These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland  

SciTech Connect

Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

Butterweck, Gernot [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bucher, Benno [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, 5232 Villigen HSK (Switzerland); Rybach, Ladislaus [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Geophysics, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)



GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra  

SciTech Connect

The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

Winn, W.G.



Parametric Studies for 233U Gamma Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of special nuclear material is a necessary aspect to assuring material accountability and is often accomplished using non-destructive gamma spectrometry. For 233U, gamma rays are affected by matrix and packaging attenuation and by a strong Compton continuum from decay products of 232U (inherently found in 233U) that obscure 233U gamma photopeaks. This project, based on current work at the national repository for separated 233U located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), explores the effects of various parameters on the quantification of 233U– including material form and geometry. Using an attenuation correction methodology for calculating the mass of 233U from NDA analysis, a bias of almost 75% less than the actual 233U mass was identified. The source of the bias needs to be understood at a more fundamental level for further use of this quantification method. Therefore, controlled experiments using well characterized packages of 233U were conducted at the repository and are presented in this paper.

Scheffing, C.C.; Krichinsky, A.



Resonant Compton scattering and gamma-ray burst continuum spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.

Baring, M. G.



Analysis of G protein gamma subunit heterogeneity using mass spectrometry.  


The diversity of the gamma subunits in bovine brain G protein preparations was investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Analysis of these G protein mixtures revealed at least four gamma subunit masses by the following four criteria. 1) The measured masses were in the same mass range as the predicted molecular weights of gamma isoforms. 2) The masses were reproducible between the same or different preparations of G proteins. 3) The masses were independent of the matrix used for MALDI analysis. 4) The masses comigrated with the gamma subunit, as part of the heterotrimer, the beta gamma dimer, or the separated gamma subunit. These measured masses were compared with those calculated from cDNA sequences of known bovine brain gamma isoforms with the addition of plausible post-translational modifications. The mass of each spectral peak was consistent with the calculated mass for only one of four known bovine brain gamma subunit isoforms, but the data suggest modifications of the gamma subunits in addition to those already known or suspected at their carboxyl termini. Besides these four major masses, several additional, less resolved spectral peaks were observed whose measured masses did not correlate with any known gamma subunit or plausible modification. MALDI mass spectrometry promises to be a powerful technique for the analysis of the diversity of the gamma subunit in G proteins and for the characterization of their post-translational modifications. PMID:8175659

Wilcox, M D; Schey, K L; Dingus, J; Mehta, N D; Tatum, B S; Halushka, M; Finch, J W; Hildebrandt, J D



Thunderstorm ground enhancements: Gamma ray differential energy spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape and evolution of the energy spectra of the thunderstorm ground enhancement (TGE) electrons and gamma rays shed light on the origin of TGEs, on the relationship of modification of the energy spectra (MOS) and relativistic runaway electron avalanche processes, on the nature of the seed particles, and on the strength and elongation of an atmospheric electric field. However, till now the measurements of energy spectra of TGE electrons and gamma rays have been rather scarce. For the first time, we present differential energy spectra of gamma rays in the wide energy range 4-100 MeV for five TGE events detected in 2012-2013 at Aragats. We use the special technique of electron/gamma ray fraction determination to select TGE events with very small contamination of electrons. The network of large NaI spectrometers located 3200 m above sea level measured energy spectra of gamma rays. The power law indices of “small” TGEs are rather close to the background cosmic gamma ray spectrum (?˜-2); thus, we may deduce that these small events are due to MOS of cosmic ray electrons in the electric field of a thundercloud. Larger TGEs measured by the NaI network and the two largest TGE events earlier recovered from energy releases in a 60-cm-thick scintillator have much steeper energy spectra typical for the avalanche process in atmosphere. The classification of TGEs according to intensity and gamma ray spectral index pointed toward two main mechanisms of the TGE gamma ray origin: the runaway process and modification of electron energy spectra in the thunderstorm atmospheres.

Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.




SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.



Augmentation of ENDF/B fission product gamma-ray spectra by calculated spectra  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray spectral data of the ENDF/B-V fission product decay data file have been augmented by calculated spectra. The calculations were performed with a model using beta strength functions and cascade gamma-ray transitions. The calculated spectra were applied to individual fission product nuclides. Comparisons with several hundred measured aggregate gamma spectra after fission were performed to confirm the applicability of the calculated spectra. The augmentation was extended to a preliminary ENDF/B-VI file, and to beta spectra. Appendix C provides information on the total decay energies for individual products and some comparisons of measured and aggregate values based on the preliminary ENDF/B-VI files. 15 refs., 411 figs.

Katakura, J. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); England, T.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)) [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



New shield for gamma-ray spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray shield that can be evacuated, refilled with a clean gas, and pressurized for exclusion of airborne radioactive contaminants effectively lowers background noise. Under working conditions, repeated evacuation and filling procedures have not adversely affected the sensitivity and resolution of the crystal detector.

Brar, S. S.; Gustafson, P. F.; Nelson, D. M.



Inversion of neutron/gamma spectra from scintillator measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on-board NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover will measure charged particles as well as neutron and gamma radiation on the Martian surface. Neutral particles are an important contribution to this radiation environment. RAD measures them with a CsI (Tl) and a plastic scintillator, which are both surrounded by an anticoincidence. The incident neutron/gamma spectrum is obtained from the measurements using inversion methods which often fit a functional behavior, e.g., a power law, to the measured data applying the instrument response function and, e.g., a least-squares method. In situations where count rates are small, i.e., where the stochastic nature of the measurement is evident, maximum likelihood estimates with underlying Poissonian statistics improve the resulting spectra. We demonstrate the measurement and inversion of gamma/neutron spectra for a detector concept featuring one high-density scintillator and one high-proton-content scintillator. The applied inversion methods derive the original spectra without any strong assumptions of the functional behavior. Instrument response functions are obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations in matrix form with which the instrument response is treated as a set of linear equations. Using the response matrices we compare a constrained least-squares minimization, a chi-squared minimization and a maximum likelihood method with underlying Poissonian statistics. We make no assumptions about the incident particle spectrum and the methods intrinsically satisfy the constraint of non-negative counts. We analyzed neutron beam measurements made at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and inverted the measurement data for both neutron and gamma spectra. Monte-Carlo-generated measurements of the expected Martian neutron/gamma spectra were inverted as well, here the maximum likelihood method with underlying Poissonian statistics produces significantly better results.

Köhler, J.; Ehresmann, B.; Martin, C.; Böhm, E.; Kharytonov, A.; Kortmann, O.; Zeitlin, C.; Hassler, D. M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.



In-situ gamma spectrometry in environmental monitoring.  


In-situ gamma spectrometry (scintillation or semiconductor) can be used effectively for monitoring natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations, together with the corresponding photon fields, in the environment and in workplaces. It is applied in operational and emergency monitoring of nuclear facilities, waste storage facilities and the uranium industry, in radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies, etc. Methods for processing and interpreting data, experimental techniques (ground or airborne arrangement), calibration and verification and examples of applications are discussed in this paper. PMID:20022255

Kluson, J



Airborne gamma spectrometry--towards integration of European operational capability.  


Airborne gamma spectrometry is an excellent tool for finding out in a timely manner the extent and magnitude of the dispersion of radioactive materials resulting from a nuclear disaster. To utilise existing European airborne monitoring capabilities for multilateral assistance in an accident is a complex administrative and technical matter. Several international exercises have been organised demonstrating the capability to cooperate. However, efficient mutual assistance between European countries requires conceptual work, standards and harmonisation of software. A unified radiological vocabulary and data exchange format in XML need to be developed. A comprehensive database is essential for data assimilation. An operations centre is needed for management and planning of surveys. PMID:15238672

Toivonen, Harri



Demonstrating the European capability for airborne gamma spectrometry: results from the eccomags exercise.  


Airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) is being increasingly recognised as an important means for mapping environmental radioactivity in emergency response. Progress has been made in recent years towards methodological convergence and cooperation between European teams. Recently, an international comparison was undertaken in SW Scotland in 2002 to evaluate AGS and ground-based methods. Teams from 18 institutions in 10 European countries attended, collecting some 140,000 AGS spectra, with 750 laboratory gamma spectrometry analyses and 120 in situ observations from the ground sites. Comparisons between AGS and ground-based methods have confirmed the validity of AGS protocols. A composite mapping task, where AGS teams recorded data over adjacent parts of a 90 x 40 km2 area within a few days, confirmed the ability of teams to work together in an effective manner. This paper provides a summary of the results of the exercise. These demonstrate the operational capabilities of European AGS teams and confirm the quantitative nature of the method. PMID:15238669

Sanderson, D C W; Cresswell, A J; Scott, E M; Lang, J J



Radiological characterisation of synthetic rutile using HPGe gamma spectrometry.  


This paper discusses the radiological characterisation of synthetic rutile, which is the source material for the production of titanium. The natural radioactivity due to uranium ((238)U), thorium ((232)Th) series radionuclides and potassium ((40)K) was measured in synthetic rutile samples of a production plant in Tamil Nadu, India. n-type high-purity germanium-coupled gamma spectrometry was used for the analysis. It is observed that thorium is more abundant than any other radionuclide, which is due to the monazite present in the primary sand. The activity index (I) evaluated from the radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K of the analysed samples is found to be well below the recommended levels. This study shows that the use of synthetic rutile from Tamil Nadu, India, for the manufacture of building materials will not pose any increased radiation exposure to the public beyond the dose criterion of the European Union. PMID:20413419

Chinnaesakki, S; Bara, S V; Sartandel, S J; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D



The Intergalactic Absorption Effect in Blazar Gamma-ray Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the optical depth of the universe for gamma-rays having energies between 4 GeV and 100 TeV emitted by sources at redshifts from 0 to 5. Absorption of high energy gamma-rays in intergalactic space is due to interactions with the cosmic background radiation and low energy photons. We calculate the intergalactic photon density in a ΛCDM universe consistent with the most recent WMAP findings as a function of both energy and redshift for 0 < z < 6 and for photon energies from .003 eV up to the Lyman limit cutoff at 13.6 eV. Our evolution model is consistent with Spitzer deep number counts and the spectral energy distribution of the extragalactic background radiation. From our optical depth results, we derive a simple analytic approximation for determining the effect of intergalactic absorption for 0.01 < Ï,, < 100 and for gamma-ray energies up to 2 TeV for all redshifts but also for energies up to 10 TeV for redshifts less than 1. We show the utility of this approximation by applying it to the spectra of seven TeV blazers.

Scully, Sean; Stecker, F.



Investigation of elemental analysis using neutron-capture gamma ray spectra  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluated the potential of neutron-capture gamma rays in elemental analysis. A large portion of the work was devoted to the development of a method for the analysis of weak peaks in gamma ray spectra. This was ...

Hamawi, John Nicholas



Broadband Turbulent Spectra in Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband power density spectra offer a window to understanding turbulent behavior in the emission mechanism and, at the highest frequencies, in the putative inner engines powering long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We describe a chirp search method alongside Fourier analysis for signal detection in the Poisson noise-dominated, 2 kHz sampled, BeppoSAX light curves. An efficient numerical implementation is described in O(Nnlog n) operations, where N is the number of chirp templates and n is the length of the light-curve time series, suited for embarrassingly parallel processing. For the detection of individual chirps over a 1 s duration, the method is one order of magnitude more sensitive in signal-to-noise ratio than Fourier analysis. The Fourier-chirp spectra of GRB 010408 and GRB 970816 show a continuation of the spectral slope with up to 1 kHz of turbulence identified in low-frequency Fourier analysis. The same continuation is observed in an average spectrum of 42 bright, long GRBs. An outlook on a similar analysis of upcoming gravitational wave data is included.

van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Frontera, Filippo



Problems in the analysis of gamma-ray burst spectra  

SciTech Connect

Spectral measurements by the Solar Maximum Mission have been used to confirm the cyclotron lines in gamma-ray bursts reported from the Konus experiment. We present ISEE-3 data for the same burst (GB800419) during the same period of time which show no line. We discuss various problems in the analysis of scintillator spectra and point out that unfolded spectra are not necessarily unique and that the position of a data point in a deconvolved spectrum may vary depending on the assumed overall shape of the spectrum. As a result, if the analysis assumes a soft spectrum (such as optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung) an absorption feature might appear, whereas a harder spectrum (such as a Comptonized blackbody) would not require the feature. Since the continuum shape probably changes during the duration of a typical burst, the nonuniqueness of the spectral unfolding, combined with the assumption that the continuum is optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung, could give rise to spurious absorption features which vary on a time scale of seconds. Despite these problems, there is still some evidence for narrow spectral lines in the range 45 to 65 keV but not for the broad lines reported from the Konus experiment. Unfortunately, the range 45 to 65 keV is the most difficult spectral region to unfold.

Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.



Gamma and alpha spectrometry for natural radioactive nuclides in the spa waters of Extremadura (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma and alpha spectrometry of waters from several spas of Extremadura (Spain) were performed in order to determine their radioactivity. For the gamma spectrometry, the sample was measured directly using an HpGe detector with a Marinelli beaker. The nuclide 222Rn was determined by measuring the emissions from its daughters 214Pb and 214Bi and assuming transient equilibrium. Each sample was measured

A. Martín Sánchez; F. Vera Tomé; R. M. Orantos Quintana; V. Gómez Escobar; M. Jurado Vargas



Demonstration of lightweight gamma spectrometry systems in urban environments.  


Urban areas present highly complex radiation environments; with small scale features resulting from different construction materials, topographic effects and potential anthropogenic inputs from past industrial activity or other sources. Mapping of the radiation fields in urban areas allows a detailed assessment of exposure pathways for the people who live and work there, as well as locating discrete sources of activity that may warrant removal to mitigate dose to the general public. These areas also present access difficulties for radiometric mapping using vehicles or aircraft. A lightweight portable gamma spectrometry system has been used to survey sites in the vicinity of Glasgow to demonstrate the possibilities of radiometric mapping of urban areas, and to investigate the complex radiometric features such areas present. Variations in natural activity due to construction materials have been described, the presence of (137)Cs used to identify relatively undisturbed ground, and a previously unknown NORM feature identified. The effect of topographic enclosure on measurements of activity concentration has been quantified. The portable system is compared with the outputs that might be expected from larger vehicular or airborne systems. For large areas airborne surveys are the most cost effective approach, but provide limited spatial resolution, vehicular surveys can provide sparse exploratory data rapidly or detailed mapping of open areas where off-road access is possible. Backpack systems are ideally suited to detailed surveys of small areas, especially where vehicular access is difficult. PMID:23639691

Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W; Harrold, M; Kirley, B; Mitchell, C; Weir, A



Cadium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) Gamma Ray Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This report describes CZT crystals and their use in large arrays for generation of gamma ray spectra. Laboratory spectra will be shown together with spectra accumulated by various battery powered portable instruments (see Appendix A). One of these portable instruments was specifically constructed to minimize power consumption and yet provide reasonable isotope identification capability. Detailed data will be presented covering gamma energy resolution, gamma peak shapes, system background, and detector efficiency. Nearly all data were taken with very small crystals of CZT; cubes 5 mm on a side. A few spectra will be presented from cylindrical crystals of about the same size (see Appendix A). The small crystal size leads to low counting rates and extended counting times for reliable isotope identification. We have addressed this problem by using arrays of CZT crystals, initially two crystals and, at present, arrays of eight crystals. Data will be shown relating spectral parameters for these two arrays. System MDA is one way of combining resolution, efficiency, and background that will enable direct comparison of various detector types for individual isotope identification. We have calculated the MDA for an early dual crystal array and the current eight crystal array. Data derived from each array will be presented. In addition, it is possible to extrapolate the MDA methodology to much larger arrays. A 32-crystal array is under construction and extrapolations to 256 and 1024 crystals are considered possible. Estimated MDA values for these larger arrays are also presented. Several 8-crystal arrays have been constructed and versions have been incorporated into portable instruments. Descriptions of these small instruments are given covering physical size, weight, and general configuration. These instruments have been tested for shock and temperature effects and data will be presented on the results of these tests. The MDA concept will also allow extrapolation to large source to detector distances. The usual laboratory measurements are done with small sources at 20 to 50 cm ranges. Practical ranges for aerial work will be 50 to 100 meters or greater. These distances will require correction for air attenuation for most of the low energy isotopes. The approximations used in the present note for aerial measurements involve small diameter sources (diameter approximately equal to the altitude), a 1 kt pass, and a planar array with no aircraft attenuation material in the field of view. The array will have a collimator to limit the side-looking sensitivity to enable a more accurate extrapolation from the laboratory data. Large arrays will have significant physical size and weight compared to the small hand-held instruments thus far constructed. We estimate these parameters and extrapolate the power consumption to provide a realistic estimate of a suitable airborne system. In all cases these larger systems are lighter and physically more compact than the usual NaI or high purity Germanium (HPGe) systems used in aerial work. Thus deployment should be simple. The power consumption is much less as well.

William Quam



Recovery and reanalysis of archived airborne gamma spectrometry data from the 1991 Dounreay survey.  


Archived Airborne Gamma Spectrometry (AGS) data from the 1991 NIREX characterisations of Caithness have been recovered. The separate gamma spectrometry and positional data streams for approximately 120,000 measurements have been combined into a single data stream using the European Radiometrics and Spectrometry (ERS) data format. An analysis using working calibration coefficients and spectral stripping procedure has verified that the original survey recorded high quality data. The converted data stream is in a format more accessible to future research use, including evaluation of environmental change in the Caithness region. PMID:21798750

Cresswell, A J



Waste Characterization Using Gamma Ray Spectrometry with Automated Efficiency Optimization - 13404  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray spectrometry using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors is commonly employed in assaying radioactive waste streams from a variety of sources: nuclear power plants, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, medical facilities, decontamination and decommissioning activities etc. The radioactive material is typically packaged in boxes or drums (for e.g. B-25 boxes or 208 liter drums) and assayed to identify and quantify radionuclides. Depending on the origin of the waste stream, the radionuclides could be special nuclear materials (SNM), fission products, or activation products. Efficiency calibration of the measurement geometry is a critical step in the achieving accurate quantification of radionuclide content. Due to the large size of the waste items, it is impractical and expensive to manufacture gamma ray standard sources for performing a measurement based calibration. For well over a decade, mathematical efficiency methods such as those in Canberra's In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) have been successfully employed in the efficiency calibration of gamma based waste assay systems. In the traditional ISOCS based calibrations, the user provides input data such as the dimensions of the waste item, the average density and fill height of the matrix, and matrix composition. As in measurement based calibrations, the user typically defines a homogeneous matrix with a uniform distribution of radioactivity. Actual waste containers can be quite nonuniform, however. Such simplifying assumptions in the efficiency calibration could lead to a large Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), thus limiting the amount of waste that can be disposed of as intermediate or low activity level waste. To improve the accuracy of radionuclide quantification, and reduce the TMU, Canberra has developed the capability to optimize the efficiency calibration using the ISOCS method. The optimization is based on benchmarking the efficiency shape and magnitude to the data available in the analyzed gamma ray spectra. Data from measurements of a given item in multiple counting geometries are among the powerful benchmarks that could be used in the optimization. Also, while assaying a waste stream with fission products and activation products emitting gamma lines of multiple energies, optimizing the efficiency on the basis of line activity consistency is very effective. In the present paper, the ISOCS- based optimization methodology is applied to measurement scenarios involving multiple counting geometries, and multi-gamma-line radionuclides. Results will be presented along with accuracy and precision estimates for each measurement. (authors)

Bosko, A.; Venkataraman, R.; Bronson, F.L.; Ilie, G.; Russ, W.R. [Canberra Industries, 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)



Improvements of a low-level gamma-ray spectrometry system at the underground laboratory "UDO".  


The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) operates various low-background gamma-ray spectrometry systems at the underground laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry "UDO" in the Asse salt mine. Experiences gained with these detector systems within 10 years of operation have led to technical changes and improvements of the most sensitive detector system at UDO. Key aspects are the precautions to suppress radon (and its progenies) and the performance of the detector system after exchanging the end cap. In addition, a brief summary of recent applications of this gamma-ray detector system will be presented. PMID:19231210

Neumaier, S; Wojcik, M; Dombrowski, H; Arnold, D



Spectra, fluxes, and observability of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy  

SciTech Connect

Details of the physics of gamma-ray production by the annihilation of dark matter particles in the Galaxy are presented. Improved gamma-ray spectra and fluxes are calculated and compared with present observational data on cosmic gamma-ray fluxes at high Galactic latitudes. A comparison with the gamma-ray flux from cosmic-ray interactions is made. It is found that gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation are most potentially observable from patches of the sky at high Galactic latitudes in directions having an unusually low total column density of gas and from a dark matter core at the Galactic center. 69 refs.

Stecker, F.W.; Tylka, A.J. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA); Universities Space Research Association, Washington, DC (USA))



Spectra, fluxes, and observability of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details of the physics of gamma-ray production by the annihilation of dark matter particles in the Galaxy are presented. Improved gamma-ray spectra and fluxes are calculated and compared with present observational data on cosmic gamma-ray fluxes at high Galactic latitudes. A comparison with the gamma-ray flux from cosmic-ray interactions is made. It is found that gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation are most potentially observable from patches of the sky at high Galactic latitudes in directions having an unusually low total column density of gas and from a dark matter core at the Galactic center.

Stecker, F. W.; Tylka, A. J.



DELIN and DELOG codes for graphic representation of gamma ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two FORTRAN 4 Codes were developed for graphic representation of the gamma-ray spectra obtained with GeLi detectors and multichannel analyzers. The graphic plotting is carried out with the graphic plotter Mod HP-7221 A, using the graphic package software GRAPHICS-1000. The codes have a great versatility and the representation of gamma spectra can be done in a lineal, semilog, or log-log scale, as desired. The gamma ray spectra data are fed into the computer through magnetic tape or perforated paper tape. The different output options and complementary data are given in a conversational way through a terminal with T.V. display. Among the options that can be selected by the user are the following: smoothing the spectra, drawing the spectra point by point or continuously, and output drawing in 1, 2, or 1 sheets with automatic division of the energy scale.

Romero, L.; Travesi, A.



EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the quality control procedures, calibration, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in measuring the activity of gamma ray-emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. Included in the appendices are basic data for selected gamma ray-emitting ra...


Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center  

DOE Data Explorer

A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

Greenwood, R.E.


BATSE Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra. Part 3; Low-Energy Behavior of Time-Averaged Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze time-averaged spectra from 86 bright gamma-ray bursts from the first 5 years of the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to determine whether the lowest energy data are consistent with a standard spectra form fit to the data at all energies. The BATSE Spectroscopy Detectors have the capability to observe photons as low as 5 keV. Using the gamma-ray burst locations obtained with the BATSE Large Area Detectors, the Spectroscopy Detectors' low-energy response can be modeled accurately. This, together with a postlaunch calibration of the lowest energy Spectroscopy Detector discriminator channel, which can lie in the range 5-20 keV, allows spectral deconvolution over a broad energy range, approx. 5 keV to 2 MeV. The additional coverage allows us to search for evidence of excess emission, or for a deficit, below 20 keV. While no burst has a significant (greater than or equal to 3 sigma) deficit relative to a standard spectra model, we find that 12 bursts have excess low-energy emission, ranging between 1.2 and 5.8 times the model flux, that exceeds 5 sigma in significance. This is evidence for an additional low-energy spectral component in at least some bursts, or for deviations from the power-law spectral form typically used to model gamma-ray bursts at energies below 100 keV.

Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Matteson, J. L.; Band, D. L.; Skelton, R. T.; Meegan, C. A.



Determination of 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratio for a nuclear bomb particle using X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with gamma-ray spectrometry and non-destructive alpha-particle spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear bomb particle from Thule containing Pu and U was analyzed using X-ray spectrometry in combination with gamma-ray spectrometry and non-destructive alpha-spectrometry. The main objective was to investigate the possibility to determine the 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratios. Previously, X-ray spectrometry together with the above-mentioned methods has been successfully applied for radiochemically processed samples, but not for individual particles.

R. Pöllänen; K. Ruotsalainen; H. Toivonen



Neutron and gamma dose and spectra measurements on the Little Boy replica  

SciTech Connect

The radiation-measurement team of the Weapons Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) measured neutron and gamma dose and spectra on the Little Boy replica at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April 1983. This assembly is a replica of the gun-type atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima in 1945. These measurements support the National Academy of Sciences Program to reassess the radiation doses due to atomic bomb explosions in Japan. Specifically, the following types of information were important: neutron spectra as a function of geometry, gamma to neutron dose ratios out to 1.5 km, and neutron attenuation in the atmosphere. We measured neutron and gamma dose/fission from close-in to a kilometer out, and neutron and gamma spectra at 90 and 30/sup 0/ close-in. This paper describes these measurements and the results. 12 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.

Hoots, S.; Wadsworth, D.



Application of PERALS™ alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry for analysis and investigation of environmental spills at ISL uranium mining projects.  


Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in mining requires effective and reliable radionuclide analysis at all stages of the mine project-prior to mining, during operation and through to remediation and decommissioning. The approach presented in this paper was specially developed for the monitoring of radioactive waste resulting from spills during mining and mineral processing operations and uses a combination of high resolution gamma spectrometry, and PERALS™ alpha spectrometry to identify and reliably quantify the activity of the major members of the U-238 decay chain at activities down to 10 mBq g(-1) by direct radionuclide counting and by assessment of the activity of their decay products. This approach has reduced sample preparation and analysis time while providing effective analysis and quantification of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental samples. It has been successfully applied to several in situ leach (ISL) mining-related projects involving investigations of process material spill impacts and also to routine environmental monitoring. PMID:24270399

Borysenko, A; Ostrowski, A; Bellifemine, D; Palmer, G; Haigh, P; Johnston, A



Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry  


An improved system for gamma-ray spectroscopy characterized by an interface module that controls the injection of electronic pulses as well as separation logic that enables storage of pulser events in a region of the spectrum of a multichannel analyzer distinct from the region reserved for storage of gamma-ray events. The module accomplishes this by tagging pulser events (high or low) injected into the amplification circuitry, adding an offset to the events so identified at the time the events are at the output of the analog to digital converter, and storing such events in the upper portion of the spectrum stored in the multichannel analyzer. The module can be adapted for use with existing gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment to provide for automatic analyses of radioisotopes.

Hartwell, Jack K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodwin, Scott G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, Larry O. (Blackfoot, ID); Killian, E. Wayne (Idahoe Falls, ID)



Computer model for calculating gamma-ray pulse-height spectra for logging applications  

SciTech Connect

A generalized computer model has been devised to simulate the emission, transport, and detection of natural gamma radiation from various logging environments. The model yields high-resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectra that can be used to correct both gross gamma and spectral gamma-ray logs. The technique can help provide corrections to airborne and surface radiometric survey logs for the effects of varying altitude, formation composition, and overburden. Applied to borehole logging, the model can yield estimates of the effects of varying borehole fluid and casing attenuations, as well as varying formation porosity and saturation.

Evans, M.L.



Gamma-ray Spectra and the Extragalactic Background Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of very high-energy gamma rays by pair-production with UV, optical and IR extragalactic background light (EBL) photons provides a link between the history of galaxy formation and gamma-ray astronomy. We present results from our latest semi-analytic models (SAMs), which employ the main ingredients thought to be important to galaxy formation and evolution, as well as an improved method for reprocessing of starlight by dust to mid- and far-IR wavelengths. These SAMs are based upon a hierarchical structural formation scenario, and are successful in reproducing a large variety of observational constraints such as number counts, redshift-dependent luminosity and mass functions, and color bimodality. Our fiducial model is based upon a WMAP5 cosmology and estimates the dust emission spectral energy distribution using templates based on Spitzer data. This model predicts a background flux considerably lower than found in optical and near-IR measurements that rely on subtraction of zodiacal and galactic foregrounds, and near the lower bounds set by number counts of resolvable sources at many wavelengths. We show predictions for the effect on extragalactic gamma-ray observations, and conclude with a discussion of the implications of our work and how the science of gamma-ray astronomy will continue to help constrain cosmology.

Gilmore, Rudy; Somerville, Rachel; Primack, Joel; Domínguez, Alberto



Gamma-ray spectra of hexane in gas phase and liquid phase  

E-print Network

Theoretical gamma-ray spectra of molecule hexane have been calculated and compared with the experimental results in both gas (Surko et al, 1997) and liquid (Kerr et al, 1965) phases. The present study reveals that in gas phase not all valence electrons of hexane exhibit the same probability to annihilate a positron. Only the positrophilic electrons in the valence space dominate the gamma-ray spectra, which are in good agreement with the gas phase measurement. When hexane is confined in liquid phase, however, the intermolecular interactions ultimately eliminate the free molecular orientation and selectivity for the positrophilic electrons in the gas phase. As a result, the gamma-ray spectra of hexane become an averaged contribution from all valence electrons, which is again in agreement with liquid phase measurement. The roles of the positrophilic electrons in annihilation process for gas and liquid phases of hexane have been recognized for the first time in the present study.

Ma, Xiaoguang



Gamma-ray spectra of hexane in gas phase and liquid phase  

E-print Network

Theoretical gamma-ray spectra of molecule hexane have been calculated and compared with the experimental results in both gas (Surko et al, 1997) and liquid (Kerr et al, 1965) phases. The present study reveals that in gas phase not all valence electrons of hexane exhibit the same probability to annihilate a positron. Only the positrophilic electrons in the valence space dominate the gamma-ray spectra, which are in good agreement with the gas phase measurement. When hexane is confined in liquid phase, however, the intermolecular interactions ultimately eliminate the free molecular orientation and selectivity for the positrophilic electrons in the gas phase. As a result, the gamma-ray spectra of hexane become an averaged contribution from all valence electrons, which is again in agreement with liquid phase measurement. The roles of the positrophilic electrons in annihilation process for gas and liquid phases of hexane have been recognized for the first time in the present study.

Xiaoguang Ma; Feng Wang



Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry differentiation of N-phosphoryl-[alpha]-, [beta]- and [gamma]-amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fragmentation patterns of N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-l-[alpha]-Ala (DIPP-l-[alpha]-Ala), N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-d-[alpha]-Ala (DIPP-d-[alpha]-Ala), N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-[beta]-Ala (DIPP-[beta]-Ala) and N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-[gamma]-amino butyric acid (DIPP-[gamma]-Aba) were investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). DIPP-d-[alpha]-Ala showed the same fragmentation pathways as DIPP-l-[alpha]-Ala. In the fragmentation of protonated DIPP-[beta]-Ala, the characteristic fragment ion [M + H - 2C3H6 - H2O - CH2CO]+ appeared and could be used to distinguish [beta]-Ala from l-[alpha]-Ala and d-[alpha]-Ala through tandem mass spectra, even though they possess the same molecular weight. In the fragmentation of protonated DIPP-[gamma]-Aba, the break of PN bond occurred and an interesting protonated lactam ion with five-membered ring was generated. Furthermore, in the MS3 spectrum of [M + Na - 2C3H6]+ ion of DIPP-[gamma]-Aba, a strong intensity of unique fragment ion, namely lactam-sodium adduct with five-membered ring, was observed, which could be considered as a mark for [gamma]-amino acids. The stepwise fragmentations of their [M + Na]+ ions and [M - H]- ions showed that they all underwent a PN to PO bond migration through a five-membered or six-membered or even seven-membered ring transition state, respectively, which supported the great affinity of hydroxyl for phosphoryl group.

Qiang, Liming; Cao, Shuxia; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Mao, Xiangju; Guo, Yanchun; Liao, Xincheng; Zhao, Yufen



Distortion of pulse-height spectra of neutron capture gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

A distortion of pulse-height spectra of neutron capture {gamma}-rays caused by {gamma}-flash at neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement using a pulse neutron source has been investigated. Pulses from C6D6 detectors accumulated by flash-ADC were processed with both traditional analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and flash-ADC operational modes. A correction factor of {gamma}-ray yields, due to baseline shift, was quantitatively obtained by comparing the pulse-height spectra of the two data-collecting modes. The magnitude of the correction factor depends on the time, which passed after {gamma}-flash, and has complicated time dependence with a changing sign.

Laptev, A.; Harada, H.; Nakamura, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Hori, J. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Igashira, M.; Ohsaki, T.; Ohgama, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-26, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)



Gamma-ray burst spectra and the hardness-intensity correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed a global study of gamma-ray burst spectra using the moderate time and energy resolution CONT data from BATSE. These data have 2 s temporal resolution in 16 energy channels that span the range of approximately 20 keV to 1.8 MeV. Spectral fits were created for a large ensemble of gamma-ray bursts. We present distributions of the peak

Robert S. Mallozzi; Geoffrey N. Pendleton; William S. Paciesas; Robert D. Preece; Michael S. Briggs



Temporal Evolution of Pair Attenuation Signatures in Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectra obtained above 100 MeV by the EGRET experiment aboard the Compton\\u000aGamma-Ray Observatory for a handful of gamma-ray bursts has given no indication\\u000aof any spectral attenuation that might preclude detection of bursts at higher\\u000aenergies. With the discovery of optical afterglows and counterparts to bursts\\u000ain the last few years, enabling the determination of significant redshifts for

Matthew G. Baring



Gamma ray spectrometry of LDEF samples at SRL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 31 samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), including materials of aluminum, vanadium, and steel trunnions were analyzed by ultra-low-level gamma spectroscopy. The study quantified particle induced activations of Na-22, Sc-46, Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, Co-58, and Co-60. The samples of trunnion sections exhibited increasing activity toward the outer end of the trunnion and decreasing activity toward its radial center. The trunnion sections did not include end pieces, which have been reported to collect noticeable Be-7 on their leading surfaces. No significant Be-7 was detected in the samples analyzed. The Underground Counting Facility at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was used in this work. The facility is 50 ft. underground, constructed with low-background shielding materials, and operated as a clean room. The most sensitive analyses were performed with a 90 percent efficient HPGe gamma-ray detector, which is enclosed in a purged active/passive shield. Each sample was counted for one to six days in two orientations to yield more representative average activities for the sample. The non-standard geometries of the LDEF samples prompted the development of a novel calibration method, whereby the efficiency about the samples surfaces (measured with point sources) predicted the efficiency for the bulk sample.

Winn, W. G.



Well Ge and semi-planar Ge (HP) detectors for low-level gamma-spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two gamma spectrometers, a well Ge and a semi-planar Ge (HP), are now installed and calibrated for measurements of environmental radioactivity with special attention being paid to the requirements needed for aquatic mass-balance studies, including isotope-particle dynamics and dating of recent deposits. These facilities will complement the previously developed isotope dilution alpha spectrometry (PIPS detectors) and radon emanation (ionization chambers) techniques for 210Pb dating. A careful evaluation of efficiencies and background of the Ge detectors, together with the influence of the sample's intrinsic activity on the lower limit of detection (LLD), allowed us to study the relative importance of detector and shield specifications on low level gamma spectrometry of environmental samples with various sizes and composition.

El-Daoushy, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.



Measurement and calculation of characteristic prompt gamma ray spectra emitted during proton irradiation.  


In this paper, we present results of initial measurements and calculations of prompt gamma ray spectra (produced by proton-nucleus interactions) emitted from tissue equivalent phantoms during irradiations with proton beams. Measurements of prompt gamma ray spectra were made using a high-purity germanium detector shielded either with lead (passive shielding), or a Compton suppression system (active shielding). Calculations of the spectra were performed using a model of both the passive and active shielding experimental setups developed using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. From the measured spectra it was shown that it is possible to distinguish the characteristic emission lines from the major elemental constituent atoms (C, O, Ca) in the irradiated phantoms during delivery of proton doses similar to those delivered during patient treatment. Also, the Monte Carlo spectra were found to be in very good agreement with the measured spectra providing an initial validation of our model for use in further studies of prompt gamma ray emission during proton therapy. PMID:19864704

Polf, J C; Peterson, S; McCleskey, M; Roeder, B T; Spiridon, A; Beddar, S; Trache, L



Well Ge and semi-planar Ge (HP) detectors for low-level gamma-spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two gamma spectrometers, a well Ge and a semi-planar Ge (HP), are now installed and calibrated for measurements of environmental radioactivity with special attention being paid to the requirements needed for aquatic mass-balance studies, including isotope-particle dynamics and dating of recent deposits. These facilities will complement the previously developed isotope dilution alpha spectrometry (PIPS detectors) and radon emanation (ionization chambers)

F. El-Daoushy; R. Garcia-Tenorio



Monitoring working conditions in a gamma-ray spectrometry counting room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The environmental monitoring system in the counting room of Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Group at the Jo?ef Stefan Institute was designed in such a way that it fulfills the requirements of the ISO 17025 standard without causing any additional burden to the staff. In addition to the environmental parameters (temperature, humidity and oxygen concentration in air) the voltage and frequency of the

D. Glavi?-Cindro; M. Korun; B. Vodenik



Gamma-ray burst spectra and time histories from 2 to 400keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma-Ray burst detector on Ginga consisted of a proportional counter to observe the x-rays and a scintillation counter to observe the gamma-rays. It was ideally suited to study the x-rays associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Ginga detected ~120 GRBs and 22 of them had sufficient statistics to determine spectra from 2 to 400keV. Although the Ginga and BATSE trigger criteria were very similar, the distribution of spectral parameters was different. Ginga observed bend energies in the spectra down to 2keV and had a larger fraction of bursts with low energy power law indexes greater than zero. The average ratio of energy in the x-ray band (2 to 10keV) compared to the gamma-ray band (50 to 300keV) was 24%. Some events had more energy in the x-ray band than in the gamma-ray band. One Ginga event had a period of time preceding the gamma rays that was effectively pure x-ray emission. This x-ray ``preactivity'' might be due to the penchant for the GRB time structure to be broader at lower energy rather than a different physical process. The x-rays tend to rise and fall slower than the gamma rays but they both tend to peak at about the same time. This argues against models involving the injection of relativistic electrons that cool by synchrotron radiation.

Fenimore, E. E.



Use of Gamma Spectrometry Method for Environmental Monitoring in the area of NPP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally not possible to correctly determine the long and short term impact of human activity upon the environment, without thorough processing of data, obtained through monitoring. It was confirmed that such impact on the environment must be monitored over a long time period. The data obtained must be of high quality, an attribute assured by present state of scientific knowledge. One of the well established methods for monitoring atmospheric deposition of radionuclides in the environment is laboratory and in situ gamma spectrometry. With the aim to monitor an occurrence of a one-time escape or persistent release of fission products into the air, resulting from an operation of a nuclear plant, two types of monitoring are performed: i/ measurement of samples from the environment (Schreber moss, forest humus, pine bark, mushrooms and forest berries) using laboratory gamma spectrometry method in the range up to 3 MeV (those data are used for the trend analysis and for the construction of the contaminationmaps); ii/ in situ gama spectrometry for assessment dosimetry and spectrometry characteristic of photon-fields (those data are used for the dose rate calculation).

Thinova, L.; Cechak, T.; Kluson, J.; Trojek, T.



Similarity analysis of spectra obtained via reflectance spectrometry in legal medicine.  


In the present study, a series of reflectance spectra of postmortem lividity, pallor, and putrefaction-affected skin for 195 investigated cases in the course of cooling down the corpse has been collected. The reflectance spectrometric measurements were stored together with their respective metadata in a MySQL database. The latter has been managed via a scientific information repository. We propose similarity measures and a criterion of similarity that capture similar spectra recorded at corpse skin. We systematically clustered reflectance spectra from the database as well as their metadata, such as case number, age, sex, skin temperature, duration of cooling, and postmortem time, with respect to the given criterion of similarity. Altogether, more than 500 reflectance spectra have been pairwisely compared. The measures that have been used to compare a pair of reflectance curve samples include the Euclidean distance between curves and the Euclidean distance between derivatives of the functions represented by the reflectance curves at the same wavelengths in the spectral range of visible light between 380 and 750 nm. For each case, using the recorded reflectance curves and the similarity criterion, the postmortem time interval during which a characteristic change in the shape of reflectance spectrum takes place is estimated. The latter is carried out via a software package composed of Java, Python, and MatLab scripts that query the MySQL database. We show that in legal medicine, matching and clustering of reflectance curves obtained by means of reflectance spectrometry with respect to a given criterion of similarity can be used to estimate the postmortem interval. PMID:23897013

Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael



Study of total gamma spectra correlation for extending identification range over photopeak analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report shows that gamma spectra identification by total flux correlation can be used to extend identification range over photo peak methods. Identification was based on two decision rules both employing cross-correlation coefficients. The largest coefficient (first decision rule) matched the unknown spectra with the correct source thirty-seven out of thirty-eight trials. The proposed likelihood function (second decision rule) had a success rate of thirty-five out of thirty-eight trials. These results were based on spectra generated by the transport code, Morse.

Dooley, A. W.



An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra  

SciTech Connect

A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.




SciTech Connect

Line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays provide a natural explanation of the hard gamma-ray spectra of distant blazars, which are believed to be capable of producing both gamma rays and cosmic rays. For sources with redshifts z {approx}> 0.1, secondary gamma rays produced in cosmic-ray interactions with background photons close to an observer can dominate over primary gamma rays originating at the source. The transition from one component to another is accompanied by a change in the spectral index depending on the source redshift. We present theoretical predictions and show that they agree with the data from Fermi Large Area Telescope. This agreement, combined with the spectral data from Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, provides evidence of cosmic-ray acceleration by active galactic nuclei and opens new opportunities for studying photon backgrounds and intergalactic magnetic fields.

Essey, Warren [International Center for Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kusenko, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)



alpha-Particle and gamma-ray spectrometry of a plutonium solution for impurity determination.  


A highly enriched (240)Pu solution was measured by alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometry to determine other radionuclides present in the material as impurities. Low activities of (238)Pu, (241)Am, (243)Cm and (244)Cm were determined by measuring thin sources, made from the original solution, in a high-resolution alpha-particle spectrometer. The sources were prepared by evaporating the plutonium solution on quartz plates in a vacuum chamber. From the ingrowth of (241)Am in the original solution, the amount of (241)Pu could be calculated. After radiochemical separation of (241)Am, the plutonium was measured by high-efficiency alpha-particle spectrometry to determine the amount of (238)Pu. The enriched (240)Pu material was also measured by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, using two different HPGe detectors to determine the impurities of (239)Pu and (241)Am. The preparation of the sources and the measurement methods are described and discussed. The measured impurities, given in % of the (240)Pu activity, are compared with the values on the certificate. PMID:18356064

Sibbens, G; Altzitzoglou, T; Benedik, L; Pommé, S; Van Ammel, R



Speciation Gamma-Spectrometry: the Fate of Environmental Radio-Nuclides in Hard-Water Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sequential fractionation method for simultaneous and absolute measurement of environmental radio-nuclides, 241Am, 210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs, 40K and 234Th/238U, by gamma-spectrometry was tested and applied to hard-water lake-sediments. The carbonate, fulvic, humic and mineral insoluble fractions were extracted from the sediments. Correction of self-absorption and geometrical effects, arising from the conditioning of bulk and fractionated sediments, were done using Monte Carlo simulations. This "non-destructive" fractionation procedure allows further analysis of other chemical species in the same fractions thus creating possibilities to study the dynamics of self-cleaning mechanism in lakes. The results demonstrate that the procedure is quantitative and suitable for the determination of environmental key radio-tracers in different fractions. Unlike other fresh-water sediments the major part of the environmental radio-nuclides is associated with "mineral" fractions. This speciation gamma-spectrometry procedure was supplemented by isotope-dilution alpha-spectrometry 210Po (210Pb), for determining the acid-soluble organic fractions in fresh-water lakes. The overall speciation procedure demonstrated that carbonate fractions, extracted from hard-water lake sediments, could be separated either free from, or associated with, fulvic-compounds. This speciation procedure can be applied to other aquatic deposits, however supplementary steps can be added if other data are required.

El-Daoushy, F.; Liger, E.; Hernández, F.; Casper, P.



Simulation of gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray spectrum simulation program BSIMUL was designed to allow the operator to follow the path of a gamma-ray through a detector, shield and collimator whose dimensions are entered by the operator. It can also be used to simulate spectra that would be generated by a detector. Several improvements have been made to the program within the last few months. The detector, shield and collimator dimensions can now be entered through an interactive menu whose options are discussed below. In addition, spectra containing more than one gamma-ray energy can now be generated with the menu - for isotopes listed in the program. Adding isotopes to the main routine is also quite easy. Subroutines have been added to enable the operator to specify the material and dimensions of a collimator. This report details the progress made in simulating gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs. In addition, a short discussion of work done in the related areas of pulse shape analysis and the spectral analysis is included. The pulse shape analysis and spectral analysis work is being performed pursuant to the requirements of contract F-94-C-0006, for the Advanced Research Projects Agency and the U.S. Air Force.

Rester, A. C., Jr.




Microsoft Academic Search

In the safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation regimes measurements are required which give the quantity of fissile material in an accounting item, e.g., a standard container of plutonium or uranium oxide. Because of the complexity of modeling the absorption of gamma rays in high-Z materials, gamma-ray spectrometry is not customarily used for this purpose. Gamma-ray measurements can be used to




Prompt Fission Gamma-ray Spectra and Multiplicities for Various Fissioning Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prompt fission gamma spectra (PFGS) and multiplicities (PFGM) are investigated from a Monte Carlo simulation of the fission fragment deexcitation. The fission fragment characteristics are sampled from mass, charge, kinetic energy, spin and parity distributions from experimental data or theoretical models. Initial excitation energy is shared between the two complementary fragments using a mass dependent temperature ratio law and a level density parameter law based on Ignatyuk's prescription. Details can be found elsewhere in the literature. The deexcitation process can be performed with different calculation schemes. The first one is based on a Weisskopf model for neutron evaporation and nuclear transition sampling (from level density and strength function models) for gamma evaporation. In this case, the competition between neutrons and gammas is taken into account by using a spin dependent excitation energy limit under which gamma emission takes place. The second one is based on an Hauser-Feshbach model for neutron/gamma evaporation based on neutron transmission coefficients (from optical model calculations) and the same model as above for gammas. The n/? competition is then automatically taken into account at the very beginning of the primary fission fragments evaporation process. Fission observables, especially related to prompt fission gammas are presented and discussed for spontaneous fission (252Cf, 240Pu), thermal fission (235U+nth) and fast fission (238U+n1.8MeV). Comparisons with experimental data are shown when available.

Litaize, Olivier; Regnier, David; Serot, Olivier


Thermal-neutron-capture prompt-gamma emission spectra of representative coals. [1. 5 to 11 MeV  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma ray emission spectra have been calculated from 1.5 to 11 MeV for a wide range of coal compositions exposed to a thermal neutron flux. These include contributions to the spectra from all of the major and minor elements present in the coals. Characteristics of the spectra are discussed and correlated with the coal compositions.

Herzenberg, C L; Olson, I K



Inclusive gamma-ray spectra from psi/3095/ and psi-prime/3684/ decays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inclusive gamma-ray experiments were carried out in a e(+)e(-) colliding-beam apparatus with NaI(Tl) arrays as detectors. The inclusive gamma-ray spectra, after cosmic-ray background subtraction, are shown as histograms for the decays of the psi(3095) and psi-prime(3684). The psi spectrum has no significant narrow structure, while the psi-prime spectrum shows at least four peaks. Three major radiative decays of the psi-prime(3684) are found, and their respective branching fractions are computed.

Biddick, C. J.; Burnett, T. H.; Masek, G. E.; Miller, E. S.; Smith, J. G.; Stronski, J. P.; Sullivan, M. K.; Vernon, W.; Badtke, D. H.; Barnett, B. A.



Assay for uranium and determination of disequilibrium by means of in situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two sealed sondes, using germanium gamma-ray detectors cooled by melting propane, have been field tested to depths of 79 m in water-filled boreholes at the Pawnee Uranium Mine in Bee Co., Texas. When, used as total-count devices, the sondes are comparable in logging speed and counting rate with conventional scintillation detectors for locating zones of high radioactivity. When used with a multichannel analyzer, the sondes are detectors with such high resolution that individual lines from the complex spectra of the uranium and thorium series can be distinguished. Gamma rays from each group of the uranium series can be measured in ore zones permitting determination of the state of equilibrium at each measurement point. Series of 10-minute spectra taken at 0.3- to 0.5-m intervals in several holes showed zones where maxima from the uranium group and from the 222Rn group were displaced relative to each other. Apparent excesses of 230Th at some locations suggest that uranium-group concentrations at those locations were severalfold greater some tens of kiloyears, ago. At the current state of development a 10-minute count yields a sensitivity of about 80 ppm U308. Data reduction could in practice be accomplished in about 5 minutes. The result is practically unaffected by disequilibrium or radon contamination. In comparison with core assay, high-resolution spectrometry samples a larger volume; avoids problems due to incomplete core recovery, loss of friable material to drilling fluids, and errors in depth and marking; and permits use of less expensive drilling methods. Because gamma rays from the radionuclides are accumulated simultaneously, it also avoids the problems inherent in trying to correlate logs made in separate runs with different equipment. Continuous-motion delayed-gamma activation by a 163-?g 252Cf neutron source attached to the sonde yielded poor sensitivity. A better neutron-activation method, in which the sonde is moved in steps so as to place the detector at the previous activation point, could not be evaluated because of equipment failure.

Tanner, Allan B.; Moxham, Robert M.; Senftle, F.E.



A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580  

SciTech Connect

HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were calculated. From the scanning data, locations with observed Cs-137 ratios exceeding six standard deviations above the mean ratio were mapped in high resolution [2]. Field teams returned to those locations to collect static count measurements using the same detection systems. Soil surface samples were collected at 30 locations and analyzed for Cs-137. An exponential correlation was identified between Cs-137 concentrations in surface soil and field-scanned Cs-137 ratios. The data indicate field minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of Cs-137 at 0.02 Bq/g (0.5 pCi/g) or lower depending on contaminant distribution in soil. (authors)

Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States)] [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Lit, Peter [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)] [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)



An Analysis of Nuclear Fuel Burnup in the AGR 1 TRISO Fuel Experiment Using Gamma Spectrometry, Mass Spectrometry, and Computational Simulation Techniques  

SciTech Connect

AGR 1 was the first in a series of experiments designed to test US TRISO fuel under high temperature gas-cooled reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post irradiation examination (PIE) at INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One component of the AGR 1 PIE is the experimental evaluation of the burnup of the fuel by two separate techniques. Gamma spectrometry was used to non destructively evaluate the burnup of all 72 of the TRISO fuel compacts that comprised the AGR 1 experiment. Two methods for evaluating burnup by gamma spectrometry were developed, one based on the Cs 137 activity and the other based on the ratio of Cs 134 and Cs 137 activities. Burnup values determined from both methods compared well with the values predicted from simulations. The highest measured burnup was 20.1 %FIMA for the direct method and 20.0 %FIMA for the ratio method (compared to 19.56% FIMA from simulations). An advantage of the ratio method is that the burnup of the cylindrical fuel compacts can determined in small (2.5 mm) axial increments and an axial burnup profile can be produced. Destructive chemical analysis by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was then performed on selected compacts that were representative of the expected range of fuel burnups in the experiment to compare with the burnup values determined by gamma spectrometry. The compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry had a burnup range of 19.3 % FIMA to 10.7 % FIMA. The mass spectrometry evaluation of burnup for the four compacts agreed well with the gamma spectrometry burnup evaluations and the expected burnup from simulation. For all four compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry, the maximum range in the three experimentally determined values and the predicted value was 6% or less. The results confirm the accuracy of the nondestructive burnup evaluation from gamma spectrometry for TRISO fuel compacts across a burnup range of approximately 10 to 20 % FIMA and also validate the approach used in the physics simulation of the AGR 1 experiment.

Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Demkowicz; Phillip L. Winston; James W. Sterbentz



Measurement of Branching Fractions and Mass Spectra of B to K pi pi gamma  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a measurement of the partial branching fractions and mass spectra of the exclusive radiative penguin processes B {yields} K{pi}{pi}{gamma} in the range m{sub K{pi}{pi}} < 1.8 GeV/c{sup 2}. They reconstruct four final states: K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}, K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}, and K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, where K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. Using 232 million e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} B{bar B} events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring, they measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}) = (2.95 {+-} 0.13(stat.) {+-} 0.20(syst)) x 10{sup -5}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (4.07 {+-} 0.22(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) = (1.85 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.12(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}, and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (4.56 {+-} 0.42(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San



Measuring the radium quartet (228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry.  


Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While 228Ra and 226Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccarès lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The 223Ra and 224Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the 224Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low 223Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes. PMID:20106569

van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Reyss, J-L



Changes in the optical spectra of poly(vinyl chloride) as a result of gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the effect of different doses of gamma rays ranging from 50 to 500 kGy on the transmission spectra and the tristimulus transmittance as well as the absorption coefficient in the range 400-700 nm of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were studied by the optical transmission spectra. Variation in the group coordination in the near infrared region (700-3000 nm) were also studied. The data indicated that measurable and remarkable changes in the transmittance of the irradiated samples, as well as decrease in the tristimulus transmittance values, as compared to the unirradiated PVC sample were detected. Moreover, the irradiated samples acquire various colors depending on the radiation doses. Linear empirical formulae are estimated to determine gamma doses from the values of CIE translucency and the absorption coefficients of PVC at 550 and 650 ?m.

El-Zaher, N. A.; Osiris, W. G.


A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data for mapping low level contaminations.  


A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data has been developed. It is based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method introduced by Hovgaard in 1997. The new technique opens for mapping of very low contamination levels. It is tested with data from Latvia where the remaining contamination from the 1986 Chernobyl accident together with fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests includes 137Cs at levels often well below 1 kBq/m2 equivalent surface contamination. The limiting factors for obtaining reliable results are radon in the air, spectrum stability and accurate altitude measurements. PMID:10581680

Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K; Hovgaard, J



Contribution of atmospherical radon to in-situ scintillation gamma spectrometry data.  


In-situ gamma spectrometry can be used for monitoring and determining natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The low detection limit of potential contaminants depends on the natural background variations, including variations in the atmospheric concentrations of radon and its decay products. The scintillation spectrometer response for atmospheric radon was simulated by the Monte Carlo method, and the results were compared with the experimental measurements over large water surfaces. The contributions of atmospheric radon to the natural background were assessed. PMID:21129988

Kluso?, J; Thinová, L



Monte Carlo simulation by GEANT 4 and GESPECOR of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements.  


The application of GEANT 4 and GESPECOR Monte Carlo simulation codes for efficiency calibration of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry was studied. The long computing time required by GEANT 4 prevents its use in routine simulations. Due to the application of variance reduction techniques, GESPECOR is much faster. In this code specific procedures for incorporating the depth profile of the activity were implemented. In addition procedures for evaluating the effect of non-homogeneity of the source were developed. The code was validated by comparison with test simulations carried out with GEANT 4 and by comparison with published results. PMID:23566809

Chirosca, Alecsandru; Suvaila, Rares; Sima, Octavian



Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.  


The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths. PMID:10724430

Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N



Radioactivity measurements in the aquatic environment using in-situ and laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry.  


The in-situ underwater gamma-ray spectrometry method is validated by inter-comparison with laboratory method. Deployments of the spectrometer KATERINA on a submarine spring and laboratory measurements of water samples with HPGe detector were performed. Efficiency calibrations, Monte Carlo simulations and the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) estimations were realized. MDAs varied from 0.19 to 10.4 (lab) and 0.05 to 0.35 (in-situ) Bq/L, while activity concentrations differed from 7% (for radon progenies) up to 10% (for (40)K), between the two methods. PMID:24103707

Eleftheriou, G; Tsabaris, C; Androulakaki, E G; Patiris, D L; Kokkoris, M; Kalfas, C A; Vlastou, R



Calibration of an air monitor prototype for a radiation surveillance network based on gamma spectrometry.  


The objective of this work is to present the improvements that have been made in quasi-real-time air radioactivity concentration monitors which were initially based on overall activity determinations, by incorporating gamma spectrometry into the current prototype. To this end it was necessary to develop a careful efficiency calibration procedure for both the particulate and the gaseous fractions of the air being sampled. The work also reports the values of the minimum detectable activity calculated for different isotopes and acquisition times. PMID:24355305

Baeza, A; Caballero, J M; Corbacho, J Á; Ontalba-Salamanca, M Á; Vasco, J



The spectra program library: A PC based system for gamma-ray spectra analysis and INAA data reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A PC based system has been developed for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra and for the complete reduction of data from INAA experiments, including software to average the results from mulitple lines and multiple countings and to produce a final report of analysis. Graphics algorithms may be called for the analysis of complex spectral features, to compare the data from alternate photopeaks and to evaluate detector performance during a given counting cycle. A database of results for control samples can be used to prepare quality control charts to evaluate long term precision and to search for systemic variations in data on reference samples as a function of time. The entire software library can be accessed through a user-friendly menu interface with internal help.

Baedecker, P.A.; Grossman, J.N.



Measurements of the Martian Gamma/Neutron Spectra with MSL/RAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) onboard Mars Science Laboratory's rover curiosity measures the energetic charged and neutral particle spectra and the radiation dose rate on the Martian surface. An important factor for determining the biological impact of the Martian surface radiation is the specific contribution of neutrons, which possess a high biological effectiveness. In contrast to charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays are generally only measured indirectly. Their measurement is the result of a complex convolution of the incident particle spectrum with the measurement process. We apply an inversion method to calculate the gamma/neutron spectra from the RAD neutral particle measurements. Here we show first measurements of the Martian gamma/neutron spectra and compare them to theoretical predictions. We find that the shape of the gamma spectrum is very similar to the predicted one, but with a ~50% higher intensity. The measured neutron spectrum agrees well with prediction up to ~100 MeV, but shows a considerably increased intensity for higher energies. The measured neutron spectrum translates into a radiation dose rate of 25 ?Gy/day and a dose equivalent rate of 106 ?Sv/day. This corresponds to 10% of the total surface dose rate, and 15% of the biological relevant surface dose equivalent rate on Mars. Measuring the Martian neutron spectra is an essential step for determining the mutagenic influences to past or present life at or beneath the Martian surface as well as the radiation hazard for future human exploration, including the shielding design of a potential habitat. The contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent increases considerably with shielding thickness, so our measurements provide an important figure to mitigate cancer risk.

Kohler, J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Ehresmann, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Hassler, D.; Reitz, G.; Brinza, D.; Weigle, E.; Boettcher, S.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Boehm, E.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S. C.; Kortmann, O.



A digital spectrometer approach to obtaining multiple time-resolved gamma-ray spectra for pulsed spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron-induced gamma-ray emission and its detection using a pulsed neutron generator system is an established analytical technique for quantitative multi-element analysis. Traditional gamma-ray spectrometers used for this type of analysis are normally operated either in coincidence mode - for counting prompt gamma-rays following inelastic neutron scattering (INS) events when the neutron generator is ON, or in anti-coincidence mode - for counting prompt gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture (TNC) processes when the neutron generator is OFF. We have developed a digital gamma-ray spectrometer for concurrently measuring both the INS and TNC gamma-rays using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator. The spectrometer separates the gamma-ray counts into two independent spectra together with two separate sets of counting statistics based on the external gate level. Because the TNC gamma-ray yields are time dependent, additional accuracy in analyzing the data can be obtained by acquiring multiple time-resolved gamma-ray spectra at finer time intervals than simply ON or OFF. For that purpose we are developing a multi-gating system that will allow gamma-ray spectra to be acquired concurrently in real time with up to 16 time slots. The conceptual system design is presented, especially focusing on considerations for tracking counting statistics in multiple time slots and on the placement of pulse heights into multiple spectra in real time.

Tan, H.; Mitra, S.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Hennig, W.; Chu, Y. X.; Wielopolski, L.; Warburton, W. K.




SciTech Connect

We study the phase-averaged spectra and luminosities of {gamma}-ray emissions from young, isolated pulsars within a revised outer gap model. In the revised version of the outer gap, there are two possible cases for the outer gaps: the fractional size of the outer gap is estimated through the photon-photon pair process in the first case (Case I), and is limited by the critical field lines in the second case (Case II). The fractional size is described by Case I if the fractional size at the null charge surface in Case I is smaller than that in Case II, and vice versa. Such an outer gap can extend from the inner boundary, whose radial distance to the neutron star is less than that of the null charge surface to the light cylinder for a {gamma}-ray pulsar with a given magnetic inclination. When the shape of the outer gap is determined, assuming that high-energy emission at an averaged radius of the field line in the center of the outer gap, with a Gaussian distribution of the parallel electric field along the gap height, represents typical emission, the phase-averaged {gamma}-ray spectrum for a given pulsar can be estimated in the revised model with three model parameters. We apply the model to explain the phase-averaged spectra of the Vela (Case I) and Geminga (Case II) pulsars. We also use the model to fit the phase-averaged spectra of 54 young, isolated {gamma}-ray pulsars, and then calculate the {gamma}-ray luminosities and compare them with the observed data from Fermi-LAT.

Li, X.; Jiang, Z. J.; Zhang, L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming (China)



Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia



GEANT4 calibration of gamma spectrometry efficiency for measurements of airborne radioactivity on filter paper.  


A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring airborne radioactivity collected on filter paper, was based on Monte Carlo simulations using the toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of an HPGe detector were calculated for a multi-gamma disk source. These efficiency values were compared to their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Such comparison revealed biases of 24, 10, 1, 3, 7, and 3% for the radionuclides (photon energies in keV) of Ce (166), Sn (392), Cs (662), Co (1,173), Co (1,333), and Y (1,836), respectively. The output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method. PMID:25271933

Alrefae, Tareq



Coincidence summing corrections for the natural decay series in gamma-ray spectrometry.  


Using a Monte Carlo code and a Markov formalism to describe the decay schemes, coincidence-summing correction factors can be calculated with a suitable accuracy. For two different measuring geometries and an HPGe detector, calculated and experimental correction factors have been shown to closely agree for 152Eu. The simulation method has subsequently been applied in assessing the need for coincidence-summing corrections for members of the uranium, thorium and actinium series measurable by gamma-spectrometry. Correction factors were calculated for predominant gamma emissions significantly affected by coincidence-summing effects and the correctness of our calculations tested for environmental samples. The test makes it evident that in order to obtain reliable and unbiased activity values for some natural radionuclides coincidence summing cannot be neglected in environmental measurements at small source-detector distances. PMID:11258526

García-Talaver, M; Laedermann, J P; Décombaz, M; Daza, M J; Quintana, B



Use of MCNP + GADRAS in Generating More Realistic Gamma-Ray Spectra for Plutonium and HEU Objects  

SciTech Connect

The ability to accurately simulate high-resolution gamma spectra from materials that emit both neutrons and gammas is very important to the analysis of special nuclear materials (SNM), e.g., uranium and plutonium. One approach under consideration has been to combine MCNP and GADRAS. This approach is expected to generate more accurate gamma ray spectra for complex three-dimensional geometries than can be obtained from one-dimensional deterministic transport simulations (e.g., ONEDANT). This presentation describes application of combining MCNP and GADRAS in simulating plutonium and uranium spectra.

Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mattingly, John [North Carolina State University; Mitchell, Dean [Sandia National Laboratory



Radioactivity Levels and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil Samples from Kohistan (Pakistan) Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is carried out in some soil samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma spectrometry is operated using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The specific activity in soil ranges from 24.72 to 78.48Bq·kg-1 for 226Ra, 21.73 to 75.28Bq·kg-1 for 232Th, 7.06 to 14.9Bq·kg-1 for 137Cs and 298.46 to 570.77Bq·kg-1 for 40K with the mean values of 42.11, 43.27, 9.5 and 418.27Bq·kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370Bq·kg-1). Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this remote area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The internal and external hazard indices have the mean values of 0.48 and 0.37 respectively. Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study is nominal and does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public.

Hasan, M. Khan; Ismail, M.; K., Khan; Akhter, P.



Dead-layer thickness effect for gamma spectra measured in an HPGe p-type detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work studies the influence of the dead-layer thickness effect on the gamma spectra of a high purity germanium (HPGe) p-type detector at two different points in time. The study was conducted with the Canberra GC1518 detector, which had a dead-layer thickness of 1.15 mm in 2005 and 1.46 mm in 2009. The measurement of gamma spectra for the reference point-like sources, 137Cs, 60Co and 22Na, indicated that the spectra in the energy region of 50-170 keV measured in 2009 were higher than those measured in 2005. This result implies that, in this energy interval, the dead-layer thickness effect is observed, which can be explained by the contribution of the delayed signals. Furthermore, the measured spectra in this energy region were higher than those calculated by MCNP5 code. These findings make it possible to evaluate the contribution of delayed signals, which are proportional to the thickness of the dead layer.

Huy, Ngo Quang



Calculation of the total gamma-spectra of the fast neutrons capture in the isotopes 117,119Sn for the different parameters of cascade gamma-decay  

E-print Network

The gamma-spectra were calculated for the set of different level densities and radiative strength functions. The sufficiently precise reproduction of the experiment is impossible without taking into account the influence of the process of the nucleons Cooper pairs breaking on any nuclei cascade gamma-decay parameters.

A. M. Sukhovoj; V. A. Khitrov



Radioactivity of a Rock Profile from Rio do Rasto Formation Measured by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural occurring radionuclides are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks. Generally, their distribution correlates reasonably with their geo-physicochemical behavior during sediment deposition and rock consolidation. This fact permits to study some geological characteristics of the rocks by analyzing the radionuclide distribution in the rocks, as it might reflect the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. In this work, rocks from an exposed profile of the Rio do Rasto Formation were collected and analyzed in laboratory by high resolution gamma spectrometry for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K determination. It was employed a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain, with a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The efficiency calibration, as well as its validation, was accomplished with eight International Atomic Energy Agency certified samples. The outcrop exposes layers of sandstone and siltstone and, secondarily, claystone, with varying colors (gray, red and green). The rocks were collected along this profile, each of them was dried in the open air during 48 hours, grounded, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations are presented, their distribution and the possible relations among activities are analyzed. The general pattern of radionuclides distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Pinese, José P. P.



Effect of environmental variables upon in-situ gamma spectrometry data  

SciTech Connect

The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a US Department of Energy site that is undergoing total remediation and closure. Fernald is a former uranium refinery which produced high quality uranium metal. Soil in the Fernald site is pervasively contaminated with uranium and secondarily with thorium and radium isotopes. In-situ gamma spectrometry is routinely utilized in soil excavation operations at Fernald to provide high quality and timely analytical data on radionuclide contaminants in soil. To understand the effect of environmental conditions upon in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements, twice daily measurements were made, weather permitting, with a tripod-mounted high purity germanium detector (HPGe) at a single field location (field quality control station) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Such measurements are the field analogue of a laboratory control standard. The basic concept is that measurement variations over an extended period of time at a single location can be related to environmental parameters. Trends, peaks, and troughs in data might be correlative to both long-term and short-term environmental conditions. In this paper environmental variables/ conditions refer to weather related phenomena such as soil moisture, rainfall, atmospheric humidity, and atmospheric temperature.

Sutton, C.



Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and gamma-spectrometry.  


The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by gamma-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We found that collectors can be adapted to accept large surface (diameter 47mm) cartridges containing a strongly acidic resin (Dowex AG 88) which is able to quantitatively extract radioactivity from rainwater, even during heavy rainfall. The resin can then be measured by gamma-spectrometry. The detection limit is 0.1Bq per sample of resin (80g) for (137)Cs. Natural (7)Be and (210)Pb can also be measured and the activity ratio of both radionuclides is comparable with those obtained through iron hydroxide precipitation and air filter measurements. Occasionally (22)Na has also been measured above the detection limit. A comparison between the evaporation method and the resin method demonstrated that 2/3 of (7)Be can be lost during the evaporation process. The resin method is simple and highly efficient at extracting radioactivity. Because of these great advantages, we anticipate it could replace former rainwater determination methods. Moreover, it does not necessitate the transportation of large rainwater volumes to the laboratory. PMID:19231044

Jungck, Matthias H A; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal



Measurements of keV-neutron Capture Cross Sections and Capture Gamma-ray Spectra of Pd Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra of 104,105,106,108,110Pd were measured in the neutron energy region from 15 to 100 keV. A neutron time-of-flight method was utilized by means of an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer and a 1.5 nsec pulsed neutron source via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. The capture yields were obtained by applying a pulse-height weighting technique to the net gamma-ray pulse-height spectra. The capture cross sections of 104,105,106,108,110Pd were determined with uncertainties of less than 6%, using the standard capture cross sections of 197Au. The capture gamma-ray spectra of 104,105,106,108,110Pd were also derived by unfolding the respective observed capture gamma-ray pulse-height spectra.

Terada, K.; Matsuhashi, T.; Hales, B.; Katabuchi, T.; Igashira, M.



Automation system for measurement of gamma-ray spectra of induced activity for multi-element high volume neutron activation analysis at the reactor IBR-2 of Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the joint institute for nuclear research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automation system for measurement of induced activity of gamma-ray spectra for multi-element high volume neutron activation analysis (NAA) was designed, developed and implemented at the reactor IBR-2 at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The system consists of three devices of automatic sample changers for three Canberra HPGe detector-based gamma spectrometry systems. Each sample changer consists of two-axis of linear positioning module M202A by DriveSet company and disk with 45 slots for containers with samples. Control of automatic sample changer is performed by the Xemo S360U controller by Systec company. Positioning accuracy can reach 0.1 mm. Special software performs automatic changing of samples and measurement of gamma spectra at constant interaction with the NAA database.

Pavlov, S. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu.; Chepurchenko, I. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.



Experimental and MCNP simulated gamma-ray spectra for the UNCOSS neutron-based explosive detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the FP7 UNCOSS project (Underwater Coastal Sea Surveyor), whose aim is to develop a neutron-based explosive detection system to identify unexploded ordnance (UXO) lying on the sea bottom, the choice of the gamma-ray detector is essential to reach the optimal performances. This paper presents comparative tests between the two candidates: NaI(Tl) and LaBr 3(Ce) detectors, in favour to the 3 in.×3 in. LaBr 3(Ce); thus, confirming the choice previously performed by numerical simulation because of its higher fast timing properties, spectral resolution, and efficiency per volume unit. The gamma-ray spectra produced by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams on the elements of interest (C, O, N, Al, Fe, Si, and Ca) have also been recorded with this detector in order to unfold the spectrum of the interrogated object into elementary contributions. A qualitative comparison with the gamma-ray spectra simulated with the MCNPX computer code and the ENDFB/VII.0 nuclear library has also been performed to validate the numerical model. An additional quantitative validation has been performed with an explosive-like material (ammonium acetate).

Eleon, C.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.; Valkovic, V.



Hard X-ray spectra of cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hard X-ray measurements of six gamma-ray bursts observed during the period from October 1969 to April 1971 are presented. The measurements were made with detectors on the OGO-5 and OSO-6 satellites. Spectra for five of the six bursts have been determined using measurements from both satellites in order to reduce ambiguities due to uncertain source locations. A significant fraction, about 20-60%, of the energy of the bursts falls in the hard X-ray range (20-130 keV). The time-integrated spectra have been fitted by power-law, exponential, and thermal-bremsstrahlung functions. They are consistent with power laws which steepen at energies of at least 150 keV, as reported earlier for two other bursts. Evidence for spectral variability from event to event in the hard X-ray region is presented. For a power-law representation, the power-law index has values ranging from approximately unity to 2.5. The hard X-ray spectra of the gamma-ray bursts differ significantly from those of the recently discovered 1-15-keV X-ray bursts.

Kane, S. R.; Share, G. H.



Spectra of cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the hard X-ray range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hard X-ray measurements of six gamma-ray bursts observed by detectors on the OGO-5 and OSO-6 satellites during the period Oct. 1969 to Apr. 1971 are presented. Spectra for five of the six bursts were determined using measurements from both satellites in order to reduce ambiguities due to uncertain source locations. A significant fraction, 20 to 60%, of the energy of the bursts fall in the hard X-ray range (20 to 130 keV). The time-integrated spectra were fitted by power-law, exponential, and thermal bremsstrahlung functions. They are consistent with power-laws which steepen at energies approx. above 150 keV, as reported earlier for two other bursts. Evidence for spectral variability from event to event in the hard X-ray region is presented. The hard X-ray spectra of the gamma-ray bursts differ from those of the recently discovered 1 to 15 keV bursts.

Share, G. H.; Kane, S. R.



Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.



The 124Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes a metrological activity determination of 124Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. 124Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. 124Sb decays by ?-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point 124Sb solid sources were obtained from a 166mHo standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of 124Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% ( k=2) were obtained.

de Almeida, M. C. M.; Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; da Silva, R. L.



Expected gamma-ray emission spectra from the lunar surface as a function of chemical composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma rays emitted from the moon or any similar body carry information on the chemical composition of the surface layer. The elements most easily measured are K, U, Th and major elements such as O, Si, Mg, and Fe. The expected fluxes of gamma ray lines were calculated for four lunar compositions and one chondritic chemistry from a consideration of the important emission mechanisms: natural radioactivity, inelastic scatter, neutron capture, and induced radioactivity. The models used for cosmic ray interactions were those of Reedy and Arnold and Lingenfelter. The areal resolution of the experiment was calculated to be around 70 to 140 km under the conditions of the Apollo 15 and 16 experiments. Finally, a method was described for recovering the chemical information from the observed scintillation spectra obtained in these experiments.

Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Trombka, J. I.



On the categorization of uranium materials using low resolution gamma ray spectrometry.  


In order to characterize uranium materials during e.g. nuclear safeguards inspections and in initial stages of nuclear forensic investigations, hand-held low resolution gamma ray detection instruments with automatic uranium categorization capabilities may be used. In this paper, simulated response curves for a number of matrices applied on NaI(Tl) scintillation detector spectra show that the result of the categorization is strongly dependent on the physical properties of the uranium material. Recommendations on how to minimize the possibility of misclassification are discussed. PMID:23208231

Vesterlund, A; Ulvsand, T; Lidström, K; Skarnemark, G; Ekberg, C; Ramebäck, H



On the absorption features in cosmic gamma-ray burst spectra recorded by the LILAS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Franco-Soviet LILAS experiment aboard the Phobos 2 probe was designed for investigation of cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the 3-1000 keV energy range. Two consecutive spectra, from the August 6, 1988 event, exhibit multiple absorption structures when the emission appears to soften progressively. The line energies at about 14 and 28 keV for the first spectrum, and at about 20, 40 and 60 keV for the second one, strongly support a cyclotron resonance mechanism in a greater than 10 to the 12th G magnetic field.

Barat, C.; Atteia, J. L.; Jourdain, E.; Vedrenne, G.; Sunyaev, R.



An iterative approach for TRIGA fuel burn-up determination using nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry.  


The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132I, and 140La. Fuel irradiation history is not needed in this method. Short-lived fission-product activities were established by reirradiating the spent fuels in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, 235U burn-up values can be deduced by iterative calculations. The complication caused by 239Pu production and fission is also discussed in detail. The burn-up values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those deduced from the conventional method based on long-lived fission products 137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs ratio and 106Ru/137Cs ratio. PMID:10670930

Wang, T K; Peir, J J



Elemental compositions and ages of lunar samples by nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry.  


A gamma-ray spectrometry system with low background was used to determine the radioactivity of crystalline rocks, breccias, and fine material. Nuclides identified were (40)K, (232)Th, (238)U, (7)Be, (22)Na (26)A1, (44)Ti, (46)Sc, (48)V, (52)Mn, (54)Mn, and (56)Co. Concentrations of K, Th, and U ranged between 480 and 2550, 1.01 and 3.30, and 0.26 and 0.83 parts per million, respectively. Concentrations of thorium and uranium were those of terrestrial basalts, while the potassium concentrations were near values for chondrites. Products of low-energy nuclear reactions showed pronounced concentration gradients at rock surfaces. Concentrations of K and of (22)Na determined here were combined with concentrations of rare gases to estimate gas-retention ages and cosmic-ray exposure ages with ranges of 2200 to 3200 and 34 to 340 million years, respectively, for three rocks. PMID:17781504

O'kelley, G D; Eldridge, J S; Schonfeld, E; Bell, P R



Measurement of U-235 Fission Neutron Spectra Using a Multiple Gamma Coincidence Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Los Alamos Model of Madland and Nix predicts the shape of the fission neutron energy spectrum for incident primary neutrons of different energies. Verifications of the model normally are limited to measurements of the fission neutron spectra for energies higher than that of the primary neutrons because the low-energy spectrum is distorted by the admixture of elastically and inelastically scattered neutrons. This situation can be remedied by using a measuring technique that separates fission from scattering events. One solution consists of using a fissile sample so thin that fission fragments can be observed indicating the occurrence of a fission event. A different approach is considered in this paper. It has been established that a fission event is accompanied by the emission of between seven and eight gamma rays, while in a scattering interaction, between zero and two gammas are emitted, so that a gamma multiplicity detector should supply a datum to distinguish a fission event from a scattering event. We proceed as follows: A subnanosecond pulsed and bunched proton beam from the UML Van de Graaff generates nearly mono-energetic neutrons by irradiating a thin metallic lithium target. The neutrons irradiate a 235U sample. Emerging neutron energies are measured with a time-of-flight spectrometer. A set of four BaF2 detectors is located close to the 235U sample. These detectors together with their electronic components identify five different events for each neutron detected, i.e., whether four, three, two, one, or none of the BaF2 detectors received one (or more) gamma rays. We present work, preliminary to the final measurements, involving feasibility considerations based on gamma-ray coincidence measurements with four BaF2 detectors, and the design of a Fission-Scattering Discriminator under construction.

Ji, Chuncheng; Kegel, G. H. R.; Egan, J. J.; DeSimone, D. J.; Alimeti, A.; Roldan, C. F.; McKittrick, T. M.; Kim, D.-S.; Chen, X.; Tremblay, S. E.



Investigation of the soil-plant transfer of primordial radionuclides in tomatoes by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.  


The paper presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 227Ac for tomatoes growing at soils from former uranium mining areas. The analysis were carried out using low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in a 47 m deep underground laboratory. For tomato fruits transfer factors of (0.0007 +/- 0.0006) for 235U, (0.0021 +/- 0.0017) for 226Ra, (0.0015 +/- 0.0009) for 210Pb and (0.0018 +/- 0.0012) for 227Ac were obtained. The investigation of the soil-plant transfer by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry is often limited by the Compton-continuum from the always present high-energy gamma-ray emitter 40K. PMID:10879862

Köhler, M; Gleisberg, B; Niese, S



Gamma-ray burst spectra and spectral correlations from sub-photospheric Comptonization  

E-print Network

One of the most important unresolved issues in gamma-ray burst physics is the origin of the prompt gamma-ray spectrum. Its general non-thermal character and the softness in the X-ray band remain unexplained. We tackle these issues by performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation-matter interactions in a scattering dominated photon-lepton plasma. The plasma -- initially in equilibrium -- is driven to non-equilibrium conditions by a sudden energy injection in the lepton population, mimicking the effect of a shock wave or the dissipation of magnetic energy. Equilibrium restoration occurs due to energy exchange between the photons and leptons. While the initial and final equilibrium spectra are thermal, the transitional photon spectra are characterized by non-thermal features such as power-law tails, high energy bumps, and multiple components. Such non-thermal features are observed at infinity if the dissipation occurs at small to moderate optical depths, and the spectrum is released before thermalization is co...

Chhotray, Atul



Gamma-ray spectra of methane in the positron-electron annihilationprocess  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bound electron contribution to the Doppler-shift of gamma-ray spectra in the positron-electron annihilation process of molecular methane has been studied in gas phase. Two accurate ab initio quantum mechanical schemes, i.e. the delocalised molecular orbital (MO) and the localised natural bond orbital (NBO) schemes, are applied to study the multi-centred methane molecule. The present ab initio calculations of methane indicate that the C-H bonds are polarised with the partial negative charge of -0.36 a.u on the carbon atom and the partial positive charge of +0.09 a.u. on each of the hydrogen atoms. The positively charged hydrogen atoms produce repulsive Coulomb potentials to a positron. Both the MO and NBO schemes further reveal that the 2a1 electrons of methane, that is, the 2a1 electron component of the C?H bonds rather than the whole C?H bonds of methane, predominates the positron-electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of the molecule. Electrons of a molecule which are dominant the positron-electron annihilation processes are called "positrophilic" electrons in the present study. It is further shown that the negative electrostatic potential (ESP) of methane facilitates with the density of the "positrophilic" 2a1 electrons of methane. Other valence electrons (e.g. 1t2) in the C?H bonds play a minor "spectator" role in the annihilation process of methane.

Ma, Xiaoguang; Wang, Feng



IMP-6 observations of the energy spectra of cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The occurrence of intense, short bursts of 0.1 to 1.2 MeV cosmic gamma rays, recently found using multiple Vela satellites was confirmed with measurements from the IMP-6 satellite. Observations regarding times of occurrence, photon flux, and temporal and spectral characteristics of the bursts are outlined. In particular, since the IMP-6 instrument incorporates a hard X-ray detector with active particle rejection and full-time omnidirectional particle intensity monitoring, the results fully confirm and establish the hard X-ray or gamma-ray nature of the incident flux. Detailed differential energy spectra were obtained with the IMP-6 for six of the eight known events occurring during the March 1971 to September 1972 lifetime of the instrument. All of these are multiple-pulse events, with several seconds separation between distinct pulses of one or two seconds duration. The pulse spectra do not obey single-index power laws in energy, but can be represented by exponentials in photon flux throughout the 100 to 1200 KeV region.

Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.



EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.



Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are ^214Bi, ^40K, and ^208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions -- such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from ^134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed.

Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.



Modeling Gamma-Ray Attenuation in High Redshift GeV Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two models for the cosmological UV background light, and calculate the opacity of GeV gamma-rays out to redshift 9. The contributors to the background include 2 possible quasar emissivities, and output from star-forming galaxies as determined by recent a semi-analytic model (SAM) of structure formation. The SAM used in this work is based upon a hierarchical build-up of structure in a ?CDM universe and is highly successful in reproducing a variety of observational parameters. Above 1 Rydberg energy, ionizing radiation is subject to reprocessing by the IGM, which we treat using our radiative transfer code, CUBA. The two models for quasar emissivity differing above z = 2.3 are chosen to match the ionization rates observed using flux decrement analysis and the higher values of the line-of-sight proximity effect. We also investigate the possibility of aflat star formation rate density at z>5. We conclude that observations of gamma-rays from 10 to 100 GeV by Fermi (GLAST) and the next generation of ground based experiments should confirm a strongly evolving opacity from 1spectra of gamma-ray bursts at higher redshift could constrain emission of UV radiation at these early times, either from a flat or increasing star-formation density or an unobserved population of sources.

Gilmore, Rudy C.; Madau, Piero; Primack, Joel R.; Somerville, Rachel S.



Application of blind source separation to gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND around Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bismuth germinate (BGO) scintillator is one of the sensors of the gamma ray and neutron detector (GRaND)1 on board the Dawn spacecraft, that has spent just over one year in orbit around the asteroid 4-Vesta. The BGO detector is excited by energetic gamma-rays produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or energetic solar particles interacting either with Vesta and/or the Dawn spacecraft. In detail, during periods of quiet solar activity, gamma ray spectra produced by the scintillator can be considered as consisting of three signals: i) a contribution of gamma-rays from Vesta produced by GCR interactions at the asteroid's surface, ii) a contribution from the spacecraft excited by neutrons coming from Vesta, and iii) a contribution of the spacecraft excited by local interaction with galactic cosmic rays. While the first two contributions should be positive functions of the solid angle of Vesta in the field of view during acquisition, the last one should have a negative dependence because Vesta partly shields the spacecraft from GCR. This theoretical mix can be written formally as: S=a?SV+b?SSCNV+c(4?-?)SSCGCR (1) where S is the series of recorded spectra, ? is the solid angle, SV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from Vesta, SSCNV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by the neutron coming from Vesta and SSCGCR is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by GCR. A blind source separation method called independent component analysis enables separating additive subcomponents supposing the mutual statistical independence of the non-Gaussian source signals2. Applying this method to BGO spectra acquired during the first three months of the low-altitude measurement orbit (LAMO) reveals two main independent components. The first one is dominated by the positron electron annihilation peak and is positively correlated to the solid angle. The second is negatively correlated to the solid angle and displays peaks of elements present in the spacecraft, of energy in the range 1 to 3.5 MeV. At energy >3.5 MeV, the dominant independent component highlighted by this method has no significant peaks, suggesting that it is not influenced by Vesta itself which is known to have a strong signal associated with iron at 7.6 MeV. Our method therefore represents a first step in retrieving the contribution of the spacecraft that could be used in conjunction with the mixing equation (1) to determine the contribution from the planet itself. 1 : Prettyman, T. H., Mcsween, Jr., H. Y., Feldman, W. C., JUN 2010. Dawn's GRaND to map the chemical composition of asteroids Vesta and Ceres. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta 74 (12, 1), A832, Con- ference on Goldschmidt 2010 - Earth, Energy, and the Environment, Knoxville, TN, JUN 13-18, 2010. 2 : Hyvarinen, A., Oja, E., May-Jun 2000. Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications. Neural Networks 13 (4-5), 411-430.

Mizzon, H.; Toplis, M. J.; Forni, O.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.



Strong MgII systems in quasar and gamma-ray burst spectra  

E-print Network

The incidence of strong MgII systems in gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra is a few times higher than in quasar (QSO) spectra. We investigate several possible explanations for this effect, including: dust obscuration bias, clustering of the absorbers, different beam sizes of the sources, multiband magnification bias of GRBs, association of the absorbers with the GRB event or the circumburst environment. We find that: i) the incidence rate of MgII systems in QSO spectra could be underestimated by a factor 1.3-2 due to dust obscuration; ii) the equivalent-width distribution of the MgII absorbers along GRBs is consistent with that observed along QSOs thus suggesting that the absorbers are more extended than the beam sizes of the sources; iii) on average, GRB afterglows showing more than one MgII system are a factor of 1.7 brighter than the others, suggesting a lensing origin of the observed discrepancy; iv) gravitational lensing (in different forms, from galaxy lensing to microlensing) can bias high the counts of MgII systems along GRBs if the luminosity functions of the prompt gamma-ray emission and of the optical afterglows have a mean faint-end slope approaching -5/3 -- -2; v) some of the absorbers can be associated with the circumburst environment or produced by supernova remnants unrelated to the GRB event itself but lying in the same star-forming region. With the possible exception of magnification bias, it is unlikely that one of these effects on its own can fully account for the observed counts. However, the combined action of some of them can substantially reduce the statistical significance of the discrepancy.

Cristiano Porciani; Matteo Viel; Simon J. Lilly




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners construct a spectroscope out of a shoe box or mailing tube, diffraction grating, and other simple materials. They then use their spectroscope to observe spectra, the colors that make up light. Learners compare the spectra of various light sources. Use this activity to introduce learners to basic principles of light and color. Also, look at a related page about auroras to understand how distinguishing spectra of different atoms helps scientists understand the universe.

Exploratorium, The



Photon and neutrino spectra of time-dependent photospheric models of gamma-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

Thermal photons from the photosphere may be the primary source of the observed prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In order to produce the observed non-thermal spectra, some kind of dissipation mechanism near the photosphere is required. In this paper we numerically simulate the evolution of the photon spectrum in a relativistically expanding shell with a time-dependent numerical code. We consider two basic models. One is a leptonic model, where a dissipation mechanism heats the thermal electrons maintaining their high temperature. The other model involves a cascade process induced by pp(pn)-collisions which produce high-energy electrons, modify the thermal spectrum, and emit neutrinos. The qualitative properties of the photon spectra are mainly determined by the optical depth at which the dissipation mechanism sets in. Too large optical depths lead to a broad and curved spectrum contradicting the observations, while for optical depths smaller than unity the spectral hardness becomes softer than observed. A significant shift of the spectral peak energy to higher energies due to a large energy injection can lead to an overly broad spectral shape. We show ideal parameter ranges for which these models are able to reproduce the observed spectra. For the pn-collision model, the neutrino fluence in the 10–100 GeV range is well above the atmospheric neutrino fluence, but its detection is challenging for presently available detectors.

Asano, K. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Mészáros, P., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)



The time evolution of GRB spectra by a precessing lighthouse Gamma Jet  

E-print Network

Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) by a relativistic electron beam jet at GeV energies (emitted by a compact object as a NS, BH,...), a NSJ, onto thermal BBR photons (from a nearby stellar companion) may originate a collinear gamma jet (GJ). Due to the binary system interaction the GJ precession would blaze suddenly toward the observer leading to a GRB event. The internal GJ cone structure is ruled by relativistic kinematics into a concentric onion-like sequence of photon rings, the softer in the external boundaries, the harder in the inner cone. The pointing and the crossing of such different GJ photon rings to the detector lead to a GRB hardness spectra evolution nearly corresponding to most observed ones. Moreover expected time integral spectra are also comparable with known GRB spectra. The total energy input of tens of thousands of such NSJ in an extended galactic halo, mainly cosmic rays electrons, should be reflected into the recent observational evidence (COMPTEL) of a diffused relic extended halo. Evidences of such precessing jets are offered by the discover of galactic superluminal sources, recent HH jets, SN1987A outer rings, Hourglass Nebula, planetary Egg Nebula, GROJ1744-28 binary X-rays pulsar.

D. Fargion; A. Salis



The time evolution of GRB spectra by a precessing lighthouse $\\gamma$ jet  

E-print Network

Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) by a relativistic electron beam jet at GeV energies (emitted by a compact object as a NS, BH,...), a NSJ, onto thermal BBR photons (from a nearby stellar companion) may originate a collinear gamma jet (GJ). Due to the binary system interaction the GJ precession would blaze suddenly toward the observer leading to a GRB event. The internal GJ cone structure is ruled by relativistic kinematics into a concentric onion-like sequence of photon rings, the softer in the external boundaries, the harder in the inner cone. The pointing and the crossing of such different GJ photon rings to the detector lead to a GRB hardness spectra evolution nearly corresponding to most observed ones. Moreover expected time integral spectra are also comparable with known GRB spectra. The total energy input of tens of thousands of such NSJ in an extended galactic halo, mainly cosmic rays electrons, should be reflected into the recent observational evidence (COMPTEL) of a diffused relic extended halo. Evid...

Fargion, D



Spectra of X-ray and Gamma-ray Bursts Produced by Stepping Lightning Leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating from the Earth's atmosphere in association with thunderstorm activity. TGFs were serendipitously discovered by BATSE detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory originally launched to perform observations of celestial gamma-ray sources [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994]. These events have also been detected by the RHESSI satellite [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the AGILE satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010], and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010]. Moreover, measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intra-cloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g, Lu et al., JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Photon spectra corresponding to well-established model of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. However, it has been suggested that high-potential +IC lightning leaders could produce a sufficient number of energetic electrons to explain TGFs [Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] and Xu et al. [GRL, 39, L08801, 2012] have shown that this mechanism could explain the TGF spectrum for lightning potentials higher than 100 MV. In addition to TGFs, X-ray bursts are produced by negative lightning leaders in association with stepping processes and are observed from the ground [Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L01803, 2005]. However, the energy spectrum of X-ray bursts from lightning is still poorly known, mainly due to the low fluence detected from the ground. In this work, we use Monte Carlo models to study the acceleration of runaway electrons in the electric field produced around lightning leader tip and the associated bremsstrahlung photon spectra observed by low-orbit satellites in the case of high potential +IC discharges and from the ground in the case of negative cloud-to-ground discharges. We particularly investigate the variability of the photon spectrum with the lightning electric potential.

Celestin, Sebastien; Xu, Wei; Pasko, Victor



Fieldable computer system for determining gamma-ray pulse-height distributions, flux spectra, and dose rates from Little Boy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our system consists of a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system with a built-in CAMAC crate and eight bismuth-germanate detectors 7.62 cm in diameter and 7.62 cm long. Gamma-ray pulse-height distributions are acquired simultaneously for up to eight positions. The system was very carefully calibrated and characterized from 0.1 to 8.3 MeV using gamma-ray spectra from a variety of radioactive sources.

C. E. Moss; M. C. Lucas; E. W. Tisinger; M. E. Hamm



GRABGAM: A Gamma Analysis Code for Ultra-Low-Level HPGe SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

The GRABGAM code has been developed for analysis of ultra-low-level HPGe gamma spectra. The code employs three different size filters for the peak search, where the largest filter provides best sensitivity for identifying low-level peaks and the smallest filter has the best resolution for distinguishing peaks within a multiplet. GRABGAM basically generates an integral probability F-function for each singlet or multiplet peak analysis, bypassing the usual peak fitting analysis for a differential f-function probability model. Because F is defined by the peak data, statistical limitations for peak fitting are avoided; however, the F-function does provide generic values for peak centroid, full width at half maximum, and tail that are consistent with a Gaussian formalism. GRABGAM has successfully analyzed over 10,000 customer samples, and it interfaces with a variety of supplementary codes for deriving detector efficiencies, backgrounds, and quality checks.

Winn, W.G.



Monte Carlo calculations of neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra for fusion-reactor shield design: Comparison with experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron and gamma-ray spectra resulting from the interactions of approx. 14-MeV neutrons in laminated slabs of stainless steel type-304 and borated polyethylene were calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculated spectra are compared with measured data as a function of slab thickness and material composition and as a function of detector location behind the slabs. Comparisons of the

R. T. Santoro; J. M. Barnes



Spectral information enhancement using wavelet-based iterative filtering for in vivo gamma spectrometry.  


Use of wavelet transformation in stationary signal processing has been demonstrated for denoising the measured spectra and characterisation of radionuclides in the in vivo monitoring analysis, where difficulties arise due to very low activity level to be estimated in biological systems. The large statistical fluctuations often make the identification of characteristic gammas from radionuclides highly uncertain, particularly when interferences from progenies are also present. A new wavelet-based noise filtering methodology has been developed for better detection of gamma peaks in noisy data. This sequential, iterative filtering method uses the wavelet multi-resolution approach for noise rejection and an inverse transform after soft 'thresholding' over the generated coefficients. Analyses of in vivo monitoring data of (235)U and (238)U were carried out using this method without disturbing the peak position and amplitude while achieving a 3-fold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, compared with the original measured spectrum. When compared with other data-filtering techniques, the wavelet-based method shows the best results. PMID:22887117

Paul, Sabyasachi; Sarkar, P K



X-ray fluorescence and gamma-ray spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis for topographic studies in agricultural soil.  


Physical and chemical properties of soils play a major role in the evaluation of different geochemical signature, soil quality, discrimination of land use type, soil provenance and soil degradation. The objectives of the present study are the soil elemental characterization and soil differentiation in topographic sequence and depth, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) as well as gamma-ray spectrometry data combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The study area is an agricultural region of Boa Vista catchment which is located at Guamiranga municipality, Brazil. PCA analysis was performed with four different data sets: spectral data from EDXRF, spectral data from gamma-ray spectrometry, concentration values from EDXRF measurements and concentration values from gamma-ray spectrometry. All PCAs showed similar results, confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis, allowing the data grouping into top, bottom and riparian zone samples, i.e. the samples were separated due to its landscape position. The two hillslopes present the same behavior independent of the land use history. There are distinctive and characteristic patterns in the analyzed soil. The methodologies presented are promising and could be used to infer significant information about the region to be studied. PMID:25464179

de Castilhos, Natara D B; Melquiades, Fábio L; Thomaz, Edivaldo L; Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira



Assessment of radiological hazards of Lawrencepur sand, Pakistan using gamma spectrometry.  


The Lawrencepur sand had remained refrigerated during a long period of glaciations in the study area. Owing to its derivation from the granitic rocks of the Himalayas and its preservation under glacial environment, the sand grains are still fresh and may contain high level of primordial radioactivity. For that reason, radiological hazards of Lawrencepur sand were assessed using a high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry technique. The average activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 15.97±3.05, 27.98±4.89 and 498.20±15.91 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are higher than those of the sands of many countries of the world but lower than those of some of the Pakistani, Indian and Egyptian sands. The outdoor and indoor hazard indices and annual effective doses of the Lawrencepur sand are higher than those of some of the sand deposits of European, African and American countries but lower than those of nearby Pakistani and Indian sands. However, the hazard indices and annual effective doses of the Lawrencepur sand are within the safe limits. Overall, the Lawrencepur sand does not pose any radiological health hazard as a building material. PMID:23630384

Qureshi, Aziz Ahmed; Ali, Muhammad; Waheed, Abdul; Manzoor, Shahid; Siddique, Rehan Ul Haq; Ahmed Khan, Hameed



Low-background gamma-ray spectrometry in the Garching underground laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe two setups that were built for low-background gamma-ray spectrometry in the Garching Underground Laboratory (˜ 10 m.w.e.). Both setups are based on HPGe detectors surrounded by several layers of passive shielding as well as an active muon veto. The first setup (GEM) comprises a single HPGe detector surrounded by a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector that serves as anti-Compton veto. The second setup (LoAx) consists of two smaller HPGe detectors which are arranged face-to-face to cover a large solid angle around the sample. The detection efficiency of both systems is determined using a calibrated Monte-Carlo simulation. The count rate finally achieved in the energy range 40-2700keV is 10250±26cts/day for the GEM setup, and 5258±27cts/day and 6876±31cts/day between 20-1500keV for the two detectors of the LoAx setup. This leads to detection sensitivities of a few mBq/kg for U and Th at both screening stations.

Hofmann, M.; Mannel, T.; Sivers, M. V.




SciTech Connect

In the safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation regimes measurements are required which give the quantity of fissile material in an accounting item, e.g., a standard container of plutonium or uranium oxide. Because of the complexity of modeling the absorption of gamma rays in high-Z materials, gamma-ray spectrometry is not customarily used for this purpose. Gamma-ray measurements can be used to determine the fissile mass when two conditions are met: (1) The material is in a standard container, and (2) The material is finely divided, or a solid item with a reproducible shape. The methodology consists of: (A) Measurement of the emitted gamma rays, and (B) Measurement of the transmission through the item of the high-energy gamma rays of Co-60 and Th-228. We have demonstrated that items containing nuclear materials possess a characteristic ''fingerprint'' of gamma rays which depends not only on the nuclear properties, but also on the mass, density, shape, etc.. The material's spectrum confirms its integrity, homogeneity, and volume as well. While there is attenuation of radiation from the interior, the residual radiation confirms the homogeneity of the material throughout the volume. Transmission measurements, where the attenuation depends almost entirely on Compton scattering, determine the material mass. With well-characterized standards, this methodology can provide an accurate measure of the contained fissile material.




Qualities related to spectra acquisition in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many elements emit line-rich spectra in ICP-AES, the role of the resolution of the dispersive system has been considered as crucial not only to minimize spectral interferences but also to improve signal-to-background ratios. Resolution is mainly based on the line width measured at half of the peak intensity. Because of the availability of modern gratings, the practical resolution is

J.-M. Mermet



Qualities related to spectra acquisition in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As many elements emit line-rich spectra in ICP-AES, the role of the resolution of the dispersive system has been considered as crucial not only to minimize spectral interferences but also to improve signal-to-background ratios. Resolution is mainly based on the line width measured at half of the peak intensity. Because of the availability of modern gratings, the practical resolution is no longer limited by the diffraction patterns produced by the grating, but is mainly bandpass and optical aberration limited. High resolutions of 5 pm may be obtained in the UV, which has to be compared with the physical line widths in the range 1-6 pm. However, such a high resolution cannot be achieved in the visible region because it is no longer possible to use a high line number for conventional gratings and high diffraction orders for echelle gratings. Moreover, the resolution concept does not consider the line wings, which are of concern for background correction. It is then suggested a measurement of the line profile at 1% of the peak intensity and a comparison with that measured at 50%. Because of the current possibility to have acquisition of the entire, or at least large portions of the UV-visible spectra, wavelength reproducibility may become the most important parameter to facilitate data processing such as spectra addition and subtraction, filtering, deconvolution and line correlation.

Mermet, J.-M.



Impact of secondary acceleration on the neutrino spectra in gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The observation of charged cosmic rays with energies up to 1020 eV shows that particle acceleration must occur in astrophysical sources. Acceleration of secondary particles like muons and pions, produced in cosmic ray interactions, are usually neglected, however, when calculating the flux of neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions. Aims: Here, we discuss the acceleration of secondary muons, pions, and kaons in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the internal shock scenario, and their impact on the neutrino fluxes. Methods: We introduce a two-zone model consisting of an acceleration zone (the shocks) and a radiation zone (the plasma downstream the shocks). The acceleration in the shocks, which is an unavoidable consequence of efficient proton acceleration, requires efficient transport from the radiation back to the acceleration zone. On the other hand, stochastic acceleration in the radiation zone can enhance the secondary spectra of muons and kaons significantly if there is a sufficiently large turbulent region. Results: Overall, it is plausible that neutrino spectra can be enhanced by up to a factor of two at the peak by stochastic acceleration, that an additional spectral peak appears from shock acceleration of the secondary muons and pions, and that the neutrino production from kaon decays is enhanced. Conclusions: Depending on the GRB parameters, the general conclusions concerning the limits to the internal shock scenario obtained by recent IceCube and ANTARES analyses may be affected by up to a factor of two by secondary acceleration. Most of the changes occur at energies above 107 GeV, so the effects for next-generation radio-detection experiments will be more pronounced. In the future, however, if GRBs are detected as high-energy neutrino sources, the detection of one or several pronounced peaks around 106 GeV or higher energies could help to derive the basic properties of the magnetic field strength in the GRB.

Winter, W.; Becker Tjus, J.; Klein, S. R.



Verification of the content, isotopic composition and age of plutonium in Pu-Be neutron sources by gamma-spectrometry  

E-print Network

A non-destructive, gamma-spectrometric method for verifying the plutonium content of Pu-Be neutron sources has been developed. It is also shown that the isotopic composition and the age of plutonium (Pu) can be determined in the intensive neutron field of these sources by the ``Multi-Group Analysis'' method. Gamma spectra were taken in the far-field of the sample, which was assumed to be cylindrical. The isotopic composition and the age of Pu were determined using a commercial implementation of the Multi-Group Analysis algorithm. The Pu content of the sources was evaluated from the count rates of the gamma-peaks of 239Pu, relying on the assumption that the gamma-rays are coming to the detector parallel to each other. The determination of the specific neutron yields and the problem of neutron damage to the detector are also discussed.

Cong Tam Nguyen



Verification of the content, isotopic composition and age of plutonium in Pu-Be neutron sources by gamma-spectrometry  

E-print Network

A non-destructive, gamma-spectrometric method for verifying the plutonium content of Pu-Be neutron sources has been developed. It is also shown that the isotopic composition and the age of plutonium (Pu) can be determined in the intensive neutron field of these sources by the ``Multi-Group Analysis'' method. Gamma spectra were taken in the far-field of the sample, which was assumed to be cylindrical. The isotopic composition and the age of Pu were determined using a commercial implementation of the Multi-Group Analysis algorithm. The Pu content of the sources was evaluated from the count rates of the gamma-peaks of 239Pu, relying on the assumption that the gamma-rays are coming to the detector parallel to each other. The determination of the specific neutron yields and the problem of neutron damage to the detector are also discussed.

Nguyen, C T



Breaks in gamma-ray spectra of distant blazars and transparency of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic gamma rays scatter on soft background radiation when propagating through the Universe, producing electron-positron pairs (A.I. Nikishov, Sov. Phys. JETP 14, 393 (1962)). Gamma rays with energies between 100 GeV and a few TeV interact mostly with infrared background photons whose amount is poorly known experimentally but safely constrained from below by account of the contribution of observed light from known galaxies (R.C. Keenan, A.J. Barger, L.L. Cowie, and W.-H. Wang, Astrophys. J. 723, 40 (2010); arXiv: 1102.2428). The expected opacity of the intergalactic space limits the mean free path of TeV gamma rays to dozens of Megaparsecs. However, TeV photons from numerous more distant sources have been detected (S.P. Wakely and D. Horan, This might be interpreted, in each particular case, in terms of hardening of the emitted spectrum caused by presently unknown mechanisms at work in the sources (S. Archambault et al. (VERITAS and Fermi LAT Collaborations), Astrophys. J. 785, L16 (2014); arXiv: 1403.4308). Here we show that this interpretation is not supported by the analysis of the ensemble of all observed sources. In the frameworks of an infrared-background model with the lowest opacity (R.C. Gilmore, R.S. Somerville, J.R. Primack, and A. Dominguez, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 422, 3189 (2012); arXiv: 1104.0671), we reconstruct the emitted spectra of distant blazars and find that upward spectral breaks appear precisely at those energies where absorption effects are essential. Since these energies are very different for similar sources located at various distances, we conclude that the breaks are artefacts of the incorrect account of absorption and, therefore, the opacity of the Universe for gamma rays is overestimated even in the most conservative model. This implies that some novel physical or astrophysical phenomena should affect long-distance propagation of gamma rays. A scenario in which a part of energetic photons is converted to an inert new particle in the vicinity of the source and reconverts back close to the observer (M. Simet, D. Hooper, and P. Serpico, Phys. Rev. D 77, 063001 (2008); arXiv: 0712.2825; M. Fairbairn, T. Rashba, and S. Troitsky, Phys. Rev. D 84, 125019 (2011); arXiv:0901.4085) does not contradict our results. This new axion-like particle appears in several extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics (J. Jaeckel and A. Ringwald, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 60, 405 (2010); arXiv: 1002.0329) and may constitute the dark matter (P. Arias et al., JCAP 1206, 013 (2012); arXiv: 1201.5902).

Rubtsov, G. I.; Troitsky, S. V.



Inter-pulse high-resolution gamma-ray spectra using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A neutron generator pulsed at 100 s-1 was suspended in an artificial borehole containing a 7.7 metric ton mixture of sand, aragonite, magnetite, sulfur, and salt. Two Ge(HP) gamma-ray detectors were used: one in a borehole sonde, and one at the outside wall of the sample tank opposite the neutron generator target. Gamma-ray spectra were collected by the outside detector during each of 10 discrete time windows during the 10 ms period following the onset of gamma-ray build-up after each neutron burst. The sample was measured first when dry and then when saturated with water. In the dry sample, gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering, neutron capture, and decay were counted during the first (150 ??s) time window. Subsequently only capture and decay gamma rays were observed. In the wet sample, only neutron capture and decay gamma rays were observed. Neutron capture gamma rays dominated the spectrum during the period from 150 to 400 ??s after the neutron burst in both samples, but decreased with time much more rapidly in the wet sample. A signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) analysis indicates that optimum conditions for neutron capture analysis occurred in the 350-800 ??s window. A poor S/N in the first 100-150 ??s is due to a large background continuum during the first time interval. Time gating can be used to enhance gamma-ray spectra, depending on the nuclides in the target material and the reactions needed to produce them, and should improve the sensitivity of in situ well logging. ?? 1984.

Evans, L.G.; Trombka, J.I.; Jensen, D.H.; Stephenson, W.A.; Hoover, R.A.; Mikesell, J.L.; Tanner, A.B.; Senftle, F.E.



Fieldable computer system for determining gamma-ray pulse-height distributions, flux spectra, and dose rates from Little Boy  

SciTech Connect

Our system consists of a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system with a built-in CAMAC crate and eight bismuth-germanate detectors 7.62 cm in diameter and 7.62 cm long. Gamma-ray pulse-height distributions are acquired simultaneously for up to eight positions. The system was very carefully calibrated and characterized from 0.1 to 8.3 MeV using gamma-ray spectra from a variety of radioactive sources. By fitting the pulse-height distributions from the sources with a function containing 17 parameters, we determined theoretical repsonse functions. We use these response functions to unfold the distributions to obtain flux spectra. A flux-to-dose-rate conversion curve based on the work of Dimbylow and Francis is then used to obtain dose rates. Direct use of measured spectra and flux-to-dose-rate curves to obtain dose rates avoids the errors that can arise from spectrum dependence in simple gamma-ray dosimeter instruments. We present some gamma-ray doses for the Little Boy assembly operated at low power. These results can be used to determine the exposures of the Hiroshima survivors and thus aid in the establishment of radation exposure limits for the nuclear industry.

Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.



F-GAMMA: On the phenomenological classification of continuum radio spectra variability patterns of Fermi blazars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The F-GAMMA program is a coordinated effort to investigate the physics of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) via multi-frequency monitoring of Fermi blazars. In the current study we show and discuss the evolution of broad-band radio spectra, which are measured at ten frequencies between 2.64 and 142 GHz using the Effelsberg 100-m and the IRAM 30-m telescopes. It is shown that any of the 78 sources studied can be classified in terms of their variability characteristics in merely 5 types of variability. It is argued that these can be attributed to only two classes of variability mechanisms. The first four types are dominated by spectral evolution and can be described by a simple two-component system composed of: (a) a steep quiescent spectral component from a large scale jet and (b) a time evolving flare component following the "Shock-in-Jet" evolutionary path. The fifth type is characterised by an achromatic change of the broad band spectrum, which could be attributed to a different mechanism, likely involving differential Doppler boosting caused by geometrical effects. Here we present the classification, the assumed physical scenario and the results of calculations that have been performed for the spectral evolution of flares.

Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; Fromm, C. M.; Perucho-Pla, M.; Schmidt, R.; Zensus, J. A.; Marchili, N.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.; Riquelme, D.; Pavlidou, V.



Methylation of gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) allows detection by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the identification of Gla residues in the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase  

PubMed Central

Gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) is a post-translational modification required for the activity of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins that has been difficult to study by mass spectrometry due to the properties of this negatively-charged residue. Gla is generated by a single enzyme, the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, which has broad biological impact because VKD proteins have diverse functions that include hemostasis, apoptosis, and growth control. The carboxylase also contains Glas, of unknown function, and is an integral membrane protein with poor sequence coverage. To locate these Glas, we first established methods that resulted in high coverage (92%) of uncarboxylated carboxylase. Subsequent analysis of carboxylated carboxylase identified a Gla-peptide (729-758) and a missing region (625-647) that was detected in uncarboxylated carboxylase. We therefore developed an approach to methylate Gla, which efficiently neutralized Gla and improved mass spectrometric analysis. Methylation eliminated CO2 loss from Gla, increased the ionization of Gla-containing peptide, and appeared to facilitate trypsin digestion. Methylation of a carboxylated carboxylase tryptic digest identified Glas in the 625-647 peptide. These studies provide valuable information for testing the function of carboxylase carboxylation. The methylation approach for studying Gla by mass spectrometry is an important advance that will be broadly applicable to analyzing other VKD proteins. PMID:22536908

Hallgren, K. W.; Zhang, D.; Kinter, M.; Willard, B.; Berkner, K. L.



Gamma spectrometry efficiency calibration using Monte Carlo methods to measure radioactivity of 137Cs in food samples.  


A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring the radioactivity of (137)Cs in food samples, was based on Monte Carlo simulations available in the free-of-charge toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of a high-purity germanium detector were calculated for three reference materials representing three different food items. These efficiency values were compared with their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Interestingly, the output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method. PMID:24214912

Alrefae, T



Automated analysis for large amount gaseous fission product gamma-scanning spectra from nuclear power plant and its data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the Linssi database and UniSampo\\/Shaman software, an automated analysis platform has been setup for the analysis\\u000a of large amounts of gamma-spectra from the primary coolant monitoring systems of a CANDU reactor. Thus, a database inventory\\u000a of gaseous and volatile fission products in the primary coolant of a CANDU reactor has been established. This database is\\u000a comprised of 15,000

Weihua Zhang; Jarmo Ala-Heikkila; Kurt Ungar; Ian Hoffman; Ryan Lawrie



Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046  

SciTech Connect

Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)] [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)



Cosmic-ray spectra of primary protons and high altitude muons deconvolved from observed atmospheric gamma rays  

E-print Network

We have observed atmospheric gamma rays from 30GeV to 8TeV, using emulsion chambers at balloon altitudes, accumulating the largest total exposure in this energy range to date, SOT ~ 6.66m^ At very high altitudes, with residual overburden only a few g/cm^2, atmospheric gamma rays are mainly produced by a single interaction of primary cosmic rays with overlying atmospheric nuclei. Thus, we can use these gamma rays to study the spectrum of primary cosmic rays and their products in the atmosphere. From the observed atmospheric gamma ray spectrum, we deconvolved the primary cosmic-ray proton spectrum, assuming appropriate hadronic interaction models. Our deconvolved proton spectrum covers the energy range from 200GeV to 50TeV, which fills a gap in the currently available primary cosmic-ray proton spectra. We also estimated the atmospheric muon spectrum above 30GeV at high altitude from our gamma-ray spectrum, almost without reference to the primary cosmic rays, and compared the estimated flux with direct muon observations below 10GeV.

K. Yoshida; R. Ohmori; T. Kobayashi; Y. Komori; Y. Sato; J. Nishimura



gamma-Irradiation effects on the thermal decomposition behaviour and IR absorption spectra of piperacillin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal decomposition behaviour of unirradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated piperacillin (pipril) as a semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic has been studied in the temperature range of (273-1072 K). The decomposition was found to proceed through three major steps both for unirradiated and gamma-irradiated samples. Neither appearance nor disappearance of new bands in the IR spectrum of piperacillin was recorded as a result of gamma-irradiation but only a decrease in the intensity of most bands was observed. A degradation mechanism was suggested to explain the bond rupture and the decrease in the intensities of IR bands of gamma-irradiated piperacillin.

Mahfouz, R. M.; Gaffar, M. A.; Abu El-Fadl, A.; Hamad, Ar. G. K.



Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification of Yeasts Is Contingent on Robust Reference Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMatrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for yeast identification is limited by the requirement for protein extraction and for robust reference spectra across yeast species in databases. We evaluated its ability to identify a range of yeasts in comparison with phenotypic methods.MethodsMALDI-TOF MS was performed on 30 reference and 167 clinical isolates followed by prospective examination

Angie Pinto; Catriona Halliday; Melissa Zahra; Sebastian van Hal; Tom Olma; Krystyna Maszewska; Jonathan R. Iredell; Wieland Meyer; Sharon C.-A. Chen; Markus M. Heimesaat



Nondestructive determination of plutonium by gamma spectrometry and neutron well coincidence counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different NDA methods based on gamma ray and neutron measurements developed for the determination of Pu in solid samples is reported. In the gamma spectrometric measurements for solid samples, a method which takes advantage of the multiple ?-rays emitted by Pu and relies on the empirical relation between apparent mass of the sample and ?-ray energy was used. The method

Chhavi Agarwal; Sanhita Poi; T. N. Nathaniel; Amol Mhatre; P. C. Kalsi; Sarbjit Singh; A. Goswami



Measurement of branching fractions and mass spectra in B mesons decaying to kaons pions and gamma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement of the branching fractions of the exclusive radiative penguin processes B ? Kpipigamma in a sample of 232 million e+e - ? BB¯ decays recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring. We reconstruct four final states: K+pi-pi+gamma, K+pi-pi0gamma, K0s pi-pi+gamma, and K0s pi+pi0gamma, where K0s ? pi+pi-, in the range mKpipi < 1.8GeV/c 2. We measure the branching fractions B (B+ ? K +pi-pi+gamma) = (2.95+/-0.13(stat.)+/-0.19(syst.)) x 10-5, B (B0 ? K +pi-pi0gamma) = (4.07+/-0.22(stat.)+/-0.31(syst.)) x 10-5, B (B0 ? K 0pi+pi-gamma) = (1.85+/-0.21(stat.)+/-0.12(syst.)) x 10-5, and B (B+ ? K 0pi+pi0gamma) = (4.56+/-0.42(stat.)+/-0.30(syst.)) x 10-5. We also measure the distribution of mKpipi.

Samuel, Alexander


Gamma-ray burst spectra and time histories from 2 to 400 keV  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma-Ray burst detector on Ginga consisted of a proportional counter to observe the x-rays and a scintillation counter to observe the gamma-rays. Both instrument recorded the time histories in phase with each other and with 0.03125 s temporal resolution. The author compares the average of 21 gamma-ray bursts to determine the delay, in any, between the peak of the x-rays and the peak of the gamma-rays. The delay is less than or about equal to 30 msec. Thus, models must content with two average features of the temporal behavior. First, as a function of energy, the time structure scales as {approximately}E{sup {minus}0.45}. Second, the x-rays are not appreciable delayed relative to the gamma-rays. Some cooling models might have difficulties explaining these features.

Fenimore, E.E.



Energetic neutron and gamma-ray spectra under the earth radiation belts according to “SALUTE7”-“KOSMOS-1686” orbital complex and “CORONAS-i” satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectra of neutrons >10 MeV and gamma-rays 1.5–100 MeV under the Earth Radiation Belts, restored from the data, obtained onboard orbital complex “SALUTE-7”-“KOSMOS-1686”, are presented. The spectra shapes are similar to those for albedo neutrons and gamma-rays, but absolute values of their fluxes (0.2 cm?2 s?1 for neutrons, 0.8 cm?2 s?1 for gamma-rays at the equator and 1.2 cm?2

A. V. Bogomolov; A. V. Dmitriev; I. N. Myagkova; S. P. Ryumin; O. N. Smirnova; I. M. Sobolevsky



Energetic neutron and gamma-ray spectra under the earth radiation belts according to ``SALUTE7''-``KOSMOS-1686'' orbital complex and ``CORONAS-I'' satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectra of neutrons > 10 MeV and gamma-rays 1.5-100 MeV under the Earth Radiation Belts, restored from the data, obtained onboard orbital complex ``SALUTE-7''-``KOSMOS-1686'', are presented. The spectra shapes are similar to those for albedo neutrons and gamma-rays, but absolute values of their fluxes (0.2 cm^-2 s^-1 for neutrons, 0.8 cm^-2 s^-1 for gamma-rays at the equator and 1.2

A. V. Bogomolov; A. V. Dmitriev; I. N. Myagkova; S. P. Ryumin; O. N. Smirnova; I. M. Sobolevsky



Outcrop gamma ray spectrometry of the Sunnyside Member, Book Cliffs, East Central Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Book Cliffs of East Central Utah provide excellent exposure in which to test and further the concepts of sequence stratigraphy within both marine and marginal marine depositional systems. Within a study of the Sunnyside Member of the Blackhawk Formation spectral gamma ray profiles were run through 12 of the measured sections. The Sunnyside Member represents three shallow marine parasequences truncated by at least one high frequency sequence boundary which is overlain by incised valley fill deposits. The gamma ray studies were undertaken with the following aims: (1) To quantify gamma ray profiles and spectral gamma responses to known and well understood stratal geometries, including marine shoreface parasequences, incised valley fills and coastal plain succession. (2) To quantity changes which occur across stratal surfaces, parasequence and sequence boundaries (3) To assist in the understanding of certain stratal elements which are less well understood, such as the recognition of interfluves in marine shales (4) To assist in the accurate tying of well gamma ray logs from 80 coal bed methane wells drilled behind the outcrops. The results of this study have important implications for the application of spectral gamma ray studies within sub-surface reservoir intervals. Architectural elements can be categorized and significant changes in mineralogy can be observed across key stratal surfaces.

Adamson, K.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S. (Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)) (and others)



Outcrop gamma ray spectrometry of the Sunnyside Member, Book Cliffs, East Central Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Book Cliffs of East Central Utah provide excellent exposure in which to test and further the concepts of sequence stratigraphy within both marine and marginal marine depositional systems. Within a study of the Sunnyside Member of the Blackhawk Formation spectral gamma ray profiles were run through 12 of the measured sections. The Sunnyside Member represents three shallow marine parasequences truncated by at least one high frequency sequence boundary which is overlain by incised valley fill deposits. The gamma ray studies were undertaken with the following aims: (1) To quantify gamma ray profiles and spectral gamma responses to known and well understood stratal geometries, including marine shoreface parasequences, incised valley fills and coastal plain succession. (2) To quantity changes which occur across stratal surfaces, parasequence and sequence boundaries (3) To assist in the understanding of certain stratal elements which are less well understood, such as the recognition of interfluves in marine shales (4) To assist in the accurate tying of well gamma ray logs from 80 coal bed methane wells drilled behind the outcrops. The results of this study have important implications for the application of spectral gamma ray studies within sub-surface reservoir intervals. Architectural elements can be categorized and significant changes in mineralogy can be observed across key stratal surfaces.

Adamson, K.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S. [Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [and others



Overview of reaction mechanisms for calculating the high energy component of fast-nucleon induced gamma spectra  

SciTech Connect

This presentation reviews the current status of quantum mechanical models for understanding the high-energy component of gamma spectra resulting from radiative capture of fast nucleons; i.e., the part of the spectrum that is not amenable to standard statistical model (Hauser-Feshbach) treatments. These models are based on the direct-semidirect (DSD) model and its variants. Included are recent results on the extension of the DSD model to unbound final states, a discussion of problems and improvements in understanding the form factors in this model, and a brief discussion of a model closely related to the DSD, the pure-resonance model.

Dietrich, F.S.



Energy spectra of gamma-rays, electrons and neutrinos produced at interactions of relativistic protons with low energy radiation  

E-print Network

We derived simple analytical parametrizations for energy distributions of photons, electrons, and neutrinos produced in interactions of relativistic protons with an isotropic monochromatic radiation field. The results on photomeson processes are obtained using numerical simulations of proton-photon interactions based on the public available Monte-Carlo code SOPHIA. For calculations of energy spectra of electrons and positrons from the pair production (Bethe-Heitler) process we suggest a simple formalism based on the well-known differential cross-section of the process in the rest frame of the proton. The analytical presentations of energy distributions of photons and leptons provide a simple but accurate approach for calculations of broad-band energy spectra of gamma-rays and neutrinos in cosmic proton accelerators located in radiation dominated environments.

S. R. Kelner; F. A. Aharonian



Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources  

SciTech Connect

Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS.

Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; /IAA, Granada /SLAC; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Prada, F.; /IAA, Granada /UC, Santa Cruz; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.; ,



Spatially-Dependent Measurements of Surface and Near-Surface Radioactive Material Using In situ Gamma Ray Spectrometry (ISGRS) For Final Status Surveys  

SciTech Connect

In-situ, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (ISGRS) measurements were conducted at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) field laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of these tests was to provide analytical data for assessing how “fit for use” this technology is for detecting discrete particles in soil.

J. A. Chapman, A. J. Boerner, E. W. Abelquist



Continuous measurement of radiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground using in situ gamma-ray spectrometry.  


Until recently, in situ measurements in a network of radiation-measuring sites at the Deutscher Wetterdienst could only be started if all components had been put up in an instrumentation shelter and the detector had been cooled for ?6 h. Within a project on partial automation of radioactivity monitoring, it has now become possible to permanently equip the measuring sites, i.e. the instrumentation shelter, with the components for in situ gamma-ray spectrometry. The cooling technology of the detectors changed from liquid nitrogen based to an electric system and the instrumentation shelters could be fixed with air conditioning to minimise the influence of changes in the outside temperature. PMID:24812073

Mirsch, M; Barth, J; Dalheimer, A; Steinkopff, T



Evaluation of an automated assay system to measure soil radionuclides by L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

An automated radionuclide assay system for conducting soil radioassays using L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry was evaluated. Wet chemistry assay procedures were shown to be considerably more time consuming than similar analyses of soil on this radionuclide assay system. The detection limits of /sup 241/Am and plutonium were determined, as well as the reproducibility of radionuclide assay results. The L x-ray spectrometric measurements were compared with radiochemical analyses on several tuff samples. The assay system's intrinsic germanium detector was found to respond linearly to varying low concentrations of /sup 241/Am and plutonium, both of which were easily detected in the presence of elevated concentrations of /sup 137/Cs.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Crowell, J.M.



Attributes from NMIS Time Coincidence, Fast-Neutron Imaging, Fission Mapping, And Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Data  

SciTech Connect

This work tests a systematic procedure for analyzing data acquired by the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with fast-neutron imaging and high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry capabilities. NMIS has been under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification since the mid-1990s, and prior to that by the National Nuclear Security Administration Y-12 National Security Complex, with NMIS having been used at Y-12 for template matching to confirm inventory and receipts. In this present work, a complete set of NMIS time coincidence, fast-neutron imaging, fission mapping, and HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry data was obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for a configuration of fissile and nonfissile materials. The data were then presented for analysis to someone who had no prior knowledge of the unknown object to accurately determine the description of the object by applying the previously-mentioned procedure to the simulated data. The best approximation indicated that the unknown object was composed of concentric cylinders: a void inside highly enriched uranium (HEU) (84.7 {+-} 1.9 wt % {sup 235}U), surrounded by depleted uranium, surrounded by polyethylene. The final estimation of the unknown object had the correct materials and geometry, with error in the radius estimates of material regions varying from 1.58% at best and 4.25% at worst; error in the height estimates varied from 2% to 12%. The error in the HEU enrichment estimate was 5.9 wt % (within 2.5{sigma} of the true value). The accuracies of the determinations could be adequate for arms control applications. Future work will apply this iterative reconstructive procedure to other unknown objects to further test and refine it.

Swift, Alicia L [ORNL] [ORNL; Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL] [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL] [ORNL; Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mihalczo, John T [ORNL] [ORNL



Mathematical model of gamma-ray spectrometry borehole logging for quantitative analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A technique for analyzing gamma-ray spectral-logging data has been developed, in which a digital computer is used to calculate the effects of gamma-ray attentuation in a borehole environment. The computer model allows for the calculation of the effects of lithology, porosity, density, and the thickness of a horizontal layer of uniformly distributed radioactive material surrounding a centralized probe in a cylindrical borehole. The computer program also contains parameters for the calculation of the effects of well casing, drilling fluid, probe housing, and losses through the sodium-iodide crystal. Errors associated with the commonly used mathematical assumption of a point detector are eliminated in this model. (USGS)

Schimschal, Ulrich



Simultaneous analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and its precursors in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


We have developed a rapid method that enables the simultaneous analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, i.e. gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) in urine. The method comprised a simple dilution of the urine sample, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Atlantis dC18 column, eluted with a mixture of formic acid and methanol. The method was linear from 1-80 mg/L for GHB and 1,4-BD and from 1-50 mg/L for GBL. The limit of quantification was 1 mg/L for all analytes. The procedure, which has a total analysis time (including sample preparation) of less than 12 min, was fully validated and applied to the analysis of 182 authentic urine samples; the results were correlated with a previously published GC-MS procedure and revealed a low prevalence of GHB-positive samples. Since no commercial immunoassay is available for the routine screening of GHB, this simple and rapid method should prove useful to meet the current increased demand for the measurement of GHB and its precursors. PMID:15595536

Wood, Michelle; Laloup, Marleen; Samyn, Nele; Morris, Michael R; de Bruijn, Ernst A; Maes, Robert A; Young, Michael S; Maes, Viviane; De Boeck, Gert



The Application of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (HRGS) to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities  

SciTech Connect

While well-developed methodologies exist for the employment of high- resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) in determining the isotopic composition of plutonium samples, the potential capabilities of such measurements in determining the properties of nuclear materials otherwise remain largely unexploited. These measurements contain information sufficiently detailed such that not only can the isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium materials be determined, but the details of the spectrum obtained will depend reproducibly upon other factors including the total mass, density, chemical composition, and geometrical configuration of the material, and for certain materials, the elapsed time since chemical processing. The potential thus exists to obtain a `gamma-ray fingerprint` for typical containers or assemblies of nuclear material which will then serve to identify that class of item in a later confirmatory measurement. These measurements have the additional advantage that, by comparison with active interrogation techniques which usually require the introduction of some extraneous form of radiation or other intrusive activity, they are totally passive, and thus impose only minimal additional safety or regulatory burdens on the operators. In the application of these measurements to the verification of treaty-limited items, where the information acquired may be sensitive in nature, the use of the CIVET (Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technique) approach, where a computer-based interface is employed to limit access to the information obtained, may be followed.

Kane, Walter R.; Lemley, James R.; Forman, Leon



Unexpected synthesis of conformationally restricted analogues of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA): mechanism elucidation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  


From previous results with lower homologues, dehydroiodination of the three alkenyl-beta-enamino esters 3a-c was expected to provide six-membered N-heterocyclic products. The reactions of 3a-c with triethylamine are found to lead, however, to the unexpected stereoselective synthesis of the trisubstituted cyclopentane derivatives 4a-c, as confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Cyclopentanes 4a-c bear two chiral centers and a gamma-amino ester moiety, and are therefore conformationally restricted analogues of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Use of electrospray ionization mass (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) allowed the key iminium ion intermediates 5a-c(+), as well as the protonated molecules of both the reactant and final products, [3a-c + H](+) and [4a-c + H](+), to be intercepted and structurally characterized. From these findings a mechanism for this unexpected but synthetically attractive and efficient stereoselective reaction is proposed. PMID:15624912

Ferraz, Helena M C; Pereira, Fernando L C; Gonçalo, Erika R S; Santos, Leonardo S; Eberlin, Marcos N



Outcrop gamma ray spectrometry of the Sunnyside Member, Book Cliffs, East Central Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Book Cliffs of East Central Utah provide excellent exposure in which to test and further the concepts of sequence stratigraphy within both marine and marginal marine depositional systems. Within a study of the Sunnyside Member of the Blackhawk Formation spectral gamma ray profiles were run through 12 of the measured sections. The Sunnyside Member represents three shallow marine parasequences

K. Adamson; J. A. Howell; S. S. Flint



Martian surface heat production and crustal heat flow from Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martian thermal state and evolution depend principally on the radiogenic heat-producing element (HPE) distributions in the planet's crust and mantle. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has mapped the surface abundances of HPEs across Mars. From these data, we produce the first models of global and regional surface heat production and crustal heat flow. As previous

B. C. Hahn; S. M. McLennan; E. C. Klein



Toward a More Standardized Candle Using Gamma?Ray Burst Energetics and Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The use of gamma-ray burst (GRB) energetics for cosmography,has long been advanced as a means to probe out to high redshifts, to the epoch of deceleration. However, although relatively immune tosystematic biases from dust extinction, the prompt energy release in GRBs, even when corrected for jetting geometry, is far from being a standard candle. In this work we explore

Andrew S. Friedman; Joshua S. Bloom



The influence of exogenous conditions on mobile measured gamma-ray spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, gamma ray measurements have been used for geological surveys and exploration using airborne and borehole logging systems. For these applications, the relationships between the measured physical parameter - the concentration of natural gamma emitters 40K, 238U and 232Th - and geological origin or sedimentary developments are well described. Based on these applications and knowledge in combination with adjusted sensor systems, gamma ray measurements are used to derive soil parameters to create detailed soil maps e.g., in digital soil mapping (DSM) and monitoring of soils. Therefore, not only qualitative but also quantitative comparability is necessary. Grain size distribution, type of clay minerals and organic matter content are soil parameters which directly influence the gamma ray emitter concentration. Additionally, the measured concentration is influenced by endogenous processes like soil moisture variation due to raining events, foggy weather conditions, or erosion and deposition of material. A time series of gamma ray measurements was used to observe changes in gamma ray concentration on a floodplain area in Central Germany. The study area is characterised by high variations in grain size distribution and occurrence of flooding events. For the survey, we used a 4l NaI(Tl) detector with GPS connection mounted on a sledge, which is towed across the field sites by a four-wheel-vehicle. The comparison of data from different time steps shows similar structures with minor variation between the data ranges and shape of structures. However, the data measured during different soil moisture contents differ in absolute value. An average increase of soil moisture of 36% leads to a decrease of Th (by 20%), K (by 29%), and U (by 41%). These differences can be explained by higher attenuation of radiation during higher soil moisture content. The different changes in nuclide concentration will also lead to varying ratios. We will present our experiences concerning the measurement under variable field conditions and their impacts on gamma ray data quality. These activities are done within the iSOIL project. iSOIL- Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment; iSOIL is one member of the SOIL TECHNOLOGY CLUSTER of Research Projects funded by the EC.

Dierke, C.; Werban, U.; Dietrich, P.



Application of electrospray ionization product ion spectra for identification with atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry - a case study with seized drugs.  


Product ion spectra obtained with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) were applied to the identification of seized drug samples from atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization product ion spectra (AP-MALDI-MS/MS spectra). Data acquisition was performed in the information-dependent acquisition (IDA) mode, and the substance identification was based on a spectral library previously created with LC-ESI/MS/MS using protonated molecules as precursor ions. A total of 39 seized drug samples were analyzed with both AP-MALDI and LC-ESI techniques using the same triple-quadrupole instrument (AB Sciex 4000QTRAP). The study shows that ESI-MS/MS spectra can be directly utilized in AP-MALDI-MS/MS measurements as the average fit and purity score percentages with AP-MALDI were 90% and 85%, respectively, being similar to or even better than those obtained with the reference LC/ESI-MS/MS method. This fact enables the possibility to use large ESI spectral libraries, not only to ESI analyses but also to analyses with other ionization techniques which produce protonated molecules as the base peak. The data obtained shows that spectral library search works also for analytical techniques which produce multi-component mass spectra, such as AP-MALDI, unless isobaric compounds are encountered. The spectral library search was successfully applied to rapid identification of confiscated drugs by AP-MALDI-IDA-MS/MS. PMID:22987621

Östman, Pekka; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka



Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.  


Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. PMID:23306160

Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A



Prompt Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra: Detailed Calculations and the Effect of Pair Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present detailed calculations of the prompt spectrum of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicted within the fireball model framework, in which emission is due to internal shocks in an expanding relativistic wind. Our time-dependent numerical model describes cyclo-synchrotron emission and absorption, inverse and direct Compton scattering, and e+\\/- pair production and annihilation (including the evolution of high-energy electromagnetic cascades). It allows,

Asaf Pe'er; Eli Waxman



A Compton filter to improve photopeak intensity evaluation in gamma ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for filtering the photopeak intensity from the Compton continuum interference is described. A continuum energy region of up to 0.478 and the 0.662 MeV photopeak are well defined in a cesium-137 theoretical spectrum. The filter was applied to a high intensity Compton region in the gamma spectrum obtained by the attenuation measurements in laboratory experiments. A Cs-137 ( ? = 0.662 MeV) source, of 4 m Ci, steel tubes and a NaI detector was utilized for measuring the catalyst density in a collimated gamma beam. Such an assembly simulates the measuring conditions for gamma tomography in the riser of a FCC-fluid catalyst cracking unit. A Canberra multichannel data acquisition, records the gamma spectrum whose data file is exported to the Matlab software. Following the spectrum reconstruction, the peak area evaluation in both systems, shows a good agreement. Based on the Fourier transform equation, a filtering method for the photopeak, using Matlab functions, was developed. By means of a lowpass filter that lets the low frequencies pass, but not the high frequencies. The filtering results in a significant reduction in the interference from the Compton effect on the photopeak. For little interference and also for a high continuum background under a nonsymmetrical photopeak the filtering works. After the filtering process the peak becomes fairly similar to a Gaussian curve and the liquid counts are enhanced. The associated standard deviation decreases by a factor of 4, while the resolution of the 0.662 MeV photopeak, is kept within detector characteristics.

da Costa, P. C. L.; Dantas, C. C.; Lira, C. A. B. O.; dos Santos, V. A.



[The triboluminescent spectra of the blood of gamma-irradiated rats].  


Triboluminescence (TL) of rat blood 3 h after whole-body single exposure to gamma-radiation (0.25, 1, 3, and 5 Gy) exhibited positive coefficient of correlation r = 0.99 (at a wave length of 412 nm) with radiation dose. The effect of ionizing radiation on the animal body caused changes in blood TL within the fixed areas of the spectral range, whose fluctuation parameters were conditioned by specifically significant radiobiological changes and nonspecific adaptive reactions. PMID:1887011

Orel, V E; Dziatkovskaia, N N; Afonin, A N; Mazurik, V K



Mass spectrometry.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.



Modeling the TeV Gamma-Ray Spectra of Two Low-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei: Markarian 501 and Markarian 421  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the results of modeling the TeV gamma-ray spectra of two active galactic nuclei, Mrk 501 and Mrk 421, that have almost the same redshifts: z=0.031 and 0.034, respectively. The effect of intergalactic gamma-ray absorption is treated as an uncertainty in the measurement of the intrinsic spectrum. Although the objects differ, we obtain satisfactory fits for both of them

A. Konopelko; A. Mastichiadis; J. Kirk; O. C. de Jager; F. W. Stecker



Air Kerma Rate estimation by means of in-situ gamma spectrometry: a Bayesian approach.  


Bayesian inference is used to determine the Air Kerma Rate based on in-situ gamma spectrum measurement performed with an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The procedure accounts for uncertainties in the measurement and in the mass energy transfer coefficients needed for the calculation. The WinBUGS program (Spiegelhalter et al., 1999) was used. The results show that the relative uncertainties in the Air Kerma estimate are of about 1%, and that the choice of unfolding procedure may lead to an estimate systematic error of 3%. PMID:19914079

Cabal, Gonzalo; Kluson, Jaroslav



Electrospray ionization mass spectra of piperazimycins A and B and gamma-butyrolactones from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.  


Chemical investigation of the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. Act8015 led to the isolation of two cyclic peptide antibiotics, piperazimycins A and B (1a, 1b). Their structures were confirmed on the basis of a detailed HRESI-MS/MS analysis. Additionally, a new butanolide, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodecan-4-olide (2), and the respective acid, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodecanoic acid (3a) were identified. Further isolated compounds were staurosporin, adenine, indole-3-carboxylic acid, ferulic acid, tryptophol, and three gamma-butyrolactones: virginiae butanolide E (4e) and Graefe's Factors I (4f) and III (4g). The structures of 2 and 3a were confirmed by detailed 1D and 2D NMR studies and MS spectra and by comparison with related structures. A full signal assignment of virginiae butanolide E (4e) is reported here for the first time. PMID:19194032

Shaaban, Khaled A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Facey, Petrea; Fotso, Serge; Frauendorf, Holm; Helmke, Elisabeth; Maier, Armin; Fiebig, Heinz H; Laatsch, Hartmut



Survey of the {sup 137}Cs contamination in Belgium by in-situ gamma spectrometry, a decade after the Chernobyl accident  

SciTech Connect

The residual radiocesium concentration, nearly 10 y after the Chernobyl accident, is measured at different sites on the Belgian territory by means of in-situ gamma-spectrometry. A possible link between the rainfall at the beginning of May 1986 and the actual cesium concentration is investigated. The radiological impact of this contamination, even in the most affected regions in the Ardennes, is very small (<6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Uyttenhove, J. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Pomme, S.; Hardenman, F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang (Belgium); Culot, J.P. [A.V. Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others



Detection of frozen salt in pipes using gamma-ray spectrometry of potassium self-activity  

SciTech Connect

Solar plants that use molten salts as heat transfer fluid need careful control to avoid the freezing of the salt in the pipes; if such a problem occurs, a diagnostic instrument to localize where is the frozen salt plug and to determine its length is useful. If the salt contains potassium (as is the case of the most common mixture used in solar plants, NaNO{sub 3}/KNO{sub 3} 60/40% by weight), the gamma decay of the natural unstable isotope {sup 40}K can be exploited to detect the frozen salt in a non-invasive way. Simulations and experimental results regarding the detectability of such plugs with different masses/lengths are presented. (author)

Grena, Roberto; Scafe, Raffaele; Pisacane, Fabrizio; Pilato, Renzo; Crescenzi, Tommaso; Mazzei, Domenico [ENEA, Casaccia Research Centre, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)




SciTech Connect

The low-energy spectral slopes of the prompt emission of most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are difficult to reconcile with radiatively efficient optically thin emission models irrespective of the radiation mechanism. An alternative is to ascribe the radiation around the spectral peak to a thermalization process occurring well inside the Thomson photosphere. This quasi-thermal spectrum can evolve into the observed non-thermal shape by additional energy release at moderate to small Thomson optical depths, which can readily give rise to the hard spectral tail. The position of the spectral peak is determined by the temperature and Lorentz factor of the flow in the thermalization zone, where the total number of photons carried by the jet is established. To reach thermalization, dissipation alone is not sufficient and photon generation requires an efficient emission/absorption process in addition to scattering. We perform a systematic study of all relevant photon production mechanisms searching for possible conditions in which thermalization can take place. We find that a significant fraction of the available energy should be dissipated at intermediate radii, {approx}10{sup 10} to a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm, and the flow there should be relatively slow: the bulk Lorentz factor could not exceed a few tens for all but the most luminous bursts with the highest E {sub pk} values. The least restrictive constraint for successful thermalization, {Gamma} {approx}< 20, is obtained if synchrotron emission acts as the photon source. This requires, however, a non-thermal acceleration deep below the Thomson photosphere transferring a significant fraction of the flow energy to relativistic electrons with Lorentz factors between 10 and 100. Other processes require bulk flow Lorentz factors of order of a few for typical bursts. We examine the implications of these results to different GRB photospheric emission models.

Vurm, Indrek; Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lyubarsky, Yuri, E-mail: [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)] [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)



Stability of plasma gamma-hydroxybutyrate determined by gas chromatography-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  


An effective method for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in human plasma is described that utilizes a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure and gas chromatography-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-MS). The method has been used to study the stability of plasma GHB under several storage conditions. Following the extraction with acetonitrile, GHB and deuterated GHB (GHB-d(6)) were derivatized with N,O-bis[trimethylsilyl] trifluoroacetamide (BSFTA). After the separation on a capillary GC column, the derivatives were ionized with ammonia reagent gas and analyzed by MS. The lower limit of quantitation in 100 microL of plasma was 2.5 microg/mL, over a range from 2.5 to 250 microg/mL. The coefficients of variation did not exceed 3.9% and the mean measured concentrations did not deviate more than 8% from the target for both intra- and interassay precision and accuracy. Plasma GHB was found to be stable at -20 degrees C for up to 9 months, at room temperature for 48 h, and after 3 freeze/thaw cycles. It was also found to be stable in processed samples stored at room temperature for 5 days and for 15 days at -20 degrees C. PMID:14606997

Chen, Meng; Andrenyak, David M; Moody, David E; Foltz, Rodger L



LAFARA: a new underground laboratory in the French Pyrénées for ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.  


We describe a new underground laboratory, namely LAFARA (for "LAboratoire de mesure des FAibles RAdioactivités"), that was recently created in the French Pyrénées. This laboratory is primarily designed to analyze environmental samples that display low radioactivity levels using gamma-ray spectrometry. Two high-purity germanium detectors were placed under 85 m of rock (ca. 215 m water equivalent) in the tunnel of Ferrières (Ariège, France). The background is thus reduced by a factor of ?20 in comparison to above-ground laboratories. Both detectors are fully equipped so that the samples can be analyzed in an automatic mode without requiring permanent presence of a technician in the laboratory. Auto-samplers (twenty positions) and systems to fill liquid nitrogen automatically provide one month of autonomy to the spectrometers. The LAFARA facility allows us to develop new applications in the field of environmental sciences based on the use of natural radionuclides present at low levels in the environment. As an illustration, we present two of these applications: i) dating of marine sediments using the decay of (226)Ra in sedimentary barite (BaSO(4)), ii) determination of (227)Ac ((231)Pa) activities in marine sediment cores. PMID:23164692

van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Lansard, B; Bourquin, M; Reyss, J-L; von Ballmoos, P; Jean, P



Development and application of Marinelli beaker standards for monitoring radioactivity in Dairy-Products by gamma-ray spectrometry.  


Marinelli (reentrant) beakers are recommended for measurement of low-activity radioactive environmental samples, in both liquid and solid phase. The preparation of Marinelli beaker standards of milk powder containing 232ThO2 at secular equilibrium with its daughter radionuclides was studied. Standards were prepared by mixing of known amounts of solid ThO2 and milk powder. The densities of the standards were 0.5-0.7 kg dm(-3). Measurements of calibrated Marinelli beaker standards with HPGe detector showed that the energy dependence of the efficiency is similar to that of a point source, i.e. an almost linear dependence of log-efficiency vs. log-energy in the 200-2000 keV range, however the parabolic correlation fits better. The validity of these standards was checked by comparison with certified standard reference material IAEA-152-Milk powder containing radiocesium and radiopotassium. The results obtained were found to be in a good agreement with the published certified data. The limit of detection for the determination of radiocesium by gamma ray spectrometry under the prevailing experimental conditions is 0.03 Bq (i.e. 0.8 pCi), for samples of dairy products having lower densities of 0.7 kg dm(-1). PMID:15388145

Lavi, N; Alfassi, Z B



Absorption-Mode Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: the Effects of Apodization and Phasing on Modified Protein Spectra  

PubMed Central

The method of phasing broadband FT-ICR spectra allows plotting the spectra in the absorption-mode; this new approach significantly improves the quality of the data at no extra cost. Herein, an internal calibration method for calculating the phase function has been developed, and successfully applied to the top-down spectra of modified proteins, where the peak intensities vary by >100×. The result shows that the use of absorption-mode spectra allows more peaks to be discerned within the recorded data, and this can reveal much greater information about the protein and modifications under investigation. In addition, noise and harmonic peaks can be assigned immediately in the absorption-mode. PMID:23568027

Qi, Yulin; Li, Huilin; Wills, Rebecca H.; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Yu, Xiang; Kilgour, David. P. A.; Barrow, Mark P.; Lin, Cheng; O’Connor, Peter B.



Applying 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) for systematic toxicological analysis with liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.  


Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has become an indispensable analytical technique in clinical and forensic toxicology for detection and identification of potentially toxic or harmful compounds. Particularly, non-target LC-MS/MS assays enable extensive and universal screening requested in systematic toxicological analysis. An integral part of the identification process is the generation of information-rich product ion spectra which can be searched against libraries of reference mass spectra. Usually, 'data-dependent acquisition' (DDA) strategies are applied for automated data acquisition. In this study, the 'data-independent acquisition' (DIA) method 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) was combined with LC-MS/MS on a quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument for acquiring informative high-resolution tandem mass spectra. SWATH performs data-independent fragmentation of all precursor ions entering the mass spectrometer in 21m/z isolation windows. The whole m/z range of interest is covered by continuous stepping of the isolation window. This allows numerous repeat analyses of each window during the elution of a single chromatographic peak and results in a complete fragment ion map of the sample. Compounds and samples typically encountered in forensic casework were used to assess performance characteristics of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. Our experiments clearly revealed that SWATH is a sensitive and specific identification technique. SWATH is capable of identifying more compounds at lower concentration levels than DDA does. The dynamic range of SWATH was estimated to be three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the >600,000 SWATH spectra matched led to only 408 incorrect calls (false positive rate?=?0.06 %). Deconvolution of generated ion maps was found to be essential for unravelling the full identification power of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. With the available software, however, only semi-automated deconvolution was enabled, which rendered data interpretation a laborious and time-consuming process. PMID:25366975

Arnhard, Kathrin; Gottschall, Anna; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert



LC circuit as a pulse-height analyser for NaI gamma spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An LC circuit used as anode load of a photomultiplier tube converts its output current pulse into a damped harmonically oscillating voltage. Its amplitude is not only proportional to the transferred charge but it can be also readily encoded by the count of the successive maxima it passes until it falls below a predefined voltage level. Thus, a scintillation spectrometer may be realised in a very simple way, bypassing the classical (but rather sophisticated) solutions based on pulse-shaping amplifiers and amplitude-to-digital converters. The structure, spectral response and some experiments with a 256-channel 'LC spectrometer' are discussed. A 7% energy resolution has been achieved at 662 keV (with a ?45×40 mm NaI(Tl) crystal). Despite some uncommon features (arising from the logarithmic channel-energy dependence), this spectrometer has useful potential in at least two fields of scintillation gamma-spectroscopy—as a portable dose-rate meter or in the study of the soft component of the cosmic rays.

Tsankov, L. T.; Mitev, M. G.; Lenev, Ch. B.



Martian surface heat production and crustal heat flow from Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian thermal state and evolution depend principally on the radiogenic heat-producing element (HPE) distributions in the planet's crust and mantle. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has mapped the surface abundances of HPEs across Mars. From these data, we produce the first models of global and regional surface heat production and crustal heat flow. As previous studies have suggested that the crust is a repository for approximately 50% of the radiogenic elements on Mars, these models provide important, directly measurable constraints on Martian heat generation. Our calculations show considerable geographic and temporal variations in crustal heat flow, and demonstrate the existence of anomalous heat flow provinces. We calculate a present day average surface heat production of 4.9 ± 0.3 × 10-11 W · kg-1. We also calculate the average crustal component of heat flow of 6.4 ± 0.4 mW · m-2. The crustal component of radiogenically produced heat flow ranges from <1 mW · m-2 in the Hellas Basin and Utopia Planitia regions to ˜13 mW · m-2 in the Sirenum Fossae region. These heat production and crustal heat flow values from geochemical measurements support previous heat flow estimates produced by different methodologies.

Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Klein, E. C.



Power Density Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves: Implications on Theory and Observation  

E-print Network

We study the power density spectrum (PDS) of artificial light curves of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We investigate statistical properties of GRB light curves by comparing the reported characteristics in the PDSs of the observed GRBs with those that we model, and discuss implications on interpretations of the PDS analysis results. Results of PDS analysis of observed GRBs suggest that the averaged PDS of GRBs follows a power law over about two decades of frequency with the power law index, -5/3, and the distribution of individual power follows an exponential distribution. Though an attempt to identify the most sensitive physical parameter has been made on the basis of the internal shock model, we demonstrate that conclusions of this kind of approach should be derived with due care. It is indicative that the physical information extracted from the slope can be misleading. We show that the reported slope and the distribution can be reproduced by adjusting the sampling interval in the time domain for a given decaying timescale of individual pulse in a specific form of GRB light curves. In particular, given that the temporal feature is modeled by a two-sided exponential function, the power law behavior with the index of -5/3 and the exponential distribution of the observed PDS is recovered at the 64 ms trigger time scale when the decaying timescale of individual pulse is $\\sim 1$ second, provided that the pulse sharply rises. Another way of using the PDS analysis is an application of the same method to individual long bursts in order to examine a possible evolution of the decaying timescale in a single burst.

Heon-Young Chang; Insu Yi



Simulation of gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs. Semiannual technical report, 1 March-31 August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-ray spectrum simulation program BSIMUL was designed to allow the operator to follow the path of a gamma-ray through a detector, shield and collimator whose dimensions are entered by the operator. It can also be used to simulate spectra that would be generated by a detector. Several improvements have been made to the program within the last few months. The detector, shield and collimator dimensions can now be entered through an interactive menu whose options are discussed below. In addition, spectra containing more than one gamma-ray energy can now be generated with the menu - for isotopes listed in the program. Adding isotopes to the main routine is also quite easy. Subroutines have been added to enable the operator to specify the material and dimensions of a collimator. This report details the progress made in simulating gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs. In addition, a short discussion of work done in the related areas of pulse shape analysis and the spectral analysis is included. The pulse shape analysis and spectral analysis work is being performed pursuant to the requirements of contract F-94-C-0006, for the Advanced Research Projects Agency and the U.S. Air Force.

Rester, A.C. Jr.




SciTech Connect

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus, the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGNs. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGNs.

Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kalashev, Oleg [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Beacom, John F. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)



Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped - Sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na+, Pb2+, Zn2+ cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb2+, and Zn2+ to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position.

Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.; Abdelghany, A. M.



Methods for spectral interference corrections for direct measurements of 234U and 230Th in materials by gamma-ray spectrometry.  


When the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used in the analysis of (234)U and (230)Th in samples, there is a much more need to correct for the measured activity results of (234)U and (230)Th mainly due to self-absorption effects and the interfering lines from (226)Ra, (235)U, (238)U and their decay products that often might be present in the samples. Therefore, in the present study, the methods for the spectral interference corrections for the analytical peaks of (234)U and (230)Th are suggested to take into account the contributions of the overlapping gamma rays to these peaks. For the method validation, direct gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were carried out using certified reference materials (CRM) by use of a 76.5 % n-type Ge detector. The activities measured for the CRM samples were corrected for spectral interferences, self-absorption and true coincidence-summing (TCS) effects. The obtained results indicate that ignoring of the contribution of the interference gamma rays to the main analytical peak at 53.2 keV of (234)U leads to a lager systematic error of 87.3-90.4 % for the measured activities of (234)U, and similarly if one ignores the contributions of the interference gamma rays to the main analytical peak at 67.7 keV of (230)Th, this leads to a much smaller systematic error of 2.1-2.7 % for the activities of (230)Th. Therefore, the required correction factors for spectral interferences to the analytical peaks of (234)U and (230)Th are not negligible and thus they should also be considered besides necessary self-absorption factors to determine more accurate activities in the samples. On the other hand, it is estimated that although the TCS effects on the main analytical peaks of both (234)U and (230)Th are negligibly small, those TCS correction factors for their interference gamma rays to these peaks should be taken into account when direct measurements are performed in a close-counting geometry condition. Otherwise, the resulted activities can have serious erroneous results for both (234)U and (230)Th while using gamma-ray spectrometry, thereby leading to inaccuracies in their derived quantities, for instance, the corresponding age determinations of the samples. PMID:19843544

Yücel, H; Solmaz, A N; Köse, E; Bor, D




SciTech Connect

We derive a relation for the steepening of blazar {gamma}-ray spectra between the multi-GeV Fermi energy range and the TeV energy range observed by atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes. The change in spectral index is produced by two effects: (1) an intrinsic steepening, independent of redshift, owing to the properties of emission and absorption in the source and (2) a redshift-dependent steepening produced by intergalactic pair production interactions of blazar {gamma}-rays with low-energy photons of the 'intergalactic background light' (IBL). Given this relation, with good enough data on the mean {gamma}-ray spectral energy distribution of TeV-selected BL Lac objects, the redshift evolution of the IBL can, in principle, be determined independently of stellar evolution models. We apply our relation to the results of new Fermi observations of TeV-selected blazars.

Stecker, Floyd William [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Scully, Sean T. [Department of Physics, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:



Derivation of a Relation for the Steepening of TeV Selected Blazar Gamma-Ray Spectra with Energy and Redshift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We derive a relation for the steepening of blazar gamma-ray spectra between the multi-GeV Fermi energy range and the TeV energy range observed by atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes. The change in spectral index is produced by two effects: (1) an intrinsic steepening, independent of redshift, owing to the properties of emission and absorption in the source, and (2) a redshift-dependent steepening produced by intergalactic pair production interactions of blazar gamma-rays with low energy photons of the "intergalactic background light" (IBL). Given this relation, with good enough data on the mean gamma-ray SED of TeV Selected BL Lacs, the redshift evolution of the IBL can, in principle, be determined independently of stellar evolution models. We apply our relation to the results of new Fermi observations of TeV selected blazars.

Stecker, F.



On background radiation gradients--the use of airborne surveys when searching for orphan sources using mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.  


Systematic background radiation variations can lead to both false positives and failures to detect an orphan source when searching using car-borne mobile gamma-ray spectrometry. The stochastic variation at each point is well described by Poisson statistics, but when moving in a background radiation gradient the mean count rate will continually change, leading to inaccurate background estimations. Airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) surveys conducted on the national level, usually in connection to mineral exploration, exist in many countries. These data hold information about the background radiation gradients which could be used at the ground level. This article describes a method that aims to incorporate the systematic as well as stochastic variations of the background radiation. We introduce a weighted moving average where the weights are calculated from existing AGS data, supplied by the Geological Survey of Sweden. To test the method we chose an area with strong background gradients, especially in the thorium component. Within the area we identified two roads which pass through the high-variability locations. The proposed method is compared with an unweighted moving average. The results show that the weighting reduces the excess false positives in the positive background gradients without introducing an excess of failures to detect a source during passage in negative gradients. PMID:24321866

Kock, Peder; Rääf, Christopher; Samuelsson, Christer



Simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry and time-of-flight velocity spectra measurements of thermal decomposition products from HMX and RDX  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and time-of-flight (TOF) velocity spectra measurements of the time-dependent thermal decomposition products from HMX and RDX show two primary reaction channels. One is a condensed phase autocatalytic reaction that produces N/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/CO, 1-nitoso-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane, and a hydrocarbon-like nonvolatile residue (NVR) as its final products. The other is a gas phase reaction that produces NO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, NO and hydroxy-s-triazine as its final products. The catalyst in the condensed phase reaction is probably formaldehyde, the NVR, or both. The gas phase channel appears to be a chain reaction that may be initiated by the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from a CH/sub 2/ group. Under the conditions of these experiments, the HMX decomposes only through the condensed phase channel and the RDX decomposes through both channels. To assure that only thermal decomposition products are measured with the mass spectrometer, the ion fragmentation of HMX was measured as a function of electron energy. Ion fragmentation of HMX was observed down to 12.4 eV indicating that appearance potential measurements do not eliminate ion signals from ion fragmentation of the HMX reactant.

Behrens, R. Jr.



Application of Phase Correction to Improve the Interpretation of Crude Oil Spectra Obtained Using 7 T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a phase-correction technique was applied to the study of crude oil spectra obtained using a 7 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). 7 T FT-ICR MS had not been widely used for oil analysis due to the lower resolving power compared with high field FT-ICR MS. For low field instruments, usage of data that has not been phase-corrected results in an inability to resolve critical mass splits of C3 and SH4 (3.4 mDa), and 13C and CH (4.5 mDa). This results in incorrect assignments of molecular formulae, and discontinuous double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number distributions of S1, S2, and hydrocarbon classes are obtained. Application of phase correction to the same data, however, improves the reliability of assignments and produces continuous DBE and carbon number distributions. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that phase correction improves data analysis and the reliability of assignments of molecular formulae in crude oil anlayses.

Cho, Yunju; Qi, Yulin; O'Connor, Peter B.; Barrow, Mark P.; Kim, Sunghwan




Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the relatively poor resolution of scintillation counters with ; respect to gamma quanta with energies below the 100-kev level, the soft portion ; of the spectrum was investigated with high-resolution proportional counters. A ; singlechannel spectrometer was used; its gamma detector consisted of a 200-mm ; high and 34-mm diameter chamber filled with Xe under a pressure

B. M. Kolesov; Yu. P. Lyubavin; A. K. Ovchinnikov



Comparison of optimised germanium gamma spectrometry and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of 134Cs, 137Cs and 154Eu single ratios in highly burnt UO 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive and destructive methods have been compared to validate their corresponding assessed accuracies in the measurement of 134Cs/ 137Cs and 154Eu/ 137Cs isotopic concentration ratios in four spent UO 2 fuel samples with very high (52 and 71 GWd/t) and ultra-high (91 and 126 GWd/t) burnup values, and about 10 (in the first three samples) and 4 years (in the latter sample) cooling time. The non-destructive technique tested was high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and a special tomographic station for the handling of highly radioactive 400 mm spent fuel segments that included a tungsten collimator, lead filter (to enhance the signal to Compton background ratio and reduce the dead time) and paraffin wax (to reduce neutron damage). The non-destructive determination of these isotopic concentration ratios has been particularly challenging for these segments because of the need to properly derive non-Gaussian gamma-peak areas and subtract the background from perturbing capture gammas produced by the intrinsic high-intensity neutron emissions from the spent fuel. Additionally, the activity distribution within each pin was determined tomographically to correct appropriately for self-attenuation and geometrical effects. The ratios obtained non-destructively showed a 1 ? statistical error in the range 1.9-2.9%. The destructive technique used was a high-performance liquid chromatographic separation system, combined online to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS), for the analysis of dissolved fuel solutions. During the mass spectrometric analyses, special care was taken in the optimisation of the chromatographic separation for Eu and the interfering element Gd, as also in the mathematical correction of the 154Gd background from the 154Eu signal. The ratios obtained destructively are considerably more precise (1 ? statistical error in the range 0.4-0.8% for most of the samples, but up to 2.8% for one sample). The HPGe gamma spectrometry can achieve a high degree of accuracy (agreement with HPLC-MC-ICP-MS within a few percent), only by virtue of the optimised setup, and the refined measurement strategy and data treatment employed.

Caruso, S.; Günther-Leopold, I.; Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geometric Algorithms for Modeling, Motion, and Animation (GAMMA) research group is part of the Department of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina. Some of the topics of research include haptics, "robot motion planning," collision detection, and "real-time interaction with virtual environments." There are several projects that are described in detail for each of the main areas of investigation. Many recent papers are offered that describe the progress and findings of the group's research. Additionally, there is a large collection of videos demonstrating computer animation, simulation, and interactive applications. Some software can also be downloaded for the GAMMA Web site; however, access to a few of the titles must first be approved by the system administrator.



Quantitative comparison between experimental and simulated gamma-ray spectra induced by 14 MeV tagged neutrons.  


Fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique can be used to identify explosives in cargo containers (EURITRACK FP6 project) and unexploded ordnance on the seabed (UNCOSS FP7 project), by detecting gamma radiations induced by 14 MeV neutrons produced in the 2H(3H,?)n reaction. The origin of the gamma rays can be determined in 3D by the detection of the alpha particle, which provides the direction of the opposite neutron and its time-of-flight. Gamma spectroscopy provides the relative counts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are converted to chemical fractions to differentiate explosives from other organic substances. To this aim, Monte Carlo calculations are used to take into account neutron moderation and gamma attenuation in cargo materials or seawater. This paper presents an experimental verification that C, N, and O counts are correctly reproduced by numerical simulation. A quantitative comparison is also reported for silicon, iron, lead, and aluminium. PMID:21782459

Perot, B; El Kanawati, W; Carasco, C; Eleon, C; Valkovic, V; Sudac, D; Obhodas, J; Sannie, G



Characterization by combined optical and FT infrared spectra of 3d-transition metal ions doped-bismuth silicate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and infrared absorption spectral measurements were carried out for binary bismuth silicate glass and other derived prepared samples with the same composition and containing additional 0.2% of one of 3d transition metal oxides. The same combined spectroscopic properties were also measured after subjecting the prepared glasses to a gamma dose of 8 Mrad. The experimental optical spectra reveal strong UV-near visible absorption bands from the base and extended to all TMs-doped samples and these specific extended and strong UV-near visible absorption bands are related to the contributions of absorption from both trace iron (Fe3+) ions present as contaminated impurities within the raw materials and from absorption of main constituent trivalent bismuth (Bi3+) ions. The strong UV-near visible absorption bands are observed to suppress any further UV bands from TM ions. The studied glasses show obvious resistant to gamma irradiation and only small changes are observed upon gamma irradiation. This observed shielding behavior is related to the presence of high Bi3+ ions with heavy mass causing the observed stability of the optical absorption. Infrared absorption spectra of the studied glasses reveal characteristic vibrational bands due to both modes from silicate network and the sharing of Bi-O linkages and the presence of TMs in the doping level (0.2%) causes no distinct changes within the number or position of the vibrational modes. The presence of high Bi2O3 content (70 mol%) appears to cause stability of the structural building units towards gamma irradiation as revealed by FTIR measurements.

ElBatal, F. H.; Abdelghany, A. M.; ElBatal, H. A.



Characterization by combined optical and FT infrared spectra of 3d-transition metal ions doped-bismuth silicate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation.  


Optical and infrared absorption spectral measurements were carried out for binary bismuth silicate glass and other derived prepared samples with the same composition and containing additional 0.2% of one of 3d transition metal oxides. The same combined spectroscopic properties were also measured after subjecting the prepared glasses to a gamma dose of 8 Mrad. The experimental optical spectra reveal strong UV-near visible absorption bands from the base and extended to all TMs-doped samples and these specific extended and strong UV-near visible absorption bands are related to the contributions of absorption from both trace iron (Fe(3+)) ions present as contaminated impurities within the raw materials and from absorption of main constituent trivalent bismuth (Bi(3+)) ions. The strong UV-near visible absorption bands are observed to suppress any further UV bands from TM ions. The studied glasses show obvious resistant to gamma irradiation and only small changes are observed upon gamma irradiation. This observed shielding behavior is related to the presence of high Bi(3+) ions with heavy mass causing the observed stability of the optical absorption. Infrared absorption spectra of the studied glasses reveal characteristic vibrational bands due to both modes from silicate network and the sharing of Bi-O linkages and the presence of TMs in the doping level (0.2%) causes no distinct changes within the number or position of the vibrational modes. The presence of high Bi2O3 content (70 mol%) appears to cause stability of the structural building units towards gamma irradiation as revealed by FTIR measurements. PMID:24326262

ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M; ElBatal, H A



Spectral interference corrections for the measurement of (238)U in materials rich in thorium by a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.  


In this study, the spectral interferences are investigated for the analytical peaks at 63.3 keV of (234)Th and 1001.0 keV of (234m)Pa, which are often used in the measurement of (238)U activity by the gamma-ray spectrometry. The correction methods are suggested to estimate the net peak areas of the gamma-rays overlapping the analytical peaks, due to the contribution of (232)Th that may not be negligible in materials rich in natural thorium. The activity results for the certified reference materials (CRMs) containing U and Th were measured with a well type Ge detector. The self-absorption and true coincidence-summing (TCS) effects were also taken into account in the measurements. It is found that ignoring the contributions of the interference gamma-rays of (232)Th and (235)U to the mixed peak at 63.3 keV of (234)Th ((238)U) leads to the remarkably large systematic influence of 0.8-122% in the measured (238)U activity, but in case of ignoring the contribution of (232)Th via the interference gamma-ray at 1000.7 keV of (228)Ac to the mixed peak at 1001 keV of (234m)Pa ((238)U) results in relatively smaller systematic influence of 0.05-3%, depending on thorium contents in the samples. The present results showed that the necessary correction for the spectral interferences besides self-absorption and TCS effects is also very important to obtain more accurate (238)U activity results. Additionally, if one ignores the contribution of (232)Th to both (238)U and (40)K activities in materials, the maximum systematic influence on the effective radiation dose is estimated to be ~6% and ~1% via the analytical peaks at 63.3 and 1001 keV for measurement of the (238)U activity, respectively. PMID:19683454

Yücel, H; Solmaz, A N; Köse, E; Bor, D



Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine by headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is an emerging drug of abuse. Beside relaxation and euphoria it causes hypnosis and unconsciousness. Therefore the substance is misused as recreational drug and at drug-facilitated sexual assaults. An automated and effortless method for quantitation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine was optimized and validated. Five hundred microliters sample volume are used for both matrices. The acid catalyzed conversion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to the corresponding gamma-butyrolactone is applied. Furthermore the method is based on headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extraction process is performed by repeated aspiration and ejection of the headspace through a steel cannula which is coated on the inside with a polydimethylsiloxane sorbent. Thus absorption of analyte molecules by the sorbent is achieved. The influence of parameters as sorbent type, incubation temperature, number of extraction strokes, injection port temperature and injection flow speed on extraction recovery was investigated. The validation revealed good accuracy with a bias less than +/-5%. Intra- and interday precision determined at 10, 50 and 150 microg/ml for each matrix were in following ranges: 1.96-3.49% (intraday, serum), 2.38-4.31% (intraday, urine), 2.33-5.13% (interday, serum) and 2.53-5.64% (interday, urine). The method provided good linearity between 2 and 200 microg/ml yielding coefficients of determination R(2) > or = 0.9985. Limit of detection were determined at 0.16 microg/ml for serum and 0.17 microg/ml for urine, respectively. This method exhibits a fast, solvent-free and widely automated extraction process. It has been applied to toxicological routine analysis and therapeutic drug monitoring successfully. PMID:19327780

Lenz, Daniel; Kröner, Lars; Rothschild, Markus A



DS02 fluence spectra for neutrons and gamma rays at Hiroshima and Nagasaki with fluence-to-kerma coefficients and transmission factors for sample measurements.  


Fluence spectra at several ground distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are provided along with associated fluence-to-kerma coefficients from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). Also included are transmission factors for calculating expected responses of in situ sample measurements of neutron activation products such as (32)P,(36)Cl,(39)Ar,(41)Ca, (60)Co,(63)Ni,(152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The free-in-air (FIA) fluences calculated in 2002 are available for 240 angles, 69 energy groups, 101 ground distances, 5 heights, 4 radiation source components, 2 cities. The DS02 code uses these fluences partitioned to a prompt and delayed portion, collapsed to 58 energy groups and restricted to 97 ground distances. This is because the fluence spectra were required to be in the same format that was used in the older Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) computer code, of which the DS02 computer code is a modification. The 2002 calculation fluences and the collapsed DS02 code fluences are presented and briefly discussed. A report on DS02, which is available on the website at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, provides tables and figures of the A-bomb neutron and gamma-ray output used as the sources in the 2002 radiation transport calculations. While figures illustrating the fluence spectra at several ground ranges are presented in the DS02 Report, it does not include any tables of the calculated fluence spectra in the DS02 report. This paper provides, at several standard distances from the hypocenter, the numerical information which is required to translate the FIA neutron fluences given in DS02 to a neutron activation measurement or neutron and gamma-ray soft-tissue dose. PMID:17643260

Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D; Cullings, Harry M



Systematic Measurements of keV-NEUTRON Capture Cross Sections and Capture Gamma-Ray Spectra of pd Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture cross sections and capture ?-ray spectra of 104,105Pd were measured in the neutron energy region of 15-100 keV as a part of systematic series of measurements. A neutron time-of-flight method was adopted, using a ns pulsed neutron source via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction. The capture ?-rays from the samples were measured with an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The capture yields were obtained by applying a pulse-height weighting technique to the net capture ?-ray pulse-height spectra. The capture cross sections of 104,105Pd were derived with errors less than 5%, using the standard capture cross sections of 197Au. The capture ?-ray spectra of 104,105Pd were also derived by un-folding the respective observed capture ?-ray pulse-height spectra.

Terada, K.; Igashira, M.; Matsuhashi, T.; Katabuchi, T.; Anh, T. T.



Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology.  


The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps. PMID:21617292

Appleton, J D; Doyle, E; Fenton, D; Organo, C



Standard test method for nondestructive analysis of special nuclear materials in homogeneous solutions by Gamma-Ray spectrometry  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials dissolved in homogeneous solutions. The test method corrects for gamma-ray attenuation by the solution and its container by measurement of the transmission of a beam of gamma rays from an external source (Refs. (1), (2), and (3)). 1.2 Two solution geometries, slab and cylinder, are considered. The solution container that determines the geometry may be either a removable or a fixed geometry container. This test method is limited to solution containers having walls or a top and bottom of equal transmission through which the gamma rays from the external transmission correction source must pass. 1.3 This test method is typically applied to radionuclide concentrations ranging from a few milligrams per litre to several hundred grams per litre. The assay range will be a function of the specific activity of the nuclide of interest, the physical characteristics of the solution container, counting equip...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia



Nondestructive determination of boron and cadmium in environmental materials by thermal neutron-prompt. gamma. -ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompt ..gamma.. rays from thermal neutron induced nuclear reactions have been used to measure trace quantities of B and Cd in industrial and standard materials. The technique provides a rapid nondestructive analysis for > 0.05 of B. Repetitive analyses show the method to have a precision of 5%. The presence of large quantities of Na degrades the accuracy and

Ernest S. Gladney; Edward T. Jurney; David B. Curtis



Broad-band gamma-ray and X-ray spectra of NGC 4151 and their implications for physical processes and geometry  

E-print Network

We study gamma-ray observations of NGC 4151 by GRO/OSSE contemporaneous with X-ray observations by ROSAT and Ginga in 1991 June and with ASCA in 1993 May. The spectra are well modeled by thermal Comptonization and a dual neutral absorber. We also find, for the first time for NGC 4151, a Compton-reflection spectral component in the Ginga/OSSE data. The OSSE spectra of those and other observations of NGC 4151 are statistically undistinguishable from the average OSSE spectrum of radio-quiet Seyfert 1s. NGC 4151 observed in 1991 and 1993 has the intrinsic X-ray/gamma-ray spectrum typical for Seyfert 1s, and the main property distinguishing it from other Seyfert 1s is a large absorbing column of $\\sim 10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$. We find no evidence for a strong, broad and redshifted, Fe K$\\alpha$ line component in the ASCA spectrum of 1993 May. On the other hand, we confirm previous studies in that archival X-ray data do imply strong intrinsic X-ray variability and hardness of the intrinsic spectrum in low X-ray states. An observed softening of the intrinsic X-ray spectrum with the increasing flux implies variability in gamma-rays weaker than in X-rays, which agrees with the 100 keV flux changing only within a factor of 2 in archival OSSE and Granat/SIGMA observations. The relative hardness of the intrinsic X-ray spectrum rules out the homogeneous hot corona/cold disk model for this source. Instead, the hot plasma has to subtend a small solid angle as seen from the source of UV radiation. If the hot plasma is purely thermal, it consists of electrons rather than $e^+e^-$ pairs. On the other hand, the plasma can be pair-dominated if a small fraction of the power is nonthermal.

A. A. Zdziarski; W. N. Johnson; P. Magdziarz



PCGAP: Application to analyze gamma-ray pulse-height spectra on a personal computer under Windows NT ®  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCGAP is a software code, which was written to provide gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on a personal computer platform.\\u000a The code was specifically developed for Windows NT for either an Intel® or DEC Alpha® based processor. PCGAP includes programs which can be used to control data collection using a Canberra INSPECTOR® multichannel pulse-height analyzer. With suitable spectrum conversion routines

E. W. Killian; L. V. East



Multiple Group Analysis (MGA): A gamma-ray spectrum analysis code for determining plutonium isotopic abundances  

SciTech Connect

MGA calculates relative isotopic abundances of plutonium and other actinides in a sample. The code performs its analysis using data from a gamma-ray spectrum of the sample taken with a germanium detector. This volume describes the structure of the program and the procedures used for measuring samples and analyzing the spectra. It is assumed that the user is familiar with standard practices and equipment used in gamma-ray spectrometry.

Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.



Gamma radiation detectors for safeguards applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA uses extensively a variety of gamma radiation detectors to verify nuclear material. These detectors are part of standardized spectrometry systems: germanium detectors for High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS); Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for Room Temperature Gamma Spectrometry (RTGS); and NaI(Tl) detectors for Low Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (LRGS). HRGS with high-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen is

R. Carchon; M. Moeslinger; L. Bourva; C. Bass; M. Zendel



Development of a neural network approach to characterise (226)Ra contamination at legacy sites using gamma-ray spectra taken from boreholes.  


There are a large number of sites across the UK and the rest of the world that are known to be contaminated with (226)Ra owing to historical industrial and military activities. At some sites, where there is a realistic risk of contact with the general public there is a demand for proficient risk assessments to be undertaken. One of the governing factors that influence such assessments is the geometric nature of contamination particularly if hazardous high activity point sources are present. Often this type of radioactive particle is encountered at depths beyond the capabilities of surface gamma-ray techniques and so intrusive borehole methods provide a more suitable approach. However, reliable spectral processing methods to investigate the properties of the waste for this type of measurement have yet to be developed since a number of issues must first be confronted including: representative calibration spectra, variations in background activity and counting uncertainty. Here a novel method is proposed to tackle this issue based upon the interrogation of characteristic Monte Carlo calibration spectra using a combination of Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Networks. The technique demonstrated that it could reliably distinguish spectra that contained contributions from point sources from those of background or dissociated contamination (homogenously distributed). The potential of the method was demonstrated by interpretation of borehole spectra collected at the Dalgety Bay headland, Fife, Scotland. Predictions concurred with intrusive surveys despite the realisation of relatively large uncertainties on activity and depth estimates. To reduce this uncertainty, a larger background sample and better spatial coverage of cores were required, alongside a higher volume better resolution detector. PMID:25461525

Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul



Energetic neutron and gamma-ray spectra under the earth radiation belts according to "SALYUT-7" [correction of "SALUTE-7"]-"KOSMOS-1686" orbital complex and "CORONAS-I" satellite data.  


The spectra of neutrons >10 MeV and gamma-rays 1.5-100 MeV under the Earth Radiation Belts, restored from the data, obtained onboard orbital complex "SALYUT-7" [correction of "SALUTE-7"]-"KOSMOS-1686", are presented. The spectra shapes are similar to those for albedo neutrons and gamma-rays, but absolute values of their fluxes (0.2 cm-2 s-1 for neutrons, 0.8 cm-2 s-1 for gamma-rays at the equator and 1.2 cm-2 s-1, 1.9 cm-2 s-1, accordingly, at L=1.9) are several times as large. It is possibly explained by the fact that most of the detected particles were produced by the cosmic ray interactions with the orbital complex matter. Neutron and gamma-ray fluxes obtained from "CORONAS-1" data are near those for albedo particles. PMID:11542904

Bogomolov, A V; Dmitriev, A V; Myagkova, I N; Ryumin, S P; Smirnova, O N; Sobolevsky, I M



Intercomparison of methods for coincidence summing corrections in gamma-ray spectrometry--part II (volume sources).  


The second part of an intercomparison of the coincidence summing correction methods is presented. This exercise concerned three volume sources, filled with liquid radioactive solution. The same experimental spectra, decay scheme and photon emission intensities were used by all the participants. The results were expressed as coincidence summing corrective factors for several energies of (152)Eu and (134)Cs, and different source-to-detector distances. They are presented and discussed. PMID:22445105

Lépy, M-C; Altzitzoglou, T; Anagnostakis, M J; Capogni, M; Ceccatelli, A; De Felice, P; Djurasevic, M; Dryak, P; Fazio, A; Ferreux, L; Giampaoli, A; Han, J B; Hurtado, S; Kandic, A; Kanisch, G; Karfopoulos, K L; Klemola, S; Kovar, P; Laubenstein, M; Lee, J H; Lee, J M; Lee, K B; Pierre, S; Carvalhal, G; Sima, O; Tao, Chau Van; Thanh, Tran Thien; Vidmar, T; Vukanac, I; Yang, M J



Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.  


This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technologically enhanced levels of radiation in 34 representative soil samples that have been collected from an inshore oil field area which was found to have, in a previous study, the highest observed value of 226Ra concentration among 129 soil samples. The activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra have been inferred from gamma-ray transitions associated with their decay progenies and measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for all the samples collected from NW Dukhan. Discrete-line, gamma-ray energy transitions from spectral lines ranging in energy from ?100 keV up to 2.6 MeV have been associated with characteristic decays of the various decay products within the 235.8U and 232Th radioactive decay chains. These data have been analyzed, under the assumption of secular equilibrium for the U and Th decay chains. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented. The weighted mean value of the activity concentrations of 226Ra in one of the samples was found to be around a factor of 2 higher than the values obtained in the previous study and approximately a factor of 10 higher than the accepted worldwide average value of 35 Bq/kg. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of 232Th and 40K were also deduced and found to be within the worldwide average values of 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. Our previous study reported a value of 201.9±1.5Stat.±13Syst.Bq/kg for 226Ra in one sample and further investigation in the current work determined a measured value for 226Ra of 342.00±1.9Stat.±25Syst.Bq/kg in a sample taken from the same locality. This is significantly higher than all the other investigated soil samples in the current and previous works. Notably, the Th levels in the same sample are within the worldwide average expectations, implying that the increased 226Ra concentration arises from TENORM processes. PMID:22244196

Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K S; Alkhomashi, N; Al-Dahan, N; Al-Dosari, M; Bradley, D A; Bukhari, S; Matthews, M; Regan, P H; Santawamaitre, T; Malain, D; Habib, A



Direct determination of half-life of (214)Pb by gamma spectrometry and comparison with previous indirect measurements.  


A new value of half-life of (214)Pb was determined using (214)Pb-enriched radioactive sources made of polyurethane foam filters treated with Rn-enriched water. Measurements based on cumulative gamma rays countings yielded a value of 27.06 (7) min. This result is 0.17 min longer than the most recent value measured by indirect methods reported in the scientific literature (Martz et al., 1991). The difference between these two measurements is caused by beta recoil whose effects in glass substrates had been neglected. PMID:21236689

Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M



Observations of gamma-ray burst spectra between 5 keV and 100 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Franco-Soviet Lilas, Apex (Phobos mission), and Phebus (Granat satellite) experiments allow spectral observations of cosmic gamma-ray bursts over a very broad energy range from 5 keV up to 100 MeV. We present here typical results on continuum shapes, multiple absorption dips at low-energy (less than 100 keV), emission features around 500 keV, and spectral breaks at about 1 MeV. These observations are discussed in the framework of a highly-mgnetized emission source.

Barat, C.



Gamma Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use NaI/PMT gamma detectors to gather spectra of several radioactive sources. The full-enrgy peak, Compton edge, Compton shelf and backscatter peaks are identified. The physics of the detection process is emphasized.

Bistrow, Van



Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry.  


For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of any contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meterological conditions, the measured air concentrations of 214Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the 222Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m-3. For the artificial radionuclides 60Co, 131I and 137Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m-3, respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2. PMID:8393198

Hötzl, H; Winkler, R



UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of Bi2O3 in lithium phosphate glasses and effect of gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of prepared undoped lithium phosphate glass and samples of the same nominal composition with additional Bi2O3 contents were measured before and after being subjected to gamma doses of 3 and 6 Mrad. The base undoped lithium phosphate glass exhibits strong charge transfer ultraviolet absorption bands, which are related to unavoidable presence of trace iron impurities within the raw materials for the preparation of this glass. Bi2O3-containing glasses show the extension of UV absorption beside the resolution of visible bands at 400, 450, and 700 nm with the increase of Bi2O3 content due the sharing of absorption of Bi3+ ions. Gamma irradiation of the base glass reveals extended induced bands; the UV bands are related to the conversion of some Fe2+ to Fe3+ through photochemical reactions during the irradiation process. The visible induced bands are related to the formation of positive hole centers from the host phosphate glass. Glasses containing Bi2O3 are observed to show some shielding behavior, which is attributed to the presence of heavy weight and large atomic number of Bi3+ ions. Infrared absorption spectral measurements of the base lithium phosphate glass show characteristic vibrational modes which are related to specific phosphate groups. The addition of Bi2O3 in measurable percent produces additional vibrational bands due to the introduction of Bi-O groups such as BiO3 and BiO6.

Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.



Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry.  


The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment. PMID:21865616

Gbadago, J K; Faanhof, A; Darko, E O; Schandorf, C



The use of the bulk properties of gamma-ray burst prompt emission spectra for the study of cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of bulk spectral properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) is important to understanding the physics behind these powerful explosions and may even be an aide in studying cosmology. The prompt emission spectral properties have long been studied by a growing community of researchers, and many theories have been developed since the discovery of GRBs. Even though the exact physics of these phenomena is not completely understood, GRBs have been proposed to give insight on other astrophysical phenomena from dark matter to the expansion of the universe. Obviously, using GRBs to study cosmology requires a large sample size to adequately constrain results and provide confident conjectures. For this reason, BATSE and GBM results are paramount to the study of the prompt emission of GRBs. Using results from both instruments, I study the bulk spectral properties of GRBs and describe analysis techniques that can be used to study cosmology.

Goldstein, Adam


Multiparameter Multichannel Analyser System for Characterisation of Mixed Neutron - Gamma Field in the Experimental Reactor Lr-O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiparameter spectrometry system for neutron and gamma spectra measurement is described with the organic scintillator stilbene or NE-213 scintillator. The control logic has been realized with the Field Programmable Gate Array. The spectrometer was tested at the Nuclear Research Institute Rez. Measurements in the VVER - 1000 type reactor pressure vessel dosimetry benchmark in the LR-0 experimental reactor have been performed.

Bureš, Z.; Cvachovec, J.; Cvachovec, F.; ?eleda, P.; Ošmera, B.



The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 ?Sv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.



Systematic and non-systematic effects of the uncertainty of the sample position in gamma-ray spectrometry.  


When cylindrical samples placed coaxially with the detector are measured on a gamma-ray spectrometer, the position of the sample very often deviates from an ideal one with the axes of the sample and the detector less than perfectly aligned. If a calibrated source is used prior to the measurement and is presumed to have been positioned correctly, one might conclude that the misalignment of the measured sample should result in an uncertainty of the reported nuclide activity, since the efficiencies of the sample and the calibrated source are effectively different due to the difference in placement. The efficiency of a displaced cylindrical sample, however, is always lower than the one of a sample that is perfectly aligned. The net effect of misalignment can therefore be not only an increase in the uncertainty of the activity, but also a systematic error in its evaluation. Since the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement requires that all such systematic effects be corrected for, we have developed a method to assess the change in the efficiency resulting from misalignment and to introduce the required correction. The calculation of this correction only requires knowledge of basic sample and detector data. The uncertainty of the reported activity can then also be assessed and is influenced by the uncertainty of the efficiency evaluated around its new, corrected value. An appropriate expression for this uncertainty has been derived. PMID:15177378

Vidmar, T; Korun, M



Rapid and direct analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in urine by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry.  


The present work was aimed at the development of a capillary electrophoretic analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) using electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry to achieve the direct and unequivocal detection of this analyte in human urine. Optimized capillary electrophoretic conditions were: injection, 20 s at 0.5 psi (1 psi = 6894.76 Pa); buffer electrolyte, 12.5 mM ammonium formate adjusted to pH 8.35 with diethylamine; fused silicacapillary: 100 cm x 50 microm i.d.; separation voltage, 25 kV (forward polarity) + 0.5 psi; room temperature. Electrospray and mass spectrometric conditions were: drying gas and nebulizing gas (nitrogen) at flow rate 3 l/min, temperature 250 degrees C, nebulizer pressure: 10 psi; sheath liquid solution: methanol-water (90:10) containing 0.1% ammonia delivered at 3 microl/min; spray voltage 3.5 kV. Mass spetrometric detection was carried out in the selected ion monitoring mode of negative molecular ions at 103 m/z for GHB and 115 m/z for maleic acid (I.S.). Under these conditions the baseline separation of GHB and the I.S. was obtained. The selectivity of the analysis allowed for direct injection of unextracted urine, previously diluted 1:4 with water. Linearity was assessed in the GHB concentration range from 80 to 1280 microg/ml in urine. Analytical sensitivity (as limit of detection) resulted about 5 microg/ml in water and 20 microg/ml in original urine. Analytical precision was fairly acceptable with R.S.D. values lower than 5% for migration times and 18% for quantitation in real samples, in both intra day and day-to-day experiments. On these grounds, the developed method can be adopted for rapid identification of acute intoxications from GHB in humans. PMID:15532575

Gottardo, Rossella; Bortolotti, Federica; Trettene, Maristella; De Paoli, Giorgia; Tagliaro, Franco



Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.  


In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. PMID:22947616

Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W



Spectra from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Exploratorium provides information on telescopes and observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope that are being used to study spectra from space. Gamma-ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, and infrared spectra are all examined. The purpose and discoveries made by each observatory are included along with related hands-on activities like a liquid crystal IR detector activity.

Felter, Neil



Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence



Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence



GlycoPep Detector: A tool for assigning mass spectrometry data of N-linked glycopeptides based on their ETD spectra  

PubMed Central

Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly used in fragmenting N-linked glycopeptides in their mass spectral analyses to complement collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments. The glycan remains intact through ETD, while the peptide backbone is cleaved, providing the sequence of amino acids for a glycopeptide. Nonetheless, data analysis is a major bottleneck to high throughput glycopeptide identification based on ETD data, due to the complexity and diversity of ETD mass spectra compared to CID counterparts. GlycoPep Detector (GPD) is a web-based tool to address this challenge. It filters out noise peaks that interfere with glycopeptide sequencing, correlates input glycopeptide compositions with the ETD spectra, and assigns a score for each candidate. By considering multiple ion series (c-, z- and y-ions) and scoring them separately, the software gives more weighting to the ion series that matches peaks of high intensity in the spectra. This feature enables the correct glycopeptide to receive a high score while keeping scores of incorrect compositions low. GPD has been utilized to interpret data collected on six model glycoproteins (RNase B, avidin, fetuin, asialofetuin, transferrin and AGP) as well as a clade C HIV envelope glycoprotein, C.97ZA012 gp140?CFI. In every assignment made by GPD, the correct glycopeptide composition earns a score that is about two-fold higher than other incorrect glycopeptide candidates (decoys). The software can be accessed at PMID:23510108

Zhu, Zhikai; Hua, David; Clark, Daniel F.; Go, Eden P.; Desaire, Heather



Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F? reactions  

PubMed Central

A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F? with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F? reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 ?m. In pure NF3, F? is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F? is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF? (n = 1?3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M ? 1)? ion was observed in the F? chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)? ions upon reaction with F?. A weaker (M + F)? ion was also detected in the F? chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F? chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO?, X?, CN?, NO2?, and OR?, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M ? 1)? ion (except formates). In the F? chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)? ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F? ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several experimental parameters, including source pressure, relative proportions of the reagent and analyte, and other ion source parameters, on the observed chemical ionization mass spectra were also investigated. In a mixture of NF3 and n-butanol, for example, the ratio of the intensities of the ions characteristic of the alcohol to that of the (HF)nF? ion was found to decrease with increasing sample pressure, with increasing NF3 pressure, and with increasing electron energy. No significant effects on the spectra were observed to result from variation of the source repeller field or the source temperature. The addition of argon to the source as a potential moderator did not alter the F? chemical ionization spectrum significantly, but the use of oxygen appears to inhibit formation of the (HF)nF? cluster ion. The advantages of using F? as a chemical ionization reagent are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reagent ions. PMID:7428746

Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.



Analysis of expressed sequence tags from a single wheat cultivar facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data and discrimination of gamma gliadin proteins that may play different functional roles in flour  

PubMed Central

Background The gamma gliadins are a complex group of proteins that together with other gluten proteins determine the functional properties of wheat flour. The proteins have unusually high levels of glutamine and proline and contain large regions of repetitive sequences. While most gamma gliadins are monomeric proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues, some contain an additional cysteine residue that enables them to be linked with other gluten proteins into large polymers that are critical for flour quality. The ability to differentiate among the gamma gliadins is important for studies of wheat flour quality because proteins with similar sequences can have different effects on functional properties. Results The complement of gamma gliadin genes expressed in the wheat cultivar Butte 86 was evaluated by analyzing publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) data. Eleven contigs were assembled from 153 Butte 86 ESTs. Nine of the contigs encoded full-length proteins and four of the proteins contained nine cysteine residues. Only one of the encoded proteins was a perfect match with a sequence reported in NCBI. Contigs from four different publicly available EST assemblies encoded proteins that were perfect matches with some, but not all, of the Butte 86 gamma gliadins and the complement of identical proteins was different for each assembly. A specialized database that included the sequences of Butte 86 gamma gliadins was constructed for identification of flour proteins by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a pilot experiment, proteins corresponding to six Butte 86 gamma gliadin contigs were distinguished by MS/MS, including one containing the extra cysteine residue. Two other proteins were identified as one of two closely related Butte 86 proteins but could not be distinguished unequivocally. Unique peptide tags specific for Butte 86 gamma gliadins are reported. Conclusions Inclusion of cultivar-specific gamma gliadin sequences in databases maximizes the number and quality of peptide identifications and increases sequence coverage of these gamma gliadins by MS/MS. This approach makes it possible to distinguish closely related proteins, to associate individual proteins with sequences of specific genes, and to evaluate proteomic data in a biological context to better address questions about wheat flour quality. PMID:20064259



Ion Momentum Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Ion Momentum Spectrometry Bhas Bapat Fragmentation of Molecular Ions multi-fold differential cross data acquisition sample spectra Momentum Maps multi-ion-coincidence momentum analysis Issues and Examples Electron-impact DI of methanol Photoionisation of CO2 DI of CCl + 4 Summary Ion Momentum

Bapat, Bhas


Anatomy and histophysiology of the periosteum: quantification of the periosteal blood supply to the adjacent bone with 85Sr and gamma spectrometry.  


The periosteum or periosteal membrane is a continuous composite fibroelastic covering membrane of the bone to which it is intimately linked. Although the bone cortex is the main beneficiary of the principal anatomical and physiological functions of the periosteal membrane, the behavior of the entire bone remains closely influenced by periosteal activity. These principal functions are related to the cortical blood supply, osteogenesis, and muscle and ligament attachments. Through its elastic and contractile nature, it participates in the maintenance of bone shape, and plays an important role in metabolic ionic exchange and physiologic distribution of electro-chemical potential differences across its membranous structure. It has also been suggested that the periosteum may have its own specific proprioceptive property. This paper presents a study of the anatomy and histophysiology of the periosteum, and discusses in detail its main functions of cortical blood supply and osteogenesis. It also presents the third intermediary report on a current study of the quantification of cortical vascularization of femoral bone via the periosteum, using an isotonic salt solution containing 85 Strontium. The afferent-efferent (arterio-venous) flows of this solution in the thigh vascular system of guinea pigs were measured by gamma spectrometry after a series of selective macro- and micro-injections of radioactive salt into the femoral arterial system was carried out. Each vascular territory was meticulously selected and the injections were made according to size, starting with the larger vessels, with or without ligatures of neighboring vessels, going progressively to smaller and smaller vessels with diameters not exceeding 100 microns. The principal technical difficulty at this stage of experimentation was related to the identifying and acquiring of appropriate microcatheters. The study also includes a series of measurements after blockage of the transmuscular blood flow and the corresponding periosteal vascular system by selective ligation of the thigh muscles. The results clearly show the fundamental predominance of periosteal blood circulation to the bone cortex (70 to 80% of the arterial supply and 90 to 100% of venous return) compared with centromedullary vascularization. A quantitative formula related to the general blood circulation in the bone cortex and marrow, taking into account the two pathways, is presented. Although the application of these results (which concern a long-bone site in an animal) to the alveolar and maxillo-mandibular periosteum requires the conception of an appropriate human experimental model, the extrapolation of the findings seems plausible in the case of the mandible, where the osseous structures and the vascular network are comparable with those found in long bone. However, in the maxilla, where the general blood supply is more intense and anastomotic, the periosteal contribution may legitimately be considered less important than the centro-medullary circulation. Finally, the presentation analyzes the physio-pathology of an experimentally damaged periosteum either directly (by thermodestruction, squashing, and chemodestruction), or indirectly (by muscular pull and tear), leading to the inevitable chain reaction, i.e., "ischemia-necrosis-atrophy and partial regeneration" of the underlying bone and very frequently compromising the survival of an implant that had been placed within it. The report emphasizes the importance of impeccable soft tissue and periosteum management at the time of implant surgery and indicates a number of technical precautions that should be observed in order to avoid periosteal damage. PMID:8699515

Chanavaz, M



Analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, DL-lactic acid, glycolic acid, ethylene glycol and other glycols in body fluids by a direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for wide use.  


Analysis of blood of severely intoxicated patients always requires prompt investigation. Diagnosis of intoxication with ethylene glycol, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid or D-lactic acid takes hours, since several different procedures are required. Rapid derivatization of the common hydroxyl function may resolve this analytical problem. Here we describe a fast method for the simultaneous measurement of ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and racemic lactic acid. Only 20 microl of serum, plasma or urine are required for immediate derivatization at 70 degrees C with 750 microl of bis-N,O-trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide after adding 20 microl of internal standard solution (1,3-propylene glycol) and 20 microl of the catalyst dimethylformamide. After centrifugation an aliquot is transferred to a gas chromatographic system and analyzed with electron-impact mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. The derivatized acids and ethylene glycol are well separated and detected with a limit of detection ranging from 0.12 mg/l for ethylene glycol to 0.95 mg/l for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, while the limit of quantification ranged from 0.4 mg/l for ethylene glycol to 3.15 mg/l for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. The method is linear from 0.5 to 1800 mg/l blood for ethylene glycol, from 0.7 to 1200 mg/l for lactic acid, from 1.2 to 1800 mg/l for glycolic acid, and from 3.2 to 200 mg/l for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, with analytical recoveries, accuracy, day-to-day and within-day precision well within the required limits. Total analysis time with one calibrator was 30 min, derivatization time included. This method is very suitable for emergency toxicology, since several toxic substances can be quantified simultaneously in a fast and sensitive manner. PMID:15576294

Van Hee, Paul; Neels, Hugo; De Doncker, Mireille; Vrydags, Nicolas; Schatteman, Katinka; Uyttenbroeck, Wim; Hamers, Nicole; Himpe, Dirk; Lambert, Willy



The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.  


In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B



Toward prompt gamma spectrometry for monitoring boron distributions during extra corporal treatment of liver metastases by boron neutron capture therapy: a Monte Carlo simulation study.  


A Monte Carlo calculation was carried out for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of extra corporal liver phantom. The present paper describes the basis for a subsequent clinical application of the prompt gamma spectroscopy set-up aimed at in vivo monitoring of boron distribution. MCNP code was used first to validate the homogeneity in thermal neutron field in the liver phantom and simulate the gamma ray detection system (collimator and detector) in the treatment room. The gamma ray of 478 keV emitted by boron in small specific region can be detected and a mathematical formalism was used for the tomography image reconstruction. PMID:19394243

Khelifi, R; Nievaart, V A; Bode, P; Moss, R L; Krijger, G C



Large-scale radon hazard evaluation in the Oslofjord region of Norway utilizing indoor radon concentrations, airborne gamma ray spectrometry and geological mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test whether airborne gamma ray spectrometer measurements can be used to estimate levels of radon hazard in the Oslofjord region of Norway. We compile 43,000 line kilometres of gamma ray spectrometer data from 8 airborne surveys covering 10,000 km2 and compare them with 6326 indoor radon measurements. We find a clear spatial correlation between areas with elevated concentrations of uranium

Mark Andrew Smethurst; Terje Strand; Aud Venke Sundal; Anne Liv Rudjord



Determination of neptunium in plutonium and mixed uranium-plutonium samples by isotope dilution gamma-spectrometry with 243 Am as a spike  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for isolating neptunium from Pu, U or mixed oxide (MOX) samples and its determination by isotope dilution -spectrometry (IDGS) using239Np (243Am) as a spike. Extraction chromatography with trilaurylamine fixed on a SGX-C18 support was used for the isolation of Np. The decontamination factors for U, Pu, Am and Pa vary between 1000–2000 and 100, respectively. The

F. Sus; J. L. Parus; W. Raab



Method of radial sounding and elemental analysis of formations during well logging using neutron inelastic scattering gamma time-of-flight spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a well logging method and device designed to determine radial inhomogeneities in the elemental content of the borehole environment with high spatial resolution. The sounding factor that determines the spatial resolution is the time elapsed from the moment of neutron emission from the device to the moment the device records the gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering

M. A. Fedorin; B. G. Titov




Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilities for absorption of 23.8 kev gamma quanta by Sn\\/sup ; 119\\/ without recoil energy losses are measured for 14 tin-containing compounds at ; 77 and 300 deg K temperature. A very weak temperature dependence of this ; probability was observed for some of the compounds. The main regularities ; pertaining to the magnitude of the chemical isomer shifts

V. A. Brukhanov; N. N. Delyagin; A. A. Opalenko; V. S. Shpinel



Fusion of time-dependent gamma production spectra from thermal neutron capture and fast neutron inelastic scattering to improve material detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron-based inspection techniques are unique in their ability to provide material specific signatures, thus offering very high performance and automatic detection of explosives and other contraband. Thermal neutron capture gamma spectroscopy provides excellent sensitivities to hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and other elements, which are characteristic to most explosives, drugs and other contraband that may be smuggled into the country. Fast neutron

T. Gozani; M. Elsalim; D. Strellis; D. Brown



Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland

J. D. Appleton; E. Doyle; D. Fenton; C. Organo



Posttranslational processing of recombinant human interferon-gamma in animal expression systems.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the heterogeneity of recombinant human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) produced by three expression systems: Chinese hamster ovary cells, the mammary gland of transgenic mice, and baculovirus-infected Spodopera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Analyses of whole IFN-gamma proteins by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) from each recombinant source revealed heterogeneous populations of IFN-gamma molecules resulting from variations in N-glycosylation and C-terminal polypeptide cleavages. A series of more specific analyses assisted interpretation of maximum entropy deconvoluted ESI-mass spectra of whole IFN-gamma proteins; MALDI-MS analyses of released, desialylated N-glycans and of deglycosylated IFN-gamma polypeptides were combined with analyses of 2-aminobenzamide labeled sialylated N-glycans by cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. These analyses enabled identification of specific polypeptide cleavage sites and characterization of associated N-glycans. Production of recombinant IFN-gamma in the mammalian expression systems yielded polypeptides C-terminally truncated at dibasic amino acid sites. Mammalian cell derived IFN-gamma molecules displayed oligosaccharides with monosaccharide compositions equivalent to complex, sialylated, or high-mannose type N-glycans. In contrast, IFN-gamma derived from baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells was truncated further toward the C-terminus and was associated with neutral (nonsialylated) N-glycans. These data demonstrate the profound influence of host cell type on posttranslational processing of recombinant proteins produced in eukaryotic systems. PMID:8745411

James, D. C.; Goldman, M. H.; Hoare, M.; Jenkins, N.; Oliver, R. W.; Green, B. N.; Freedman, R. B.



Astrophysical gamma-ray production by inverse Compton interactions of relativistic electrons. III - Cutoff effect for inverse Compton spectra applied to the case of the hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission of NGC 4151  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently reported spectral features of NGC 4151 in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray energy range are analyzed. A two-component emission model is suggested in which the ultraviolet and soft Xray photons (E 20 keV) are scattered by relativistic electrons via the inverse Compton process into the hard X-ray and y-ray regime. It is shown that the rather fiat, hard

R. Schlickeiser



Progress in numerical modelling of the Cl influence on gamma-ray spectra from an n-gamma logging tool, by using the improved ENDF data for radiative capture.  


Quality of the numerical modelling (MCNP code) of the spectrometric neutron-gamma benchmark experiment, performed at the Polish Calibration Station BGW in Zielona Gora for quantification of the main rock elements: Si, Ca, Fe and H, is considered. Elemental concentrations obtained from the measurements and simulations, for the rock models with water-filled boreholes, are in good agreement. For chlorine present in the borehole, the quality of the numerical reproducibility of the measured elemental concentrations depends on the cross section library used for the Cl(n,gamma)Cl reaction. The standard evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VI Release 2 supplies imperfect data for photon production from thermal neutron capture in Cl. The improved cross sections for Cl(n,gamma)Cl are included in the ENDF/B-VI Release 8 library. Superiority of this new compilation over the previous one is shown in the paper. The accuracies for the Si, Ca and Fe determination have been improved by about 36%, 19.9% and 21.4%, respectively, when the ENDF/B-VI Release 8 library has been used for Cl. PMID:17011201

Cywicka-Jakiel, Teresa



Potential of natural gamma-ray spectrometry for mapping and environmental monitoring of black-sand beach deposits on the northern coast of Sinai, Egypt.  


The concentrations and distributions of naturally occurring radioactive materials were studied with the aim of detecting and mapping radioactive anomalies as well as monitoring the environment for black-sand beach deposits in Northern Sinai, Egypt. For this purpose, ground gamma-ray spectrometric surveys were conducted using a portable GS-512 spectrometer, with an NaI (Tl) detector, on an area 77.5 km(2) in surface area located between the cities of Rafah and Elareish on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The results revealed that the black-sand beach deposits could be differentiated according to their total-count (TC) radioactivity into five normally distributed interpreted radiometric lithologic (IRL) units denoted by U1, U2, U3, U4 and U5. The computed characteristic TC radiometric statistics of these five IRL units range from 4.67  to 9.96 Ur for their individual arithmetic means. The computed arithmetic means for the three radioelements K, eU and eTh reach 0.46 %, 2.25 and 6.17 ppm, respectively for the whole study area. Monitoring the environmental effects of radioelement concentrations on the study area showed that the mean natural equivalent radiation dose rate from the terrestrial gamma-radiation of the whole area attains 0.33 mSv y(-1). This average value remains on the safe side and within the maximum permissible safe radiation dose (<1.0 mSv y(-1)) without harm to the individual, except at three scattered points reaching more than these values. Some of the local inhabitants in the region sometimes use black sands as a building material. Consequently, they are not recommended for use as building materials, because the inhabitants will, then, receive a relatively high radioactive dose generated mainly by monazite and zircon minerals, two of the main constituents of black sands. PMID:22869819

Aboelkhair, Hatem; Zaaeimah, Mostafa



Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biofluids using a one-step procedure with "in-vial" derivatization and headspace-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A headspace-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap GC-MS) method was developed to determine GHB, a low molecular weight compound and drug of abuse, in various biological fluids. Combining this relatively novel and fully automated headspace technique with "in-vial" methylation of GHB allowed for a straightforward approach. One single method could be used for all biofluids (urine, plasma, serum, whole blood or lyzed blood), requiring only 100?l of sample. Moreover, our approach involves mere addition of all reagents and sample into one vial. Following optimization of headspace conditions and trap settings, validation was performed. Although sample preparation only consists of the addition of salt and derivatization reagents directly to a 100?l-sample in a HS-vial, adequate method sensitivity and selectivity was obtained. Calibration curves ranged from 5 to 150?g/ml GHB for urine, from 2 to 150?g/ml for plasma, and from 3.5 to 200?g/ml for whole blood. Acceptable precision and accuracy (<13% bias and imprecision) were seen for all quality controls (QC's) (LLOQ-level, low, medium, high), including for the supplementary serum- and lyzed blood-based QC's, using calibration curves prepared in plasma or whole blood, respectively. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated assay reproducibility, while cross-validation with another GC-MS method demonstrated that our method is a valuable alternative for GHB determination in toxicological samples, with the advantage of requiring only 100?l and minimal hands-on time, as sample preparation is easy and injection automated. PMID:23664352

Ingels, Ann-Sofie M E; Neels, Hugo; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P



Small Scale Assessment of Spatial and Vertical Redistribution of Fukushima Fallouts Radiocaesium in Contaminated Soil Using in-situ HPGe Gamma Ray Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After Tohoku earthquake on March 11th 2011, the subsequent tsunami and the resulting Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster, gamma emitting particles, first release into the atmosphere, were quickly deposited on the soil surface, with potentially harmful level in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant. Thus, the evaluation of soil deposition pattern, depth migration and afterward radionuclides redistribution and export by erosion and hydrological processes is fundamental for contamination assessments and to plan future actions. Our study site is located 37km from Fukushima power plant, inside the evacuated zone. In this study, we used a bounded erosion plot of 22.1m x 5m to assess global export of sediments and 137Cs. This plot, previously cropped with tobacco, is morphologically divided into inter-rill areas separated by rills that formed into former wheel tracks. The bottom of the plot is subject to deposition of sediments. In order to determine and quantify the internal processes responsible of the export of sediment, the depth distribution of 137Cs is estimated using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Such a portable device, associated to the high radiation levels, allow an acquisition of spatially distributed data within the plot in a reasonable time (1 min/sample). At the same time, depth distribution of 137Cs are measured using the scrapper plate technique, adapted to obtain a fine resolution in the first, highly contaminated, centimeters of soil. Finally, 137Cs depth profiles, associated with in situ and laboratory gamma spectrums acquired with the portable detector, allow for the detector calibration. Although the initial deposit can reasonably be supposed homogeneous at the plot scale, the dataset obtained 3 months later shows high spatial and temporal variability due to erosion processes. Measurements with the portable HPGe detector proved to be useful at this small scale, avoiding the needs of a large number of soil samples, and our results are promising to understand erosion at larger scale where horizontal patterns of deposition and redistribution are usually supposed homogeneous over quite larger areas.

Patin, J.; Onda, Y.; Yoda, H.; Kato, H.



Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in surface soils from Jaduguda uranium mineralization zone, Jharkhand, India, using ?-ray spectrometry, and determination of outdoor dose to the population  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface soil samples around selected villages of Jaduguda were investigated and compared with the radioactivity level in the region. Concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K were determined by a gamma ray spectrometer using the HPGe detector with 50% relative efficiency, and the radiation dose to the local population was estimated. The average estimated activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the surface soil were 53.8, 44.2 and 464.2 Bq kg?1 respectively. The average absorbed dose rate in the study area was estimated to be 72.5 nGy h-1, where as the annual effective dose to the population was 0.09 mSv y-1. A correlation analysis was made between measured dose rate and individual radionuclides, in order to delineate the contribution of the respective nuclides towards dose rate. The radio-elemental concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium estimated for the soils, in the study area, indicated the enrichment of uranium series nuclide. The results of the present study were subsequently compared with international and national recommended values. PMID:21170189

Maharana, Mandakini; Krishnan, Narayani; Sengupta, D.



Formation of the 0.511.-MeV line in solar flares. [statistical mechanics of line spectra for gamma rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray line produced at 0.51-MeV was studied and is shown to be the result of either of free annihilation of positrons with electrons or of the decay of positronium by 2-photon emission. Positron annihilation from the bound state of positronium may also proceed by 3-photon emission, resulting in a continuum with energies up to 0.51-MeV. Accurate calculations of the rates of free annihilation and positronium formation in a solar-flare plasma are presented. Estimates of the positronium-formulation rates by charge exchange and the rates of dissociation and quenching are also considered. The temperature and density dependence of the ratio of 3-photon to 2-photon emission was obtained. It is shown that when the ratio of free electrons to neutral atoms in the plasma is approximately unity or greater, the Doppler width of the 0.51-MeV line is a function of the temperature of the annihilation region. For the small ion densities characteristics of the photosphere, the width is predominantly a function of the density.

Crannell, C. J.; Joyce, G.; Ramaty, R.; Werntz, C.



Light Curves and Spectra of Dust Echoes From Gamma-Ray Bursts and their Afterglows: Continued Evidence that GRB 970228 is Associated with a Supernova  

E-print Network

The relative brightening and reddening of the optical afterglows of GRB 970228 and GRB 980326 around 20 - 30 days after these bursts have been attributed to supernovae, which are red (blueward of their spectral peak), and which peak in time after about 20(1+z) days. However, this direct evidence for a GRB/SN connection has recently been challenged. It has been suggested that the late afterglows of these bursts can be explained by dust echoes, of which we consider two cases: (1) the scattering of light from the afterglow (the forward shock), the optical flash (the reverse shock), and/or optical light from the burst itself by a shell of dust at a radius R from the progenitor, and (2) the absorption and thermal re-emission of this light by this shell of dust. In this paper, we model and compute dust echo light curves and spectra for both cases. Although the late-time afterglow of GRB 980326 was not sufficiently well sampled to rule out a dust echo description, we find that the late-time afterglow of GRB 970228 cannot be explained by a dust echo.

Daniel E. Reichart



Regioisomeric structure determination of alpha- and gamma-linolenoyldilinoleoylglycerol in blackcurrant seed oil by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.  


Gamma-linolenic acid (Gla) and oils containing Gla have evident positive effects on a variety of disorders, and therefore, the structure of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing Gla is of special interest. The regioisomeric structures of TAGs 18:3(n-3)/18:2/18:2 (Ala/L/L) and 18:3(n-6)/18:2/18:2 (Gla/L/L) in blackcurrant seed oil were determined by Ag-HPLC/APCI-MS and Ag-HPLC/ESI-MS/MS techniques. In the latter, silver ion adducts were prepared by adding silver nitrate to the postcolumn flow. A new Ag-HPLC solvent system containing nonchlorinated solvents for the separation of Gla- and Ala-containing TAGs is introduced. Ag-HPLC separation of Ala/L/L and Gla/L/L was sufficient and regioisomers sn-LnLL + sn-LLLn and sn-LLnL (Ln, linolenic acid) could be differentiated well with the MS methods used. No discrimination was made between the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. The results show that the methods used are suitable to discriminate and determine the regioisomeric structure of TAGs. The regioisomeric structure of TAG with the fatty acid combination Gla/L/L in blackcurrant seed oil was considered to be practically random (32.7-37.8% of sn-LGlaL). In the fatty acid combination Ala/L/L, the regioisomeric structure is nonrandom (7.3-12.1% of sn-LAlaL) with Ala preferentially in a primary position. It can be concluded that the positional distribution of Ala and Gla is different in Ln/L/L TAGs of blackcurrant seed oil. PMID:18578547

Leskinen, Heidi; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Pinta, Janne; Kallio, Heikki



Ultra-high energy gamma rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of ultrahigh energy gamma rays by proton interactions with relicit radiation, propagation of gamma rays through the universe, and proton cascading in the presence and absence of galactic magnetic fields is discussed. Detailed data are given on proton spectrum link, gamma ray intensity, and energy spectra of gamma rays on production.

Strong, A. W.; Wdowczyk, J.; Wolfendale, A. W.



Neutron spectrometry in mixed fields: proportional counter spectrometers.  


Proton recoil proportional counters have been successfully used in many laboratories worldwide for more than 30 years in order to measure high-resolution neutron energy spectra. The method is well elaborated and understood, nevertheless high expertise is required for its proper application. Table 4.1 summarises typical basic data for proton recoil proportional counters and the requirements for their application. It is noteworthy that any limiting parameter can vary to a certain degree depending on the quality of the detectors used (design, gas purity, response functions, etc) and their response matrices, the data analysis and the unfolding procedures applied with a correct evaluation of the uncertainties involved. It is also important to lend a critical eye to details during measurements (e.g. environmental and electronics problems) as well as in subsequent analysis and unfolding (e.g. oscillations due to unfolding artefacts or inadequacies in detector response matrices). It is recommended that any spectrometry system (procedures for measurement and data evaluation) should be tested and validated in well-known neutron fields e.g. 252Cf standard fission or 241Am-Be. One should, however, expect that, due to different room scatter conditions, deviations from the ISO spectra may occur, especially for low neutron energies. In order to demonstrate the capability of the recoil proton counter technique, two examples of typical neutron spectra are shown in Figures 4.20 and 4.21, both measured in mixed neutron-gamma fields at nuclear research reactors. PMID:14756169

Tagziria, H; Hansen, W



atomic spectra 1 Atomic Spectra  

E-print Network

Physics, pp. 88-93 (Rutherford nuclear model), 93-106 (atomic structure and electron spectra) 2. D. W 3. Beiser: Concepts of Modern Physics, pp. 131-161 (atomic structure and electron spectra) 4. E. Lamb, Jr. and R. C. Retherford: The Structure of the Hydrogen Atom by a Microwave Method, Phys

Glashausser, Charles


Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

Colony, J. A.



The jackknife as an approach for uncertainty assessment in gamma spectrometric measurements of uranium isotope ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jackknife as an approach for uncertainty estimation in gamma spectrometric uranium isotope ratio measurements was evaluated. Five different materials ranging from depleted uranium (DU) to high enriched uranium (HEU) were measured using gamma spectrometry. High resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) was used as a reference method for comparing the results obtained with the gamma spectrometric method. The

H. Ramebäck; A. Vesterlund; A. Tovedal; U. Nygren; L. Wallberg; E. Holm; C. Ekberg; G. Skarnemark



Properties of high-spin states in ⁹⁵Tc from ⁹³Nb($alpha$,2n)⁹⁵Tc* ($gamma$) reaction spectrometry: A test of the cluster-core coupling model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of the high angular momentum states in $sup ; 95$Tc up to 5605 keV of excitation have been investigated via measurements of ; excitation functions of $gamma$ ray singles and $gamma$$gamma$ coincidences ; following the ⁹³Nb($alpha$,2n)⁹⁵TC*($gamma$) reaction with $alpha$-; particle energies between 17 and 30 MeV. From these experiments and from high-; resolution singles energy, angular-distribution,




Topics in gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.



EPR study of free radicals in non- and gamma-irradiated nutritive supplements containing anthocyanins concentrate from lyophilized red wine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutritive supplements Enoviton, Enoviton C and Enoviton CE containing standardized anthocyanins from lyophilized red wine, vitamins (some of them) and excipients were investigated by EPR spectrometry before and after gamma-irradiation. Non-irradiated samples exhibit one singlet line with g=2.0039±0.0002, most probably due to free radicals from anthocyanins. After irradiation with 10 kGy gamma-rays, tablets of ?noviton, ?noviton ? and ?noviton ??, all exhibit complex EPR signals centered at a g-value of g=2.0034. The EPR spectrum of irradiated Enoviton is different from that of ?noviton ? or ?noviton ?? due to the overlap of the spectra of microcrystalline cellulose and the background singlet spectrum present in all tablets with the EPR resonance due to irradiated ascorbic acid (in ?noviton ? and ?noviton ??). Gamma-induced free radicals exhibit long time stability—for a six months period the intensity of central peak decrease with 30-40%.

Mladenova, Ralitsa B.; Firzov, Cyril; Yordanov, Nicola D.



Atomic Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Flash animation the user can view the atomic emission spectra (400-700nm) of eight different elements. A dragable marker allows the user to approximate the wavelength of the various spectral lines. The effect of resolution can be examined in the sodium spectrum in the region 550-600nm.


Atomic Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Hyperphysics contains images depicting the light emitted by several elements and their respective spectra. The page also provides a description of how the size of a holographic image scales with the wavelength of the light used to observe it.

Nave, Carl R.



K-Th-Ti systematics and new three-component mixing model of HED meteorites: Prospective study for interpretation of gamma-ray and neutron spectra for the Dawn mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft carries a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND), which will measure and map the abundances of selected elements on the surface of asteroid 4 Vesta. We compare the variability of moderately volatile/refractory incompatible element ratios (K/Th and K/Ti) in howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites with those in other achondrite suites that represent asteroidal crusts, because these ratios may be accurately measured by GRaND and likely reflect initial chemical compositions of the HED parent body. The K/Th and K/Ti variations can differentiate HED meteorites from angrites and some unique eucrite-like lithologies. The results suggest that K, Th, and Ti abundances determined from GRaND data could not only confirm that Vesta is the parent body of HED meteorites but might also allow recognition of as-yet unsampled compositional terranes on Vesta. Besides the K-Th-Ti systematics study, we propose a new three-component mixing model for interpretation of GRaND spectra, required because the spatial resolution of GRaND is coarser than the spectral (compositional) heterogeneity of Vesta's surface. The mixing model uses abundances of K, Ti, Fe, and Mg that will be analyzed more accurately than other prospective GRaND-analyzed elements. We examine propagated errors due to GRaND analytical uncertainties and intrinsic errors that stem from an assumption introduced into the mixing model. The error investigation suggests that the mixing model can adequately estimate not only the diogenite/eucrite mixing ratio but also the abundances of most major and minor elements within the GRaND propagated errors.

Usui, Tomohiro; McSween, Harry Y. _jr., Jr.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Prettyman, Thomas H.



Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra.  


Peak overlap is a recurrent issue in alpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown for a few challenging spectra with high statistical precision. The algorithm outperforms the best available routines for high-resolution spectrometry, which may facilitate a more reliable determination of alpha emission probabilities in the future. It is also applicable to alpha spectra with inferior energy resolution. PMID:25497323

Pommé, S; Caro Marroyo, B



Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

Cline, T. L. (editor); Ramaty, R. (editor)



Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.



Analysis of expressed sequence tags from a single wheat cultivar facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data and discrimination of gamma gliadin proteins that may play different functional roles in flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The gamma gliadins are a complex group of proteins that together with other gluten proteins determine the functional properties of wheat flour. The proteins have unusually high levels of glutamine and proline and contain large regions of repetitive sequences. While most gamma gliadins are monomeric proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues, some contain an additional cysteine residue that enables

Susan B. Altenbach; Wiliiam H. Vensel; Frances M. DuPont



Precise determination of photon emission probabilities for the main X- and gamma-rays of 226Ra in equilibrium with daughters.  


Within the context of a joint project between VNIIM (D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology) and LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel), special 226Ra sources were prepared by VNIIM in order to determine as accurately as possible the absolute photon emission probabilities for the main X- and gamma-rays following the decay of 226Ra and daughters. The main purpose of this work was to supplement a previous joint study by Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiaçoes Ionizantes (LNMRI) and LNHB to determine their relative values. Some specific point sources were produced for alpha-spectrometry measurements that were undertaken at VNIIM and also for gamma-ray spectrometry studies at VNIIM and LNHB. The 226Ra activity for the gamma-spectrometric sources was measured relative to the alpha-spectrometric sources by comparing the counts of the main gamma-rays. The total uncertainty of the activity for these sources was 0.2% (k = 1). Using calibrated germanium detectors, several X- and gamma-ray spectra were analyzed to determine the absolute photon emission probabilities of 226Ra in radioactive equilibrium with daughters. The results are presented and compared to other published values. PMID:14987665

Morel, J; Sepman, S; Rasko, M; Terechtchenko, E; Delgado, J U



Infrared spectra of U.S. automobile original finishes (post - 1989). VIII: In situ identification of bismuth vanadate using extended range FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  


Chrome Yellow (PbCrO4 ·xPbSO4 ) was a common pigment in U.S. automobile OEM finishes for more than three decades, but in the early 1990s its use was discontinued. One of its main replacements was Bismuth Vanadate (BiVO4 ·nBi2 MoO6 , n = 0-2), which was commercially introduced in 1985, as this inorganic pigment also produces a very bright hue and has excellent outdoor durability. This paper describes the in situ identification of Bismuth Vanadate in automotive finishes using FT-IR and dispersive Raman spectroscopy and XRF spectrometry. Some differentiation of commercial formulations of this pigment is possible based on far-infrared absorptions, Raman data, and elemental analysis. The spectral differences arise from the presence or absence of molybdenum, the use of two crystal polymorphs of BiVO4 , and differences in pigment stabilizers. Bismuth Vanadate is usually not used alone, and it is typically found with Isoindoline Yellow, hydrous ferric oxide, rutile, Isoindolinone Yellow 3R, or various combinations of these. PMID:24261821

Suzuki, Edward M



Infrared spectra of U.S. automobile original finishes (1998-2000). IX. identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments using extended range FT-IR spectroscopy, XRF spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis.  


Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was the first viable synthetic pearl pigment developed 50 years ago. It was only used for a limited time period in automotive paint (model years 1998-2000), serving to produce luster for a single Chrysler black metallic color. Identification of this pigment in an unknown automotive paint can thus facilitate determination of the vehicle of origin. Bismuth oxychloride imparts effects similar to those produced by silver/white mica pearlescent pigments, and such a pigment was used together with bismuth oxychloride in at least one original equipment manufacturer (OEM) basecoat. Silver/white micas are now used primarily in white pearl tricoat systems. This article describes the identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments in automotive finishes using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis. Data for some cadmium pigments, which were used in automotive paint several decades ago, are also presented as they produce infrared absorptions similar to that of bismuth oxychloride. PMID:24646090

Suzuki, Edward M



Single-protein nanomechanical mass spectrometry in real time.  


Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) resonators can detect mass with exceptional sensitivity. Previously, mass spectra from several hundred adsorption events were assembled in NEMS-based mass spectrometry using statistical analysis. Here, we report the first realization of single-molecule NEMS-based mass spectrometry in real time. As each molecule in the sample adsorbs on the resonator, its mass and position of adsorption are determined by continuously tracking two driven vibrational modes of the device. We demonstrate the potential of multimode NEMS-based mass spectrometry by analysing IgM antibody complexes in real time. NEMS-based mass spectrometry is a unique and promising new form of mass spectrometry: it can resolve neutral species, provide a resolving power that increases markedly for very large masses, and allow the acquisition of spectra, molecule-by-molecule, in real time. PMID:22922541

Hanay, M S; Kelber, S; Naik, A K; Chi, D; Hentz, S; Bullard, E C; Colinet, E; Duraffourg, L; Roukes, M L




EPA Science Inventory

Sulfonylurea herbicides have been studied using neg-ion desorption chem.-ionization (DCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and DCI-MS/MS techniques. Both {M-H]- and M.- ions were obsd. in the DCI mass spectra. The collisonally activated dissocn. (CAD) spectra were characteristic of the str...


MCMC-based inversion algorithm dedicated to NEMS mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano Electro Mechanical Systems (NEMS) provide new perspectives in the mass spectrometry field. This new generation of sensors is sensitive enough to detect a single molecule. Thus, it is possible to estimate a concentration profile in a counting-mode which brings a reduced noise and a higher sensitivity. In this paper, first, we briefly describe the measurement system. Then we propose a probabilistic model of the acquisition system in the form of an input-output system from which we can deduce the likelihood of the unknowns in the data and a Bayesian inference approach with a hierarchical Bernoulli-Gamma prior model. To do the computation we propose the use of a Multiple-Try Metropolis Monte-Carlo Markov-Chain algorithm. Multiple-Try Metropolis proposal functions are adapted to the model, especially to the discrete nature of the problem. Our approach provides an automatic robust estimation of mass spectra. We test the proposed algorithm both on experimental and on simulated data. We discuss the performances of the algorithm and the robustness of the estimation.

Pérenon, R.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.; Sage, E.; Duraffourg, L.; Hentz, S.; Brenac, A.; Morel, R.; Grangeat, P.



Analysis of expressed sequence tags from a single wheat cultivar facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data and discrimination of gamma gliadin proteins that may play different functional roles in flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complement of gamma gliadin genes expressed in the wheat cultivar Butte 86 was evaluated by analyzing publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) data. Eleven contigs were assembled from 153 Butte 86 ESTs. Nine of the contigs encoded full-length proteins and four of the proteins contained an...


Galaxy and Stellar Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students learn that galaxies shine on the basis of their intergrated stellar population, therefore, adding together different stellar spectra should reproduce the spectra of a galaxy. This activity contains an applet which allows one to add spectra of up to four different stars to produce a resultant spectra. To reproduce qualitatively a spectra of a galaxy one can add together and F main sequence star and a K Giant. The spectra are normalized by V-band luminosity.

Department, University O.



Radiation Metabolomics. 3. Biomarker Discovery in the Urine of Gamma-Irradiated Rats Using a Simplified Metabolomics Protocol of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Combined with Random Forests Machine Learning Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Radiation metabolomics employing mass spectral technologies represents a plausible means of high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry. A simplified metabolomics protocol is described that employs ubiquitous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and open source software including random forests machine learning algorithm to uncover latent biomarkers of 3 Gy ? radiation in rats. Urine was collected from six male Wistar rats and six sham-irradiated controls for 7 days, 4 prior to irradiation and 3 after irradiation. Water and food consumption, urine volume, body weight, and sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, phosphate and urea excretion showed major effects from exposure to ? radiation. The metabolomics protocol uncovered several urinary metabolites that were significantly up-regulated (glyoxylate, threonate, thymine, uracil, p-cresol) and down-regulated (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelaate) as a result of radiation exposure. Thymine and uracil were shown to derive largely from thymidine and 2?-deoxyuridine, which are known radiation biomarkers in the mouse. The radiation metabolomic phenotype in rats appeared to derive from oxidative stress and effects on kidney function. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a promising platform on which to develop the field of radiation metabolomics further and to assist in the design of instrumentation for use in detecting biological consequences of environmental radiation release. PMID:19630524

Lanz, Christian; Patterson, Andrew D.; Slavík, Josef; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Ledermann, Monika; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.



Detection of low levels of plutonium in natural environments from gamma-ray spectra with advanced methods in robust fitting 1 This work is supported in part by the Department of Defense Nuclear Treaty Programs Office through the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command agent for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and performed at the Pinellas Science, Technology, and Research Center under Grant DASG-609-610-007. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed spectral analysis methodology, RobWin, is experimentally tested for its ability to identify plutonium in highly background-dominated gamma-ray spectra. The method, which builds upon nonlinear robust fitting techniques from RobFit spectral analysis software, emphasizes gradually adding structure to the entire spectrum background shape function after accounting for re-optimized combinations of entire-spectrum photopeak response functions from a user-defined set

G. P Lasche; R. L Coldwell; J. A Nobel



Environmental gamma radiation measurements on the island of Pantelleria.  


The population exposure to those living on the island of Pantelleria, Italy, was estimated by measuring the natural gamma background. Gamma spectra of natural rocks and measurements of absorbed dose in air were taken. A correlation was found between the mean gamma exposure rate and the mean values of natural radionuclide concentrations in the investigated rocks. PMID:1644574

Brai, M; Bellia, S; Di Liberto, R; Dongarra, G; Hauser, S; Parello, F; Puccio, P; Rizzo, S



NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan



Ion beam analysis and alpha spectrometry of sources electrodeposited on several backings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpha sources of several activities were prepared by electrodeposition of natural uranium onto four different backings: stainless steel, Ni, Mo and Ti. The influence of the activity, the type of backing, and the process of heating the source on the energy resolution of the spectra were investigated using alpha spectrometry and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) techniques. Diffusion profiles of the radioactive deposits in the backings were obtained from RBS and related to the results using alpha spectrometry

Ferrero Calabuig, J. L.; Vera Tomé, F.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Roldán García, C.; da Silva, M. F.; Soares, J. C.; Ager, F. J.; Juanes Barber, D.; Rubio Montero, P.



The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Galactic Diffuse Gamma-ray Spectrum from Cosmic-ray In-  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Galactic Diffuse Gamma-ray Spectrum from Cosmic-ray In- teractions with Gas Clouds Michiko OHISHI and Masaki MORI Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University, Australia Abstract Gamma-ray spectra from cosmic-ray proton and electron interactions with gas clouds have

Mori, Masaki


Response to Comment on ``Protein Sequences from Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex Revealed by Mass Spectrometry''  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous peptide sequences extracted from a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex fossil bone and obtained by mass spectrometry have been shown to be statistically significant based on protein database searches using two different search engines and similarity comparisons to authentic tandem mass spectrometry spectra. Specifically, we have validated the sequence GVVGLP(OH)GQR.

John M. Asara; Mary H. Schweitzer; Lewis C. Cantley; John S. Cottrell



Fast Kernel Discriminant Analysis for Classification of Liver Cancer Mass Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of serum samples based on mass spectrometry (MS) has been increasingly used for monitoring disease progression and for diagnosing early disease. However, the classification task in mass spectrometry data is extremely challenging due to the very huge size of peaks (features) on mass spectra. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been widely used for dimension reduction and feature extraction

Jung Hun Oh; Jean Gao



What is Mass Spectrometry?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the American Society for Mass Spectrometry includes information about what mass spectometry is and how it is used. It has many useful figures and references to other materials. The material answers questions such as "What is mass spectrometry and what can it do for you?"

Chiu, Chia M.


Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

Nizkorodov, Sergey


Data Preprocessing in Peak Shape Analysis of Auger Electron Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Factor analysis is an established method of peak shape analysis in Auger electron spectrometry. The influence of different\\u000a commonly used data preprocessing tools onto the results of factor analysis is demonstrated on AES depth profiles of multilayers\\u000a and implantation profiles.\\u000a \\u000a For the analysis of Auger electron spectra it has been traditional to differentiate spectra by Savitzky and Golay’s method\\u000a to

Stefan Baunack



Status of the GAMMA-400 Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of the new space gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-400 for the energy range 100 MeV-3 TeV is presented. The angular resolution of the instrument, 1-2 deg at E(gamma) approximately 100 MeV and approximately 0.01 at E(gamma) greater than 100 GeV, its energy resolution is approximately 1% at E(gamma) greater than 100 GeV, and the proton rejection factor is approximately 10(exp 6) are optimized to address a broad range of science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, studies of Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, gamma-ray bursts, as well as high-precision measurements of spectra of cosmic-ray electrons, positrons, and nuclei.

Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Farber, M. O.; Fradkin, M. I.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leoniv, A. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mazets, E. P.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.



Alpha particle induced gamma yields in uranium hexafluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine has a relatively large (?,n) production cross-section in the MeV range, the energy range of interest for special nuclear materials. In the uranium fuel cycle enriched UF6 in particular is a reasonably prolific source of (?,n) neutrons because along with 235U, 234U becomes enriched and it has a relatively short half-life. This enables the mass content of storage cylinders containing UF6 to be verified by neutron counting methods. In association with such measurements high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (HRGS) measurements using a high-purity Ge detector are often undertaken to determine the 235U enrichment based off the intensity of the direct 186 keV line. The specific (?,n) neutron production, neutrons per second per gram of U, is sensitive to the relative isotopic composition, particularly the 234U concentration, and the traditional gross neutron counting approach is needed to quantitatively interpret the data. In addition to F(?,n) neutrons, ?-induced reaction ?-rays are generated, notably at 110, 197, 582, 891, 1236 and 1275 keV. If one could observe 19F(?,x?) gamma-lines in the HRGS spectra the thought was that perhaps the ?-activity could be estimated directly, and in turn the 234U abundance obtained. For example, by utilizing the ratio of the detected 197-186 keV full energy peaks. However, until now there has been no readily available estimate of the expected strength of the reaction gamma-rays nor any serious consideration as to whether they might be diagnostic or not. In this work we compute the thick target yields of the chief reaction gamma-rays in UF6 using published thin target data. Comparisons are made to the neutron production rates to obtain ?/n estimates, and also to the 235U decay line at 186 keV which we take as a fiducial line. It is shown that the reaction gamma-rays are produced but are far too weak for practical safeguards purposes. Now that the underlying numerical data is readily available however, it can be used to support neutron and gamma production calculations in other fluorine compounds, for example impure plutonium reference materials where fluorine may be present only at the parts per million by weight level yet still present a serious nuisance addition to the neutron production rate.

Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Miller, Karen A.



Measurement of radionuclide activities induced in target components of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 by gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe and LaBr3: Ce detectors.  


Cyclotrons are used worldwide to produce radiopharmaceuticals by proton irradiation of a suitable target. The intense secondary neutron beam generated by proton interactions with the target induce high radionuclide activities in the target assembly parts that may result in an exposure to high dose levels of the operators during maintenance. The main goal of this work is to evaluate gamma-emitting radionuclide activities induced in Havar foils and titanium windows of a target assembly and carousel stripper forks of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 cyclotron. The knowledge of radionuclide inventory for each component is required by many companies to assess risk for operators before waste handling and disposal. Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses were carried out with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors. HPGe is the most used detector for its high energy resolution although it is more suitable for use in a laboratory. The use of LaBr3:Ce can be considered a viable option, particularly in realizing a portable spectrometric system to perform "on-site" measurements and a fast dose rate evaluation before the disposal of activated parts. Due to a high activity of target assembly components replaced after a typical irradiation cycle (about 5000 ?Ah integrated beam current), gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed at a large distance from the detector, even more than 100 cm, or by using a purposely realized Lead-walled collimator. The identification of some key-radionuclides allows to evaluate through simple formulations the dose rate behavior for each component as function of decay time from the last irradiation. The knowledge of the dose rate behavior is a significant piece of information to health physicists for waste handling with safety at work. For an Havar™ foil, the dose rate will be reduced to about 1/1,000 of the starting value after a decay period of approximately 4 y (about 1,500 d), with a relatively safety at product disposal work. For a longer time, only long-lived radionuclides (57)Co, (60)Co, and (54)Mn contribute to dose rate. PMID:24949919

Tomarchio, Elio



Line positions and intensities for the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands of (16)O3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using 0.005 cm-resolution Fourier transform spectra of (16)O3, generated by electric discharge from a greater than 99.98 percent pure sample of (16)O3, an extensive analysis of the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and the gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands in the 5.7 micron region was performed. The rotational energy levels of the upper (110) and (011) vibrational states of (16)O3 were reproduced within their experimental uncertainties using a Hamiltonian which takes explicitly into account the Coriolis-type interaction occurring between the rotational energy levels of both states. Improved vibrational energies and rotational and coupling constants were also derived for the (110) and (011) states. Precise transition moment constants for these two bands were deduced from analysis of 220 measured line intensities. Finally, a complete list of line positions, intensities, and lower state energies for both bands has been generated.

Devi, V. Malathy; Flaud, J.-M.; Canypeyret, C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.



Gamma-Ray Burst Lines  

E-print Network

The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

Michael S. Briggs



Mass spectrometry and hyphenated instruments in food analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mass spectrometry (MS) has come a long way since the record of the first mass spectra of a simple low molecular weight substance by J.J. Thomson in 1912. Especially over the past decades, MS has been the subject of many developments. Particularly, the hyphenation of MS to gas chromatography (GC) a...


Mass Spectrometry Based Identifications of LMW Glutenin Subunits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is routinely used to identify wheat endosperm proteins. In this method, peptide fragmentation patterns generated by MS/MS are identified using a ‘search engine’ to compare the spectra to those generated in silico from protein sequence databases. Trypsin is a commonly...


Unresolved mossbauer hyperfine spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program analyzes unresolved Mossbauer hyperfine spectra resulting from existence of several local environments in dilute binary iron alloys. It has proven useful in studying effects of imputity atoms on iron Mossbauer spectra.

Schiess, J. R.; Singh, J. J.



LaCl 3(Ce) scintillation detector applications for environmental gamma-ray measurements of low to high dose rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cerium-doped LaCl 3(Ce) scintillator is evaluated with respect to the application in environmental gamma-ray dosimetry and spectrometry. The scintillator is very attractive for gamma-ray spectrometry in the case of high count rate, because it has excellent energy resolution and fast decay time. The performance characteristics of a scintillator with a 25.4 mm×25.4 mm LaCl 3(Ce) crystal are studied and compared to those of a NaI(Tl) scintillator with the same size crystal. Acquired pulse height spectra are converted to dose rates by using the G(E) function method. Though the LaCl 3(Ce) crystal itself produces a rather high background in the crystal itself, the scintillator provides good energy information and dose-rate readings from low to high-level (several mGy/h) by subtracting the self-background. The properties of LaCl 3(Ce) scintillator suggest that the scintillator could be a promising candidate for monitoring at high dose levels as in emergencies, as well as at ordinary levels of background radiation.

Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Tanimura, Yoshihiko



Targeted Quantitation of Proteins by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Quantitative measurement of proteins is one of the most fundamental analytical tasks in a biochemistry laboratory, but widely used immunochemical methods often have limited specificity and high measurement variation. In this review, we discuss applications of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, which allows sensitive, precise quantitative analyses of peptides and the proteins from which they are derived. Systematic development of MRM assays is permitted by databases of peptide mass spectra and sequences, software tools for analysis design and data analysis, and rapid evolution of tandem mass spectrometer technology. Key advantages of MRM assays are the ability to target specific peptide sequences, including variants and modified forms, and the capacity for multiplexing that allows analysis of dozens to hundreds of peptides. Different quantitative standardization methods provide options that balance precision, sensitivity, and assay cost. Targeted protein quantitation by MRM and related mass spectrometry methods can advance biochemistry by transforming approaches to protein measurement. PMID:23517332



Cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the cosmic gamma-ray burst phenomenon is presented. Both the light curves and the energy spectra of these short transient events display a great diversity. However, rapid rise times and periodicities sometimes observed in the light curves suggest a compact object origin. Similarly, absorption and emission features in the energy spectra argue strongly in favor of this interpretation. Counterparts to gamma-bursters in other energy ranges, such as optical and sort x-ray, have still not been identified, however, leading to a large uncertainty in the distances to bursters. Although gamma-ray burst sources have not yet been observed to repeat, numerous bursts from three objects which may be related to the gamma-bursters, called Soft Gamma Repeaters, have been recorded; there is weak evidence that they may be relatively distant on a galactic scale. Future missions, particularly those emphasizing high energy, time, and/or spatial resolution, as well as a multiwavelength approach, are likely to advance our understanding of this enigmatic phenomenon.

Hurley, K.



Implications for High Energy Blazar Spectra from Intergalactic Absorption Calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a knowledge of the density spectra intergalactic low energy photons as a function of redshift, one can derive the intrinsic gamma-ray spectra and luminosities of blazars over a range of redshifts and look for possible trends in blazar evolution. Stecker, Baring & Summerlin have found some evidence hinting that TeV blazars with harder spectra have higher intrinsic TeV gamma-ray luminosities and indicating that there may be a correlation of spectral hardness and luminosity with redshift. Further work along these lines, treating recent observations of the blazers lES02291+200 and 3C279 in the TeV and sub-TeV energy ranges, has recently been explored by Stecker & Scully. GLAST will observe and investigate many blazars in the GeV energy range and will be sensitive to blazers at higher redshifts. I examine the implications high redshift gamma-ray absorption for both theoretical and observational blazer studies.

Stecker, F



The influence of structural features on facile McLafferty-type, even-electron rearrangements in tandem mass spectra of carboxylate anions.  


In contrast to the well-described McLafferty rearrangement in odd-electron cations, relatively little has been reported on comparable rearrangements in even-electron ions, especially negative ions. This work reports a systematic study using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragment ion spectra of carboxylate anions having a suitably acidic proton in the gamma position. The rearrangement process was studied in both ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers; characteristic enolate anions and stable neutral products were formed at low collision energies. The process has diagnostic and analytical potential in, for example, the analysis of peptides having C-terminal serine residues and of 3-hydroxy- or 3-aminocarboxylic acids in complex mixtures. PMID:16628561

Grossert, J Stuart; Cook, Matthew C; White, Robert L



[Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].  


Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids. PMID:17260749

Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan



Z{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} {yields} 0 Processes in SANC  

SciTech Connect

We describe the analytic and numerical evaluation of the {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}Z process cross section and the Z {yields} {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} decay rate within the SANC system multi-channel approach at the one-loop accuracy level with all masses taken into account. The corresponding package for numeric calculations is presented. For checking of the results' correctness we make a comparison with the other independent calculations.

Bardin, D. Yu., E-mail:; Kalinovskaya, L. V., E-mail:; Uglov, E. D., E-mail: [JINR, Dzhelepov Laboratory for Nuclear Problems (Russian Federation)



Study of gamma-ray strength functions  

SciTech Connect

The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.



Stable homotopical algebra and [Gamma]-spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we advertise the category of [Gamma]-spaces as a convenient framework for doing ‘algebra’ over ‘rings’ in stable homotopy theory. [Gamma]-spaces were introduced by Segal [Se] who showed that they give rise to a homotopy category equivalent to the usual homotopy category of connective (i.e. ([minus sign]1)-connected) spectra. Bousfield and Friedlander [BF] later provided model category structures for [Gamma]-spaces. The study of ‘rings, modules and algebras’ based on [Gamma]-spaces became possible when Lydakis [Ly] introduced a symmetric monoidal smash product with good homotopical properties. Here we develop model category structures for modules and algebras, set up (derived) smash products and associated spectral sequences and compare simplicial modules and algebras to their Eilenberg-MacLane spectra counterparts.

Schwede, Stefan



Computational mass spectrometry for small molecules  

PubMed Central

The identification of small molecules from mass spectrometry (MS) data remains a major challenge in the interpretation of MS data. This review covers the computational aspects of identifying small molecules, from the identification of a compound searching a reference spectral library, to the structural elucidation of unknowns. In detail, we describe the basic principles and pitfalls of searching mass spectral reference libraries. Determining the molecular formula of the compound can serve as a basis for subsequent structural elucidation; consequently, we cover different methods for molecular formula identification, focussing on isotope pattern analysis. We then discuss automated methods to deal with mass spectra of compounds that are not present in spectral libraries, and provide an insight into de novo analysis of fragmentation spectra using fragmentation trees. In addition, this review shortly covers the reconstruction of metabolic networks using MS data. Finally, we list available software for different steps of the analysis pipeline. PMID:23453222



Biological particle analysis by mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument that analyzes the chemical composition of biological particles in aerosol or hydrosol form was developed. Efforts were directed toward the acquisition of mass spectra from aerosols of biomolecules and bacteria. The filament ion source was installed on the particle analysis by mass spectrometry system. Modifications of the vacuum system improved the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. After the modifications were incorporated, detailed mass spectra of simple compounds from the three major classes of biomolecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates were obtained. A method of generating bacterial aerosols was developed. The aerosols generated were collected and examined in the scanning electron microscope to insure that the bacteria delivered to the mass spectrometer were intact and free from debris.

Vilker, V. L.; Platz, R. M.



Exploring symbiotic nitrogen fixation and assimilation in pea root nodules by in vivo 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


Nitrogen (N) fixation and assimilation in pea (Pisum sativum) root nodules were studied by in vivo (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by exposing detached nodules to (15)N(2) via a perfusion medium, while recording a time course of spectra. In vivo (31)P NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the physiological state of the metabolically active nodules. The nodules were extracted after the NMR studies and analyzed for total soluble amino acid pools and (15)N labeling of individual amino acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A substantial pool of free ammonium was observed by (15)N NMR to be present in metabolically active, intact nodules. The ammonium ions were located in an intracellular environment that caused a remarkable change in the in vivo (15)N chemical shift. Alkalinity of the ammonium-containing compartment may explain the unusual chemical shift; thus, the observations could indicate that ammonium is located in the bacteroids. The observed (15)N-labeled amino acids, glutamine/glutamate and asparagine (Asn), apparently reside in a different compartment, presumably the plant cytoplasm, because no changes in the expected in vivo (15)N chemical shifts were observed. Extensive (15)N labeling of Asn was observed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is consistent with the generally accepted role of Asn as the end product of primary N assimilation in pea nodules. However, the Asn (15)N amino signal was absent in in vivo (15)N NMR spectra, which could be because of an unfavorable nuclear Overhauser effect. gamma-Aminobutyric acid accumulated in the nodules during incubation, but newly synthesized (15)N gamma-aminobutyric acid seemed to be immobilized in metabolically active pea nodules, which made it NMR invisible. PMID:12529544

Scharff, Anne Marie; Egsgaard, Helge; Hansen, Poul Erik; Rosendahl, Lis



Crack spectra analysis  

SciTech Connect

Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.

Tiernan, M.



Nevan Krogan: Mass Spectrometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture from the iBioSeminars project, presented by Nevan Krogan of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at UC-San Francisco, covers mass spectrometry and its application to molecular biology. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for elucidating the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. More recently, it has been used to characterize biological material, in particular proteins and protein complexes, in a variety of organisms. This lecture will review the underlying principles of how a mass spectrometer works, discuss up to date instrumentation that is presently being used in the biological research setting and provide specific examples of how mass spectrometry is being used to reveal functional insight into different biological systems. The video runs 27:36 and can be downloaded in a number of formats: QuickTime, MP4, M4V, and PPT. The video can also be streamed through YouTube or iTunes U.

Krogan, Nevan



Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander



Environmental Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental mass spectrometry is an important branch of science because it provides many of the data that underlie policy decisions that can directly influence the health of people and ecosystems. Environmental mass spectrometry is currently undergoing rapid development. Among the most relevant directions are a significant broadening of the lists of formally targeted compounds; a parallel interest in nontarget chemicals; an increase in the reliability of analyses involving accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and isotopically labeled standards; and a shift toward faster high-throughput analysis, with minimal sample preparation, involving various approaches, including ambient ionization techniques and miniature instruments. A real revolution in analytical chemistry could be triggered with the appearance of robust, simple, and sensitive portable mass spectrometers that can utilize ambient ionization techniques. If the cost of such instruments is reduced to a reasonable level, mass spectrometers could become valuable household devices.

Lebedev, Albert T.



Gamma rays from molecular clouds  

E-print Network

It is believed that the observed diffuse gamma ray emission from the galactic plane is the result of interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar gas. Such emission can be amplified if cosmic rays penetrate into dense molecular clouds. The propagation of cosmic rays inside a molecular cloud has been studied assuming an arbitrary energy and space dependent diffusion coefficient. If the diffusion coefficient inside the cloud is significantly smaller compared to the average one derived for the galactic disk, the observed gamma ray spectrum appears harder than the cosmic ray spectrum, mainly due to the slower penetration of the low energy particles towards the core of the cloud. This may produce a great variety of gamma ray spectra.

Stefano Gabici; Felix Aharonian; Pasquale Blasi



FOCUS: TOP-DOWN MASS SPECTROMETRY Collective Mass Spectrometry Approaches  

E-print Network

mediated Bottom Up and electron-transfer dissociation facilitated middle and Top Down mass spectrometry (MSFOCUS: TOP-DOWN MASS SPECTROMETRY Collective Mass Spectrometry Approaches Reveal Broad Bottom Up and Middle Down MS analyses, we find relatively few combinatorially modified forms dominate

Shorter, James


VMSL: Virtual Mass Spectrometry Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a series of case studies that can be explored using modern mass spectrometry methods. The problem-solving nature of the site provides students a virtual laboratory experience that can supplement access to mass spectrometry instrumentation.



IUE spectra of F and late A stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of alpha CMi (F5 IV-V), beta Cas (F2 IV), alpha Car (F0 Ib), and gamma Boo (A7 III) in the context of the question as to whether chromospheres disappear in the early F late A portions of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Both alpha CMi (Procyon) and beta Cas show bright emission line spectra indicative of

J. L. Linsky; N. C. Marstad



Optical Spectra of Supernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal evolution of the optical spectra of various types of supernovae (SNe) is illustrated, in part to aid observers classifying supernova candidates. Type II SNe are defined by the presence of hydrogen, and they exhibit a very wide variety of photometric and spectroscopic properties. Among hydrogen-deficient SNe (Type I), three subclasses are now known: those whose early-time spectra show

Alexei V. Filippenko



Gamma Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the time of the k'th arrival in a Poisson process. The arrival number k and the rate of the Poisson process can be varied. The applet illustrates the gamma distribution and a special case of the central limit theorem.

Siegrist, Kyle


SAMPI: Protein Identification with Mass Spectra Alignments  

PubMed Central

Background Mass spectrometry based peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) offer a fast, efficient, and robust method for protein identification. A protein is digested (usually by trypsin) and its mass spectrum is compared to simulated spectra for protein sequences in a database. However, existing tools for analyzing PMFs often suffer from missing or heuristic analysis of the significance of search results and insufficient handling of missing and additional peaks. Results We present an unified framework for analyzing Peptide Mass Fingerprints that offers a number of advantages over existing methods: First, comparison of mass spectra is based on a scoring function that can be custom-designed for certain applications and explicitly takes missing and additional peaks into account. The method is able to simulate almost every additive scoring scheme. Second, we present an efficient deterministic method for assessing the significance of a protein hit, independent of the underlying scoring function and sequence database. We prove the applicability of our approach using biological mass spectrometry data and compare our results to the standard software Mascot. Conclusion The proposed framework for analyzing Peptide Mass Fingerprints shows performance comparable to Mascot on small peak lists. Introducing more noise peaks, we are able to keep identification rates at a similar level by using the flexibility introduced by scoring schemes. PMID:17386090

Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Wilke, Andreas; Böcker, Sebastian



Protein Identification Using Top-Down Spectra*  

PubMed Central

In the last two years, because of advances in protein separation and mass spectrometry, top-down mass spectrometry moved from analyzing single proteins to analyzing complex samples and identifying hundreds and even thousands of proteins. However, computational tools for database search of top-down spectra against protein databases are still in their infancy. We describe MS-Align+, a fast algorithm for top-down protein identification based on spectral alignment that enables searches for unexpected post-translational modifications. We also propose a method for evaluating statistical significance of top-down protein identifications and further benchmark various software tools on two top-down data sets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Salmonella typhimurium. We demonstrate that MS-Align+ significantly increases the number of identified spectra as compared with MASCOT and OMSSA on both data sets. Although MS-Align+ and ProSightPC have similar performance on the Salmonella typhimurium data set, MS-Align+ outperforms ProSightPC on the (more complex) Saccharomyces cerevisiae data set. PMID:22027200

Liu, Xiaowen; Sirotkin, Yakov; Shen, Yufeng; Anderson, Gordon; Tsai, Yihsuan S.; Ting, Ying S.; Goodlett, David R.; Smith, Richard D.; Bafna, Vineet; Pevzner, Pavel A.



Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.  


We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D



Gamma radiation detectors for safeguards applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IAEA uses extensively a variety of gamma radiation detectors to verify nuclear material. These detectors are part of standardized spectrometry systems: germanium detectors for High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS); Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for Room Temperature Gamma Spectrometry (RTGS); and NaI(Tl) detectors for Low Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (LRGS). HRGS with high-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen is widely used in nuclear safeguards to verify the isotopic composition of plutonium or uranium in non-irradiated material. Alternative cooling systems have been evaluated and electrically cooled HpGe detectors show a potential added value, especially for unattended measurements. The spectrometric performance of CZT detectors, their robustness and simplicity are key to the successful verification of irradiated materials. Further development, such as limiting the charge trapping effects in CZT to provide improved sensitivity and energy resolution are discussed. NaI(Tl) detectors have many applications—specifically in hand-held radioisotope identification devices (RID) which are used to detect the presence of radioactive material where a lower resolution is sufficient, as they benefit from a generally higher sensitivity. The Agency is also continuously involved in the review and evaluation of new and emerging technologies in the field of radiation detection such as: Peltier-cooled CdTe detectors; semiconductor detectors operating at room temperature such as HgI 2 and GaAs; and, scintillator detectors using glass fibres or LaBr 3. A final conclusion, proposing recommendations for future action, is made.

Carchon, R.; Moeslinger, M.; Bourva, L.; Bass, C.; Zendel, M.



Atmospheric gamma-ray and neutron flashes  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray pulses are calculated from 2D numerical simulations of an upward atmospheric discharge in a self-consistent electric field using the multigroup approach to the kinetics of relativistic runaway electrons (REs). Computed {gamma}-ray numbers and spectra are consistent with those of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs) observed aboard spacecrafts. The RE flux is concentrated mainly within the domain of the Blue Jet fluorescence. This confirms that exactly the domain adjacent to a thundercloud is the source of the observed {gamma}-ray flashes. The yield of photonuclear neutrons is calculated. One {gamma}-ray pulse generates {approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} neutrons. The possibility of the direct deposition of REs to the detector readings and the origin of the lightning-advanced TGFs are discussed.

Babich, L. P., E-mail:; Kudryavtsev, A. Yu., E-mail:; Kudryavtseva, M. L., E-mail:; Kutsyk, I. M. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)



Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

Weekes, Trevor C.



Gamma Ray Astrophysics: New insight into the universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray observations of the solar system, the galaxy and extragalactic radiation are reported. Topics include: planets, comets, and asteroids; solar observations; interstellar medium and galactic structure; compact objects; cosmology; and diffuse radiation. The instrumentation used in gamma ray astronomy in covered along with techniques for the analysis of observational spectra.

Fichtel, C. E.; Trombka, J. I.



Cascade Model of an Anomaly in Blazar Spectra at Very High Energy  

E-print Network

It is well known that the effect of gamma-ray absorption on extragalactic background light (EBL) is weakly expressed in the spectra of some blazars. It is shown that a secondary component generated by electromagnetic cascades might considerably decrease the statistical significance of this anomaly. Observational results indicate the existence of the cascade component in the spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources, thus supporting the proposed model.

Dzhatdoev, Timur



The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of PSR 1706 spectrum of gamma rays between 0.5 to 4 TeV is obtained and is found to be consistent with previous results. In addition, we analyzed Chandra archive data, to derive the X-ray spectra of both the pulsar and the nebula

Enomoto, Ryoji


Heavy meson mass-spectra by general relativistic methods (*)  

SciTech Connect

By applying the classical methods of general relativity to elementary particles, one can get-in a natural way-the observed confinement of their constituents, avoiding any recourse to phenomenological models such as the bag model and allowing the deduction of the heavy meson (i.e., charmonium (J/psi) and bottomonium (..gamma..)) mass-spectra.

Italiano, A.; Lattuada, M.; Maccarrone, G.D.; Recami, E.; Riggi, F.; Vinciguerra, D.



A gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na/(7)Be activity ratio measurement.  


In this study, a digital gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer was developed and examined for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na and (7)Be in air-filter sample monitoring. The spectrometer consists of two bismuth germanate scintillators (BGO) and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The spectrometer design allows a more selective measurement of (22)Na with a significant background reduction by gamma-gamma coincidence events processing. Hence, the system provides a more sensitive way to quantify trace amounts of (22)Na than normal high resolution gamma spectrometry providing a critical limit of 3 mBq within a 20 h count. The use of a list-mode data acquisition technique enabled simultaneous determination of (22)Na and (7)Be activity concentrations using a single measurement by coincidence and anticoincidence mode respectively. PMID:24412563

Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Stukel, Matthew; Mekarski, Pawel



Direct analysis of cannabis samples by desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry.  


Fast analysis of cannabis samples without prior sample preparation or chromatography was performed using desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). The MS(2) spectra of the molecular ions of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) formed in DAPPI-MS showed distinct product ions, unlike the protonated molecules formed with other ambient mass spectrometry techniques, making possible the reliable identification of THC from cannabis samples. PMID:22977002

Kauppila, Tiina J; Flink, Anu; Laakkonen, Ulla-Maija; Aalberg, Laura; Ketola, Raimo A



Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.



Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed Short-lived Fission Product Gamma Data  

SciTech Connect

A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at short times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.

Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.



EGRET Observations of High-energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Blazars: an Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has so far detected 51 blazars during phases 1, 2, and 3, and cycle 4 of the CGRO mission. We present here a summary of these observations, including flux variations and spectra of the blazars. The high luminosities and time variations seen in the gamma-ray data

R. Mukherjee; D. L. Bertsch; S. D. Bloom; B. L. Dingus; J. A. Esposito; C. E. Fichtel; R. C. Hartman; S. D. Hunter; G. Kanbach; D. A. Kniffen; Y. C. Lin; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; L. M. McDonald; P. F. Michelson; C. von Montigny; A. Muecke; P. L. Nolan; M. Pohl; O. Reimer; E. Schneid; P. Sreekumar; D. J. Thompson



Mass spectrometry with accelerators.  


As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH?2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative methods of isobar separation. These techniques are discussed in the latter part of the review. PMID:22031277

Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E



The analysis of salen complexes by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry provides useful structural information about salen complexes and salen-based\\u000a oxo transfer catalysts that are not appreciably soluble in organic solvents. It was discovered that initial dissolution of\\u000a these complexes in trifluoroacetic acid was crucial for producing good FAB mass spectra. Trifluoroacetic acid helps dissolve\\u000a the salen-based catalysts, concentrates the analyte molecules at the matrix

S. K. Huang; M. H. Rood; S. H. Zhao



Spectral feature of 31 December 1981 gamma-ray burst not confirmed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of a gamma ray burst at 01:37 UT on December 31, 1981 using the SMM gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) are compared with those made by the Konus instruments on Veneras 11-14. Burst time profiles, photon spectra, and detector energy loss spectra for three time intervals are compared for the GRS and the Konus instruments. It is concluded that the SMM spectra exhibit no evidence for the presence of emission features reported by the Konus group.

Nolan, P. L.; Share, G. H.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Matz, S. M.



Measurements of Natural Radionuclides in Vegetables by Gamma Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the activity of natural radionuclides uranium, thorium, and potassium, in different vegetables in Malaysia, measured with a p-type high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Potassium radionuclides were the most prevalent element in the tested samples, whose activity ranges from 138.89 to 2660.31 Bq/kg. Meanwhile, the activity of uranium was found to be within the minimum detection limit (MDL) to 46.94 Bq/kg, and thorium from < MDL to 192.98 Bq/kg. The annual dose was in the range 0.001 to 0.06 mSv, within the worldwide range of 0.29 mSv/year for ingestion of vegetables.

Saeed, M. A.; Zainal, N. Jenal; Hossain, I.; Javed, M. A.; Mubarak, A. A.



Induced Radioactivity in Recovered Skylab Materials. [gamma ray spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four radioactive isotopes found in aluminum and stainless steel samples from Skylab debris were recovered in Australia. The low-level activity was induced by high-energy protons and neutrons in the space environment. Measurements of the specific activities are given.

Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.



"Decoupled" Proton NMR Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution proton NMR spectra are recorded in a new form where all resonances are singlets at the chemical-shift frequencies, with no spin-spin splittings. These "decoupled" proton spectra are derived from two-dimensional J spectra after real Fourier transformation (without frequency discrimination in F1) so that each spin multiplet lies along both the 45° and the 135° diagonal, forming a pattern similar to St. Andrew's cross, with C 4 symmetry. The chemical shifts are located by searching for these centers of symmetry with a postacquisition data-processing algorithm. This is designed to facilitate the separation of overlapping and interpenetrating spin multiplets. The method is illustrated with applications to the 400 MHz high-resolution proton spectra of dehydrotestosterone and 4-androsten-3,17-dione. It is also possible to separate the spectra of components in a mixture and this is illustrated by breaking down the spectrum of an aqueous solution of D-glucose into subspectra from the ? and ? anomers, in order to follow the time evolution of the mutarotation.

Woodley, M.; Freeman, R.


Mass Spectrometry and Protein Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass spectrometry is a central analytical technique for protein research and for the study of biomolecules in general. Driven by the need to identify, characterize, and quantify proteins at ever increasing sensitivity and in ever more complex samples, a wide range of new mass spectrometryâÂÂbased analytical platforms and experimental strategies have emerged. Here we review recent advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation in the context of current and emerging research strategies in protein science.

Bruno Domon (ETH Zurich;Institute of Molecular Systems Biology); Ruedi Aebersold (University of Zurich;Faculty of Sciences/Institute of Molecular Systems Biology)



Pattern recognition in gamma-gamma coincidence data sets  

SciTech Connect

Considerable amounts of tedious labor are required to manually scan high-resolution 1D slices of two dimensional {gamma}-{gamma} coincident matrices for relevant and exciting structures. This is particularly true when the interesting structures are of weak intensity. We are working on automated search methods for the detection of rotational band structures in the full 2D space using pattern recognition techniques. For nominal sized data sets (1024{times}1024), however, these techniques only become computationally feasible through the use of Fourier Transform methods. Furthermore the presentation of data matrices as images rather than series of 1D spectra has been shown to be useful. In this paper we will present the data manipulation techniques we have developed.

Manatt, D.R.; Barnes, F.L.; Becker, J.A.; Candy, J.V.; Henry, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Brinkman, M.J. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)



Spectral archives: extending spectral libraries to analyze both identified and unidentified spectra.  

SciTech Connect

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments yield multiple, nearly identical spectra of the same peptide in various laboratories, but proteomics researchers typically do not leverage the unidentified spectra produced in other labs to decode spectra they generate. We propose a spectral archives approach that clusters MS/MS datasets, representing similar spectra by a single consensus spectrum. Spectral archives extend spectral libraries by analyzing both identified and unidentified spectra in the same way and maintaining information about peptide spectra that are common across species and conditions. Thus archives offer both traditional library spectrum similarity-based search capabilities along with new ways to analyze the data. By developing a clustering tool, MS-Cluster, we generated a spectral archive from ?1.18 billion spectra that greatly exceeds the size of existing spectral repositories. We advocate that publicly available data should be organized into spectral archives rather than be analyzed as disparate datasets, as is mostly the case today.

Frank, Ari M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Shah, Anuj R.; Carver, Jeremy J.; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Ronald J.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pevzner, Pavel A.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Barry C. Fam and Craig A. Merlic of the University of California - Los Angeles, was established to provide chemistry students with a library of spectroscopy problems. Interpretation of spectra is a technique that requires practice - this site provides 1H NMR and 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY and IR spectra of various compounds for students to interpret. Hopefully, these problems will provide a useful resource to better understand spectroscopy. The page was given a "Top 5% Chemistry Site" award for its usefulness and content. This is a great resource for anyone interested in either biochemistry or chemistry.

Fam, Barry C.; Merlic, Craig A.



Investigation of {gamma} radiation from {sup 178}Hf in the respective (n, n Prime {gamma}) reaction  

SciTech Connect

The spectra and angular distributions of gamma rays were measured in the reaction {sup 178}Hf(n, n Prime {gamma}) induced by a beam of fast reactor neutrons. Data onmultipole mixtures in gamma transitions and a lot of new information about gamma transitions of energy 1.5 to 3.0 MeV were obtained. A comparison of these results with information known from the respective (n, {gamma}) reaction made it possible to refine the schemes of deexcitation of {sup 178}Hf levels at energies above 1.5 MeV, to determine more precisely features of these levels, and to introduce new levels and rotation bands at excitation energies of about 2MeV.

Govor, L. I.; Demidov, A. M.; Kurkin, V. A., E-mail:; Mikhailov, I. V. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)



Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with transmission of energetic primary cluster ions through foil targets  

SciTech Connect

We developed time-of-flight (TOF) secondary ion (SI) mass spectrometry that provides informative SI ion mass spectra without needing a sophisticated ion beam pulsing system. In the newly developed spectrometry, energetic large cluster ions with energies of the order of sub MeV or greater are used as primary ions. Because their impacts on the target surface produce high yields of SIs, the resulting SI mass spectra are informative. In addition, the start signals necessary for timing information on primary ion incidence are provided by the detection signals of particles emitted from the rear surface of foil targets upon transmission of the primary ions. This configuration allows us to obtain positive and negative TOF SI mass spectra without pulsing system, which requires precise control of the primary ions to give the spectra with good mass resolution. We also successfully applied the TOF SI mass spectrometry with energetic cluster ion impacts to the chemical structure characterization of organic thin film targets.

Hirata, K., E-mail: [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Saitoh, Y.; Chiba, A.; Yamada, K.; Matoba, S.; Narumi, K. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)



Gamma, Beta, Erf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for gamma, beta and erf functions including factorials, binomials, gamma functions and inverses, differentiated gamma functions, beta functions and inverses, probability integrals and inverses, Frensnel integrals and exponential integrals.


Mass Spectrometry of Glycans  

PubMed Central

Powerful new strategies based on mass spectrometry are revolutionizing the structural analysis and profiling of glycans and glycoconjugates. We survey here the major biosynthetic pathways that underlie the biological diversity in glycobiology, with emphasis on glycoproteins, and the approaches that can be used to address the resulting heterogeneity. Included among these are derivatizations, on- and off-line chromatography, electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and a variety of dissociation methods, the recently introduced electron-based techniques being of particular interest. PMID:24010834

Han, Liang; Costello, Catherine E.



Photon spectrometry for the determination of the dose-rate constant of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources  

SciTech Connect

Accurate determination of dose-rate constant ({lambda}) for interstitial brachytherapy sources emitting low-energy photons (<50 keV) has remained a challenge in radiation dosimetry because of the lack of a suitable absolute dosimeter for accurate measurement of the dose rates near these sources. Indeed, a consensus value of {lambda} taken as the arithmetic mean of the dose-rate constants determined by different research groups and dosimetry techniques has to be used at present for each source model in order to minimize the uncertainties associated with individual determinations of {lambda}. Because the dosimetric properties of a source are fundamentally determined by the characteristics of the photons emitted by the source, a new technique based on photon spectrometry was developed in this work for the determination of dose-rate constant. The photon spectrometry technique utilized a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer to measure source-specific photon characteristics emitted by the low-energy sources and determine their dose-rate constants based on the measured photon-energy spectra and known dose-deposition properties of mono-energetic photons in water. This technique eliminates many of the difficulties arising from detector size, the energy dependence of detector sensitivity, and the use of non-water-equivalent solid phantoms in absolute dose rate measurements. It also circumvents the uncertainties that might be associated with the source modeling in Monte Carlo simulation techniques. It was shown that the estimated overall uncertainty of the photon spectrometry technique was less than 4%, which is significantly smaller than the reported 8-10% uncertainty associated with the current thermo-luminescent dosimetry technique. In addition, the photon spectrometry technique was found to be stable and quick in {lambda} determination after initial setup and calibration. A dose-rate constant can be determined in less than two hours for each source. These features make it ideal to determine the dose-rate constant of each source model from a larger and more representative sample of actual sources and to use it as a quality assurance resource for periodic monitoring of the constancy of {lambda} for brachytherapy sources used in patient treatments.

Chen, Zhe Jay; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)



In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis  

SciTech Connect

The direct detection of tributyl phosphate (TBP) on rocks using molecular beam surface analysis [MBSA or in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)] is demonstrated. Quantities as low as 250 ng were detected on basalt and sandstone with little or no sample preparation. Detection of TBP on soil has proven to be more problematic and requires further study. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is more difficult to detect because it is very reactive with surfaces of interest. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect EDTA if the acidity of the surface is controlled. The detection of EDTA-metal complexes is currently an open question, but evidence is presented for the detection of ions arising from a EDTA-lead complex. Carboxylic acids (i.e., citric, ascorbic, malic, succinic, malonic, and oxalic) give characteristic SIM spectra, but their detection on sample surfaces awaits evaluation.

Groenewold, G.S.; Applehans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.



Simultaneous analysis of butene isomer mixtures using process mass spectrometry.  


The feasibility of simultaneous analysis of mixtures containing two to four butene isomers and up to six total components using process mass spectrometry is assessed. As for typical (nonisomeric) applications of process mass spectrometry, simultaneous analysis is based on the assumption that the electron ionization mass spectra of mixtures are linear combinations of the spectra of the individual constituents. Limits of detection for binary isomer mixtures are on the order of 0.1% to 10%, limited by the ability to distinguish small differences between similar spectra. As spectral and mixture complexity increase, both accuracy and precision decrease. Not surprisingly the similarity of the spectra of stereoisomers cis- and trans-2-butene is greater than that of the other (nonstereoisomeric) isomer pairs, and mixtures containing both cis- and trans-2-butene are the most difficult to quantitate. However, even for mixtures of all four butenes, accuracy (root-mean-square error = 2.43%), precision (average coefficient of variation = 6.72%), and linearity (correlation coefficient of a plot of measured versus actual concentration r2 = 0.985 +/- 0.002) are reasonably good. PMID:11118115

Bennett, K H; Cook, K D; Seebach, G L



The POPOP4 library and codes for preparing secondary gamma-ray production cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The POPOP4 code for converting secondary gamma ray yield data to multigroup secondary gamma ray production cross sections and the POPOP4 library of secondary gamma ray yield data are described. Recent results of the testing of uranium and iron data sets from the POPOP4 library are given. The data sets were tested by comparing calculated secondary gamma ray pulse height spectra measured at the ORNL TSR-II reactor.

Ford, W. E., III



Localization of inclusions in multiple prompt gamma ray analysis: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the feasibility of using low energy gamma rays from neutron capture to localize slabs inside samples. A new system based on two gamma ray detectors with 2D collimators to be tested at the INES beamline at the pulsed neutron source ISIS (Oxford, UK) is described. The system provides a localization of slabs inside extended samples by using gamma ray self-absorption. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations of the beamline were carried out to model gamma spectra from test samples.

Miceli, A.; Festa, G.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.



Differential mobility spectrometry-driven shotgun lipidomics.  


The analysis of lipids by mass spectrometry (MS) can provide in-depth characterization for many forms of biological samples. However, such workflows can also be hampered by challenges like low chromatographic resolution for lipid separations and the convolution of mass spectra from isomeric and isobaric species. To address these issues, we describe the use of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) as a rapid and predictable separation technique within a shotgun lipidomics workflow, with a special focus on phospholipids (PLs). These analytes, ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI), are filtered using DMS prior to MS analysis. The observed separation (measured in terms of DMS compensation voltage) is affected by several factors, including the m/z of the lipid ion, the structure of an individual ion, and the presence of chemical modifiers in the DMS cell. Such DMS separations can simplify the analysis of complex extracts in a robust and reproducible manner, independent of utilized MS instrumentation. The predictable separation achieved with DMS can facilitate correct lipid assignments among many isobaric and isomeric species independent of the resolution settings of the MS analysis. This leads to highly comprehensive and quantitative lipidomic outputs through rapid profiling analyses, such as Q1 and MRM scans. The ultimate benefit of the DMS separation in this unique shotgun lipidomics workflow is its ability to separate many isobaric and isomeric lipids that by standard shotgun lipidomics workflows are difficult to assess precisely, for example, ether and diacyl species and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) lipids. PMID:25160652

Lintonen, Tuulia P I; Baker, Paul R S; Suoniemi, Matti; Ubhi, Baljit K; Koistinen, Kaisa M; Duchoslav, Eva; Campbell, J Larry; Ekroos, Kim



Mass Spectrometry Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, distributed on YouTube by the Royal Society of Chemistry is on the basic principles of mass spectrometry, using a magnetic sector instrument to demonstrate how specific m/z ratios can be selected. The theory and operation of MS, including the chemistry of ionization and fragmentation is described at an introductory level. There is also an excellent example of the use of high resolution MS to differentiate between nominal mass and actual mass. The video does a very good job of explaining the concept such that only a little background knowledge is required. The video is short enough (6 mins), that it would be very useful in a class setting or for students outside of class. The ultimate strength of this video is the general nature of the content that makes it appealing to a wide audience. The video may be most appropriate in a lower-level general education science course (i.e forensic science) or as a quick orientation video for instrumental analysis students prior to introducing mathematical or operational concepts. This video would also be helpful for a lay science person who wishes to learn more about mass spectrometry from a general interest perspective.



Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.  


Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P



Mass spectrometry in ionospheric research.  


Mass spectrometry played a key role in the development of the understanding of the earth's ionosphere. Of primary importance was its use for in situ atmospheric measurements of the ion and neutral composition of the atmosphere. Mass spectrometry has also played an essential role in the laboratory measurement of critical ionospheric molecular processes. Examples of both are given. PMID:17099890

Ferguson, Eldon E



Mass Spectrometry and Biotechnology Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ionsource is a website that provides access to an index of resources including tutorials, links to downloadable sites, jobs and conference information involving mass spectrometry and biotechnology subjects. Examples of tutorials include lessons on atomic mass and amino acid residue mass. For a review of mass spectrometry or biotechnology or for an introduction, this site provides a well-rounded source of information.



On the origin of the particle fluxes from the thunderclouds: Energy spectra analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous measurements of the gamma ray differential energy spectra, electric field disturbances, and meteorological conditions provided by experimental facilities located at Mt. Aragats in Armenia allows to establish the model of particle acceleration and propagation in thunderstorm atmosphere. We present comparisons of measured and modeled thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs). The origin of the majority of TGEs is the MOS process —the modification of energy spectra of cosmic ray electrons in the atmospheric electric fields. The gamma ray differential energy spectra are well described by the power law function with indexes in the range -1.5\\div-2.5 for the electric field strengths 0.8-1.5 kV/cm at altitudes of 3400-5000 m a.s.l. The good agreement of the characteristics of experimental and simulated TGEs gives hope to estimate the intracloud electric field by the observed parameters of TGE gamma ray energy spectra.

Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Vanyan, L.



Feature selection and machine learning with mass spectrometry data.  


Mass spectrometry has been used in biochemical research for a long time. However, its potential for discovering proteomic biomarkers using protein mass spectra has aroused tremendous interest in the last few years. In spite of its potential for biomarker discovery, it is recognized that the identification of meaningful proteomic features from mass spectra needs careful evaluation. Hence, extracting meaningful features and discriminating the samples based on these features are still open areas of research. Several research groups are actively involved in making the process as perfect as possible. In this chapter, we provide a review of major contributions toward feature selection and classification of proteomic mass spectra involving MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF technology. PMID:19957152

Datta, Susmita; Pihur, Vasyl



An imaging neutron/gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the test results of a neutron/gamma-ray imaging spectrometer for the identification and location of radioactive and special nuclear materials. Radioactive materials that could be fashioned into a radiation dispersal device typically emit gamma rays, while fissile materials such as uranium and plutonium emit both neutrons and gamma rays via spontaneous or induced fission. The simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays is a clear indication of the presence of fissile material. The instrument works as a double-scatter telescope, requiring a neutron or gamma ray to undergo an interaction in two detectors to be considered a valid event. While this requirement reduces the detector efficiency, it yields information about the direction and energy of the incident particle, which is then used to reconstruct an image of the emitting source. Because of this imaging capability background events can be rejected, decreasing the number of events required for high confidence detection and thereby greatly improving its sensitivity. The instrument is optimized for the detection of neutrons with energies from 1-20 MeV and gamma rays from 0.4 to 10 MeV. Images and energy spectra for neutron and gamma rays are reported for several sources including depleted uranium and plutonium. In addition, the effect of neutron source shielding is investigated.

Madden, Amanda C.; Bloser, Peter F.; Fourguette, Dominique; Larocque, Liane; Legere, Jason S.; Lewis, Matt; McConnell, Mark L.; Rousseau, Marissa; Ryan, James M.



Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some basic observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Although some properties were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the Compton Observatory in the past three years. The new observation with the greatest impact has been the observed isotropic distribution of bursts along with a deficiency of weak bursts which would be expected from a homogeneous burst distribution. This is not compatible with any known Galactic population of objects. Gamma-ray bursts show an enormous variety of burst morphologies and a wide spread in burst durations. The spectra of gamma-ray bursts are characterized by rapid variations and peak power which is almost entirely in the gamma-ray energy range. Delayed gamma-ray burst photons extending to GeV energies have been detected for the first time. A time dilation effect has also been reported to be observed in gamma-ray, bursts. The observation of a gamma-ray burst counterpart in another wavelength region has yet to be made.

Fishman, G. J.



Direct recovery of fluctuation spectra from tomographic shear spectra  

SciTech Connect

Forthcoming experiments will enable us to determine high precision tomographic shear spectra. Matter density fluctuation spectra, at various z, should then be recovered from them, in order to constrain the model and determine the DE state equation. Available analytical expressions, however, do the opposite, enabling us to derive shear spectra from fluctuation spectra. Here we find the inverse expression, yielding density fluctuation spectra from observational tomographic shear spectra. The procedure involves SVD techniques for matrix inversion. We show in detail how the approach works and provide a few examples.

Mezzetti, Marino; Bonometto, Silvio A.; Murante, Giuseppe [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, Trieste University, Via Tiepolo 11, I 34143 Trieste (Italy); Casarini, Luciano, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, UFES, Avenida Fernando Ferrari 514, Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil)



Measurement of ²²?Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of ?-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.  


The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level. PMID:24332337

Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A



Thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry approach for characterization of the volatile fraction from amber specimens: a possibility of tracking geological origins.  


Research on the chemical composition of fossil resins has evolved during the last decades as a multidisciplinary field and is strongly oriented toward the correlation with their geological and botanical origin. Various extraction procedures and chromatographic techniques have been used together for identifying the volatile compounds contained in the fossil resin matrix. Hyphenation between thermal desorption (TD), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry detection (MS) has been chosen to investigate the volatile compounds fraction from ambers with a focus on Romanite (Romanian amber) and Baltic amber species. A data analysis procedure was developed for the main purpose of fingerprinting ambers based on the MS identity of the peaks generated by the volatile fraction, together with their relative percentual area within the chromatogram. Chromatographic data analysis was based entirely on Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution &Identification System (AMDIS) software to produce deconvoluted mass spectra which were used to build-up a mixed mass spectra and relative retention scale library. Multivariate data analysis was further applied on AMDIS results with successful discrimination between Romanite and Baltic ambers. A special trial was conducted to generate pyrolysis "like" macromolecular structure breakdown to volatile compounds by gamma irradiation with a high absorbed dose of 500 kGy. Contrary to our expectations the volatile fraction fingerprints were not modified after irradiation experiments. A complementary non-destructive new approach by ESR spectroscopy was also proposed for discriminating between Romanite and Baltic ambers. PMID:20149381

Vîrgolici, Marian; Ponta, Corneliu; Manea, Mihaela; Negu?, Daniel; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Moise, Ioan; Suv?il?, Rare?; Teodor, Eugen; Sârbu, Costel; Medvedovici, Andrei



Parmeterization of spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following reception and analog to digital conversion (A/D) conversion, atmospheric radar backscatter echoes need to be processed so as to obtain desired information about atmospheric processes and to eliminate or minimize contaminating contributions from other sources. Various signal processing techniques have been implemented at mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar facilities to estimate parameters of interest from received spectra. Such estimation techniques need to be both accurate and sufficiently efficient to be within the capabilities of the particular data-processing system. The various techniques used to parameterize the spectra of received signals are reviewed herein. Noise estimation, electromagnetic interference, data smoothing, correlation, and the Doppler effect are among the specific points addressed.

Cornish, C. R.



Activity: Graphing Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces two different representations of spectra: the photographic representation, such as the rainbow, and the graphical representation used more often by astronomers. A rainbow is often given as an everyday example of a spectrum. Most students have seen a rainbow, so this example is used to help make the unfamiliar more familiar. However, the spectra that scientists use, which students will see in this lesson plan, appear very different than a rainbow. In this activity, students will explore for themselves two different representations of the same spectrum, noting advantages and disadvantages of each. They will explore the differences and similarities of both these representations, and will develop a more intuitive feel for a graphical representation, which may not yet be familiar to them.



Barnacle Bill Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These IMP spectra show the characteristics of the rock surface measured by the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (blue), the soil trapped in pits on the rock surface (red), and the deposit of bright drift on the top of the rock. The area measured by the APXS has the properties expected for nearly unweathered igneous rock, and the soil trapped in the pits is intermediate to the unweathered rock and the highly weathered drift material.



Auroral Colors and Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, co-produced by the NCAR High Altitude Observatory and the COMET Program, provides an explanation of how auroral colors are produced. The emission of specific colors of light is discussed in relation to oxygen and nitrogen emission spectra. Numerous images, graphs, and a video of an aurora are included. The site is part of "Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems," an interactive learning module about the aurora.



Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.



Single event mass spectrometry  


A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

Conzemius, Robert J. (Ames, IA)



Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.



Application of Laser Mass Spectrometry to Art and Archaeology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

REMPI laser mass spectrometry is a combination of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and time of flight mass spectrometry, This technique enables the collection of mass specific optical spectra as well as of optically selected mass spectra. Analytes are jet-cooled by entrainment in a molecular beam, and this low temperature gas phase analysis has the benefit of excellent vibronic resolution. Utilizing this method, mass spectrometric analysis of historically relevant samples can be simplified and improved; Optical selection of targets eliminates the need for chromatography while knowledge of a target's gas phase spectroscopy allows for facile differentiation of molecules that are in the aqueous phase considered spectroscopically indistinguishable. These two factors allow smaller sample sizes than commercial MS instruments, which in turn will require less damage to objects of antiquity. We have explored methods to optimize REMPI laser mass spectrometry as an analytical tool to archaeology using theobromine and caffeine as molecular markers in Mesoamerican pottery, and are expanding this approach to the field of art to examine laccaic acid in shellacs.

Gulian, Lase Lisa E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Muliadi, Sarah; Owens, Shawn; McGovern, Patrick E.; Schmidt, Catherine M.; Trentelman, Karen A.; deVries, Mattanjah S.



Electron Acceleration and Efficiency in Nonthermal Gamma-Ray Sources  

E-print Network

In energetic nonthermal sources such as gamma-ray bursts, AGN or galactic jet sources, etc., one expects both relativistic and transrelativistic shocks acompanied by violent motions of moderately relativistic plasma. We present general considerations indicating that these sites are electron and positron accelerators leading to a modified power law spectrum. The electron (or $e^\\pm$) energy index is very hard, $\\propto \\gamma^{-1}$ or flatter up to a comoving frame break energy $\\gamma_\\ast$, and becomes steeper above that. In the example of gamma-ray bursts the Lorentz factor reaches $\\gamma_\\ast\\sim 10^3$ for $e^{\\pm}$ accelerated by the internal shock ensemble on subhydrodynamical time scales. For pairs accelerated on hydrodynamical timescales in the external shocks similarly hard spectra are obtained, and the break Lorentz factor can be as high as $\\gamma_\\star \\siml 10^5$. Radiation from the nonthermal electrons produces photon spectra with shape and characteristic energies in qualitative agreement with observed generic gamma-ray burst and blazar spectra. The scenario described here provides a plausible way to solve one of the crucial problems of nonthermal high energy sources, namely the efficient transfer of energy from the proton flow to an apropriate nonthermal lepton component.

A. Bykov; P. Meszaros



Compressed sensing in imaging mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a technique of analytical chemistry for spatially resolved, label-free and multipurpose analysis of biological samples that is able to detect the spatial distribution of hundreds of molecules in one experiment. The hyperspectral IMS data is typically generated by a mass spectrometer analyzing the surface of the sample. In this paper, we propose a compressed sensing approach to IMS which potentially allows for faster data acquisition by collecting only a part of the pixels in the hyperspectral image and reconstructing the full image from this data. We present an integrative approach to perform both peak-picking spectra and denoising m/z-images simultaneously, whereas the state of the art data analysis methods solve these problems separately. We provide a proof of the robustness of the recovery of both the spectra and individual channels of the hyperspectral image and propose an algorithm to solve our optimization problem which is based on proximal mappings. The paper concludes with the numerical reconstruction results for an IMS dataset of a rat brain coronal section.

Bartels, Andreas; Dülk, Patrick; Trede, Dennis; Alexandrov, Theodore; Maaß, Peter



Quantification of 235U and 238U activity concentrations for undeclared nuclear materials by a digital gamma-gamma coincidence spectroscopy.  


The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of verifying depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), low enriched uranium (LEU) and high enriched uranium (HEU) by a developed digital gamma-gamma coincidence spectroscopy. The spectroscopy consists of two NaI(Tl) scintillators and XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results demonstrate that the spectroscopy provides an effective method of (235)U and (238)U quantification based on the count rate of their gamma-gamma coincidence counting signatures. The main advantages of this approach over the conventional gamma spectrometry include the facts of low background continuum near coincident signatures of (235)U and (238)U, less interference from other radionuclides by the gamma-gamma coincidence counting, and region-of-interest (ROI) imagine analysis for uranium enrichment determination. Compared to conventional gamma spectrometry, the method offers additional advantage of requiring minimal calibrations for (235)U and (238)U quantification at different sample geometries. PMID:21411329

Zhang, Weihua; Yi, Jing; Mekarski, Pawel; Ungar, Kurt; Hauck, Barry; Kramer, Gary H



Analysis of printing and writing papers by using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quick and direct method for identifying organic components of papers in library and archival collections with minimal destructive sampling is needed for preservation, forensic, and general purposes. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is used for characterizing 16 reference papers of known manufacture in terms of their pulp composition and pitch contaminants. Unique mass spectra are obtained

Jeanette Adams




EPA Science Inventory

An elevated incidence of childhood cancer was observed near a contaminated site. Trace amounts of several isomeric compounds were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in a concentrated extract of municipal well water. No matching library mass spectra were foun...



EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectra obtained by fused silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/data system (GC/MS/DS) analysis of mixtures of organic chemicals adsorbed on Tenax GC cartridges was subjected to manual and automated interpretative techniques. Synthetic mixtures (85 chemicals ...


Resonant Two-Photon Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Jet-Cooled Phenolic Acids and  

E-print Network

Resonant Two-Photon Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Jet-Cooled Phenolic Acids and Polyphenols¨tvo¨s Lora´nd University, 1/A Pa´zma´ny P. stny. Budapest, Hungary 1117 A method for analyzing phenolic acids and super- sonic jet cooling is described. The R2PI spectra of gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid

de Vries, Mattanjah S.


Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in mixtures using fluorescence line narrowing spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct identification of all six components in a laboratory mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites using fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) spectrometry is described. Metabolites are identified by comparison to standard spectra of the pure compounds. In addition, it is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the technique is adequate for the identification of PAH metabolite - DNA adducts at

Matthew J. Sanders; R. Scott. Cooper; Gerald J. Small; V. Heisig; A. M. Jeffrey



A systematic nomenclature for carbohydrate fragmentations in FAB-MS\\/MS spectra of glycoconjugates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the ion types observed in the Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (FAB-MS) and collision induced decomposition (CID) MS\\/MS spectra of glycoconjugates (glycosphingolipids, glycopeptides, glycosides and carbohydrates) is presented. The variety of product ion types that arise by cleavages within the carbohydrate moieties has prompted us to introduce a systematic nomenclature to designate these ions. The proposed nomenclature

Bruno Domon; Catherine E Costello




EPA Science Inventory

On-line laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry has developed into a widely used method for chemical characterization of individual aerosol particles. In the present study, the spectra of laboratory-generated particles were obtained as a function of relative humidity to elu...


Gamma ray generator  


An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani



The Utility of ETD Mass Spectrometry in Proteomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry has played an integral role in the identification of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTM). However, analysis of some PTMs, such as phosphorylation, sulfonation, and glycosylation, is difficult with collision-activated dissociation (CAD) since the modification is labile and preferentially lost over peptide backbone fragmentation, resulting in little to no peptide sequence information. The presence of multiple basic residues also makes peptides exceptionally difficult to sequence by conventional CAD mass spectrometry. Here we review the utility of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry for sequence analysis of post-translationally modified and/or highly basic peptides. Phosphorylated, sulfonated, glycosylated, nitrosylated, disulfide bonded, methylated, acetylated, and highly basic peptides have been analyzed by CAD and ETD mass spectrometry. CAD fragmentation typically produced spectra showing limited peptide backbone fragmentation. However, when these peptides were fragmented using ETD, peptide backbone fragmentation produced a complete or almost complete series of ions and thus extensive peptide sequence information. In addition, labile PTMs remained intact. These examples illustrate the utility of ETD as an advantageous tool in proteomic research by readily identifying peptides resistant to analysis by CAD. A further benefit is the ability to analyze larger, non-tryptic peptides, allowing for the detection of multiple PTMs within the context of one another. PMID:17118725

Mikesh, Leann M; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Chi, An; Coon, Joshua J; Syka, John E P; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F



Experimental simulations of planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy using thick targets irradiated by protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To simulate planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy, gamma rays were measured during a series of five irradiations of up to 30-ton thick targets with protons beams of 1.5 and 2.5 GeV. The targets were steel (iron), basalt with structural steel, basalt with added S and Cl, and basalt with added H, S, and Cl. The pulsed proton beam was carefully monitored and counted. Spectra were collected with both proton beam on and beam off and with a lead shield both between the target and the germanium detector and with the lead shield removed. This set of four spectra was used to determine the fluxes of prompt gamma rays emitted from the target. Over 200 discrete gamma-ray lines per irradiation were observed and identified. Counting results for the more intense gamma rays were compiled, and gamma-ray fluxes determined for about 25 gamma rays of interest to planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy. The ratios of thermal and fast neutron induced gamma-ray fluxes between irradiations were similar. Thus the relative gamma-ray fluxes can be used in testing model calculations and interpreting planetary gamma-ray spectra.

Brückner, J.; Reedy, R. C.; Englert, P. A. J.; Drake, D. M.



Einstein spectra of quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the initial stage of the CfA survey of quasar energy distributions are reviewed. Einstein imaging proportional counter spectra of 33 quasars have been studied by fitting a single power law slope and absorption by an equivalent column density of neutral hydrogen. Comparison with the higher energy HEAO-A2 data leads to a two-component model for the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray column density is systematically lower than the 21-cm measured Galactic column density along the same line of sight.

Wilkes, Belinda J.



Applications of plasma desorption mass spectrometry to the analysis of bioactive peptides  

SciTech Connect

The applications of Cf-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry to the analysis of peptides is evaluated. Sample preparation is a critical stage in such type of analyses. The plasma desorption mass spectra of compounds dissolved and electrosprayed in solutions containing reduced glutathione, showed increased molecular ion signal, reduced peak widths and an increase in multiply charged ions. Plasma desorption mass spectrometry was also evaluated for the analysis of glycopeptides, especially the glycosylation site microheterogeneity. The three N-linked sites of bovine fetuin, as a model glycoprotein, digested with trypsin and treated with neuraminidase, were identified by a combination of amino acid composition, amino acid sequence and molecular ions obtained by mass spectrometry. Methodology has also been developed for the study of mixed disulfides formed between the Cys residue of peptides and glutathione by mass spectrometry.

Alai, M.



Gamma ray bursts: a 1983 overview  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect. Energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all. Burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective. Finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

Cline, T.L.



Gamma Ray Bursts: a 1983 Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect; energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all; burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective; finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

Cline, T. L.



Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Carotenoids  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids are natural pigments synthesized by plants and photosynthetic microorganisms, some of which, like ?-carotene, are precursors of vitamin A, and others such as lutein and lycopene might function in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration and prostate cancer, respectively. Mass spectrometry provides high sensitivity and selectivity for the identification and quantitative analysis of carotenoids in biological samples, and previous studies have described how atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) offers distinct advantages over electrospray and fast atom bombardment for the analysis of specific carotenoids. Since APCI product ion tandem mass spectra have been reported for only a few carotenoids, a detailed investigation of twelve carotenes and xanthophylls was carried out using both positive ion and negative ion APCI tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation. Using protonated molecules as precursor ions in positive ion mode and radical anions in negative ion mode, characteristic fragment ions were identified that may be used to distinguish between carotenoids. PMID:22408388

van Breemen, Richard B.; Dong, Linlin; Pajkovic, Natasa D.



Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized naïve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our naïve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity.

Li, Hui; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand



Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz



Analysis of fissionable material using delayed gamma rays from photofission  

SciTech Connect

The energetic gamma-ray spectra from the fission products of photofission have been investigated to determine whether photofission can identify heavily shielded fissionable material. Target samples of natural thorium, 93% enriched /sup 235/U, natural uranium, and 93% enriched /sup 239/Pu were irradiated with bremsstrahlung gamma rays produced by 10-MeV electrons from a small linear accelerator. The gamma-ray spectra for each of the four isotopes studied reveals a distinctive intensity distribution. For example, the intensity ratio of the pair of gamma rays at 1436 keV (/sup 138/Cs) and 1428 keV (/sup 94/Sr) is 1.9 for /sup 235/U, 2.4 for /sup 238/U, 1.7 for /sup 232/Th and 1.4 for /sup 239/Pu. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hollas, C.L.; Close, D.A.; Moss, C.E.



Optical Absorption Spectra of Hydrous Wadsleyite to 32 GPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical absorption spectra of high-pressure minerals can be used as indirect tools to calculate radiative conductivity of the Earth's interior [e.g., 1]. Recent high-pressure studies show that e.g. ringwoodite, gamma-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4, does not become opaque in the near infrared and visible region, as previously assumed, but remains transparent to 21.5 GPa [2]. Therefore, it has been concluded that radiative heat transfer

S. Thomas; A. F. Goncharov; S. D. Jacobsen; C. R. Bina; D. J. Frost



Cosmic Ray Spectra in Nambu-Goldstone Dark Matter Models  

E-print Network

We discuss the cosmic ray spectra in annihilating/decaying Nambu-Goldstone dark matter models. The recent observed positron/electron excesses at PAMELA and Fermi experiments are well fitted by the dark matter with a mass of 3TeV for the annihilating model, while with a mass of 6 TeV for the decaying model. We also show that the Nambu-Goldstone dark matter models predict a distinctive gamma-ray spectrum in a certain parameter space.

Masahiro Ibe; Hitoshi Murayama; Satoshi Shirai; Tsutomu T. Yanagida



Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon  

SciTech Connect

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.



Gamma-ray albedo of the moon  

E-print Network

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter



Multi-Epoch Multiwavelength Spectra and Models for Blazar 3C 279  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Of the blazars detected by EGRET in GeV gamma-rays, 3C 279 is not only the best-observed by EGRET, but also one of the best-monitored at lower frequencies. We have assembled eleven spectra, from GHz radio through GeV gamma-rays, from the time intervals of EGRET observations. Although some of the data have appeared in previous publications, most are new, including data taken during the high states in early 1999 and early 2000. All of the spectra show substantial gamma-ray contribution to the total luminosity of the object; in a high state, the gamma-ray luminosity dominates over that at all other frequencies by a factor of more than 10. There is no clear pattern of time correlation; different bands do not always rise and fall together, even in the optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. The spectra are modeled using a leptonic jet, with combined synchrotron self-Compton + external Compton gamma-ray production. Spectral variability of 3C 279 is consistent with variations of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet, accompanied by changes in the spectral shape of the electron distribution. Our modeling results are consistent with the UV spectrum of 3C 279 being dominated by accretion disk radiation during times of low gamma-ray intensity.

Hartman, R. C.; Boettcher, M.; Aldering, G.; Aller, H.; Aller, M.; Backman, D. E.; Balonek, T. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Bloom, S. D.; Bock, H.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)



Accelerator mass spectrometry.  


In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. PMID:18470926

Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran



Inorganic mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic mass spectrometry is enjoying a resurgence of interest among analytical chemists. Dramatic improvements in existing techniques, rapid development and commercialization of new methods, and successful application to increasingly difficult analytical problems are all factors responsible for the renewal of interest in MS as applied to inorganic, elemental, and isotopic analysis. Given the level of recent activity in this field, the book is both timely and needed. Edited by three faculty members of the University of Antwerp in Belgium, the book contains chapters contributed by these editors and other established mass spectrometrists. It fills a void that has existed too long in MS. Too many recent texts purporting to survey the technique of MS in general have ignored inorganic applications altogether. As the title implies, this book turns the tables somewhat and is devoted entirely to the importance of MS in inorganic analysis. The book contains detailed chapters on both established and newer methods of inorganic MS analysis, including spark source, glow discharge, secondary ion, laser microprobe, ICP source, and isotope dilution MS techniques. Introductory and concluding chapters discuss the historical and future roles of inorganic MS, respectively; this historical synopsis is particularly interesting and informative. The discussion of spark source MS includes an excellent and up-to-date treatment of the physics and dynamics of the spark discharge phenomenon as well as a thorough review of the technique's features.

Adams, F.; Gijbels, R.; Van Grieken, R. (eds.)



Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues.

Adams, Freddy C.; Barbante, Carlo



Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.



Spectra from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains why we go to the expense of launching satellites to gather spectral data in space. The earth's atmosphere does not allow light of all wavelengths to pass through it. In order to see gamma, X ray, ultraviolet (UV), infrared, and microwave radiation, we must place telescopes and other light-gathering instruments above the atmosphere. At this site, students investigate satellite missions operating in four electromagnetic bands using the internet and hands-on activities. After successfully completing these activities, students will be able to identify four different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and order them by wavelength, describe one or more of the four satellite missions featured in the site, its capabilities, and some objects it is used to observe, and conduct and draw appropriate conclusions from some or all of four hands-on activities.


Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation.  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent. Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2.5 (or 3.6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation. PMID:2088745

Lépine, F; Massé, R



Search for spectral lines in cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-integrated spectra from 177 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) have been systematically searched for evidence of emission lines in the range 300 keV and higher. The distribution of fitted line strengths is consistent with what is expected from a random sample of data, suggesting that there are no statistically significant narrow or moderately broadened line features in any of the bursts.

Messina, Daniel C.; Share, Gerald H.



An isotope identification injection study with GammaTracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

GammaTracker is a portable handheld radioisotope identifier using position sensitive CdZnTe detectors. High confidence isotope identification is possible on GammaTracker owing to the system's relatively high energy resolution and count rate sensitivity. A study was undertaken to evaluate the isotope identification performance of a prototype unit. Background and source spectra for various nuclides were measured and then randomly sampled to

Michael T. Batdorf; Luke E. Erikson; Carolyn E. Seifert; Mitchell J. Myjak; Leslie J. Kirihara



An isotope identification injection study with GammaTracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

GammaTracker is a portable handheld radioisotope identifier using position sensitive CdZnTe detectors. High confidence isotope identification is possible on GammaTracker owing to the system’s relatively high energy resolution and count rate sensitivity. A study was undertaken to evaluate the isotope identification performance of a prototype unit. Background and source spectra for various nuclides were measured and then randomly sampled to

Michael T. Batdorf; Luke E. Erikson; Carolyn E. Seifert; Mitchell J. Myjak; Leslie J. Kirihara



X-Ray Spectra of Young Pulsars and Their Wind Nebulae: Dependence on Spin-Down Energy Loss Rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An observational model is presented for the spectra of young rotation-powered pulsars and their nebulae based on a study of nine bright Crab-like pulsar systems observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. A significant correlation is discovered between the X-ray spectra of these pulsars and that of their associated pulsar wind nebulae, both of which are observed to be a function of the spin-down energy loss rate, E. The 2-10 keV spectra of these objects are well characterized by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices, Gamma, in the range of 0.6 < Gamma (sub PSR) < 2.1 and 1.3 < Gamma(sub PWN) < 2.3, for the pulsars and their nebulae, respectively. A linear regression fit relating these two sets of indexes yields Gamma(sub PWN) = 0.91 +/- 0.18 + (0.66 +/- 0.11) Gamma (sub PSR), with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.97. The spectra of these pulsars are found to steepen as Gamma = Gamma(sub max) + alpha E (exp -1/2), with Gamma(sub max) providing an observational limit on the spectral slopes of young rotation-powered pulsars. These results reveal basic properties of young pulsar systems, allow new observational constraints on models of pulsar wind emission, and provide a means of predicting the energetics of pulsars lacking detected pulsations.

Gotthelf, E. V.



Chemical ionization mass spectrometry of trimethylsilylated carbohydrates and organic acids retained in uremic serum.  


After appropriate sample pretreatment and derivatization, uremic serum was investigated by combined high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, using both electron impact and chemical ionization methods. Electron impact and chemical ionization spectra of a number of identified (trimethylsilylated) carbohydrates and organic acids are compared. The utilization of chemical ionization mass spectrometry, with isobutane as the reagent gas, is discussed in detail. The influence of the reagent gas pressure on the total ion current and on the spectral appearance was studied. The identification of compounds, based on electron impact mass spectral data, was confirmed and often aided appreciably by using this technique. The chemical ionization spectra of trimethylsilyated alditols and aldonic acids, as well as of other organic acids showed protonated molecular ions, whereas aldoses did not. Differences with electron impact spectra are found mainly in the high mass region. The loss of one or more trimethylsilanol groups becomes the predominating fragmentation route at higher reagent gas pressures. PMID:534687

Schoots, A C; Leclercq, P A



Gamma-ray bursters at cosmological distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed that some, perhaps most, gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, like quasars, with a redshift of about 1 or 2. This proposition requires a release of supernova-like energy of about 10 to the 51st ergs within less than 1 s, making gamma-ray bursters the brightest objects known in the universe, many orders of magnitude brighter than any quasars. This power must drive a highly relativistic outflow of electron-positron plasma and radiation from the source. It is proposed that three gamma-ray bursts, all with identical spectra, detected from B1900 + 14 by Mazets, Golenetskii, and Gur'yan and reported in 1979, were all due to a single event multiply imaged by a gravitational lens. The time intervals between the successive bursts, 10 hr to 3 days, were due to differences in the light travel time for different images.

Paczynski, B.



The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gamma-ray spectrometer has been flown on the Apollo 15 and 16 spacecraft to determine the lunar-surface composition and measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux. The instrument included a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a 7.6-cm photomultiplier tube, a plastic mantle for anti-coincidence rejection of charged particles, and 511 channels of analysis. Boom-mounted operation permitted a significant reduction in the background. The data were transmitted on an event-by-event basis. About 22% of the lunar surface was mapped and spectra of the cosmic gamma-ray flux over an energy range of 0.065-27.5 MeV have been obtained.

Harrington, T. M.; Marshall, J. H.; Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Metzger, A. E.



Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

Copland, Evan



Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

Copeland, Evan



Meson spectra of asymptotically free gauge theories from holography  

E-print Network

Using holography, we study the low-lying mesonic spectrum of a range of asymptotically free gauge theories. First we revisit a simple top-down holographic model of QCD-like dynamics with predictions in the M_rho-M_pi plane. The meson masses in this model are in very good agreement with lattice gauge theory calculations in the quenched approximation. We show that the key ingredient for the meson mass predictions is the running of the anomalous dimension of the quark condensate, gamma. This provides an explanation for the agreement of holographic and quenched lattice gauge theory calculations. We then study the `Dynamic AdS/QCD model' in which the gauge theory dynamics is included by a choice for the running of gamma. We use the naive two-loop perturbative running of the gauge coupling extrapolated to the non-perturbative regime to estimate the running of gamma across a number of theories. We consider models with quarks in the fundamental, adjoint, two-index symmetric and two-index anti-symmetric representations. We display predictions for M_rho, M_pi, M_sigma and the lightest glueball mass. Many of these theories, where the contribution to the running of gamma is dominated by the gluons, give very similar spectra, which also match with lattice expectations for QCD. On the other hand, a significant difference between spectra in different holographic models is seen for theories where the quark content changes the gradient of the running of gamma around the scale at which chiral symmetry breaking is triggered at gamma approximately 1. For these walking theories we see an enhancement of the rho-mass and a suppression of the sigma-mass. Both phenomena are characteristic for walking behaviour in the physical meson masses.

Johanna Erdmenger; Nick Evans; Marc Scott



13 C NMR and mass spectrometry of soil organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid state, high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to study the composition and structure of soil organic matter (SOM) using\\u000a soil extracts from two long-term experiments at the Rothamsted Experimental Station. Both one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques\\u000a were applied. 13C NMR sub-spectra of the CH\\u000a n\\u000a (n=0...3) groups, obtained by the Distortionless Enhancement by Polarisation Transfer

Galya I. Ivanova; Edward W. Randall



Surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry of organophosphorus chemical agents  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus chemical agents have been analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrometry. Significant spectral enhancement was achieved with special substrates that were prepared with silver-coated microspheres. Organophosphorus compounds were easily and rapidly measured at nanogram levels. The SERS spectra of eight of these organophosphorus chemical agents are presented. The sensitivity and spectral selectivity of this new spectrochemical technique for trace organic analysis of toxic chemical agents are discussed. Analyses of a two-component mixture and contaminated soil sample extract are illustrated.

Alak, A.M.; Vo-Dinh, T.



Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 3. On the Origin of Peaks  

PubMed Central

The origin of non-integer overtone peaks in overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS) spectra is investigated by ion trajectory simulations. Simulations indicate that these OMS features arise from higher-order overtone series. An empirically-derived formula is presented as a means of describing the positions of peaks. The new equation makes it possible to determine collision cross sections from any OMS peak. Additionally, it is extended as a means of predicting the resolving power for any peak in an OMS distribution. PMID:21472515

Valentine, Stephen J.; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Clemmer, David E.



Resting GABA and glutamate concentrations do not predict visual gamma frequency or amplitude  

PubMed Central

Gamma band oscillations arise in neuronal networks of interconnected GABAergic interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells. A previous study found a correlation between visual gamma peak frequency, as measured with magnetoencephalography, and resting GABA levels, as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in 12 healthy volunteers. If true, this would allow studies in clinical populations testing modulation of this relationship, but this finding has not been replicated. We addressed this important question by measuring gamma oscillations and GABA, as well as glutamate, in 50 healthy volunteers. Visual gamma activity was evoked using an established gratings paradigm, and we applied a beamformer spatial filtering technique to extract source-reconstructed gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the occipital lobe. We determined gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the location with maximal activation and from the location of the MRS voxel to assess the relationship of GABA with gamma. Gamma peak frequency was estimated from the highest value of the raw spectra and by a Gaussian fit to the spectra. MRS data were acquired from occipital cortex. We did not replicate the previously found correlation between gamma peak frequency and GABA concentration. Calculation of a Bayes factor provided strong evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. We also did not find a correlation between gamma activity and glutamate or between gamma and the ratio of GABA/glutamate. Our results suggest that cortical gamma oscillations do not have a consistent, demonstrable relationship to excitatory/inhibitory network activity as proxied by MRS measurements of GABA and glutamate. PMID:24927588

Cousijn, Helena; Haegens, Saskia; Wallis, George; Near, Jamie; Stokes, Mark G.; Harrison, Paul J.; Nobre, Anna C.



Resting GABA and glutamate concentrations do not predict visual gamma frequency or amplitude.  


Gamma band oscillations arise in neuronal networks of interconnected GABAergic interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells. A previous study found a correlation between visual gamma peak frequency, as measured with magnetoencephalography, and resting GABA levels, as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in 12 healthy volunteers. If true, this would allow studies in clinical populations testing modulation of this relationship, but this finding has not been replicated. We addressed this important question by measuring gamma oscillations and GABA, as well as glutamate, in 50 healthy volunteers. Visual gamma activity was evoked using an established gratings paradigm, and we applied a beamformer spatial filtering technique to extract source-reconstructed gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the occipital lobe. We determined gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the location with maximal activation and from the location of the MRS voxel to assess the relationship of GABA with gamma. Gamma peak frequency was estimated from the highest value of the raw spectra and by a Gaussian fit to the spectra. MRS data were acquired from occipital cortex. We did not replicate the previously found correlation between gamma peak frequency and GABA concentration. Calculation of a Bayes factor provided strong evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. We also did not find a correlation between gamma activity and glutamate or between gamma and the ratio of GABA/glutamate. Our results suggest that cortical gamma oscillations do not have a consistent, demonstrable relationship to excitatory/inhibitory network activity as proxied by MRS measurements of GABA and glutamate. PMID:24927588

Cousijn, Helena; Haegens, Saskia; Wallis, George; Near, Jamie; Stokes, Mark G; Harrison, Paul J; Nobre, Anna C



Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of fluorinated phenols in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and ion mobility spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mass spectrometry (MS) for fluorinated phenols (C6H5-xFxOH Where x = 0-5) in nitrogen with Cl- as the reagent ion yielded product ions of M Cl- through ion associations or (M-H)- through proton abstractions. Proton abstraction was controllable by potentials on the orifice and first lens, suggesting that some proton abstraction occurs through collision induced dissociation (CID) in the interface region. This was proven using CID of adduct ions (M Cl-) with Q2 studies where adduct ions were dissociated to Cl- or proton abstracted to (M-H)-. The extent of proton abstraction depended upon ion energy and structure in order of calculated acidities: pentafluorophenol > tetrafluorophenol > trifluorophenol > difluorophenol. Little or no proton abstraction occurred for fluorophenol, phenol, or benzyl alcohol analogs. Ion mobility spectrometry was used to determine if proton abstraction reactions passed through an adduct intermediate with thermalized ions and mobility spectra for all chemicals were obtained from 25 to 200 degrees C. Proton abstraction from M Cl- was not observed at any temperature for phenol, monofluorophenol, or difluorophenol. Mobility spectra for trifluorophenol revealed the kinetic transformations to (M-H)- either from M Cl- or from M2 Cl- directly. Proton abstraction was the predominant reaction for tetra- and penta-fluorophenols. Consequently, the evidence suggests that proton abstraction occurs from an adduct ion where the reaction barrier is reduced with increasing acidity of the O-H bond in C6H5-xFxOH.

Eiceman, G. A.; Bergloff, J. F.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Munro, W.; Karpas, Z.



Scintillation detectors in gamma spectral logging; geometry, absorption and calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The theory for the evaluation of the effects of geometry in gamma ray absorption is developed for cylindrical scintillation detectors as applicable to borehole gamma spectrometry. The results of a laboratory experiment are shown for comparison. A calibration procedure to determine detector efficiency is given for application to borehole probes. It is shown that the response of a crystal can be separated in terms of geometric effects and instrumentation effects. It is also shown that approximating crystal detectors with point detectors in mathematical theory is grossly oversimplified. (USGS)

Schimschal, Ulrich



Reflection spectra and magnetochemistry of iron oxides and natural surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic properties and spectral characteristics of iron oxides are distinctive. Diagnostic features in reflectance spectra (0.5 to 2.4 micron) for alpha Fe2O3, gamma Fe2O3, and FeOOH include location of Fe3(+) absorption features, intensity ratios at various wavelengths, and the curve shape between 1.2 micron and 2.4 micron. The reflection spectrum of natural rock surfaces are seldom those of the bulk rock because of weathering effects. Coatings are found to be dominated by iron oxides and clay. A simple macroscopic model of rock spectra (based on concepts of stains and coatings) is considered adequate for interpretation of LANDSAT data. The magnetic properties of materials associated with specific spectral types and systematic changes in both spectra and magnetic properties are considered.

Wasilewski, P.



EGRET Observations of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-energy diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galactic plane, |b| 2 deg, corresponding to gamma rays emitted within about 3 kpc of the Sun, there is no significant variation in the spectra with Galactic longitude. Comparison of the spectra from the Galactic plane (|b| < 2 deg) reveals no significant variation with Galactic longitude below about 4 GeV, which suggests

S. D. Hunter; D. L. Bertsch; J. R. Catelli; T. M. Dame; S. W. Digel; B. L. Dingus; J. A. Esposito; C. E. Fichtel; R. C. Hartman; G. Kanbach; D. A. Kniffen; Y. C. Lin; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; P. F. Michelson; C. von Montigny; R. Mukherjee; P. L. Nolan; E. Schneid; P. Sreekumar; P. Thaddeus; D. J. Thompson



Distinguishing fissions of 232Th, 237Np and 238U with beta-delayed gamma rays  

E-print Network

Measurements of beta-delayed gamma-ray spectra following 14-MeV neutron-induced fissions of 232Th, 237Np, and 238U were conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Spectra were collected for times ranging from 1 minute to 14 hours after irradiation. Intensity ratios of gamma-ray lines were extracted from the data that allow identification of the fissioning isotope.

A. Iyengar; E. B. Norman; C. Howard; C. Angell; A. Kaplan; J. J. Ressler; P. Chodash; E. Swanberg; A. Czeszumska; B. Wang; R. Yee; H. A. Shugart



Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)  


MENU Return to Web version Club Drug Use | Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) What is GHB? Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an illegal drug that is ... fX bombs Cherry meth Easy lay Everclear Firewater Gamma G Georgia homeboy GHB G.H. revitalizer Gib ...


The jackknife as an approach for uncertainty assessment in gamma spectrometric measurements of uranium isotope ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The jackknife as an approach for uncertainty estimation in gamma spectrometric uranium isotope ratio measurements was evaluated. Five different materials ranging from depleted uranium (DU) to high enriched uranium (HEU) were measured using gamma spectrometry. High resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) was used as a reference method for comparing the results obtained with the gamma spectrometric method. The relative combined uncertainty in the gamma spectrometric measurements of the 238U/ 235U isotope ratio using the jackknife was about 10-20% ( k = 2), which proved to be fit-for-purpose in order to distinguish between different uranium categories. Moreover, the enrichment of 235U in HEU could be measured with an uncertainty of 1-2%.

Ramebäck, H.; Vesterlund, A.; Tovedal, A.; Nygren, U.; Wallberg, L.; Holm, E.; Ekberg, C.; Skarnemark, G.



Development of fatigue loading spectra  

SciTech Connect

The present work on fatigue-loading spectra encompasses the current status of standardized stress-time histories, European approaches to standard loading spectrum development, transport aircraft airframe fatigue test spectra, the TURBISTAN fatigue-loading standard for fighter-aircraft engine disks, an automated procedure for the creation of flight-by-flight spectra, and the development of a wave-action standard history for fatigue testing relevant to tubular structures in the North Sea. Also treated is the use of the TURBISTAN mission spectra to evaluate fatigue crack growth in a rotating disk, fatigue-spectra development for airborne stores, a simplified analysis of fatigue-loading spectra, variable-amplitude load models for fatigue-damage crack growth, the tracking time service histories for multiaxis fatigue problems, and the compilation of procedures for fatigue crack propagation testing under complex load sequences.

Potter, J.M.; Watanabe, R.T.



The PTB underground laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry  


In 1991, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt established an underground laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) at the Asse salt mine, near Braunschweig. Due to the depth of 925 m below ground (equivalent to about 2100 m of water), the cosmic ray muon intensity in this facility is reduced by more than 5 orders of magnitude. In addition, the low specific activity of the pure rock salt and a low concentration of radon lead to an extremely low ambient dose equivalent rate of less than 1 nSv/h. The UDO facility is therefore well suited for dosimetry at very low dose rates, as well as for Ultra-Low-Background (ULB) gamma-ray spectrometry. In 1998, a coaxial low-background HPGe-detector (88% relative efficiency, FWHM 2.0 keV at 1.33 MeV) with an extended shielding (20 cm low-activity lead, 1 cm electrolytic copper, N2-flushing) was installed at UDO; the count rate per mass of germanium, integrated over the energy range from 40 to 2750 keV, was measured to be 0.012 s(-1) kg(-1). Results from test measurements and first applications are reported. The design of a ULB gamma-detector system, presently under construction, is described. PMID:10879857

Neumaier; Arnold; Bohm; Funck



High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Keegan, R. P.; Frigo, L. A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.



Development of fatigue loading spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work on fatigue-loading spectra encompasses the current status of standardized stress-time histories, European approaches to standard loading spectrum development, transport aircraft airframe fatigue test spectra, the TURBISTAN fatigue-loading standard for fighter-aircraft engine disks, an automated procedure for the creation of flight-by-flight spectra, and the development of a wave-action standard history for fatigue testing relevant to tubular structures in

J. M. Potter; R. T. Watanabe



A Plasma Instability Theory of Gamma-Ray Burst Emission  

E-print Network

A new theory for gamma-ray burst radiation is presented. In this theory, magnetic fields and relativistic electrons are created through plasma processes arising as a relativistic shell passes through the interstellar medium. The gamma-rays are produced through synchrotron self-Compton emission. It is found that shocks do not arise in this theory, and that efficient gamma-ray emission only occurs for a high Lorentz factor and a high-density interstellar medium. The former explains the absence of gamma-ray bursts with thermal spectra. The latter provides the Compton attenuation theory with an explanation of why the interstellar medium density is always high. The theory predicts the existence of a class of extragalactic optical transient that emit no gamma-rays.

J. J. Brainerd



A study of the diffuse galactic gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assuming cosmic rays pervade the Galaxy, they necessarily produced high energy gamma-rays as they interact with the instellar matter and photons. The cosmic ray nucleon interactions five rise to gamma rays primarily through the decay of pi mesons, giving a unique spectrum with a maximum at approximately 68 MeV. Cosmic ray electrons produce gamma rays through bremsstrahlung, but with a markedly different energy spectral shape, one which decreases monotonically with energy. Cosmic ray electrons also interact with the interstellar starlight, optical and infrared photons, and the blackbody radiation through the Compton process. A model of galactic gamma ray production is discussed, and the predicted spatial distribution and energy spectra are presented. Considering the uncertainty in the point source contributions, the agreement between the theoretical predictions and the gamma ray data seems quite reasonable.

Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.



Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /  

SciTech Connect

The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

Reedy, R. C. (Robert C.)




SciTech Connect

We develop a model for the possible origin of hard, very high energy (VHE) spectra from a distant blazar. In the model, both the primary photons produced in the source and secondary photons produced outside it contribute to the observed high-energy {gamma}-ray emission. That is, the primary photons are produced through the synchrotron self-Compton process, and the secondary photons are produced through high-energy proton interactions with background photons along the line of sight. We apply the model to a characteristic case of VHE {gamma}-ray emission in the distant blazar 1ES 1101-232. Assuming suitable electron and proton spectra, we obtain excellent fits to the observed spectra of this blazar. This indicated that the surprisingly low attenuation of the high-energy {gamma}-rays, especially the shape of the VHE {gamma}-ray tail of the observed spectra, can be explained by secondary {gamma}-rays produced in interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons in intergalactic space.

Zheng, Y. G.; Kang, T., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)



Gamma-spectrometric uranium age-dating using intrinsic efficiency calibration  

E-print Network

A non-destructive, gamma-spectrometric method for uranium age-dating is presented which is applicable to material of any physical form and geometrical shape. It relies on measuring the daughter/parent activity ratio 214Bi/234U by low-background, high-resolution gamma-spectrometry using intrinsic efficiency calibration. The method does not require the use of any reference materials nor the use of an efficiency calibrated geometry.

Cong Tam Nguyen; Jozsef Zsigrai



Imaging mass spectrometry in microbiology  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry tools which allow for the 2-D visualization of the distribution of trace metals, metabolites, surface lipids, peptides and proteins directly from biological samples without the need for chemical tagging or antibodies are becoming increasingly useful for microbiology applications. These tools, comprised of different imaging mass spectrometry techniques, are ushering in an exciting new era of discovery by allowing for the generation of chemical hypotheses based on of the spatial mapping of atoms and molecules that can correlate to or transcend observed phenotypes. In this review, we explore the wide range of imaging mass spectrometry techniques available to microbiologists and describe their unique applications to microbiology with respect to the types of microbiology samples to be investigated. PMID:21822293

Watrous, Jeramie D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.



Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.



Electron ionization and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of amino acids.  


The mass spectra of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives of 17 amino acids were obtained using electron ionization (EI) and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization (APPhCI) mass spectrometry. The APPhCI mass spectra for all of the derivatives except arginine were shown to consist of only molecular [M](+.) and quasimolecular [MH](+) ions whereas, in the case of EI, the compounds in question underwent a drastic fragmentation. The application of APPhCI to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables a reliable identification of the TBDMS derivatives of amino acids in a mixture, even if its components are only partially resolved, due to the unique molecular masses for each compound. Comparison of the respective positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) mass spectra available in the literature with APPhCI spectra has shown that, in the case of PICI, unlike APPhCI, noticeable fragmentation occurs. PMID:14624019

Revelsky, Igor A; Yashin, Yuri S; Sobolevsky, Tim G; Revelsky, Alexander I; Miller, Barbara; Oriedo, Vincent



Tandem Fourier transform mass spectrometry of large molecules  

SciTech Connect

Fourier-transform mass spectrometry has a number of key advantages, including simultaneous ion detection over a wide mass range, ultra-high resolution, and extensive capabilities for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, even MS{sup n}). Here, new methods for soft ionization including {sup 252}Cf plasma desorption, 193 nm laser desorption, multiphoton ionization, and electrospray ionization (ESI) are demonstrated to produce abundant molecular ion species from a variety of compounds; ESI spectra of peptides as large as carbonic anhydrase (29,000 Da) with as many as 33+ charges are shown. Sensitivity can be improved up to 100x by remeasuring high mass ions multiple times; after excitation to a larger orbit for detection, energy lost through collisions with background neutrals returns these ions to the center of the cell where they are available for detection or dissociation in subsequent measurements. Photodissociation with 193 nm deposits 6.4 eV per photon absorbed, and produces spectra with extensive sequence information for a variety of peptides with dissociation efficiencies approaching 100%. Surface induced dissociation is demonstrated to produce structurally-useful fragmentation for peptides up to m/z 3100, a mass range where collisionally activated dissociation provides little information. Sensitivity for MS/MS and MS{sup n} measurements is substantially improved by simultaneously recording MS-II spectra of scores of precursors using the Hadamard deconvolution approach. Results with an eleven component mixture demonstrate a signal-to-noise (S/N) gain of 1.8x, as predicted by theory. A Hadamard of differences method is proposed in which all precursors are simultaneously dissociated such that posed in which all precursors are simultaneously dissociated such that MS{sup n} spectra of each of these could be obtained without additional time or sample over measuring just one (with the same S/N) individually.

Williams, E.R.



The measurement of gamma ray induced heating in a mixed neutron and gamma ray environment  

SciTech Connect

The problem of measuring the gamma heating in a mixed DT neutron and gamma ray environment was explored. A new detector technique was developed to make this measurement. Gamma heating measurements were made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-Mev neutrons and (n, n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the lattice using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different linear energy transfer coefficient, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this measurement technique were explored by varying the counter position in the low-Z lattice, hence changing the irradiation spectrum observed. The experiment was modelled numerically to help interpret the measured results. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the assembly was modelled using the one- dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC{sup 2}-2 for the case of DT neutrons slowing down in a low-Z material. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The gamma energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations.

Chiu, H.K.



Response to comment by Stecker on gravitino decay and the cosmic gamma-ray background  

SciTech Connect

A hypothesis that the decay of a long lived particle such as the gravitino may be responsible for features on the cosmic gamma ray spectrum near 1 MeV is defended. A comparison is made between gamma-ray background observations and theoretical spectra from gravitino decay. 5 refs., 1 fig. (DWL)

Olive, K.A.; Silk, J.



[Oscillation spectra of metal-porphyrin dication spectra].  


Spectra of resonance spontaneous combination scattering (RSCS) of dications of metal--derivatives of tetraphenyl and ethioporphyrine (Ni-TPhP, Cu-TPhP, Cu-EP and VO-EP0 and IR-spectra of absorption of Ni-TPhP and Cu-EP dications were obtained. It was found that transformation of porphyrine neutral molecules into dications is accompanied with the appearance of new absorption bands in IR-spectra analogs of which are in RSCS spectra of dications. In some cases it points to the disturbance of alternative prohibition to oscillative transitions and to structural changes which result in the loss of symmetry centre by the molecule when it is transformed into the dication. A comparison of RSCS spectra of dications and dianions of VO-EP suggests that they have different structure. PMID:7397250

Aleksandrov, I V; Eletski?, N P; Sidorov, A N



GRBs, Fireballs and Precessing Gamma Jets  

E-print Network

Fireballs are huge isotropic explosions models widely believed to explain Gamma Ray Burst, GRBs (Piran,1999); ever-new versions consider wide beamed (10^o) Jet explosions hitting external shells. On the contrary, since 1994-1998, we argued (Fargion 1995-2000; see also Blackman et all.1996) that GRBs (as well as Soft Gamma Repeaters SGR) are spinning and precessing Gamma Jets, produced by collimated e^+,e^- Jet via Inverse Compton Scattering, in a very narrow (0.1^o) angles, blazing and flashing the observer. The Jet arises in Super-Nova (SN) explosions; its energy decays slowly from earliest SN powers (corresponding to GRB) toward lower stable power as Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGR) regimes. GRBs and SGRs shared (sometimes) same spectra and time structure: then SGRs are low-power GRBs, but without SN relics (or GRB afterglows, signatures of Jets in SN-GRBs). Moreover weak isolated X-ray precursor signals,(such as GRB980519, GRB981226,GRB000131), corresponding to huge isotropic, sim 10^{47} erg s^{-1}, followed by the extreme GRB, sim {10^{52}} erg s^{-1} powers, disagree with any Fireball explosive scenarios. We naturally interpret these X-Ray precursors as rare earliest marginal blazes of outlying X conical precessing Jet tails, surrounding the gamma Jet, later hitting in-axis as a GRB.

Daniele Fargion



Gamma-ray Emission from Nova Outbursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission, with the 511 keV line and a continuum. Gamma-ray spectra and light curves are potential unique tools to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected with the Fermi satellite in V407 Cyg, a nova in a symbiotic binary, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main sequence star as in the cataclysmic variables hosting classical novae. Two more novae have been detected recently (summer 2012) by Fermi, apparently in non symbiotic binaries, thus challenging our understanding of the emission mechanism. Both scenarios (radioactivities and acceleration) of gamma-ray product