frequency of the advected radiation is set before the radiation is released at the photosphere. Light curves and spectra are calculated for different viewing angles as well as different progenitor structures and jet properties. We find that the radiation released at the photosphere of matter-dominated jets is able to reproduce the observed Amati and energy-Lorentz factor correlations. Our simulations also predict a correlation between the burst energy and the radiative efficiency of the prompt phase, consistent with observations.

Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Morsony, Brian J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3321 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison WI 53706-1582 (United States); Margutti, Raffaella [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITC, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Begelman, Mitchell C. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

2013-03-10

311

Jitter radiation in gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows: emission and self-absorption  

E-print Network

Relativistic electrons moving into a highly tangled magnetic field emit jitter radiation. We present a detailed computation of the jitter radiation spectrum, including self-absorption, for electrons inside Weibel-like shock generated magnetic fields. We apply our results to the case of the prompt and afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts. We show that jitter emission can reproduce most of the observed features with some important differences with respect to standard synchrotron, especially in the frequency range between the self-absorption and the peak frequency. We discuss the similarities and differences between jitter and synchrotron and discuss experiments that can disentangle the two mechanisms.

Jared Workman; Brian Morsony; Davide Lazzati; Mikhail Medvedev

2008-01-23

312

Jitter radiation in gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows: emission and self-absorption  

E-print Network

Relativistic electrons moving into a highly tangled magnetic field emit jitter radiation. We present a detailed computation of the jitter radiation spectrum for electrons inside Weibel shock generated magnetic fields, including self-absorption. We apply our results to the case of the prompt and afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts. We show that jitter emission can reproduce most of the observed features with some important differences with respect to standard synchrotron, especially between the self-absorption and the peak frequencies. We discuss the similarities and differences between jitter and synchrotron and discusss experiments that can disentangle the two mechanisms.

Workman, J; Lazzati, D; Medvedev, M; Workman, Jared; Morsony, Brian; Lazzati, Davide; Medvedev, Mikhail

2007-01-01

313

Degradation of biochemical activity in soil sterilized by dry heat and gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

1978-01-01

314

Gamma-radiation-induced wood-plastic composites from Syrian tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood-plastic composites (WPC) have been prepared with five low-grade woods, native to Syria, using three monomer systems; acrylamide, butylmethacrylate, and styrene, with methanol as the swelling solvent. Polymerization was induced at various radiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h using a 60Co gamma radiation source. Some physical properties of WPC, namely polymer loading and compression strength have been measured. The polymer loading decreases approximately with increasing density of the wood species used.

Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Salman, Numan; Al-kassiri, Haroun

2001-05-01

315

Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attenuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power. 4 figs.

Condreva, K.J.

1997-01-14

316

Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attentuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

Condreva, Kenneth J. (1420 Fifth St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

1997-01-01

317

Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by gamma radiation and its effect on plasma and coagulation factors  

SciTech Connect

The inactivation of HIV by gamma-radiation was studied in frozen and liquid plasma; a reduction of the virus titer of 5 to 6 logs was achieved at doses of 5 to 10 Mrad at -80 degrees C and 2.5 Mrad at 15 degrees C. The effect of irradiation on the biologic activity of a number of coagulation factors in plasma and in lyophilized concentrates of factor VIII (FVIII) and prothrombin complex was examined. A recovery of 85 percent of the biologic activity of therapeutic components present in frozen plasma and in lyophilized coagulation factor concentrates was reached at radiation doses as low as 1.5 and 0.5 Mrad, respectively. As derived from the first-order radiation inactivation curves, the radiosensitive target size of HIV was estimated to be 1 to 3 MDa; the target size of FVIII was estimated to be 130 to 160 kDa. Gamma radiation must be disregarded as a method for the sterilization of plasma and plasma-derived products, because of the low reduction of virus infectivity at radiation doses that still give acceptable recovery of biologic activity of plasma components.

Hiemstra, H.; Tersmette, M.; Vos, A.H.; Over, J.; van Berkel, M.P.; de Bree, H. (Central Laboratory of The Netherlands, Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1991-01-01

318

Comparison of proton microbeam and gamma irradiation for the radiation hardness testing of silicon PIN diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple and cost-effective solutions using Si PIN diodes as detectors are presently utilized in various radiation-related applications in which excessive exposure to radiation degrades their charge transport properties. One of the conventional methods for the radiation hardness testing of such devices is time-consuming irradiation with electron beam or gamma-ray irradiation facilities, high-energy proton accelerators, or with neutrons from research reactors. Recently, for the purpose of radiation hardness testing, a much faster nuclear microprobe based approach utilizing proton irradiation has been developed. To compare the two different irradiation techniques, silicon PIN diodes have been irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source and with a 6 MeV proton microbeam. The signal degradation in the silicon PIN diodes for both irradiation conditions has been probed by the IBIC (ion beam induced charge) technique, which can precisely monitor changes in charge collection efficiency. The results presented are reviewed on the basis of displacement damage calculations and NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) concept.

Jakši?, M.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Majer, M.; Jung, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, N. H.

2013-09-01

319

Buildup factors of gamma rays including Bremsstrahlung and annihilation radiation for water, concrete, iron, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray exposure buildup factors are calculated using a discrete ordinates direct integration code, PALLAS-PL, SP-Br, for water, concrete, iron, and lead, typifying materials of low, medium, and high atomic number. The radiation sources considered were both plane, at normal incidence, and at plane-isotropic. These data include the effects of secondary photon sources arising from Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung, and annihilation. Inclusion

K. Takeuchi; S. I. Tanaka

1984-01-01

320

Gamma ray bursts may be blueshifted bundles of the relic radiation  

E-print Network

A hypothesis is proposed that the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may arise by blueshifting the emission radiation of hydrogen and helium generated during the last scattering epoch. The blueshift mechanism is provided by such a Lema\\^{\\i}tre -- Tolman (L--T) model, in which the bang-time function $t_B(r)$ is not everywhere constant. Blueshift arises on \\textit{radial} rays that are emitted over regions where $\\dril{t_B} r \

Andrzej Krasi?ski

2015-02-02

321

Gamma ray bursts may be blueshifted bundles of the relic radiation  

E-print Network

A hypothesis is proposed that the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may arise by blueshifting the emission radiation of hydrogen and helium generated during the last scattering epoch. The blueshift mechanism is provided by such a Lema\\^{\\i}tre -- Tolman (L--T) model, in which the bang-time function $t_B(r)$ is not everywhere constant. Blueshift arises on \\textit{radial} rays that are emitted over regions where $\\dril{t_B} r \

Krasi?ski, Andrzej

2015-01-01

322

An Analysis of a Spreader Bar Crane Mounted Gamma-Ray Radiation Detection System  

E-print Network

AN ANALYSIS OF A SPREADER BAR CRANE MOUNTED GAMMA-RAY RADIATION DETECTION SYSTEM A Dissertation by MATTHEW DAVID GRYPP Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... sponsor for all the military required of me. Gentry Hearn created the software package and the post-processing Perl scripts that allowed both the collection and easy analysis of data. Jimmy Uhlemeyer has been my classmate in many courses and has been...

Grypp, Matthew D

2013-04-08

323

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for meningiomas: four cases of radiation-induced edema.  

PubMed

We review 48 cases of meningioma treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The mean marginal dose was 15 Gy and the mean follow-up was 12 months. Follow-up computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed tumor shrinkage in 19 cases, central necrosis in 1 case, loss of contrast enhancement in 1 case, and no change in 27 cases. We noted 4 cases of radiation-induced edema in supratentorial meningiomas. PMID:9032855

Nakamura, S; Hiyama, H; Arai, K; Nakaya, K; Sato, H; Hayashi, M; Kawamata, T; Izawa, M; Takakura, K

1996-01-01

324

Swelling characteristics and application of gamma-radiation on irradiated SBR-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with varying loading degree from 60wt% to 100wt% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) have been prepared. Gamma radiation vulcanization of prepared blends was carried out with doses varying between 50kGy and 250kGy. Mechanical properties, namely, tensile strength (Ts), elongation at break (Eb) and hardness were followed up as a function of loading degree of CMC and

Maysa A. Mohamed

325

Enhancement of natural background gamma-radiation dose around uranium microparticles in the human body  

PubMed Central

Ongoing controversy surrounds the adverse health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. The biological effects of gamma-radiation arise from the direct or indirect interaction between secondary electrons and the DNA of living cells. The probability of the absorption of X-rays and gamma-rays with energies below about 200 keV by particles of high atomic number is proportional to the third to fourth power of the atomic number. In such a case, the more heavily ionizing low-energy recoil electrons are preferentially produced; these cause dose enhancement in the immediate vicinity of the particles. It has been claimed that upon exposure to naturally occurring background gamma-radiation, particles of DU in the human body would produce dose enhancement by a factor of 500–1000, thereby contributing a significant radiation dose in addition to the dose received from the inherent radioactivity of the DU. In this study, we used the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc to accurately estimate the likely maximum dose enhancement arising from the presence of micrometre-sized uranium particles in the body. We found that although the dose enhancement is significant, of the order of 1–10, it is considerably smaller than that suggested previously. PMID:19776147

Pattison, John E.; Hugtenburg, Richard P.; Green, Stuart

2010-01-01

326

Celestial diffuse gamma radiation above 30 MeV observed by SAS-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)-2, launched on November 15, 1972, carried into orbit a 32-deck magnetic-core digitized spark chamber gamma ray telescope to study celestial gamma radiation in the energy range above 30 MeV. In the study of several regions with b sub 2 15 deg, a finite, diffuse flux of gamma rays with a steep energy spectrum in the energy region from 35 to 200 MeV is observed. Representing the energy spectrum by a power law of the form dJ/dE = AE to - alpha power over this energy range, alpha is found along with the integral flux above 100 MeV. Combining this result with existing low energy gamma ray data yields an energy spectrum which is not a simple power law in energy, as in the X-ray region, but which demonstrates first an increase and then a decrease in slope, consistent within uncertainties with that predicted by cosmological theories, including the continuous production of high energy gamma rays primarily from neutral pi mesons throughout the history of the universe.

Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.

1973-01-01

327

Branching Fractions and CP-Violating Asymmetries in Radiative B Decays to eta K gamma  

SciTech Connect

The authors present measurements of the CP-violation parameters S and C for the radiative decay B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}K{sub S}{sup 0}{gamma}; for B {yields} {eta}K{gamma} they also measure the branching fractions and for B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma} the time-integrated charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub ch}. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 465 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. The results are S = -0.18{sub -0.46}{sup +0.49} {+-} 0.12, C = -0.32{sub -0.39}{sup +0.40} {+-} 0.07, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}K{sup 0}{gamma}) = (7.1{sub -2.0}{sup +2.1} {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma}) = (7.7 {+-} 1.0 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6}, and {Alpha}{sub ch} = (-9.0{sub -9.8}{sup +10.4} {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup -2}. The first error quoted is statistical and the second systematic.

Aubert, B.

2008-05-14

328

Measurement of Kp radiative capture to gammaLambda and gammaSigma0 for pK between 514 and 750 MeV\\/c  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential cross sections for K- radiative capture in flight on the proton, leading to the gammaLambda and gammaSigma0 final states, have been measured at eight K- momenta between 514 and 750 MeV\\/c. The data were obtained with the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer installed at the separated K\\/pi beam line C6 of the BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The results substantially improve

S. Prakhov; P. Vancraeyveld; N. Phaisangittisakul; B. M. K. Nefkens; V. Bekrenev; W. J. Briscoe; L. de Cruz; D. Isenhower; N. Knecht; A. Koulbardis; N. Kozlenko; S. Kruglov; G. Lolos; I. Lopatin; A. Marusic; S. McDonald; Z. Papandreou; D. Peaslee; J. W. Price; J. Ryckebusch; M. Sadler; A. Shafi; A. Starostin; H. M. Staudenmaier; I. I. Strakovsky; I. Supek; T. van Cauteren

2010-01-01

329

Radiosensitivity and Induction of Apoptosis by High LET Carbon Ion Beam and Low LET Gamma Radiation: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Cancer treatment with high LET heavy ion beam, especially, carbon ion beam (12C), is becoming very popular over conventional radiotherapy like low LET gamma or X-ray. Combination of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor with xenotoxic drugs or conventional radiation (gamma or X-ray) is the newer approach for cancer therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the radiosensitivity and induction of apoptosis by high LET 12C and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa and PARP-1 knocked down cells. We did comet assay to detect DNA breaks, clonogenic survival assay, and cell cycle analysis to measure recovery after DNA damage. We measured apoptotic parameters like nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. DNA damage, cell killing, and induction of apoptosis were significantly higher for 12C than gamma radiation in HeLa. Cell killing and apoptosis were further elevated upon knocking down of PARP-1. Both 12C and gamma induced G2/M arrest although the 12C had greater effect. Unlike the gamma, 12C irradiation affects DNA replication as detected by S-phase delay in cell cycle analysis. So, we conclude that high LET 12C has greater potential over low LET gamma radiation in killing cells and radiosensitization upon PARP-1 inhibition was several folds greater for 12C than gamma. PMID:25018892

Ghorai, Atanu; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Ghosh, Utpal

2014-01-01

330

Radiosensitivity and Induction of Apoptosis by High LET Carbon Ion Beam and Low LET Gamma Radiation: A Comparative Study.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment with high LET heavy ion beam, especially, carbon ion beam ((12)C), is becoming very popular over conventional radiotherapy like low LET gamma or X-ray. Combination of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor with xenotoxic drugs or conventional radiation (gamma or X-ray) is the newer approach for cancer therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the radiosensitivity and induction of apoptosis by high LET (12)C and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa and PARP-1 knocked down cells. We did comet assay to detect DNA breaks, clonogenic survival assay, and cell cycle analysis to measure recovery after DNA damage. We measured apoptotic parameters like nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. DNA damage, cell killing, and induction of apoptosis were significantly higher for (12)C than gamma radiation in HeLa. Cell killing and apoptosis were further elevated upon knocking down of PARP-1. Both (12)C and gamma induced G2/M arrest although the (12)C had greater effect. Unlike the gamma, (12)C irradiation affects DNA replication as detected by S-phase delay in cell cycle analysis. So, we conclude that high LET (12)C has greater potential over low LET gamma radiation in killing cells and radiosensitization upon PARP-1 inhibition was several folds greater for (12)C than gamma. PMID:25018892

Ghorai, Atanu; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P; Sarma, Asitikantha; Ghosh, Utpal

2014-01-01

331

Characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant (radB101) sensitive to. gamma. and uv radiation, and methyl methanesulfonate  

SciTech Connect

After N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis of Escherichia coli K-12 (xthA14), an X-ray-sensitive mutant was isolated. This sensitivity is due to a mutation, radB101, which is located at 56.5 min on the E.coli K-12 linkage map. The radB101 mutation sensitized wild-type cells to ..gamma.. and uv radiation, and to methyl methanesulfonate. When known DNA repair-deficient mutants were ranked for their ..gamma..-radiation sensitivity relative to their uv-radiation sensitivity, their order was (starting with the most selectively ..gamma..-radiation-sensitive strain): recB21, radB101, wild type, polA1, recF143, lexA101, recA56, uvrD3, and uvrA6. The radB mutant was normal for ..gamma..- and uv-radiation mutagenesis, it showed only a slight enhancement of ..gamma..- and uv-radiation-induced DNA degradation, and it was approx. 60% deficient in recombination ability. The radB gene is suggested to play a role in the recA gene-dependent (Type III) repair of DNA single-strand breaks after ..gamma.. irradiation and in postreplication repair after uv irradiation for the following reasons: the radB strain was normal for the host-cell reactivation of ..gamma..- and uv-irradiated bacteriophage lambda; the radB mutation did not sensitize a recA strain, but did sensitize a polA strain to ..gamma.. and uv radiation; the radB mutation sensitized a uvrB strain to uv radiation.

Sargentini, N.J.; Smith, K.C.

1983-03-01

332

Effects of gamma radiation and temperature on the biological assimilation and retention of 137Cs by Acheta domesticus (L.).  

PubMed

Cesium-137 retention was determined for brown crickets, Acheta domesticus, which had been irradiated with 0, 1000, 2500 and 5000 rad gamma radiation and maintained at 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. Parameters examined for temperature and dose effects were (1) per cent 137Cs assimilated into body tissues (p2), (2) rate of isotope passage through the gut (k1) and (3) rate of elimination of assimilated 137Cs (ks). Increases in temperature and gamma dose resulted in a general decrease in per cent 137Cs assimilated pe day (p2). The first-component elimination coefficient (k1) was not significantly affected (P less than or equal to 0.05) by either temperature or dose changes. Biological elimination coefficients for assimilated 137Cs (k2) increased with increasing temperature between doses of 0 and 2500 rad. Above 2500 rads however, increases in temperature had no noticeable effects on the rate of assimilated 137Cs excretion. At higher dose levels, radiation was the dominant factor influencing the parameter k2. PMID:5212283

Van Hook, R I; Herbert, E T

1971-12-01

333

RADIATION SENSITIVITY AND QUALITY OF FRESH-CUT VEGETABLES EXPOSED TO GAMMA RADIATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen fresh-cut (minimally processed) vegetables (broccoli, cilantro, red cabbage, endive, parsley, green and red leaf lettuce, Iceberg and Romaine lettuce, spinach, carrots, green onions, and celery) plus alfalfa sprouts were gamma irradiated at doses up to 3 kGy at 0.5 kGy intervals. The sample...

334

Precise determination of $^{12}_{\\Lambda}$C level structure by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Level structure of the $^{12}_{\\Lambda}$C hypernucleus was precisely determined by means of $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. We identified four $\\gamma$-ray transitions via the $^{12}$C$(\\pi^{+},K^{+}\\gamma)$ reaction using a germanium detector array, Hyperball2. The spacing of the ground-state doublet $(2^{-}_{1},1^{-}_{1})$ was measured to be $161.5\\pm0.3\\text{(stat)}\\pm0.3\\text{(syst)}$\\,keV from the direct $M1$ transition. Excitation energies of the $1^{-}_{2}$ and $1^{-}_{3}$ states were measured to be $2832\\pm3\\pm4$\\,keV and $6050\\pm8\\pm7$\\,keV, respectively. The obtained level energies provide definitive references for the reaction spectroscopy of $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei.

Hosomi, K; Ajimura, S; Aoki, K; Dairaku, S; Fu, Y Y; Fujioka, H; Futatsukawa, K; Imoto, W; Kakiguchi, Y; Kawai, M; Kinoshita, S; Koike, T; Maruyama, N; Mimori, M; Minami, S; Miura, Y; Miwa, K; Miyagi, Y; Nagae, T; Nakajima, D; Noumi, H; Shirotori, K; Suzuki, T; Takahashi, T; Takahashi, T N; Tamura, H; Tanida, K; Terada, N; Toyoda, A; Tsukada, K; Ukai, M; Zhou, S H

2015-01-01

335

Statistical properties of radiation power levels from a high-gain free-electron laser at and beyond saturation  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the statistical properties (e.g., shot-to-shot power fluctuations) of the radiation from a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the nonlinear regime. We consider the case of an FEL amplifier reaching saturation whose shot-to-shot fluctuations in input radiation power follow a gamma distribution. We analyze the corresponding output power fluctuations at and beyond first saturation, including beam energy spread effects, and find that there are well-characterized values of undulator length for which the fluctuation level reaches a minimum.

Schroeder, Carl B.; Fawley, William M.; Esarey, Eric

2002-09-24

336

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mediates immune-independent human tumor cell resistance to olaparib, gamma radiation, and cisplatin.  

PubMed

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) is an immunosuppressive molecule expressed by most human tumors. IDO levels correlate with poor prognosis in cancer patients and IDO inhibitors are under investigation to enhance endogenous anticancer immunosurveillance. Little is known of immune-independent functions of IDO relevant to cancer therapy. We show, for the first time, that IDO mediates human tumor cell resistance to a PARP inhibitor (olaparib), gamma radiation, cisplatin, and combined treatment with olaparib and radiation, in the absence of immune cells. Antisense-mediated reduction of IDO, alone and (in a synthetic lethal approach) in combination with antisense to the DNA repair protein BRCA2 sensitizes human lung cancer cells to olaparib and cisplatin. Antisense reduction of IDO decreased NAD+ in human tumor cells. NAD+ is essential for PARP activity and these data suggest that IDO mediates treatment resistance independent of immunity and at least partially due to a previously unrecognized role for IDO in DNA repair. Furthermore, IDO levels correlated with accumulation of tumor cells in G1 and depletion of cells in G2/M of the cell cycle, suggesting that IDO effects on cell cycle may also modulate sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. IDO is a potentially valuable therapeutic target in cancer treatment, independent of immune function and in combination with other therapies. PMID:24784564

Maleki Vareki, Saman; Rytelewski, Mateusz; Figueredo, Rene; Chen, Di; Ferguson, Peter J; Vincent, Mark; Min, Weiping; Zheng, Xiufen; Koropatnick, James

2014-05-15

337

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mediates immune-independent human tumor cell resistance to olaparib, gamma radiation, and cisplatin  

PubMed Central

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) is an immunosuppressive molecule expressed by most human tumors. IDO levels correlate with poor prognosis in cancer patients and IDO inhibitors are under investigation to enhance endogenous anticancer immunosurveillance. Little is known of immune-independent functions of IDO relevant to cancer therapy. We show, for the first time, that IDO mediates human tumor cell resistance to a PARP inhibitor (olaparib), gamma radiation, cisplatin, and combined treatment with olaparib and radiation, in the absence of immune cells. Antisense-mediated reduction of IDO, alone and (in a synthetic lethal approach) in combination with antisense to the DNA repair protein BRCA2 sensitizes human lung cancer cells to olaparib and cisplatin. Antisense reduction of IDO decreased NAD+ in human tumor cells. NAD+ is essential for PARP activity and these data suggest that IDO mediates treatment resistance independent of immunity and at least partially due to a previously unrecognized role for IDO in DNA repair. Furthermore, IDO levels correlated with accumulation of tumor cells in G1 and depletion of cells in G2/M of the cell cycle, suggesting that IDO effects on cell cycle may also modulate sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. IDO is a potentially valuable therapeutic target in cancer treatment, independent of immune function and in combination with other therapies. PMID:24784564

Vareki, Saman Maleki; Rytelewski, Mateusz; Figueredo, Rene; Chen, Di; Ferguson, Peter J.; Vincent, Mark; Min, Weiping; Zheng, Xiufen; Koropatnick, James

2014-01-01

338

DNA damage caused by chronic transgenerational exposure to low dose gamma radiation in Medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes ).  

PubMed

The effect of transgenerational exposure to low dose rate (2.4 and 21 mGy/day) gamma irradiation on the yield of DNA double-strand breaks and oxidized guanine (8-hydroxyguanine) has been studied in the muscle and liver tissue of a model organism, the Japanese medaka fish. We found the level of unrepaired 8-hydroxyguanine in muscle tissue increased nonlinearly over four generations and the pattern of this change depended on the radiation dose rate, suggesting that our treatment protocols initiated genomic instability and an adaptive response as the generations progressed. The yield of unrepaired double-strand breaks did not vary significantly among successive generations in muscle tissue in contrast to liver tissue in which it varied in a nonlinear manner. The 8-hydroxyguanine and DSB radiation yields were significantly higher at 2.4 mGy/day than at 21 mGy/day in both muscle and liver tissue in all generations. These data are consistent with the hypothesis of a threshold for radiation-induced activation of DNA repair systems below which tissue levels of DNA repair enzymes remain unchanged, leading to the accumulation of unrepaired damage at very low doses and dose rates. PMID:23919310

Grygoryev, D; Moskalenko, O; Hinton, T G; Zimbrick, J D

2013-09-01

339

Theoretical radiative lifetimes of levels in singly ionized lanthanum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical radiative lifetimes of 29 levels in singly ionized lanthanum are determined using Cowan's 'Hartree-Fock and relativistic corrections' (HFR) method modified by us to include core-valence electron correlations in the core-polarization picture. The configuration mixing coefficients have been determined semiempirically through a least-squares fitting procedure treating Slater and spin-orbit integrals as free parameters. The results obtained compared with available experimental and other theoretical data confirm the importance of valence-core correlation effects.

Ku?aga-Egger, D.; Migda?ek, J.

2009-09-01

340

A technique for measuring gamma heating in a low fluence mixed radiation field  

SciTech Connect

Gamma heating measurements have been made in a low-Z lattice irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons and (n,n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the assembly using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time rate differences inherent to radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this signal separation technique were explored by observing the effect on the signal as the neutron spectrum is shifted from a D-T spectrum to a softer though still fast neutron spectrum as the counter is placed further into the irradiation lattice. The experiment was modelled using the one-dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC{sup 2}-2 for the case of D-T neutrons slowing down in a low-Z lattice. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The total energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations. The overall utility of this measurement technique for fusion blanket neutronics is discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chiu, H.K. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1991-01-01

341

Carnosine mitigates apoptosis and protects testicular seminiferous tubules from gamma-radiation-induced injury in mice.  

PubMed

This study investigated the radioprotective effects of a naturally occurring dipeptide, carnosine, on testicular damage. Carnosine was administered (10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight) to male mice via intraperitoneal injection for 4 days prior to gamma irradiation (2 Gy). Apoptosis with the TUNEL assay and histopathological parameters were evaluated 12-h and 14-day post-irradiation. Pre-treatment with carnosine before irradiation significantly reduced the frequency of TUNEL-positive cells induced by radiation treatment at all doses by reduction factors of 1.8, 2.47 and 2.23 for carnosine at 10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) bw, respectively, unlike that observed in the radiation alone group. Exposure to ionising radiation decreased sperm count and reduced the height and diameter of seminiferous epithelial tubules. Pre-treatment with all doses of carnosine significantly augmented seminiferous epithelial height and tubule diameter and also increased the number of germinal cells in comparison to the group treated with radiation only. These results indicate that carnosine prevents testicular dysfunction induced by gamma-irradiation via an anti-apoptotic effect; this restoration of proper testicular function ultimately leads to the recovery of spermatogenesis. PMID:24215656

Haeri, S A; Rajabi, H; Fazelipour, S; Hosseinimehr, S J

2014-11-01

342

Time correlation of cosmic-ray-induced neutrons and gamma rays at sea level  

E-print Network

Time correlation of cosmic-ray-induced neutrons and gamma rays at sea level G. Miloshevsky n , A and evaporation processes of air nuclei are time-correlated. The occurrence of their counts in a fixed time interval is not a random (Poisson) distribution, but rather time-correlated bursts of counts

Harilal, S. S.

343

Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.  

PubMed

This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24140570

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

2013-11-15

344

Synthesis and radiation degradation of vinyl polymers with fluorine: search for improved lithographic resists. [Gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

Homopolymers of methyl ..cap alpha..-fluoroacrylate (MFA), trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEM), and hexafluoroisopropyl methacrylate (HFIM) were prepared, as were their methyl methacrylate (MMA) copolymers. Copolymers of vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) with MMA were also prepared. The radiation susceptibilities of these polymers were measured by the /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiation method, in which molecular weights were measured by membrane osmometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). All the copolymers degraded by predominant chain scission except poly(methyl ..cap alpha..-fluoroacrylate), (PMFA), which crosslinks even at low doses (ca. 1 Mrad). The G/sub s/-G/sub x/ and G/sub s/ values of the chain scissioning polymers and copolymers are higher than those of poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA reference. The high susceptibility of PMFA homopolymer to crosslinking is in contrast to that of poly(methyl ..cap alpha..-chloroacrylate), as we reported earlier. This effect is interpreted as resulting from extensive hydrogen fluoride and polyenyl radical formation, which leads to facile crosslinking. However, incorporation of the MFA monomer unit causes the (22/78) MFA/MMA copolymer to degrade with a larger value of G/sub s/ that PMMA. Apparently a second-order process leads to crosslinking in PMFA and this is retarded in the copolymer. In the homopolymers of HFIM and TFEM and in the HFIM-MMA and TFEM-MMA copolymers the HFIM and TFEM components facilitate degradation with negligible crosslinking. The increased degradation susceptibility of VDF and CTFE copolymers with MMA over that of PMMA is attributed to processes at the VDF or CTFE components (present in smaller concentrations (3 to 5 mole %) than the threshold levels (25 to 50% necessary for significant crosslinking).

Pittman, C.U. Jr. (Univ. of Alabama, University); Chen, C.Y.; Ueda, M.; Helbert, J.N.; Kwiatkowski, J.H.

1980-12-01

345

Influence of ferulic acid on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities ultimately resulting in cell death. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn, and ricebran. FA exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antiageing, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiapoptotic, and neuroprotective. The present work is aimed at evaluating the radioprotective effect of FA, on gamma-radiation induced toxicity in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, Vitamins A, E and C and uric acid. DNA damage was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). An increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with increasing dose (1, 2 and 4Gy) of gamma-radiation in cultured hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH, Vitamins C, E and A, ceruloplasmin, uric acid and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4Gy irradiation. Pretreatment with FA (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly decrease the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. In addition, pretreatment with FA significantly increased antioxidant enzymes, GSH, Vitamins A, E and C, uric acid and ceruloplasmin levels. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 10 microg/ml of FA pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with FA helps in protecting the hepatocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as a effective radioprotector during radiotherapy. PMID:17049709

Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Pillai, K Raveendran; Kumar, P Raghu; Sudhakaran, P R; Menon, V P

2006-12-01

346

Oxidative stress and gamma radiation-induced cancellous bone loss with musculoskeletal disuse  

PubMed Central

Exposure of astronauts in space to radiation during weightlessness may contribute to subsequent bone loss. Gamma irradiation of postpubertal mice rapidly increases the number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and causes bone loss in cancellous tissue; similar changes occur in skeletal diseases associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased oxidative stress mediates radiation-induced bone loss and that musculoskeletal disuse changes the sensitivity of cancellous tissue to radiation exposure. Musculoskeletal disuse by hindlimb unloading (1 or 2 wk) or total body gamma irradiation (1 or 2 Gy of 137Cs) of 4-mo-old, male C57BL/6 mice each decreased cancellous bone volume fraction in the proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae. The extent of radiation-induced acute cancellous bone loss in tibiae and lumbar vertebrae was similar in normally loaded and hindlimb-unloaded mice. Similarly, osteoclast surface in the tibiae increased 46% as a result of irradiation, 47% as a result of hindlimb unloading, and 64% as a result of irradiation + hindlimb unloading compared with normally loaded mice. Irradiation, but not hindlimb unloading, reduced viability and increased apoptosis of marrow cells and caused oxidative damage to lipids within mineralized tissue. Irradiation also stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species in marrow cells. Furthermore, injection of ?-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, mitigated the acute bone loss caused by irradiation. Together, these results showed that disuse and gamma irradiation, alone or in combination, caused a similar degree of acute cancellous bone loss and shared a common cellular mechanism of increased bone resorption. Furthermore, irradiation, but not disuse, may increase the number of osteoclasts and the extent of acute bone loss via increased reactive oxygen species production and ensuing oxidative damage, implying different molecular mechanisms. The finding that ?-lipoic acid protected cancellous tissue from the detrimental effects of irradiation has potential relevance to astronauts and radiotherapy patients. PMID:19875718

Kondo, Hisataka; Yumoto, Kenji; Alwood, Joshua S.; Mojarrab, Rose; Wang, Angela; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Searby, Nancy D.; Limoli, Charles L.

2010-01-01

347

Aseptic meningitis in children: Correlation between fever and interferon-gamma level  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the correlation between interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interferon gamma (IFN-?) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and clinical\\/laboratory findings in children with aseptic meningitis. In 19\\/27 patients (70%), the CSF IFN level was high at initial diagnosis, and reduced to a low or undetectable level during the convalescent phase (5–14 days later) of the disease.

I. Minamishima; S. Ohga; E. Ishii; C. Miyazaki; K. Hamada; K. Akazawa; K. Ueda

1991-01-01

348

Determination of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels in antemortem urine and blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid’s (GHB’s) natural presence in the body has made the interpretation of its levels a challenging task for the forensic toxicologist. This study was designed to measure endogenous GHB levels in antemortem urine and blood samples. The range detected in urine was from 34 to 575?g\\/dl and in blood from 17 to 151?g\\/dl. The results indicate that the concentration

Albert A. Elian

2002-01-01

349

Statistical analysis of low-level material screening measurements via gamma-spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Background estimations in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments (0nubetabeta) require reliable statistical limits on gamma-spectrometric low-level material screening measurements. For this purpose a custom method based on Bayesian statistics with reference to the international standard ISO 11929-7 is presented. The analysis combines the data from sample- and background spectra and comprises the physical knowledge of non-negative counting rates. It allows to incorporate multiple gamma lines of radionuclides. The confidence intervals pass continuously from two-sided intervals into single-sided upper limits. PMID:19251428

Heisel, M; Kaether, F; Simgen, H

2009-05-01

350

Complete suppression of reverse annealing of neutron radiation damage during active gamma irradiation in MCZ Si detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the development of radiation-hard Si detectors for the SiD BeamCal (Si Detector Beam Calorimeter) program for International Linear Collider (ILC), n-type Magnetic Czochralski Si detectors have been irradiated first by fast neutrons to fluences of 1.5×1014 and 3×1014 neq/cm2, and then by gamma up to 500 Mrad. The motivation of this mixed radiation project is to test the radiation hardness of MCZ detectors that may utilize the gamma/electron radiation to compensate the negative effects caused by neutron irradiation, all of which exists in the ILC radiation environment. By using the positive space charge created by gamma radiation in MCZ Si detectors, one can cancel the negative space charge created by neutrons, thus reducing the overall net space charge density and therefore the full depletion voltage of the detector. It has been found that gamma radiation has suppressed the room temperature reverse annealing in neutron-irradiated detectors during the 5.5 month of time needed to reach a radiation dose of 500 Mrad. The room temperature annealing (RTA) was verified in control samples (irradiated to the same neutron fluences, but going through this 5.5 month RTA without gamma radiation). This suppression is in agreement with our previous predictions, since negative space charge generated during the reverse annealing was suppressed by positive space charge induced by gamma radiation. The effect is that regardless of the received neutron fluence the reverse annealing is totally suppressed by the same dose of gamma rays (500 Mrad). It has been found that the full depletion voltage for the two detectors irradiated to two different neutron fluences stays the same before and after gamma radiation. Meanwhile, for the control samples also irradiated to two different neutron fluences, full depletion voltages have gone up during this period. The increase in full depletion voltage in the control samples corresponds to the generation of negative space charge, and this increase in concentration of negative space charge goes up with the neutron fluence. If we assume the reverse annealing is also taking place for the two gamma-irradiated samples with similarly different concentrations of negative space charge generated, the observed effect of no changes in space charge (no changes in Vfd) in these two gamma-irradiated samples would imply that concentrations of positive space charge created in these two control samples are different at the same gamma dose, and gamma irradiation effectively "switched off", the RT (room temperature) reverse annealing of neutron irradiation. It has also been found that as soon as the gamma irradiation stops, the RT reverse annealing of neutron irradiation-induced defects resumes with same rate as that of the control detectors. This behavior in mixed radiation samples (neutron plus gamma) would suggest some nonlinear effect (defects induced by mixed-radiations are not additive of those by individual radiation alone), or interaction of radiation induced acceptor-type and donor-type defects.

Li, Z.; Verbitskaya, E.; Chen, W.; Eremin, V.; Gul, R.; Härkönen, J.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Kierstead, J.; Metcalfe, J.; Seidel, S.

2013-01-01

351

Effect of gamma radiation on growth and survival of common seed-borne fungi in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work describes radiation-induced effects of major seeds like Oryza sativa Cv-2233, Oryza sativa Cv-Shankar, Cicer arietinum Cv-local and seed-borne fungi like Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. 60Co gamma source at 25 °C emitting gamma ray at 1173 and 1332 keV energy was used for irradiation. Dose of gamma irradiation up to 3 kGy (0.12 kGy/h) was applied for exposing the seed and fungal spores. Significant depletion of the fungal population was noted with irradiation at 1-2 kGy, whereas germinating potential of the treated grain did not alter significantly. However, significant differential radiation response in delayed seed germination, colony formation of the fungal spores and their depletion of growth were noticed in a dose-dependent manner. The depletion of the fungal viability (germination) was noted within the irradiation dose range of 1-2 kGy for Alternaria sp. and Aspergillus sp., while 0.5-1 kGy for Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. However, complete inhibition of all the selected fungi was observed above 2.5 kGy.

Maity, J. P.; Chakraborty, A.; Chanda, S.; Santra, S. C.

2008-07-01

352

Operation of {sup 3}He Proportional Chambers in High Gamma Radiation Fields  

SciTech Connect

Operation of {sup 3}He proportional chambers with irradiated fissile materials is limited because of the sensitivity of these chambers to gamma ray events. The optimum performance of these chambers is achieved with proper selection of an additive gas to the chambers and with proper choice of preamplifier and linear amplifier time constants. The counting efficiency of a 4-atm, {sup 3}He-CO2 chamber is improved from 35% to 43% in a 200 R/hr gamma radiation field by decreasing the linear amplifier time constant. Likewise, the counting efficiency of a 1-atm, {sup 3}He-CF4 is improved from 11% to 14% in a 200 R/hr gamma radiation field by decreasing the linear amplifier time constant. The 4-atm, {sup 3}He-CO2 1-in.-OD chamber has a higher efficiency than the 1-atm, {sup 3}He-CF4 1-in.-OD chamber although the energy resolution of the 3 He-CF4 chamber is better than that for the {sup 3}He-CO2 chamber.

Hill, N.W.; Miller, V.C.; Valentine, T.E.; Williams, J.A.

1999-09-01

353

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of salt-tolerant tobacco mutants generated by gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Salinity is one of the major problems limiting the yield of agricultural products. Radiation mutagenesis is used to improve salt-tolerant mutant plants. In this study, we aimed to improve salt-tolerant mutants of two oriental tobacco varieties. One thousand seeds of each variety (M0) were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy gamma rays by Cs-137 gamma. In the M1 generation, 2999 single plants were harvested. The next season, these seeds were bulked and planted to obtain M2 progeny. The seeds of 1900 M2 plants were picked separately. Salinity tolerance was tested in the M3 generation. Among M3 plantlets, 10 salt-tolerant tobacco mutants were selected. According to the results of the selection studies, 100- and 200-Gy gamma radiation doses were the effective doses to obtain the desired mutants. Glutathione reductase enzyme activities of salt-tolerant tobacco mutants were determined biochemically as a stress-tolerance marker. The differences between control and salt-tolerant mutants belonging to the Akhisar 97 and ?zmir Özba? tobacco varieties were evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The total polymorphism rate was 73.91%. PMID:25730072

Çelik, Ö; Atak, Ç

2015-01-01

354

Consequences of Lethal-Whole-Body Gamma Radiation and Possible Ameliorative Role of Melatonin  

PubMed Central

Gamma radiation induces the generation of free radicals, leading to serious cellular damages in biological systems. Radioprotectors act as prophylactic agents that are administered to shield normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiation. Melatonin synergistically acts as an immune-stimulator and antioxidant. We investigated the possible radioprotective role of melatonin (100?mg/kg i.p.) against lethal-whole-body radiation- (10?Gy) induced sickness, body weight loss, and mortality in rats. Results of the present study suggest that exposure to lethal-whole-body radiation incurred mortality, body weight loss, and apoptosis and it also depleted the immunity and the antioxidant status of the rats. Our results show that melatonin pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced mortality, oxidative stress, and immune-suppression. The melatonin pretreated irradiated rats showed less change in body weight as compared to radiation only group. On the other hand, melatonin appeared to have another radioprotective role, suggesting that melatonin may reduce apoptosis through a caspase-3-mediated pathway by blocking caspase-3 activity. PMID:25431791

Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

2014-01-01

355

Absorption of 10 Gev--1 Tev Gamma Rays by Radiation from Broad-Line Region in 3C 279  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the photon-photon pair production optical depth for 10 GeV--1 TeV gamma rays from 3C 279 due to the diffuse radiation of broad-line region (BLR). Assuming a power-law spectrum of $E_{\\gamma}^{-a_2}$ for the photon intensity of very high energy (VHE) gamma rays, $a_1 \\gtrsim 405$ and $a_2\\gtrsim 6.4$ are inferred by the integrated photon fluxes measured by MAGIC and HESS. Based on this power-law spectrum, the pre-absorbed spectra are inferred by correcting the photon-photon absorption on the diffuse photons of the BLR (internal absorption) and the extragalactic background light (external absorption). Position of gamma-ray emitting region $R_{\\rm{\\gamma}}$ determines the relative contributions of this two diffuse radiation to the total absorption for 10 GeV--1 TeV gamma rays. The internal absorption could make spectral shape of gamma rays more complex than only corrected for the external absorption, and could lead to the formation of arbitrary softening and hardening gamma-ray spectra. It should be necessary for the internal absorption to be considered in studying 10 GeV--1 TeV gamma rays from powerful blazars. The energies of annihilated gamma-ray photons due to the internal absorption are likely to be mainly reradiated around GeV. Our results indicate that $R_{\\rm{\\gamma}}$ may be between the inner and outer radii of the BLR for 3C 279. This implies for powerful blazars that $R_{\\rm{\\gamma}}$ might be neither inside the BLR cavity nor outside the BLR, but be within the BLR shell. Observations of $\\it GLAST$, MAGIC, HESS, and VERITAS in the near future could give more constraints on the position of the gamma-ray emitting region relative to the BLR.

H. T. Liu; J. M. Bai; L. Ma

2008-07-20

356

Calculations of radiation levels during reactor operations for safeguard inspections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is necessary to calculate the total level of radioactivity produced by the reactor operation when the reactor cover is opened during periodical safeguard inspections for safety requirements. Also the calculations are performed for different reactor core and spent fuel storage loadings during refuelling after reactor shutdown. When an internal core spent fuel storage is used in the shield tank to accommodate a large number of spent fuel baskets, physical calculations are performed to determine the number of these spent fuel elements which can be accommodated and still maintain the gamma activity outside under the permissible limit. The corresponding reactor power level is determined. The radioactivity calculations are performed for this internal storage at different axial levels to avoid the criticality of the reactor core. Transport theory is used in calculations based on collision probability for multi group cell calculations. Diffusion theory is used in three dimensions in the core calculations. The nuclear fuel history is traced and radioactive decay is calculated, since reactor fission products are very sensitive to power level. The radioactivity is calculated with a developed formula based on fuel basket loading integrity.

Sobhy, M.

1996-05-01

357

Gamma-thermometer-based reactor-core liquid-level detector. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

A system is provided which employs a modified gamma thermometer for determining the liquid coolant level within a nuclear reactor core. The gamma thermometer which normally is employed to monitor local core heat generation rate (reactor power), is modified by thermocouple junctions and leads to obtain an unambiguous indication of the presence or absence of coolant liquid at the gamma thermometer location. A signal processor generates a signal based on the thermometer surface heat transfer coefficient by comparing the signals from the thermocouples at the thermometer location. The generated signal is a direct indication of loss of coolant due to the change in surface heat transfer when coolant liquid drops below the thermometer location. The loss of coolant indication is independent of reactor power at the thermometer location. Further, the same thermometer may still be used for the normal power monitoring function.

Burns, T.J.

1981-06-16

358

OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CRUDE MID-OLEIC SUNFLOWER OILS FROM SEEDS WITH HIGH GAMMA AND DELTA TOCOPHEROL LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the effects of increasing the level of gamma tocopherol in sunflower oil, sunflowers were developed that contained various levels of gamma tocopherols with corresponding decreases in alpha tocopherol. Mid-oleic sunflower seeds containing various profiles of tocopherols ranging from tra...

359

Gamma radiation induced effects in floppy and rigid Ge-containing chalcogenide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the radiation induced effects in thin films from the Ge-Se to Ge-Te systems accompanied with silver radiation induced diffusion within these films, emphasizing two distinctive compositional representatives from both systems containing a high concentration of chalcogen or high concentration of Ge. The studies are conducted on blanket chalcogenide films or on device structures containing also a silver source. Data about the electrical conductivity as a function of the radiation dose were collected and discussed based on material characterization analysis. Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy provided us with data about the structure, structural changes occurring as a result of radiation, molecular formations after Ag diffusion into the chalcogenide films, Ag lateral diffusion as a function of radiation and the level of oxidation of the studied films. Analysis of the electrical testing suggests application possibilities of the studied devices for radiation sensing for various conditions.

Ailavajhala, Mahesh S.; Gonzalez-Velo, Yago; Poweleit, Christian; Barnaby, Hugh; Kozicki, Michael N.; Holbert, Keith; Butt, Darryl P.; Mitkova, Maria

2014-01-01

360

Gamma radiation induced effects in floppy and rigid Ge-containing chalcogenide thin films  

SciTech Connect

We explore the radiation induced effects in thin films from the Ge-Se to Ge-Te systems accompanied with silver radiation induced diffusion within these films, emphasizing two distinctive compositional representatives from both systems containing a high concentration of chalcogen or high concentration of Ge. The studies are conducted on blanket chalcogenide films or on device structures containing also a silver source. Data about the electrical conductivity as a function of the radiation dose were collected and discussed based on material characterization analysis. Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy provided us with data about the structure, structural changes occurring as a result of radiation, molecular formations after Ag diffusion into the chalcogenide films, Ag lateral diffusion as a function of radiation and the level of oxidation of the studied films. Analysis of the electrical testing suggests application possibilities of the studied devices for radiation sensing for various conditions.

Ailavajhala, Mahesh S.; Mitkova, Maria [Department of Electrical Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Dr. Boise, Idaho 83725-2075 (United States); Gonzalez-Velo, Yago; Barnaby, Hugh; Kozicki, Michael N.; Holbert, Keith [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-9309 (United States); Poweleit, Christian [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Butt, Darryl P. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Dr. Boise, Idaho 83725-2090 (United States)

2014-01-28

361

Radiative-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis by a linear combination technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear combination technique, when applied to a gamma-ray spectrum, gives a single number indicative of the extent to which the spectral lines of a sought element are present in a complex spectrum. Spectra are taken of the sought element and of various other substances whose spectra interfere with that of the sought element. A weighting function is then computed for application to spectra of unknown materials. The technique was used to determine calcium by radiative-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis in the presence of interfering elements, notably titanium, and the results were compared with those for two popular methods of peak area integration. Although linearity of response was similar for the methods, the linear combination technique was much better at rejecting interferences. For analyses involving mixtures of unknown composition the technique consequently offers improved sensitivity. ?? 1972.

Tanner, A.B.; Bhargava, R.C.; Senftle, F.E.; Brinkerhoff, J.M.

1972-01-01

362

Gamma-ray CdTe and CdZnTe detectors: investigations and applications in radiation control devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present results of our investigations on the technology improvement for high-grade CdTe and CdZnTe single-crystals growth as well as results of the obtained materials testing by photoluminescence method. Perspectives for the materials utilization in detectors and devices of radiation control are discussed. Design features and characteristics of the developed personal (gamma) - and X-radiation dosimeters on the base of CdTe detectors and (gamma) -radiation spectrometers on the base of CdZnTe detectors are presented and discussed as well.

Korbutyak, Dmytro V.; Krylyuk, Sergiy G.; Kryuchenko, Yurii V.; Kupchak, Igor; Komar, Vitaliy K.; Nalivaiko, Dmitriy; Smuk, Rostyslav; Storonskii, Yurii

2001-12-01

363

Effect of gamma radiation on chlorobutyl rubber vulcanized by three different crosslinking systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of halogenated butyl rubber (chlorobutyl) in the 1950s and 1960s greatly extended the usefulness of butyl. Their properties allowed the development of more durable tubeless tires with the air retaining innerliner, chemically bonded to the body of the tire. Tire innerliners are by far the largest application for halobutyl. When polymers are subjected to high energy radiation, a number of chemical reactions may occur following the initial ionization and excitation events. These reactions lead to changes in the molecular weight of the polymer through scission (S) and crosslinking (X) of the molecules and affect the physical and mechanical properties. In the halobutyl rubbers the chain scission may predominate. This work aims to show effects of gamma radiation in properties of chlorobutyl rubbers vulcanized with sulfur, sulfur donor and phenolic resin. The butyl rubber has been already studied by us previously. The samples were characterized before and after irradiation. Gamma radiation doses used were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy, in order to identify which cure system is the most stable under irradiation. In this study we observed that the properties of all samples were affected irrespective of the vulcanization system.

Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth L. C.; Lugao, Ademar B.

2012-09-01

364

Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

Peck, Eugene L.

1992-01-01

365

Gamma radiation process for destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in transformer oils.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals commercially used worldwide in many applications. PCBs were used in oils because of their excellent properties such as good thermal stability, flame resistance, dielectric constant, high break down voltage, high boiling point and low volatility. However, because of their adverse affects on environment and human health, the use of PCBs has been banned now. PCBs are today considered among the widespread pollutants in the global system. PCBs sources still exist in various industrial products and in waste streams such as capacitor oils, lubricating oils, transformer oils, hydraulic oils, paints, rubbers, cables, etc. Several such materials containing PCBs emanating from various sources need to be detoxified before their reuse or before going to landfill for final disposal. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to destroy toxic PCBs. The radiolysis has been investigated as an environment-friendly process for waste oil treatment contaminated with PCBs, which may be a better alternative to the globally most widely accepted incineration method. A study was undertaken to detoxify PCBs in transformer oil by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source. Analysis of PCBs in transformer oils before and after radiation was carried out by GC-MS instrument. The effect of radiation dose and destruction of PCBs in transformer oils are discussed in details in the present paper. The method used was found to be highly effective and destruction was as high as 79 %. Further, the transformer oil samples were also evaluated before and after radiation to check their quality. The properties of oils were not significantly altered by gamma radiation treatment as evident from the results given in the paper. PMID:17913201

Singh, R K; Nayak, Poonam; Niyogi, U K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

2006-01-01

366

Abdominal {gamma}-Radiation Induces an Accumulation of Function-Impaired Regulatory T Cells in the Small Intestine  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the frequency and the functional characteristics of one major component of immune tolerance, the CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a mouse model of abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to a single abdominal dose of {gamma}-radiation (10 Gy). We evaluated small intestine Treg infiltration by Foxp3 immunostaining and the functional suppressive activity of Tregs isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. Results: Foxp3 immunostaining showed that radiation induced a long-term infiltration of the intestine by Tregs (levels 5.5 times greater than in controls). Co-culture of Tregs from mesenteric lymph nodes with CD4{sup +} effector cells showed that the Tregs had lost their suppressive function. This loss was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of Foxp3, TGF-{beta}, and CTLA-4 mRNA, all required for optimal Treg function. At Day 90 after irradiation, Tregs regained their suppressive activity as forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-{beta}), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression returned to normal. Analysis of the secretory function of mesenteric lymph node Tregs, activated in vitro with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs, showed that this dysfunction was independent of a defect in interleukin-10 secretion. Conclusion: Radiation caused a long-term accumulation of function-impaired Foxp3{sup +}CD4{sup +} Tregs in the intestine. Our study provides new insights into how radiation affects the immune tolerance in peripheral tissues.

Billiard, Fabienne; Buard, Valerie; Benderitter, Marc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Direction de la Radioprotection de l'Homme, B.P. no. 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Linard, Christine, E-mail: christine.linard@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Direction de la Radioprotection de l'Homme, B.P. no. 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

2011-07-01

367

Gamma radiation damage study of 0.18 µm process CMOS image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 0.18 ?m process CMOS image sensor has recently been developed by e2v technologies plc. with a 0.5 megapixel imaging area consisting of 6 × 6 ?m 5T pixels. The sensor is able to provide high performance in a diverse range of applications including machine vision and medical imaging, offering good low-light performance at a video rate of up to 60 fps. The CMOS sensor has desirable characteristics which make it appealing for a number of space applications. Following on from previous tests of the radiation hardness of the image sensors to proton radiation, in which the increase in dark-current and appearance of bright and RTS pixels was quantified, the sensors have now been subjected to a dose of gamma radiation. Knowledge of the performance after irradiation is important to judge suitability for space applications and radiation sensitive medical imaging applications. This knowledge will also enable image correction to mitigate the effects and allow for future CMOS devices to be designed to improve upon the findings in this paper. One device was irradiated to destruction after 120 krad(Si) while biased, and four other devices were irradiated between 5 and 20 krad(Si) while biased. This paper explores the resulting radiation damage effects on the CMOS image sensor such as increased dark current, and a central brightening effect, and discusses the implications for use of the sensor in space applications.

Dryer, Ben; Holland, Andrew; Murray, N. J.; Jerram, Paul; Robbins, Mark; Burt, David

2010-07-01

368

Interaction of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation with gamma rays produced by a jet in active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory give evidence for the existence of a type of blazar with strong gamma-ray emission. Data obtained by EGRET for the quasar 3C 279 show a spectrum between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Photons of such energies should interact with the X-rays and produce positron/electron pairs. If the optical depth against pair production for the gamma rays is large (tau(gamma gamma) greater than 1), the gamma-ray spectrum should be affected. The importance of this process has been pointed out by, e.g., Maraschi, Ghisellini, & Celotti (1992). Several works (e.g., Dermer 1993; Zbyszewska 1993; Sikora, Begelman, & Rees 1993) concerning gamma-ray radiation from quasar 3C 279 have proposed a model in which the gamma rays are produced via interaction between a moving cloud of relativistic electrons and external soft photons. The presence of gamma rays in active galactic nuclei spectra gives constraints on the localization and the luminosity of the medium which produces ultraviolet/X-ray photons. We investigate what conditions should be fulfilled in the above model to avoid the absorption of the gamma rays due to pair production.

Zbyszewska, Magda

1994-01-01

369

Interaction of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation with gamma rays produced by a jet in active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory give evidence for the existence of a type of blazar with strong gamma-ray emission. Data obtained by EGRET for the quasar 3C 279 show a spectrum between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Photons of such energies should interact with the X-rays and produce positron/electron pairs. If the optical depth against pair production for the gamma rays is large (tau(gamma gamma) greater than 1), the gamma-ray spectrum should be affected. The importance of this process has been pointed out by, e.g., Maraschi, Ghisellini, & Celotti (1992). Several works (e.g., Dermer 1993; Zbyszewska 1993; Sikora, Begelman, & Rees 1993) concerning gamma-ray radiation from quasar 3C 279 have proposed a model in which the gamma rays are produced via interaction between a moving cloud of relativistic electrons and external soft photons. The presence of gamma rays in active galactic nuclei spectra gives constraints on the localization and the luminosity of the medium which produces ultraviolet/X-ray photons. We investigate what conditions should be fulfilled in the above model to avoid the absorption of the gamma rays due to pair production.

Zbyszewska, Magda

1994-06-01

370

Effective Atomic Numbers of Lanthanides with Gamma Radiation for Photon Energy Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, ZPEA,eff have been calculated for photon from 1 keV to 20 MeV for selected oxides of lanthanides, such as Lanthanum oxide, Cerium oxide, Samarium oxide, Europium oxide, Dysprosium oxide, Thulium oxide, Ytterbium oxide. The ZPEA,eff values then compared with ZPI,eff for photon interaction. The ZPEA,eff values have been found to change with energy and composition of selected lanthanides. Oxides of lanthanides are considered as better shielding materials to the exposure of gamma radiation. The values of effective atomic number for photon energy absorption help in the calculation of absorbed dose.

Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

371

Use of gamma ray radiation to parallel the plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of gamma radiation to parallel the plates of a Fabry-Perot etalon is examined. The method for determining the etalon parallelism, and the procedure for irradiating the posts are described. Changes in effective gap for the etalon over the surface are utilized to measure the parallelism of the Fabry-Perot etalon. An example in which this technique is applied to an etalon of fused silica plates, which are 132 mm in diameter and coded with zinc sulfide and cryolite, with Zerodur spaces 2 cm in length. The effect of the irradiation of the posts on the thermal performance of the etalon is investigated.

Skinner, Wilbert R.; Hays, Paul B.; Anderson, Sally M.

1987-01-01

372

Estimation of external gamma radiation dose in the area of Bory Stobrawskie forests (PL).  

PubMed

The study assessed the radiological risks associated with the presence of natural and artificial radionuclides in the Bory Stobrawskie forests (PL). Using the conversion factors given by UNSCEAR and the measurements results of (232)Th series, (238)U series, (40)K, and (137)Cs specific activities in the 10-cm soil layer the values of absorbed dose (D) and the annual effective dose equivalent derived from terrestrial gamma radiation (E) were calculated. The calculated dose was compared with doses directly measured on the area studied. PMID:21972034

Do?ha?czuk-?ródka, Agnieszka

2012-09-01

373

Gamma spectroscopic measurements using the PID350 pixelated CdTe radiation detector  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic measurements are presented using the PID350 pixelated gamma radiation detectors. A high-speed data acquisition system has been developed in order to reduce the data loss during the data reading in case of a high flux of photons. A data analysis framework has been developed in order to improve the resolution of the acquired energy spectra, using specific calibration parameters for each PID350's pixel. Three PID350 detectors have been used to construct a stacked prototype system and spectroscopic measurements have been performed in order to test the ability of the prototype to localize radioactive sources.

K. Karafasoulis; K. Zachariadou; S. Seferlis; I. Papadakis; D. Loukas; C. Lambropoulos; C. Potiriadis

2010-11-15

374

Effect of Meteorological Phenomena in Measures of Background Radiation X and Gamma Rays in São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to perform a study on the influence of meteorological phenomena on the background radiation X and gamma rays in São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil on the last three years. For this, we performed the monitoring of the integrated radiations and also of the main meteorological parameters (rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and pressure) daily without interruptions and time resolution of one minute. Measurements of X and gamma radiation in the range of energies from 30 keV to 10 MeV, were carried out using a scintillator crystal of sodium iodide activated with Tallium [NaI(Tl)] coupled to a photomultiplier, with energy resolution of 15%. Rainfall, atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded using sensors coupled to a five-channel specific data logger. By correlating the data from the measurements of intensity of X and gamma radiations with the meteorological parameters, it was found that atmospheric precipitation with or without electric discharges phenomenon that was affected more in the spectrum of background radiation profile. Some of the reasons why these changes occur in the background profile are due the presence of environmental radon gas that is drawn to the surface during the occurrences of local rainfall. During dry periods, the spectra of X and gamma radiations showed a daily cycle (24 hour). In relation to relative humidity, temperature and pressure, it was found that these parameters had negligible influence on the profile changes of the background radiation in São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

Gomes, Marcelo; Spjeldvik, Walther; Gusev, Anatoly; Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Pinto, Marcos; Ferro, Marco A.; Concei, Flavio

375

Spectral analysis of paramagnetic centers induced in human tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on study of spectral and relaxation characteristics, we have established that paramagnetic centers induced in tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation are identical in nature. We show that for the same exposure dose, the intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal induced by x-radiation with effective energy 34 keV is about an order of magnitude higher than the amplitude of the signal induced by gamma radiation. We have identified a three-fold attenuation of the EPR signal along the path of the x-radiation from the buccal to the lingual side of a tooth, which is evidence that the individual had undergone diagnostic x-ray examination of the dentition or skull. We have shown that the x-ray exposure doses reconstructed from the EPR spectra are an order of magnitude higher than the applied doses, while the dose loads due to gamma radiation are equal to the applied doses. The data obtained indicate that for adequate reconstruction of individual absorbed doses from EPR spectra of tooth enamel in the population subjected to the combined effect of x-radiation and accidental external gamma radiation as a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, we need to take into account the contribution to the dose load from diagnostic x-rays in examination of the teeth, jaw, or skull.

Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, I. I.

2010-03-01

376

Spirosoma radiotolerans sp. nov., a gamma-radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from gamma ray-irradiated soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, short-rod-shaped bacterial strain with gliding motility, designated as DG5A(T), was isolated from a rice field soil in South Korea. Phylogenic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequence of the new isolate showed that strain DG5A(T) belong to the genus Spirosoma in the family Spirosomaceae, and the highest sequence similarities were 95.5 % with Spirosoma linguale DSM 74(T), 93.4 % with Spirosoma rigui WPCB118(T), 92.8 % with Spirosoma luteum SPM-10(T), 92.7 % with Spirosoma spitsbergense SPM-9(T), and 91.9 % with Spirosoma panaciterrae Gsoil 1519(T). Strain DG5A(T) revealed resistance to gamma and UV radiation. Chemotaxonomic data showed that the most abundant fatty acids were summed feature C(16:1) ?7c/C(16:1) ?6c (36.90 %), C(16:1) ?5c (29.55 %), and iso-C(15:0) (14.78 %), and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The DNA G+C content of strain DG5A(T) was 49.1 mol%. Together, the phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic data supported that strain DG5A(T) presents a novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma radiotolerans sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is DG5A(T) (=KCTC 32455(T) = JCM19447(T)). PMID:24748440

Lee, Jae-Jin; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Im, Seonghun; Bae, So Il; Park, Kyoung Ryun; Han, Ji-Hee; Park, Se-Hee; Joo, Bo-Min; Park, Sol-Ji; Kim, Myung Kyum

2014-09-01

377

Effects of Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on the Rat Retina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health risk of concern for NASA relates to radiation exposure and its synergistic effects with other space environmental factors, includi ng nutritional status of the crew. Astronauts consume almost three times the recommended daily allowance of iron due to the use of fortifie d foods aboard the International Space Station, with iron intake occa sionally exceeding six times the recommended values. Recently, NASA has become concerned with visual changes associated with spaceflight, a nd research is being conducted to elucidate the etiology of eye structure alterations in the spaceflight environment. Terrestrially, iron o verload is also associated with certain optic neuropathies. In additi on, due to its role in Fenton reactions, iron can potentiate oxidative stress, which is a recognized cause of cataract formation. As part o f a study investigating the combined effects of radiation exposure an d iron overload on multiple physiological systems, we focused on defining the effects of both treatments on eye biology. In this study, 12- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four experimental groups: normal iron/no radiation (Control/Sham), high iron/no radiat ion (Fe/Sham), normal iron/gamma radiation (3 Gy cumulative dose, fra ctionated at 0.375 Gy/d every other day for 16 d) (Control/Rad), and high iron/gamma radiation (Fe/Rad). Oxidative stress-induced DNA damag e, measured as concentration of the marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in eye retinal tissue by enzyme-immunoanalysis did not show significant changes among treatments. However, there was an overall i ncrease in 8OHdG immunostaining density in retina sections due to radiation exposure (P = 0.05). Increased dietary iron and radiation expos ure had an interactive effect (P = 0.02) on 8OHdG immunostaining of t he retinal ganglion cell layer with iron diet increasing the signal in the group not exposed to radiation (P = 0.05). qPCR gene expression profiling of relevant target genes indicated upregulation of ferritin light chain (P = 0.09) as a result of dietary iron but no change in e xpression of the gene for ferritin heavy chain. Immunolocalization of light chain and heavy chain of the iron storage protein ferritin showed the expected distribution in the choroid, photoreceptor layer, inn er nuclear layer and in the inner plexiform layer that corresponded t o the synaptic terminals of bipolar cells. Evidence of stress and damage in the retina was also suggested by a decrease in expression of th e survival marker Bcl2 (P = 0.01) and the protective proteins clusterin (P = 0.04) and heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1, P < 0.001), as a result o f increased dietary iron. The effect of increased iron on expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) had a significant interaction with the effect of radiation (P < 0.001). In summary, the results of this study indicate that both gamma radiation exposure and a moderate increase in dietary iron can contribute to deleterious cha nges in retinal health and physiology.

Morgan, Jennifer; Marshall, Grace; Theriot, Corey A.; Chacon, Natalia; Zwart, Sara; Zanello, Susana B.

2012-01-01

378

A meta-analysis of leukaemia risk from protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

Context More than 400?000 workers annually receive a measurable radiation dose and may be at increased risk of radiation-induced leukaemia. It is unclear whether leukaemia risk is elevated with protracted, low-dose exposure. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between protracted low-dose ionising radiation exposure and leukaemia. Data sources Reviews by the National Academies and United Nations provided a summary of informative studies published before 2005. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for additional occupational and environmental studies published between 2005 and 2009. Study selection We selected 23 studies that: (1) examined the association between protracted exposures to ionising radiation and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic subtype; (2) were a cohort or nested case–control design without major bias; (3) reported quantitative estimates of exposure; and (4) conducted exposure–response analyses using relative or excess RR per unit exposure. Methods Studies were further screened to reduce information overlap. Random effects models were developed to summarise between-study variance and obtain an aggregate estimate of the excess RR at 100?mGy. Publication bias was assessed by trim and fill and Rosenthal's file drawer methods. Results We found an ERR at 100?mGy of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.32) by modelling results from 10 studies and adjusting for publication bias. Between-study variance was not evident (p=0.99). Conclusions Protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation is significantly associated with leukaemia. Our estimate agreed well with the leukaemia risk observed among exposed adults in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors, providing increased confidence in the current understanding of leukaemia risk from ionising radiation. However, unlike the estimates obtained from the LSS, our model provides a precise, quantitative summary of the direct estimates of excess risk from studies of protracted radiation exposures. PMID:20935290

Schubauer-Berigan, M K

2010-01-01

379

Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate monomer on natural rubber latex. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

A method of radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer on natural rubber (NR) latex has been studied. The irradiation dose in radiation emulsion polymerization of MMA monomer was lower compared to the irradiation dose for grafting of MMA monomer on NR latex, in order to obtain the same degree of conversion. This is due to the size of the rubber particles which are quite large and, hence, not sufficient to ensure an ideal emulsion polymerization. The irradiation dose for radiation grafting of MMA monomer on latex was around 300 krad to obtain a 75% degree of conversion. However, this irradiation dose was lower compared to the irradiation dose for bulk polymerization of MMA momomer, in order to obtain the same degree of conversion. This is due to the gel effect in the viscous media. Radiation grafting of MMA monomer on NR latex does not influence the pH of the latex, but influences the viscosity significantly. The viscosity of the NR latex increased with an increase in irradiation dose, due to the increase of the total solid content in the latex. The MMA monomer converted to P-MMA in NR latex was largely grafted on the NR, or at least insoluble in a solvent for P-MMA, such as acetone or toluene. The hardness of the pure gum vulcanizate increased with an increase in the degree of grafting or P-MMA content, but the other physical properties, such as tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, and thermal stability, were not greatly influenced by the degree of grafting. 9 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

Sundardi, F.; Kadariah, S.

1984-05-01

380

Behavior of adenine in Na-montmorillonite exposed to gamma radiation: implications to chemical evolution studies.  

PubMed

Adenine is an important compound in biological systems, such as genetic and energy utilization processes. Adenine is readily formed in prebiotic conditions. Its synthesis and stability in environmental conditions are of paramount importance in chemical evolution processes. Clay minerals might have played an important role in the early Earth. Clays are known to have a high affinity for organic compounds, and they may provide protection to adsorbed molecules against high-energy radiation. The purpose of this work is to testthese assumptions. We study the stability of adenine under irradiation, in aqueous solution and also adsorbed in a clay mineral. The recovery of adenine after a gamma irradiation was higher in the system containing clay in relation to a system without clay. Results show that adenine is readily adsorbed in the clay, and that the clay act as surface protector toward the degradation of adenine by the radiation. PMID:12146708

Guzmán, A; Negrón-Mendoza, A; Ramos-Bernal, S

2002-07-01

381

TETRA observation of gamma-rays at ground level associated with nearby thunderstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

gamma-ray flashes (TGFs)—very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms—have been detected with satellite instruments. TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA), an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma-rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, 24 events with durations 0.02-4.2 ms have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 ms and 5 km of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

Ringuette, Rebecca; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T. Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P.

2013-12-01

382

Progenitors Mobilized by Gamma-Tocotrienol as an Effective Radiation Countermeasure  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of gamma-tocotrienol (GT3)-mobilized progenitors in mitigating damage to mice exposed to a supralethal dose of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation. CD2F1 mice were transfused 24 h post-irradiation with whole blood or isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors that had received GT3 72 h prior to blood collection and recipient mice were monitored for 30 days. To understand the role of GT3-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mobilizing progenitors, donor mice were administered a neutralizing antibody specific to G-CSF or its isotype before blood collection. Bacterial translocation from gut to heart, spleen and liver of irradiated recipient mice was evaluated by bacterial culture on enriched and selective agar media. Endotoxin in serum samples also was measured. We also analyzed the colony-forming units in the spleens of irradiated mice. Our results demonstrate that whole blood or PBMC from GT3-administered mice mitigated radiation injury when administered 24 h post-irradiation. Furthermore, administration of a G-CSF antibody to GT3-injected mice abrogated the efficacy of blood or PBMC obtained from such donors. Additionally, GT3-mobilized PBMC inhibited the translocation of intestinal bacteria to the heart, spleen, and liver, and increased colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S) numbers in irradiated mice. Our data suggests that GT3 induces G-CSF, which mobilizes progenitors and these progenitors mitigate radiation injury in recipient mice. This approach using mobilized progenitor cells from GT3-injected donors could be a potential treatment for humans exposed to high doses of radiation. PMID:25423021

Singh, Vijay K.; Wise, Stephen Y.; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O.; Scott, Jessica; Romaine, Patricia L. P.; Newman, Victoria L.; Verma, Amit; Elliott, Thomas B.; Seed, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

383

Modulation phenomena in Si nanowire field-effect transistors characterized using noise spectroscopy and gamma radiation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality silicon nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs) were designed and fabricated. Features of transport and modulation phenomena of the structures were studied using a number of techniques, including noise spectroscopy. Using the 1/f noise component level, the values of the volume trap densities in gate dielectric are estimated to be around 1 × 1017 cm-3 eV-1. This result proves high quality of the investigated structures. Analysis of Lorentzian noise components of NW samples is used to characterize single trap and its parameters. A strong modulation of carrier concentration in the conducting channel under influence of even single carrier capture event has been revealed. Possibility of fine tuning of the transport properties of the sample with low-dose gamma irradiation has been shown. The gamma radiation treatment of the NW samples was applied as an effective technique to confirm the strong influence of trap charges on conductivity behavior in the channel of NW FETs. The results demonstrate that the modulation effects at the nanoscale enable effective changing of the channel conductivity by single capture events and thus are promising for future information technologies and ultra-sensitive single-molecular sensor applications.

Pud, S.; Li, J.; Petrychuk, M.; Feste, S.; Vitusevich, S.; Danilchenko, B.; Offenhäusser, A.; Mantl, S.

2013-03-01

384

On background radiation gradients--the use of airborne surveys when searching for orphan sources using mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

Systematic background radiation variations can lead to both false positives and failures to detect an orphan source when searching using car-borne mobile gamma-ray spectrometry. The stochastic variation at each point is well described by Poisson statistics, but when moving in a background radiation gradient the mean count rate will continually change, leading to inaccurate background estimations. Airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) surveys conducted on the national level, usually in connection to mineral exploration, exist in many countries. These data hold information about the background radiation gradients which could be used at the ground level. This article describes a method that aims to incorporate the systematic as well as stochastic variations of the background radiation. We introduce a weighted moving average where the weights are calculated from existing AGS data, supplied by the Geological Survey of Sweden. To test the method we chose an area with strong background gradients, especially in the thorium component. Within the area we identified two roads which pass through the high-variability locations. The proposed method is compared with an unweighted moving average. The results show that the weighting reduces the excess false positives in the positive background gradients without introducing an excess of failures to detect a source during passage in negative gradients. PMID:24321866

Kock, Peder; Rääf, Christopher; Samuelsson, Christer

2014-02-01

385

49 CFR 173.441 - Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...Radioactive) Materials § 173.441 Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...normally incident to transportation, the radiation level does not exceed 2...

2012-10-01

386

49 CFR 173.441 - Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...Radioactive) Materials § 173.441 Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...normally incident to transportation, the radiation level does not exceed 2...

2014-10-01

387

49 CFR 173.441 - Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...Radioactive) Materials § 173.441 Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...normally incident to transportation, the radiation level does not exceed 2...

2011-10-01

388

49 CFR 173.441 - Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...Radioactive) Materials § 173.441 Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...normally incident to transportation, the radiation level does not exceed 2...

2013-10-01

389

49 CFR 173.441 - Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...Radioactive) Materials § 173.441 Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions...normally incident to transportation, the radiation level does not exceed 2...

2010-10-01

390

Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxic effects of gamma radiation on the peripheral blood leukocytes of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on non-target cells of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patients exposed to various cumulative doses of gamma rays during radiotherapy. The ten patients (P1-P10) were treated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation (External Beam Radiotherapy) for a period of five to six weeks with a daily fraction of 2Gy for 5 days each week. The genotoxic effects of radiation (single strand breaks - SSBs) in these patients were analyzed using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique, with the Olive Tail Moment (OTM) as the critical parameter. A sample of each patient's peripheral blood before starting with radiotherapy (pre-therapy) served as the control, and blood collected at weekly time intervals during the course of the radiotherapy served as treated (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60Gy) samples. In vivo radiosensitivity of these patients, as indicated by SSB's after the cumulative radiation doses at the various times, was assessed using Student's t-test. Significant DNA damage relative to the individual patient's pre-therapy baseline data was observed in all patients. Inter-individual variation of the genotoxic effects was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The correlation between doses for the means of smoker and non-smoker patients was calculated using the Pearson test. The results of this study may indicate the need to reduce the daily radiotherapy dose further to prevent genotoxic effects on non-target cells, thus improving safety. Furthermore, these results may indicate that the estimation of DNA damage following exposure to a gamma radiation, as measured by the comet assay in whole blood leukocytes, can be used to screen human populations for radiation-induced genetic damage at the molecular level. PMID:23370449

Kadam, Samit B; Shyama, Soorambail K; Almeida, Valentine G

2013-04-15

391

Single-source gamma radiation procedures for improved calibration and measurements in porous media  

SciTech Connect

When dual-energy gamma radiation systems are employed for measurements in porous media, count rates from both sources are often used to compute parameter values. However, for several applications, the count rates of just one source are insufficient. These applications include the determination of volumetric liquid content values in two-liquid systems and salt concentration values in water-saturated porous media. Single-energy gamma radiation procedures for three applications are described in this paper. Through an error analysis, single-source procedures are shown to reduce the probable error in the determinations considerably. Example calculations and simple column experiments were conducted for each application to compare the performance of the new single-source and standard dual-source methods. In all cases, the single-source methods provided more reliable data than the traditional dual-source methods. In addition, a single-source calibration procedure is proposed to determine incident count rates indirectly. This procedure, which requires packing under saturated conditions, can be used in all single- and dual-source applications and yields accurate porosity and dry bulk density values.

Oostrom, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Technology Div.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Technology Div.; Hofstee, C.; Dane, H. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Soils] [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Soils; Lenhard, R.J. [Sultan Oaboos Univ. (Oman). Dept. of Soil and Water] [Sultan Oaboos Univ. (Oman). Dept. of Soil and Water

1998-08-01

392

Decay strength distributions in {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{gamma}) radiative capture  

SciTech Connect

The heavy-ion radiative capture reaction, {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{gamma}), has been investigated at energies both on- and off-resonance, with a particular focus on known resonances at E{sub c.m.}=6.0, 6.8, 7.5, and 8.0 MeV. Gamma rays detected in a BGO scintillator array were recorded in coincidence with {sup 24}Mg residues at the focal plane of the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF. In this manner, the relative strength of all decay pathways through excited states up to the particle threshold could be examined for the first time. Isovector M1 transitions are found to be a important component of the radiative capture from the E{sub c.m.}=6.0 and 6.8 MeV resonances. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations suggests that these resonances may have either J=0 or 2, with a preference for J=2. The higher energy resonances at E{sub c.m.}=7.5 and 8.0 MeV have a rather different decay pattern. The former is a clear candidate for a J=4 resonance, whereas the latter has a dominant J=4 character superposed on a J=2 resonant component underneath. The relationship between these resonances and the well-known quasimolecular resonances as well as resonances in breakup and electrofission of {sup 24}Mg into two {sup 12}C nuclei are discussed.

Jenkins, D. G.; Fulton, B. R.; Marley, P.; Fox, S. P.; Glover, R.; Wadsworth, R.; Watson, D. L.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Beck, C.; Papka, P.; Rousseau, M.; Sanchez i Zafra, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Davis, C.; Ottewell, D.; Pavan, M. M.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS/IN2P3, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Gordon Street, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)] (and others)

2007-10-15

393

The effect of perinatal sup 60 Co gamma radiation on brain weight in beagles  

SciTech Connect

Beagle dogs were given single, whole-body {sup 60}Co gamma-radiation exposures at one of three prenatal (8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus) or three postnatal (2, 70, or 365 days postpartum) ages to evaluate the relative radiosensitivity of various stages of brain development. A total of 387 dogs received mean doses ranging from 0.16 to 3.83 Gy, and 120 dogs were sham-irradiated. Groups of dogs were sacrificed at preselected times from 70 days to 11 years of age. Brain weight decreased significantly with increasing dose in dogs irradiated at 28 or 55 days postcoitus or at 2 days postpartum. Irradiations at 28 days postcoitus were dramatically more effective in causing a reduction in brain weight than those at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum. Among dogs given 1.0 Gy or more and followed for up to 4 years, there was a radiation effect evident at all three sensitive exposure ages. Among dogs given lower doses and followed for up to 11 years, there was a significant decrease in brain weight in dogs given 0.80-0.88 Gy at 28 days postcoitus. All decreases in brain weight were present after normalization for radiation-induced reductions in skeletal (body) size. No specific morphologic changes were noted in the brains which showed the radiation-related reductions in size.

Hamilton, B.F.; Benjamin, S.A.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA))

1989-08-01

394

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

SciTech Connect

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01

395

Measurement of $K^- p$ radiative capture to $\\\\gamma \\\\Lambda$ and $\\\\gamma \\\\Sigma^0$ for $p_{K^-}$ between 514 and 750 MeV\\/$c$  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential cross sections for $K^-$ radiative capture in flight on the\\u000aproton, leading to the $\\\\gamma\\\\Lambda$ and $\\\\gamma\\\\Sigma^0$ final states, have\\u000abeen measured at eight $K^-$ momenta between 514 and 750 MeV\\/$c$. The data were\\u000aobtained with the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer installed at the\\u000aseparated $K\\/\\\\pi$ beam line C6 of the BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The\\u000aresults substantially improve

S. Prakhov; P. Vancraeyveld; N. Phaisangittisakul; B. M. K. Nefkens; V. Bekrenev; W. J. Briscoe; L. De Cruz; D. Isenhower; N. Knecht; A. Koulbardis; N. Kozlenko; S. Kruglov; G. Lolos; I. Lopatin; A. Maruÿsic; S. McDonald; Z. Papandreou; D. Peaslee; J. W. Price; J. Ryckebusch; M. Sadler; A. Shafi; A. Starostin; H. M. Staudenmaier; I. I. Strakovsky; I. Supek; T. Van Cauteren

2009-01-01

396

TABLES FOR CALCULATING THE THICKNESS OF LEAD GLASS SHIELDING FOR PROTECTION AGAINST BROAD BEAMS OF $gamma$ RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data fronof gamma ray posnt source experiments with two The shielding ; properties of three lead glasses with densities of 3.86, 4.77, and 6.73 g\\/cm3 ; were calculated, tabulating thickness vs. attenuation of the broad beam of gamma ; radiation at various energies. The buildup factors needed in the calculations ; were determined on the basis of G. Gol'dshtein's method

L. M. Mikhailov; Z. S. Arefeva

1962-01-01

397

The $c\\bar c$ interaction above threshold and the radiative decay $X(3872)\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\gamma$  

E-print Network

Radiative decays of $X(3872)$ are studied in single-channel approximation (SCA) and in the coupled-channel (CC) approach, where the decay channels $D\\bar D^*$ are described with the string breaking mechanism. In SCA the transition rate $\\tilde{\\Gamma}_2=\\Gamma(2\\,{}^3P_1 \\rightarrow \\psi\\gamma)=71.8$~keV and large $\\tilde{\\Gamma}_1=\\Gamma(2\\,{}^3P_1\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\gamma)=85.4$~keV are obtained, giving for their ratio the value $\\tilde{R_{\\psi\\gamma}}=\\frac{\\tilde{\\Gamma}_2}{\\tilde{\\Gamma}_1}=0.84$. In the CC approach three factors are shown to be equally important. First, the admixture of the $1\\,{}^3P_1$ component in the normalized wave function of $X(3872)$ due to the CC effects. Its weight $c_{\\rm X}(E_{\\rm R})=0.200\\pm 0.015$ is calculated. Secondly, the use of the multipole function $g(r)$ instead of $r$ in the overlap integrals, determining the partial widths. Thirdly, the choice of the gluon-exchange interaction for $X(3872)$, as well as for other states above threshold. If for $X(3872)$ the gluon-e...

Badalian, A M; Bakker, B L G

2015-01-01

398

The ultrastructure of radiation-induced endosteal myelofibrosis in the dog. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly developing, progressive form of endosteal myelofibrosis (MF) (with myeloid metaplasia) has been shown to occur at low frequency (approximately 4%) in dogs exposed continuously to low daily doses (10 R/day) of whole-body gamma irradiation. We report in this study the morphological details of the endosteal surface during both preclinical and clinical phases of developing MF by combination light microscopy and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. Pronounced alterations of the endosteum were observed and included: (1) during the early preclinical phases, a progressive time-dependent transition of the endosteal surface from predominantly resting to actively formative and resorptive states; and (2) during the late preclinical phase, aberrant autonomous osteogenic process(es) characterized by a marked reduction in the resorptive, osteoclast-associated endosteal areas occurring concomitantly with further increases in formative areas of the endosteum. Localized patches of overlapping, morphologically transformed endosteal cells (i.e., round-osteoblastic to branched-reticular shaped) were observed within the morphologically reactive, formative endosteum. Osteogenic-endosteal changes coincided with major restructuring of the hematopoietic parenchyma and supporting stromal network. We discuss the possibility that the early occurring endosteal changes are causally linked to normal reparative functions that operate during regenerative hematopoiesis following local and systemic injury. Based on morphological data collected during the late preclinical phase, we speculate that the mechanism of myelofibrosis induction involves the failure to terminate early osteogenic-dependent repair sequences.

Seed, T.M.; Chubb, G.T.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.; Poole, C.M.; Doyle, D.E.; Lombard, L.S.; Kaspar, L.V.

1982-01-01

399

Gamma radiation roused lattice contraction effects investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy in nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanopowders of MnxZn1-xFe2O4 with x=0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were synthesized using a combustion synthesis method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns obtained on samples confirmed formation of monophasic cubic phase material. Lattice parameters and X-ray densities were obtained from rietvield refinement of the XRD patterns. All samples were radiated with gamma radiation with a dose of 200 Gy obtained from 60Co source. Structural and physical parameters, such as lattice constant, X-ray density and particle size, determined for as prepared samples (SA) and gamma irradiated samples (SR), showed extraordinary variations in their values. Saturation magnetizations (MS), remnant magnetization (MR) and coercive field (HC) for both sets of samples illustrated an enhancement in their values for SR samples. Investigations were carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy to divulge structural and magnetic information of all samples. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra were fitted with five magnetic sextets and a symmetric paramagnetic doublet for the data obtained on samples except for x=0.4, SA sample. The presence of well defined doublets in the spectra of SA and SR samples is attributes of superparamagnetism, indicating the reduction in A-B superexchange interaction due to dilution of sub-lattice by Zn ions. Cation distribution at A site and B site, estimated from Mössbauer data exhibited amazing alterations which were highly stable. The variations in physical, structural and magnetic properties observed are attributed to change of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn+2/Mn+3 ratios in gamma-irradiated samples.

Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Meena, S. S.; Bhatt, Pramod; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

2014-09-01

400

SOLIDIFICATION TESTING FOR A HIGH ACTIVITY WASTESTREAM FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING GROUT AND GAMMA RADIATION SHEILDING MATERIALS - 10017  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating grouts that include gamma radiation shielding materials to solidify surrogates of liquid aqueous radioactive wastes from across the DOE Complex. The Savannah River Site (SRS) identified a High Activity Waste (HAW) that will be treated and solidified at the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for surrogate grout testing. The HAW, which is produced at the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), is an acidic aqueous wastestream generated by the alkaline treatment process and the aqueous purification process. The HAW surrogate was solidified using Portland cement with and without the inclusion of different gamma radiation shielding materials to determine the shielding material that is the most effective to attenuate gamma radiation for this application.

Burns, H.

2009-11-10

401

Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technologically enhanced levels of radiation in 34 representative soil samples that have been collected from an inshore oil field area which was found to have, in a previous study, the highest observed value of 226Ra concentration among 129 soil samples. The activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra have been inferred from gamma-ray transitions associated with their decay progenies and measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for all the samples collected from NW Dukhan. Discrete-line, gamma-ray energy transitions from spectral lines ranging in energy from ?100 keV up to 2.6 MeV have been associated with characteristic decays of the various decay products within the 235.8U and 232Th radioactive decay chains. These data have been analyzed, under the assumption of secular equilibrium for the U and Th decay chains. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented. The weighted mean value of the activity concentrations of 226Ra in one of the samples was found to be around a factor of 2 higher than the values obtained in the previous study and approximately a factor of 10 higher than the accepted worldwide average value of 35 Bq/kg. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of 232Th and 40K were also deduced and found to be within the worldwide average values of 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. Our previous study reported a value of 201.9±1.5Stat.±13Syst.Bq/kg for 226Ra in one sample and further investigation in the current work determined a measured value for 226Ra of 342.00±1.9Stat.±25Syst.Bq/kg in a sample taken from the same locality. This is significantly higher than all the other investigated soil samples in the current and previous works. Notably, the Th levels in the same sample are within the worldwide average expectations, implying that the increased 226Ra concentration arises from TENORM processes. PMID:22244196

Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K S; Alkhomashi, N; Al-Dahan, N; Al-Dosari, M; Bradley, D A; Bukhari, S; Matthews, M; Regan, P H; Santawamaitre, T; Malain, D; Habib, A

2012-07-01

402

Protection by pantothenol and beta-carotene against liver damage produced by low-dose gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Rats were exposed to a total dose of 0.75 Gy of gamma radiation from a 60Co source, receiving three doses of 0.25 Gy at weekly intervals. During two days before each irradiation, the animals received daily intragastric doses of 26 mg pantothenol or 15 mg beta-carotene per kg body mass. The animals were killed after the third irradiation session, and their blood and livers were analyzed. As found previously (Slyshenkov, V.S., Omelyanchik, S.N., Moiseenok, A.G., Trebukhina, R.V. & Wojtczak, L. (1998) Free Radical Biol. Med. 24, 894-899), in livers of animals not supplied with either pantothenol or beta-carotene and killed one hour after the irradiation, a large accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, as conjugated dienes, ketotrienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, could be observed. The contents of CoA, pantothenic acid, total phospholipids, total glutathione and GSH/GSSG ratio were considerably decreased, whereas the NAD/NADH ratio was increased. All these effects were alleviated in animals supplied with beta-carotene and were completely abolished in animals supplied with pantothenol. In the present paper, we extended our observations of irradiation effects over a period of up to 7 days after the last irradiation session. We found that most of these changes, with the exception of GSH/GSSG ratio, disappeared spontaneously, whereas supplementation with beta-carotene shortened the time required for the normalization of biochemical parameters. In addition, we found that the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and NADP-dependent malate (decarboxylating) dehydrogenase ('malic enzyme') in liver were also significantly decreased one hour after irradiation but returned to the normal level within 7 days. Little or no decrease in these activities, already 1 h after the irradiation, could be seen in animals supplemented with either beta-carotene or pantothenol. It is concluded that pantothenol is an excellent radioprotective agent against low-dose gamma radiation. PMID:10547025

Slyshenkov, V S; Omelyanchik, S N; Moiseenok, A G; Petushok, N E; Wojtczak, L

1999-01-01

403

Response of a. gamma. -ray ''telescope'' dosimeter to the (n +. gamma. ) radiation from a /sup 239/Pu-Be source  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction, and investigation of a gamma-ray telescope that can tell the direction of incident photons is reported. The dosimeter is based on LiF thermoluminescence. The gamma-ray telescope dosimeter was tested with a /sup 239/Pu-Be source and found to perform satisfactorily. For a high-energy neutron field the gamma-ray telescope dosimeter contributes very little to the total dose equivalent. (LEW)

Attix, F.H.; Pearson, D.W.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

1985-01-01

404

Using RADFET for the real-time measurement of gamma radiation dose rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RADFETs (RADiation sensitive Field Effect Transistors) are integrating ionizing radiation dosimeters operating on the principle of conversion of radiation-induced threshold voltage shift into absorbed dose. However, one of the major drawbacks of RADFETs is the inability to provide the information on the dose rate in real-time using the conventional absorbed dose measurement technique. The real-time monitoring of dose rate and absorbed dose can be achieved with the current mode dosimeters such as PN and PIN diodes/photodiodes, but these dosimeters have some limitations as absorbed dose meters and hence they are often not a suitable replacement for RADFETs. In that sense, this paper investigates the possibility of using the RADFET as a real-time dose rate meter so that it could be applied for simultaneous online measurement of the dose rate and absorbed dose. A RADFET sample, manufactured by Tyndall National Institute, Cork, Ireland, was tested as a dose rate meter under gamma irradiation from a Co-60 source. The RADFET was configured as a PN junction, such that the drain, gate and source terminals were grounded, while the radiation-induced current was measured at the bulk terminal, whereby the bulk was successively biased with 0?, 10?, 20? and 30?V. In zero-bias mode the radiation-induced current was unstable, but in the biased mode the current response was stable for the investigated dose rates from 0.65? to 32.1?Gy?h?1 and up to the total absorbed dose of 25?Gy. The current increased with the dose rate in accordance with the power law, whereas the sensitivity of the current read-out was linear with respect to the applied bias voltage. Comparison with previously analyzed PIN photodiodes has shown that the investigated RADFET is competitive with PIN photodiodes as a gamma radiation dose rate meter and therefore has the potential to be employed for the real-time monitoring of the dose rate and absorbed dose.

Andjelkovi?, Marko S.; Risti?, Goran S.; Jakši?, Aleksandar B.

2015-02-01

405

Gamma watermarking  

DOEpatents

A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

2004-05-25

406

A new analytical formula for neutron capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes in radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Photoneutrons are produced in radiation therapy with high energy photons. Also, capture gamma rays are the byproduct of neutrons interactions with wall material of radiotherapy rooms. Aim In the current study an analytical formula was proposed for capture gamma dose calculations in double bend mazes in radiation therapy rooms. Materials and methods A total of 40 different layouts with double-bend mazes and a 18 MeV photon beam of Varian 2100 Clinac were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo (MC) code. Neutron capture gamma ray dose equivalent was calculated by the MC method along the maze and at the maze entrance door of all the simulated rooms. Then, all MC resulted data were fitted to an empirical formula for capture gamma dose calculations. Wu–McGinley analytical formula for capture gamma dose equivalent at the maze entrance door in single-bend mazes was also used for comparison purposes. Results For capture gamma dose equivalents at the maze entrance door, the difference of 2–11% was seen between MC and the derived equation, while the difference of 36–87% was found between MC and the Wu–McGinley methods. Conclusion Our results showed that the derived formula results were consistent with the MC results for all of 40 different geometries. However, as a new formula, further evaluations are required to validate its use in practical situations. Finally, its application is recommend for capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes to improve shielding calculations. PMID:24377027

Ghiasi, Hosein; Mesbahi, Asghar

2012-01-01

407

[FTIR analysis of Sr2+ biosorption by Bacillus spp. strains isolated from soil treated with gamma-ray radiation].  

PubMed

One strain bacterium was isolated from purple soil of Sichuan basin. It was subject to Bacillus according to analysis results of 16S rDNA. The effect of its biosorption to Sr2+ under gamma-ray radiation was studied in this paper. As for the whole kinetic biosorption curves, the results show that bacterial growth rates of test groups have retardation phenomena compared to the control groups without radiation. Such as the appearance of biosorption equilibrium retarded 1.5 d while the max growth rate retarded 0.5 d after the radiation SEM analysis showed that the bacterial cells had abnormity distortion after radiation. This proved that gamma-ray radiation can bring obvious damage to experimental bacterial cells. FTIR analysis results indicated that bacteria cells were damaged by radiation and Sr2+ has cooperation damage effects with radiation in aqueous condition, and the bacterial cells of log phase are easier to be damaged by coming forth radiation than those of lag phase. This radiation damage under different radiation condition mainly leads to that the characteristic peaks of amylase, protein amide and lipids on bacterial cells are slightly shifted. PMID:23427542

Dai, Qun-Wei; Dong, Fa-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiong-Fang

2012-12-01

408

Examination of level density prescriptions in the interpretation of high energy gamma-ray spectra  

E-print Network

High energy $\\gamma$-ray spectra measured by our group involving the compound nuclei (CN) $^{63}$Cu at excitation energy ($E^*$) $\\sim$ 36 MeV with average angular momentum ($J$) = 12 - 17 $\\hbar$, $^{97}$Tc at $E^* \\sim$ 29 - 50 MeV with $J$ = 12 - 14 $\\hbar$, $^{113}$Sb at $E^*$ = 109 MeV and 121 MeV with $J$ = 49 - 59 $\\hbar$ and $^{201}$Tl at $E^*$ = 39.5, 47.5 MeV with $J$ = 18 - 24 $\\hbar$ have been analyzed utilizing the level density prescriptions of (i)Ignatyuk, Smirenkin and Tishin (IST), (ii)Budtz-Jorgensen and Knitter (BJK), and (iii) Kataria, Ramamurthy and Kapoor (KRK). These three prescriptions have been tested for correct statistical model description of high energy $\\gamma$-rays in the light of extracting the giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters at low excitation energy and spin where shell effects might play an important role as well as at high excitation energy where shell effects have melted. Interestingly, only the IST level density prescription could explain the high energy $\\gamma$-ray spectra with reasonable GDR parameters for all the four nuclei.

Srijit Bhattacharya; Deepak Pandit; Balaram Dey; Debasish Mondal; S. Mukhopadhyay; Surajit Pal; A. De; S. R. Banerjee

2014-11-05

409

Smart poly(oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate) hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of poly(oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate) (POPGMA) from functionalised oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate (OPGMA) monomers by gamma radiation-induced radical polymerisation is reported for the first time; POPGMA homopolymeric hydrogel with oligo(propylene glycol) (OPG) pendant chains, as a non-linear PPGMA-analogue, was synthesised from an monomer-solvent (OPGMA375-water/ethanol) mixture at different irradiation doses (5, 10, 25, and 40 kGy). Determination of the gel fraction was conducted after synthesis. The swelling properties of the POPGMA hydrogel were preliminarily investigated over wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature (4-70 °C) ranges. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In order to evaluate the potential for biomedical applications, biocompatibility (cytocompatibility and haemolytic activity) studies were performed as well. Sol-gel conversion was relatively high for all irradiation doses, indicating radiation-induced synthesis as a good method for fabricating this hydrogel. Thermoresponsiveness and variations in swelling capacity as a result of thermosensitive OPG pendant chains with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were mainly observed below room temperature; thus, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of POPGMA homopolymeric hydrogel is about 15 °C. Furthermore, POPGMA has satisfactory biocompatibility. The results indicate that the hydrogels with propylene glycol pendant chains can be easily prepared by gamma radiation and have potential for different applications as smart and biocompatible polymers.

Suljovrujic, E.; Micic, M.

2015-01-01

410

Limits to the radiative decays of neutrinos and axions from gamma-ray observations of SN 1987A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray observations obtained by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer in the energy range 4.1-6.4 MeV are used to provide limits on the possible radiative decay of neutrinos and axions emitted by SN 1987A. For branching ratio values for the radiative decay modes of less than about 0.0001, the present limits are more stringent than those based upon the photon flux from decaying relic neutrinos. The data are also used to set an axion mass limit.

Kolb, Edward W.; Turner, Michael S.

1989-01-01

411

Deep levels and radiation effects in p-InP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was conducted on past studies of hole traps in InP. An experiment was designed to evaluate hole traps in Zn-doped InP after fabrication, after electron irradiation and after annealing using deep level transient spectroscopy. Data similar to that of Yamaguchi was seen with observation of both radiation-induced hole and electron traps at E sub A=0.45 eV and 0.03 eV, respectively. Both traps are altered by annealing. It is also shown that trap parameters for surface-barrier devices are influenced by many factors such as bias voltage, which probes traps at different depths below the surface. These devices require great care in data evaluation.

Anderson, W. A.; Singh, A.; Jiao, K.; Lee, B.

1989-01-01

412

Influence of low-level laser radiation on kidney functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of all renal diseases are accompanied by lowering of kidney functions. That makes the quality of the treatment worse. On an example 69 patients receiving Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), the influence of the laser radiation on a contracting system of blood, on current of an active and inactive tubercular inflammation and on partial functions of kidneys were investigated. Is established, that LLLT does not render influence to a contracting system; promotes stopping of unspecific and moderate peaking of a specific inflammation of kidneys. Is proved, that after a rate of laserotherapy the improving of a blood micricirculation in kidney occurs in 57.9% of patients; a secretion - in 63.1% of the patients; a stimulation of urodynamic is fixed in 79% of cases. Magnification of diuresis, improving filtration and concentration functions of kidneys also is marked.

Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.

1998-12-01

413

Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, ?=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

2013-07-01

414

Gamma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geometric Algorithms for Modeling, Motion, and Animation (GAMMA) research group is part of the Department of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina. Some of the topics of research include haptics, "robot motion planning," collision detection, and "real-time interaction with virtual environments." There are several projects that are described in detail for each of the main areas of investigation. Many recent papers are offered that describe the progress and findings of the group's research. Additionally, there is a large collection of videos demonstrating computer animation, simulation, and interactive applications. Some software can also be downloaded for the GAMMA Web site; however, access to a few of the titles must first be approved by the system administrator.

415

10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. The Commission...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a result of...

2013-01-01

416

10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. DOE will determine...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when as a result of an...

2014-01-01

417

10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. DOE will determine...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when as a result of an...

2013-01-01

418

10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. DOE will determine...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when as a result of an...

2012-01-01

419

10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. The Commission...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a result of...

2012-01-01

420

10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. The Commission...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a result of...

2010-01-01

421

10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. The Commission...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a result of...

2014-01-01

422

10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. DOE will determine...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when as a result of an...

2011-01-01

423

10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. The Commission...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a result of...

2011-01-01

424

10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section...of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. DOE will determine...there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when as a result of an...

2010-01-01