Sample records for gamma spectrometry spectra

  1. Janus probe, a detection system for high energy reactor gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gold; B. J. Kaiser

    1980-01-01

    In reactor environments, gamma-ray spectra are continuous and the absolute magnitude as well as the general shape of the gamma continuum are of paramount importance. Consequently, conventional methods of gamma-ray detection are not suitable for in-core gamma-ray spectrometry. To meet these specific needs, a method of continuous gamma-ray spectrometry, namely Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, was developed for in-situ observations of

  2. EML gamma spectrometry data evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Karin M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the analyses for the third EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (October 1999). This program assists laboratories in providing more accurate gamma spectra analysis results and provides a means for users of gamma data to assess how a laboratory performed on various types of gamma spectrometry analyses. This is accomplished through the use of synthetic gamma spectra. A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum, and three sample spectra are sent to each participant in the spectral file format requested by the laboratory. The calibration spectrum contains nuclides covering the energy range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants are told fallout and fission product nuclides could be present. The sample spectra are designed to test the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets and to identify and quantify nuclides in a complicated fission product spectrum. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Thirty-one sets of results were reported from a total of 60 laboratories who received the spectra. Six foreign laboratories participated. The percentage of the results within 1 of the expected value was 68, 33, and 46 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 18% of the results were more than 3 from the expected value. Eighty-three (12%) values out of a total of 682 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Approximately 30% of these false negatives were due the laboratories not reporting 144Pr in sample 2 which was present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 25% of these responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results show improvement in the ability of the software or user to resolve peaks separated by 1 keV. Improvement is still needed either in the analysis report produced by the software or in the review of these results by the users.

  3. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry generally equates to high-sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometry that can be attained by background reduction, selective signal identification, or some combination of both. Various methods for selectively identifying gamma-ray events and for reducing the background in gamma-ray spectrometers are given. The relative magnitude of each effect on overall sensitivity and the relative cost'' for implementing them are given so that a cost/benefit comparison can be made and a sufficiently sensitive spectrometer system can be designed for any application without going to excessive or unnecessary expense. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Environmental monitoring and in situ gamma spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kluson

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma ray spectrometry is widely used for monitoring of natural as well as man-made radionuclides and corresponding gamma fields in the environment or working places. It finds effective application in the operational and accidental monitoring of nuclear facilities and their vicinity, spent fuel storages and waste depositories, radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies,

  5. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  6. A code to simulate nuclear reactor inventories and associated gamma-ray spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Cresswell; J. D. Allyson; D. C. W. Sanderson

    2001-01-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate the gamma-ray spectra that would be measured by airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) systems from sources containing short-lived fission products. The code uses simple numerical methods to simulate the production and decay of fission products and generates spectra for sodium iodide (NaI) detectors using Monte Carlo codes. A new Monte Carlo code using

  7. Parametric Studies for 233U Gamma Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffing, C.C.; Krichinsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of special nuclear material is a necessary aspect to assuring material accountability and is often accomplished using non-destructive gamma spectrometry. For 233U, gamma rays are affected by matrix and packaging attenuation and by a strong Compton continuum from decay products of 232U (inherently found in 233U) that obscure 233U gamma photopeaks. This project, based on current work at the national repository for separated 233U located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), explores the effects of various parameters on the quantification of 233U including material form and geometry. Using an attenuation correction methodology for calculating the mass of 233U from NDA analysis, a bias of almost 75% less than the actual 233U mass was identified. The source of the bias needs to be understood at a more fundamental level for further use of this quantification method. Therefore, controlled experiments using well characterized packages of 233U were conducted at the repository and are presented in this paper.

  8. Unfolding the response of a Ge detector used for in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Fehrenbacher; Reinhard Meckbach; Peter Jacob

    1996-01-01

    In environmental radiation protection portable Ge detectors are used for in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry. In order to determine the complete photon fluence rate spectra including the continuum component due to photons scattered in the environment from measured pulse height distributions one needs to apply unfolding methods. A prerequisite of the unfolding is the knowledge of the response functions of the detector

  9. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements for the verification of simulated irradiation conditions at MAYAK PA work places

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Smetanin; E. Vasilenko; M. Semenov; G. Takoudis; S. Xanthos; A. Clouvas; J. Silva

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and simulated photon flux energy distributions in different locations of a MAYAK PA work place are compared. The experimental photon fluxes are deduced by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with a portable Germanium detector. The method used for the conversion of the in situ gamma ray spectra to photon flux energy distribution is the spectral stripping method. This method

  10. Covariance Analysis of Gamma Ray Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.

    2013-01-01

    The covariance method exploits fluctuations in signals to recover information encoded in correlations which are usually lost when signal averaging occurs. In nuclear spectroscopy it can be regarded as a generalization of the coincidence technique. The method can be used to extract signal from uncorrelated noise, to separate overlapping spectral peaks, to identify escape peaks, to reconstruct spectra from Compton continua, and to generate secondary spectral fingerprints. We discuss a few statistical considerations of the covariance method and present experimental examples of its use in gamma spectroscopy.

  11. Advances in continuous gamma-ray spectrometry and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gold; J. P. McNeece; B. J. Kaiser

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances and applications in continuous Compton recoil gamma-ray spectrometry are described. Applications of continuous gamma-ray spectrometry are presented for: (1) Characterization of light water reactor (LWR) pressures vessel (PV) environments. (2) Assessment of fuel distributions for Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor recovery. (3) Measurement of LWR-PV-neutron exposure. The latest improvements attained with the Janus probe, a special

  12. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239Pu Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-05-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.

  13. Determination of depth distributions of natural radionuclides with in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Severin Thummerer; Peter Jacob

    1998-01-01

    To determine natural and artificial radio-nuclide concentrations in the ground in situ gamma-ray spectrometry method based on assumptions on the depth distribution of the radionuclides. In this paper two-slab geometries with different activities are assumed and two methods to derive information on the depth distribution of natural radionuclides from the measured spectra are examined. They use the distribution dependence of

  14. Resonant Compton scattering and gamma-ray burst continuum spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.

  15. Quality assurance in gamma-ray spectrometry of seabed sediments.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Branko; Frani?, Zdenko; Bituh, Tomislav; Babi?, Dinko

    2011-03-01

    This article brings the results of a method for quality assurance in gamma-ray spectrometry of seabed sediments. Sediments were collected in selected locations of the South and Middle Adriatic Sea using grab and corer tools. Using our own experimental design, we determined the self-attenuation factors of selected samples. The article also discusses sources of uncertainty in gamma-ray spectrometry, which is another important issue in quality assurance. Together with self-attenuation correction sources of uncertainty are used to calculate the activity concentration for a given sample. The presented procedure demonstrates how a gamma-ray spectrometry experiment should be approached in order to properly account for errors and uncertainties specific to a particular sample. PMID:21421529

  16. LOW-ENERGY STANDARDS FOR GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Matlack; J. W. T. Meadows; G. B. Nelson

    1958-01-01

    A simple type of low-energy calibration standard for gamma -ray ; spectrometry has been developed for the range 5 to 75 kev. Standards are made by ; placing a target of a single element over a pure beta emitter, such as promethium-; 147 or strontium-90. Characteristic x rays of the target element are generated, ; usually the K alpha radiation,

  17. Analysis of gamma ray spectra measured by Mars Odyssey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry G. Evans; Robert C. Reedy; Richard D. Starr; Kristopher E. Kerry; William V. Boynton

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra measured by the Mars Odyssey gamma ray spectrometer while in orbit around Mars were analyzed to identify the sources of 334 observed peaks and features. Most peaks were of a standard Gaussian shape with a low-energy tail. However, Doppler-broadened and sawtooth-shaped peaks were also observed in the spectra. The sources of most peaks were identified. Many peaks

  18. Thunderstorm ground enhancements: Gamma ray differential energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2013-10-01

    The shape and evolution of the energy spectra of the thunderstorm ground enhancement (TGE) electrons and gamma rays shed light on the origin of TGEs, on the relationship of modification of the energy spectra (MOS) and relativistic runaway electron avalanche processes, on the nature of the seed particles, and on the strength and elongation of an atmospheric electric field. However, till now the measurements of energy spectra of TGE electrons and gamma rays have been rather scarce. For the first time, we present differential energy spectra of gamma rays in the wide energy range 4-100 MeV for five TGE events detected in 2012-2013 at Aragats. We use the special technique of electron/gamma ray fraction determination to select TGE events with very small contamination of electrons. The network of large NaI spectrometers located 3200 m above sea level measured energy spectra of gamma rays. The power law indices of small TGEs are rather close to the background cosmic gamma ray spectrum (?-2); thus, we may deduce that these small events are due to MOS of cosmic ray electrons in the electric field of a thundercloud. Larger TGEs measured by the NaI network and the two largest TGE events earlier recovered from energy releases in a 60-cm-thick scintillator have much steeper energy spectra typical for the avalanche process in atmosphere. The classification of TGEs according to intensity and gamma ray spectral index pointed toward two main mechanisms of the TGE gamma ray origin: the runaway process and modification of electron energy spectra in the thunderstorm atmospheres.

  19. A COMPARISON OF GADRAS SIMULATED AND MEASURED GAMMA RAY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-06-28

    Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

  20. Augmentation of ENDF/B fission product gamma-ray spectra by calculated spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Katakura, J. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); England, T.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)) [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectral data of the ENDF/B-V fission product decay data file have been augmented by calculated spectra. The calculations were performed with a model using beta strength functions and cascade gamma-ray transitions. The calculated spectra were applied to individual fission product nuclides. Comparisons with several hundred measured aggregate gamma spectra after fission were performed to confirm the applicability of the calculated spectra. The augmentation was extended to a preliminary ENDF/B-VI file, and to beta spectra. Appendix C provides information on the total decay energies for individual products and some comparisons of measured and aggregate values based on the preliminary ENDF/B-VI files. 15 refs., 411 figs.

  1. Seabed gamma-ray spectrometry: applications at IAEA-MEL.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Povinec, P P

    2001-01-01

    The technique of underwater gamma-ray spectrometry has been developed to complement or replace the traditional sampling-sample analysis approach for applications with space-time constraints, e.g. large areas of investigation, emergency response or long-term monitoring. IAEA-MEL has used both high-efficiency NaI(Tl) and high-resolution HPGe spectrometry to investigate contamination with anthropogenic radionuclides in a variety of marine environments. Surveys at the South Pacific nuclear test sites of Mururoa and Fangataufa have been used to guide sampling in areas of high contamination around ground zero points. In the Irish Sea offshore from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant, a gamma-ray survey of seabed sediment was carried out to obtain estimates of the distribution and subsequently, for the inventory of 137Cs in the investigated area. PMID:11379061

  2. Formation of cyclotron lines in gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. G.; Meszaros, P.

    1989-01-01

    A transmission model of gamma-ray burst sources is studied using the relativistic QED magnetic-resonant opacities including multiple photon scattering, incorporated into a discrete-ordinate radiative-transport scheme. The physics of the cyclotron line-producing region is discussed in general, and the expected line profiles, relative harmonic strengths, and polarizations are indicated under various conditions. The calculated spectra for these models show good agreement with the spectra reported from Ginga for GB 880205 and GB 870303.

  3. Demonstration of a collimated in situ method for determining depth distributions using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland R. Benke; Kimberlee J. Kearfott

    2002-01-01

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry uses a portable detector to quantify radionuclides in materials. The main shortcoming of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry has been its inability to determine radionuclide depth distributions. Novel collimator designs were paired with a commercial in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system to overcome this limitation for large area sources. Positioned with their axes normal to the material surface,

  4. Basic characterization of highly enriched uranium by gamma spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Cong Tam Nguyen; Jozsef Zsigrai

    2005-08-25

    Gamma-spectrometric methods suitable for the characterization of highly enriched uranium samples encountered in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials are presented. In particular, procedures for determining the 234U, 235U, 238U, 232U and 236U contents and the age of highly enriched uranium are described. Consequently, the total uranium content and isotopic composition can be calculated. For determining the 238U and 232U contents a low background chamber was used. In addition, age dating of uranium was also performed using low-background spectrometry.

  5. Formation of cyclotron lines in gamma-ray burst spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, S.G.; Meszaros, P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A transmission model of gamma-ray burst sources is studied using the relativistic QED magnetic-resonant opacities including multiple photon scattering, incorporated into a discrete-ordinate radiative-transport scheme. The physics of the cyclotron line-producing region is discussed in general, and the expected line profiles, relative harmonic strengths, and polarizations are indicated under various conditions. The calculated spectra for these models show good agreement with the spectra reported from Ginga for GB 880205 and GB 870303. 22 refs.

  6. Features in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Paczynski, Bohdan; Goodman, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of cosmological gamma-ray bursts by objects in the mass range about 10 exp 17 to 10 exp 20 g (femtolensing) may introduce complicated interference patterns that might be interpreted as absorption or emission lines in the bursts' spectra. This phenomenon, if detected, may be used as a unique probe of dark matter in the universe. The BATSE spectral data should allow one to detect such spectral features or to put significant upper limits on the cosmic density of a dark matter component that may be in the femtolensing range. Software to generate theoretical spectra has been developed, and it is accessible over the computer network with anonymous ftp.

  7. Gamma spectrometry inspection of TRIGA MARK II fuel using caesium isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Karimzadeh; R. Khan; H. Bck

    2011-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is one of the common methods to inspect the spent fuel from research reactors. This method has been applied to in-pool measurements of the Spent Fuel Elements (SPEs) of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor. Due to mixed nature of the reactor core and complicated irradiation history of the fuel elements (FEs), the gamma spectrometry of the FE

  8. Gamma-Ray Spectra due to Cosmic-Ray Interactions with Dense Gas Clouds 1

    E-print Network

    Mori, Masaki

    Gamma-Ray Spectra due to Cosmic-Ray Interactions with Dense Gas Clouds 1 Michiko Ohishi, Masaki Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, Australia Abstract. Gamma-ray spectra from cosmic-ray proton, and the resulting gamma-ray spectra are computed as a function of cloud column-density. These calculations are used

  9. An improved method for determining radionuclide depth distributions using in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Richard Vincent Benke

    2000-01-01

    In principle, in situ gamma-ray spectrometry determines the quantities of radionuclides in some medium with a portable detector. The main limitation of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. This limitation is addressed by developing an improved in situ method for determining the depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in large area sources. This dissertation

  10. Guide to plutonium isotopic measurements using gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Rakel, D.A.

    1982-08-26

    Purpose of this guide is to assist those responsible for plutonium isotopic measurements in the application of gamma-ray spectrometry. Objectives are to promote an understanding of the measurement process, including its limitations and applicability, by reviewing the general features of a plutonium spectrum and identifying the quantities which must be extracted from the data; to introduce state-of-the-art analysis techniques by reviewing four isotopic analysis packages and identifying their differences; to establish the basis for measurement control and assurance by discussing means of authenticating the performance of a measurement system; and to prepare for some specific problems encountered in plutonium isotopic analyses by providing solutions from the practical experiences of several laboratories. 29 references, 12 figures, 17 tables.

  11. Radiological characterisation of synthetic rutile using HPGe gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chinnaesakki, S; Bara, S V; Sartandel, S J; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses the radiological characterisation of synthetic rutile, which is the source material for the production of titanium. The natural radioactivity due to uranium ((238)U), thorium ((232)Th) series radionuclides and potassium ((40)K) was measured in synthetic rutile samples of a production plant in Tamil Nadu, India. n-type high-purity germanium-coupled gamma spectrometry was used for the analysis. It is observed that thorium is more abundant than any other radionuclide, which is due to the monazite present in the primary sand. The activity index (I) evaluated from the radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K of the analysed samples is found to be well below the recommended levels. This study shows that the use of synthetic rutile from Tamil Nadu, India, for the manufacture of building materials will not pose any increased radiation exposure to the public beyond the dose criterion of the European Union. PMID:20413419

  12. Radioactivity Levels and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil Samples from Kohistan (Pakistan) Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Khan Hasan; M. Ismail; K. Khan; P. Akhter

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is carried out in some soil samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma spectrometry is operated using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The specific activity in soil ranges

  13. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.; Tanner, Allan B.

    1977-01-01

    Sedimentary-type uranium deposits accumulate at favorable sites along a migration path which may be kilometers in length. Their source is a large volume of rock from which the uranium has been leached. The geochemical mobilities and half lives of uranium and its daughter products vary widely so that they are transported from the source rocks, at different rates, along the migration path to their ultimate site. The radioactive disequilibrium resulting from this process has been well documented in the immediate vicinity of ore deposits, and disequilibrium is commonly recorded on gamma-ray logs up the hydraulic gradient from uranium ore. Little is known about the state of secular equilibrium in the leached host rocks, which often represent the only part of the migration path that is at or near the surface and is thus most accessible to the exploration geophysicist. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry provides a means of investigating the disequilibrium associated with uranium leaching and migration. Direct measurement of uranium can be made by this method, and the equivalent weight percents can be determined for six of the seven daughter-product decay groups that characterize the state of radioactive equilibrium. The technique has been used quantitatively in laboratory studies, where the results compare favorably with radiochemical analyses; field experiments suggest that semi-quantitative data may be obtained at the outcrop.

  14. Power density spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Stern, Boris E.; Svensson, Roland

    2000-09-01

    The longest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) display power-law power density spectra (PDSs). Shorter bursts have PDSs more strongly affected by statistical fluctuations. The underlying power law can then be reproduced with high accuracy by averaging the PDSs for a large sample of bursts. It indicates that different GRBs are random realizations of the same stochastic process. The power-law PDS provides a new sensitive tool for studies of gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we calculate the PDSs of bright bursts in separate LAD energy channels. The average PDS flattens in the hardest channel (h?>300 keV) and steepens in the softest channel (h?<50 keV). The average PDS of bolometric light curves has a slope ?~-5/3 and a sharp high frequency break at ~1 Hz. .

  15. Radionuclide content of simulated and fully radioactive SRLLL waste gl;asses: comparison of results from ICP-MS, gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.F.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-12-31

    We have measured the transuranic content of two transuranic=doped, simulated waste glasses, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), {gamma}-spectrometry, and {alpha}-spectrometry. Average concentrations measured by each technique were within {+-} 10% of the as-doped concentrations. We also report the transuranic content of three fully radioactive SRL waste glasses that were determined using {gamma}- and {alpha}-spectrometry measurements to deconvolute isobaric interferences present in the ICP-MS analyses.

  16. Coincidence-summing correction equations in gamma-ray spectrometry with p-type HPGedetectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tomarchio; S. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    Equations to compute ??? and ??XK coincidence-summing corrections in gamma-ray spectrometry with p-type HPGe detectors are reported. For point sources only full-energy-peak and total efficiencies are needed.

  17. Accounting for spatial variability and fields of view in environmental gamma ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Tyler; D. C. W. Sanderson; E. M. Scott; J. D. Allyson

    1996-01-01

    Spatial variability is an important feature in many environmental studies, which influences comparison estimates of environmental radioactivity from soil samples and in-situ or airborne ?-ray spectrometry. Comparisons between ground based and airborne gamma ray spectrometry are needed both for interpretation and for calibration purposes. However, under normal environmental conditions such comparisons may be affected by the considerable differences in the

  18. Demonstration of lightweight gamma spectrometry systems in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W; Harrold, M; Kirley, B; Mitchell, C; Weir, A

    2013-10-01

    Urban areas present highly complex radiation environments; with small scale features resulting from different construction materials, topographic effects and potential anthropogenic inputs from past industrial activity or other sources. Mapping of the radiation fields in urban areas allows a detailed assessment of exposure pathways for the people who live and work there, as well as locating discrete sources of activity that may warrant removal to mitigate dose to the general public. These areas also present access difficulties for radiometric mapping using vehicles or aircraft. A lightweight portable gamma spectrometry system has been used to survey sites in the vicinity of Glasgow to demonstrate the possibilities of radiometric mapping of urban areas, and to investigate the complex radiometric features such areas present. Variations in natural activity due to construction materials have been described, the presence of (137)Cs used to identify relatively undisturbed ground, and a previously unknown NORM feature identified. The effect of topographic enclosure on measurements of activity concentration has been quantified. The portable system is compared with the outputs that might be expected from larger vehicular or airborne systems. For large areas airborne surveys are the most cost effective approach, but provide limited spatial resolution, vehicular surveys can provide sparse exploratory data rapidly or detailed mapping of open areas where off-road access is possible. Backpack systems are ideally suited to detailed surveys of small areas, especially where vehicular access is difficult. PMID:23639691

  19. Recovery and reanalysis of archived airborne gamma spectrometry data from the 1991 Dounreay survey.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J

    2012-01-01

    Archived Airborne Gamma Spectrometry (AGS) data from the 1991 NIREX characterisations of Caithness have been recovered. The separate gamma spectrometry and positional data streams for approximately 120,000 measurements have been combined into a single data stream using the European Radiometrics and Spectrometry (ERS) data format. An analysis using working calibration coefficients and spectral stripping procedure has verified that the original survey recorded high quality data. The converted data stream is in a format more accessible to future research use, including evaluation of environmental change in the Caithness region. PMID:21798750

  20. Inhomogeneity effects on HPGe gamma spectrometry detection efficiency using Monte Carlo technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gharbi

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the inhomogeneity effects on the full energy peak efficiency determination with HPGe gamma spectrometry. The inhomogeneity of the sample was defined in this work as being the fraction of its volume, which does not contain gamma emitters. We applied the Monte Carlo technique based on the GEANT4 code of CERN to study these effects for soil

  1. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of uranium in surface soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Miller; P. Shebell; G. A. Klemic

    1994-01-01

    The application of the technique of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry to the measurement of uranium isotopes in surface soils is described. A basic review of the in situ methodology using high resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is given and specifics on calculated fluences, dose rates in air, and calibration factors are provided for relevant uranium isotopes and their progeny. The influence

  2. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry: A tutorial for environmental radiation scientists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Miller; P. Shebell

    1993-01-01

    This tutorial is intended for those in the environmental field who perform assessments in areas where there is radioactive contamination in the surface soil. Techniques will be introduced for performing on-site quantitative measurements of gamma radiation in the environment using high resolution germanium detectors. A basic understanding of ionizing radiation principles is assumed; however, a detailed knowledge of gamma spectrometry

  3. Broadband turbulent spectra in gamma-ray burst light curves

    SciTech Connect

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M. [Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong Gwangin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Guidorzi, Cristiano; Frontera, Filippo, E-mail: mvp@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-05-10

    Broadband power density spectra offer a window to understanding turbulent behavior in the emission mechanism and, at the highest frequencies, in the putative inner engines powering long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We describe a chirp search method alongside Fourier analysis for signal detection in the Poisson noise-dominated, 2 kHz sampled, BeppoSAX light curves. An efficient numerical implementation is described in O(Nnlog n) operations, where N is the number of chirp templates and n is the length of the light-curve time series, suited for embarrassingly parallel processing. For the detection of individual chirps over a 1 s duration, the method is one order of magnitude more sensitive in signal-to-noise ratio than Fourier analysis. The Fourier-chirp spectra of GRB 010408 and GRB 970816 show a continuation of the spectral slope with up to 1 kHz of turbulence identified in low-frequency Fourier analysis. The same continuation is observed in an average spectrum of 42 bright, long GRBs. An outlook on a similar analysis of upcoming gravitational wave data is included.

  4. Understanding the Continuum Spectra of Short Soft Gamma Repeater Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Finger, Mark H.; Lenter, Geoffrey; Patel, Sandeep K.; Swank, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The spectra of short soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts at photon energies above -15 keV are often well described by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model (i.e., F(E) - E^-1 * exp(-E/kT) ) with kT=20-40 keV. However, the spectral shape burst continuum at lower photon energies (down to -2 keV) is not well established. It is important to better understand the SGR burst spectral properties at lower energies since inadequate description of the burst spectral continuum could lead to incorrect conclusions, such as existence of spectral lines. Here, we present detailed spectral investigations (in 2-200 keV) of 163 bursts from SGR 1806-20, all detected with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2004 active episode that included the giant flare on 27 December 2004. We find that the great majority of burst spectra are well represented by the combination of a blackbody plus a OTTB models.

  5. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239PuBe and 241AmBe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hctor Ren Vega-Carrillo; Eduardo Manzanares-Acua; Ana Mar??a Becerra-Ferreiro; Aureliano Carrillo-Nuez

    2002-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239PuBe and 241AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a 6LiI(Eu) scintillator. The 239PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the 241AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the

  6. Power Density Spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Stern, Boris E.; Svensson, Roland

    2000-05-01

    Power density spectra (PDSs) of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide useful information on GRBs, indicating their self-similar temporal structure. The best power-law PDSs are displayed by the longest bursts (T90>100 s) in which the range of self-similar timescales covers more than 2 decades. Shorter bursts have apparent PDS slopes more strongly affected by statistical fluctuations. The underlying power law can then be reproduced with high accuracy by averaging the PDSs for a large sample of bursts. This power law has a slope ?~-5/3 and a sharp break at ~1 Hz. The power-law PDS provides a new sensitive tool for studies of GRBs. In particular, we calculate the PDSs of bright bursts in separate energy channels. The PDS flattens in the hard channel (h?>300 keV) and steepens in the soft channel (h?<50 keV), while the PDS of bolometric light curves approximately follows the -5/3 law. We then study dim bursts and compare them to the bright ones. We find a strong correlation between the burst brightness and the PDS slope. This correlation shows that the bursts are far from being standard candles and dim bursts should be intrinsically weak. The time dilation of dim bursts is probably related to physical processes occurring in the burst rather than to a cosmological redshift.

  7. In-situ gamma spectrometry measurements of time-dependent Xenon-135 inventory in the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    E-print Network

    Riede, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In this work, it has been shown that the time dependent Xe-135 inventory in the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna, Austria can be measured via gamma spectrometry even in the presence of strong background radiation. It is focussing on the measurement of (but not limited to) the nuclide Xe-135. The time dependent Xe-135 inventory of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna has been measured using a temporary beam line between one fuel element of the core placed onto the thermal column after shutdown and a detector system located just above the water surface of the reactor tank. For the duration of one week, multiple gamma ray spectra were recorded automatically, starting each afternoon after reactor shutdown until the next morning. One measurement series has been recorded over the weekend. The Xe-135 peaks were extracted from a total of 1227 recorded spectra using an automated peak search algorithm and analyzed for their time-dependent properties. Although the background gamma radiation present in the core after shutdown...

  8. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  9. QUALITY CONTROL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS USING GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the quality control procedures, calibration, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in measuring the activity of gamma ray-emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. Included in the appendices are basic data for selected gamma ray-emitting ra...

  10. Optimization of measure parameters for an X- and gamma-ray spectrometry portable system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaquiel S. Fernandes; Carlos R. Appoloni

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of a system for in situ gamma (gamma)- and X-ray spectrometry composed of a 331 mm3 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector with respect to the detection of low-activity radioactive sources, a two level factorial planning was accomplished, involving three factors that could modify the system response. This planning was made with a 137Cs punctual source,

  11. An intercomparison of Monte Carlo codes used for in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hurtado; M. Villa

    2010-01-01

    In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry is widely used for monitoring of natural as well as man-made radionuclides and corresponding gamma fields in the environment or working places. It finds effective application in the operational and accidental monitoring of nuclear facilities and their vicinity, waste depositories, radioactive contamination measurements and environmental mapping or geological prospecting. In order to determine accurate radionuclide concentrations in

  12. A Simple Analytic Treatment of the Intergalactic Absorption Effect in Blazar Gamma-ray Spectra

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; S. T. Scully

    2006-11-13

    We derive a new and user friendly simple analytic approximation for determining the effect of intergalactic absorption in the energy range 0.2-2 TeV and the redshift range 0.05-0.4. In these ranges, the form of the absorption coeeficient is approximately logarithmic in energy. The effect of this energy dependence is to steepen intrinsic source spectra such that a source with an approximate power-law intrinsic spectrum in this energy range with spectral index $\\Gamma_{s}$ is steepened to a power-law with an observed spectral index $\\Gamma_{o} = $\\Gamma_{s} + $\\Delta \\Gamma (z)$ where $\\Delta \\Gamma (z)$ is a linear function of z in the redshift range 0.05-0.4. We apply this approximation to the spectra of seven TeV blazars.

  13. Determination of 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratio for a nuclear bomb particle using X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with gamma-ray spectrometry and non-destructive alpha-particle spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pllnen; K. Ruotsalainen; H. Toivonen

    2009-01-01

    A nuclear bomb particle from Thule containing Pu and U was analyzed using X-ray spectrometry in combination with gamma-ray spectrometry and non-destructive alpha-spectrometry. The main objective was to investigate the possibility to determine the 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratios. Previously, X-ray spectrometry together with the above-mentioned methods has been successfully applied for radiochemically processed samples, but not for individual particles.

  14. Rock and soil discrimination by low altitude airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in Payne County, Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Schwarzer; J. A. S. Adams

    1973-01-01

    The ability to identify and discriminate rock and soil types from the ; air using gamma spectrometry was investigated in Payne County, Oklahoma. The ; data, which were reduced to concentration values for K, U, and Th, were obtained ; from a helicopter at an average altitude of 75 feet above the ground. The area ; investigated was underlain by

  15. The development and use of an in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system in North Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Macdonald; P. H. Smith; D. J. Assinder

    1996-01-01

    North Wales has a wide range of levels of natural radioactivity together with significant levels of artificial radionuclides on its coast arising mainly from the Sellafield nuclear processing plant. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry offers a rapid alternative to core sampling for mapping out these radioactivity levels but requires extensive calibration and some knowledge of the depth distribution. Quantitative in situ

  16. Monitoring anthropogenic radioactivity in salt marsh environments through in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew N. Tyler

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide bearing effluents discharged into the Irish Sea have resulted in the accumulation of radionuclides in salt marsh environments which can contribute to critical group exposures. Recent developments in in situ gamma-ray spectrometry provide a novel and effective method for monitoring anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations and distributions within these coastal environments. This paper presents the results from an in situ survey

  17. On-line interrogation of pebble bed reactor fuel using passive gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwei

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature nuclear power reactor. In addition to its inherently safe design, a unique feature of this reactor is its multipass fuel cycle in which graphite fuel pebbles (of varying enrichment) are randomly loaded and continuously circulated through the core until they reach their prescribed end-of-life burnup limit (80,000--100,000 MWD/MTU). Unlike the situation with conventional light water reactors (LWRs), depending solely on computational methods to perform in-core fuel management will be highly inaccurate. As a result, an on-line measurement approach becomes the only accurate method to assess whether a particular pebble has reached its end-of-life burnup limit. In this work, an investigation was performed to assess the feasibility of passive gamma-ray spectrometry assay as an approach for on-line interrogation of PBR fuel for the simultaneous determination of burnup and enrichment on a pebble-by-pebble basis. Due to the unavailability of irradiated or fresh pebbles, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the gamma-ray spectra of the PBR fuel at various levels of burnup. A pebble depletion calculation was performed using the ORIGEN code, which yielded the gamma-ray source term that was introduced into the input of an MCNP simulation. The MCNP simulation assumed the use of a high-purity coaxial germanium detector. Due to the lack of one-group high temperature reactor cross sections for ORIGEN, a heterogeneous MCNP model was developed to describe a typical PBR core. Subsequently, the code MONTEBURNS was used to couple the MCNP model and ORIGEN. This approach allowed the development of the burnup-dependent, one-group spectral-averaged PBR cross sections to be used in the ORIGEN pebble depletion calculation. Based on the above studies, a relative approach for performing the measurements was established. The approach is based on using the relative activities of Np-239/I-132 in combination with the relative activities of Cs-134/Co-60 (Co-60 is introduced as a dopant) to yield the burnup and enrichment for each pebble. Furthermore, a direct consequence of the relative approach is the ability to apply a self-calibration scheme using the multiple gamma lines of Ba-La-140 to establish the relative efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. An assessment of the expected uncertainty components in this approach showed that a maximum uncertainty of less than 5% should be feasible. To confirm the above findings, gamma-ray scans were performed on irradiated PULSTAR reactor fuel assemblies at North Carolina Sate University. The measurements used a 40% efficient n-type coaxial HPGe detector connected to an ORTEC DSPEC plus digital Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, and a data acquisition computer. The obtained results showed consistency with the predictions of the simulations including the observation of the I-132, Cs-134, Np-239 uncontaminated gamma lines. In addition, the Ba-La-140 lines were clearly observed confirming the ability to perform relative calibration of the spectrometer.

  18. ATCA data acquisition system for gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Pereira; J. Sousa; A. M. Fernandes; F. Patrcio; B. Carvalho; A. Neto; C. A. F. Varandas; G. Gorini; M. Tardocchi; D. Gin; A. Shevelev

    2008-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrometer JET EP2 (Joint European Torus enhancement project 2) project aims to perform high-resolution gamma spectroscopy at very high count rate (up to few MHz). Traditional analogue electronic has count rate and pulse processing limitations (long dead-time, pile-up challenge). Digital pulse processing (DPP) systems have been shown to have better performance than analogue ones for processing neutrons or\\/and

  19. Dead-layer thickness effect for gamma spectra measured in an HPGe p-type detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ngo Quang Huy

    2011-01-01

    The present work studies the influence of the dead-layer thickness effect on the gamma spectra of a high purity germanium (HPGe) p-type detector at two different points in time. The study was conducted with the Canberra GC1518 detector, which had a dead-layer thickness of 1.15mm in 2005 and 1.46mm in 2009. The measurement of gamma spectra for the reference point-like

  20. Dead-layer thickness effect for gamma spectra measured in an HPGe p-type detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ngo Quang Huy

    2011-01-01

    The present work studies the influence of the dead-layer thickness effect on the gamma spectra of a high purity germanium (HPGe) p-type detector at two different points in time. The study was conducted with the Canberra GC1518 detector, which had a dead-layer thickness of 1.15 mm in 2005 and 1.46 mm in 2009. The measurement of gamma spectra for the

  1. Primary gamma-ray spectra in 44Ti of astrophysical interest

    E-print Network

    A. C. Larsen; S. Goriely; A. Brger; M. Guttormsen; A. Grgen; S. Harrisopulos; M. Kmiecik; T. Konstantinopoulos; A. Lagoyannis; T. Lnnroth; K. Mazurek; M. Norrby; H. T. Nyhus; G. Perdikakis; A. Schiller; S. Siem; A. Spyrou; N. U. H. Syed; H. K. Toft; G. M. Tveten; A. Voinov

    2012-10-05

    Primary gamma-ray spectra for a wide excitation-energy range have been extracted for 44Ti from particle-gamma coincidence data of the 46Ti(p,t gamma)44Ti reaction. These spectra reveal information on the gamma-decay pattern of the nucleus, and may be used to extract the level density and radiative strength function applying the Oslo method. Models of the level density and radiative strength function are used as input for cross-section calculations of the 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti reaction. Acceptable models should reproduce data on the 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti reaction cross section as well as the measured primary gamma-ray spectra. This is only achieved when a coherent normalization of the slope of the level density and radiative strength function is performed. Thus, the overall shape of the experimental primary gamma-ray spectra puts a constraint on the input models for the rate calculations.

  2. Fission studies by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materna, T.; Letourneau, A.; Amouroux, Ch.; Marchix, A.; Litaize, O.; Srot, O.; Regnier, D.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Kster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Simpson, G.; Leoni, S.; de France, G.; Urban, W.

    2015-05-01

    The feasibility of retrieving accurate fission observables with a Ge-detector array around a fissile target placed in a cold neutron beam was tested. In three measurement campaigns performed at ILL with the EXILL setup, 235U and 241Pu targets were placed in the high flux cold neutron beam available at the PF1B neutron guide. Gamma-rays following fission were detected by an array of 16 Ge detectors. In the following study, part of data was analyzed as a proof of principle. A set of yields belonging to the Kr-Ba pair were extracted using a gamma-gamma coincidence technique. Preliminary results were compared to the predictions of two phenomenological models: GEF and FIFRELIN.

  3. Absorption spectra of gamma-irradiation TM-doped cabal glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir Y. Marzouk; Fatma H. Elbatal; A. M. Salem; S. M. Abo-Naf

    2007-01-01

    The UV visible absorption spectra of nominally pure and transition metals-doped (Ti --> Cu 0.1%) cabal glasses were measured from 200 to 1000 nm before and after successive gamma irradiation. The absorption spectra of the undoped glass exhibit charge transfer bands due to iron trace impurities which eventually affect the induced absorption due to some transition metals and that due

  4. Efficiency corrections in low-energy gamma spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakar, K.; Realo, K.; Kiisk, M.; Realo, E.

    2007-09-01

    In HPGe gamma spectrometric analysis of 210Pb in aerosol filter samples, the activity concentrations were corrected for self-attenuation and sample heights. Corrections were evaluated using the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4 and the Gespecor software. Calculations were made for 46.5 keV gamma line of 210Pb in Petryanoff (FPP) and fiberglass aerosol filters of varying heights. The IAEA RGU-1 reference material of different heights in a similar beaker served as a standard source. As a result, the approximations were found to calculate corrected efficiencies for samples with different heights. The method was applied for the study of 210Pb content in air in Estonia.

  5. Absolute elemental concentrations estimated from geochemical well logging using neutron-induced gamma-ray spectrometry and a geological model

    SciTech Connect

    Grau, J.A.; Herron, M.M.

    1987-05-01

    Elemental concentrations of several inorganic elements were determined on a continuous basis with depth using the Schlumberger gamma-ray spectrometry (GST) log in a Santa Fe Energy Co. well in the Kern Front field, Bakersfield, California, Relative gamma-ray yields of Si, Ca, Fe, S, Cl, H, Ti, Gd + Sm, and K were determined using a weighted least-squares fitting of standard elemental spectra, determined from laboratory measurements, to the measured spectra. The relative yields were then placed on an absolute basis using measured sensitivity coefficients and the assumption that, excluding Cl and H, the abundances of these elements plus Al, considered as oxides and, for Ca, carbonates, total 100% of the rock. This assumption removes variations in porosity and salinity from impacting the denormalization procedure. The output is estimated absolute concentrations in weight percent of the rock that are compared with elemental analyses made on over 60 core plug and sidewall samples by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis.

  6. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    SciTech Connect

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  7. Neutron and gamma dose and spectra measurements on the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Hoots, S.; Wadsworth, D.

    1984-06-01

    The radiation-measurement team of the Weapons Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) measured neutron and gamma dose and spectra on the Little Boy replica at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April 1983. This assembly is a replica of the gun-type atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima in 1945. These measurements support the National Academy of Sciences Program to reassess the radiation doses due to atomic bomb explosions in Japan. Specifically, the following types of information were important: neutron spectra as a function of geometry, gamma to neutron dose ratios out to 1.5 km, and neutron attenuation in the atmosphere. We measured neutron and gamma dose/fission from close-in to a kilometer out, and neutron and gamma spectra at 90 and 30/sup 0/ close-in. This paper describes these measurements and the results. 12 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.

  8. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl-oxypaeoniflorin. The result showed that the presented fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills contained plenty of information quite valuable for the quality evaluation as well as chemical characterization of JinKui ShenQi pills. PMID:18975832

  9. High resolution, in situ, gamma-ray spectrometry procedures manual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sautter

    1987-01-01

    Procedures used for environmental in situ gamma-ray spectroscopy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory are documented. These procedures are based on techniques developed at other laboratories, principally by H.L. Beck et al., of the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory. The procedures are limited to use of large-volume, lithium-drifted or high-purity germanium diode detectors for quantification of the contributions of

  10. On line gamma-ray spectrometry at open sea.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Ballas, D

    2005-01-01

    Set up and application of a stationary monitoring network for measuring specific gamma- activities in the Aegean Sea are described. Three NaI scintillator based spectrometers have been used to detect the gamma rays. The gross counting rate of each system was found to be nearly constant, when there was no rainfall. The volumetric activity of the natural gamma-ray emitter 40K in open sea varied from 12,200 to 13,000 Bq/m3. The counting rate for 1461 keV 40K radiation was measured by intercalibration with an appropriate salinity sensor mounted close to the NaI-detector system. A simple relation between the counting rate and the salt concentration has been observed. The amount of the artificial radioactivity from 137Cs was increased up to seven times higher after strong rainfall, compared to the radiation level as given in literature (3.5-5.5 Bq/m3), while the 214Bi counting rate was increased up to ten times compared to the data without rainfall. PMID:15498689

  11. Natural Radiation from Soil using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; Paula, A. L. C. de [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Medina, N. H. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-06-03

    We have studied the distribution of natural radioactivity in the soil of Interlagos, in Sao Paulo city and Billings Reservoir, in Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The main contribution of the effective radiation dose is due to the elements of the {sup 238}Th decay series, with smaller contributions from {sup 40}K and the elements of the series of {sup 238}U. The results indicate the dose in all of the studied areas is around the average international dose due to external exposure to gamma rays (0.48 mSv/yr) proceeding from natural terrestrial elements.

  12. Development of isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Akiyama, T. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We are studying the feasibility of determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic distribution of highly radioactive, spent-fuel dissolver solutions by employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The study involves gamma-ray plutonium isotopic analysis for both dissolver and spiked dissolver solution samples, after plutonium is eluted through an ion-exchange column and absorbed in a small resin bead bag. The spike is well characterized, dry plutonium containing {approximately}98% of {sup 239}Pu. By using measured isotopic information, the concentration of elemental plutonium in the dissolver solution can be determined. Both the plutonium concentration and the isotopic composition of the dissolver solution obtained from this study agree well with values obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Because it is rapid, easy to operate and maintain, and costs less, this new technique could be an alternative method to IDMS for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. gamma. -ray spectrometry for determination of radium-228 and radium-226 in natural waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline. Michel; Willard S. Moore; Philip T. King

    1981-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the measurement of ²²⁸Ra and ²²⁶Ra in both fresh- and seawater using Ge(Li) ..gamma..-ray spectrometry. Radium isotopes are preconcentrated in the field from 100 to 1000 L onto Mn-impregnated acrylic fiber cartridges, leached from the fiber and coprecipitated with BaSO. Lower limits of detection are controlled by the volume of water processed through the

  14. Optimization of measure parameters for an X- and gamma-ray spectrometry portable system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaquiel S. Fernandes; Carlos R. Appoloni

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of a system for in situ gamma (?)- and X-ray spectrometry composed of a 331mm3 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector with respect to the detection of low-activity radioactive sources, a two level factorial planning was accomplished, involving three factors that could modify the system response. This planning was made with a 137Cs punctual source, analyzing

  15. a Ge(Li) Bore Hole Probe for in Situ Gamma Ray SPECTROMETRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lauber; O. Landstroem

    1972-01-01

    This report describes the construction and properties of a Ge(Li) bore hole probe for in situ gamma ray spectrometry. The probe has the form of a cylinder 8.9 cm in diameter and 160 cm long. It contains a 22 cm³ coaxial Ge(Li) detector, cooled by liquid nitrogen. Holding time of the assembled probe is in excess of ten hours, energy

  16. Gamma-ray spectra of hexane in gas phase and liquid phase

    E-print Network

    Xiaoguang Ma; Feng Wang

    2012-11-01

    Theoretical gamma-ray spectra of molecule hexane have been calculated and compared with the experimental results in both gas (Surko et al, 1997) and liquid (Kerr et al, 1965) phases. The present study reveals that in gas phase not all valence electrons of hexane exhibit the same probability to annihilate a positron. Only the positrophilic electrons in the valence space dominate the gamma-ray spectra, which are in good agreement with the gas phase measurement. When hexane is confined in liquid phase, however, the intermolecular interactions ultimately eliminate the free molecular orientation and selectivity for the positrophilic electrons in the gas phase. As a result, the gamma-ray spectra of hexane become an averaged contribution from all valence electrons, which is again in agreement with liquid phase measurement. The roles of the positrophilic electrons in annihilation process for gas and liquid phases of hexane have been recognized for the first time in the present study.

  17. Intergalactic absorption and blazar gamma-ray spectra

    E-print Network

    Persic, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of TeV spectral slopes versus redshift for currently known TeV blazars (15 sources with z0.25) is essentially a scatter plot with hardly any hint of a global trend. We suggest that this is the outcome of two combined effects of intergalactic gamma-gamma absorption, plus an inherent feature of the SSC (synchro-self-Compton) process of blazar emission. First, flux dimming introduces a bias that favors detection of progressively more flaring sources at higher redshifts. According to mainstream SSC models, more flaring source states imply sources with flatter TeV slopes. This results in a structured relation between intrinsic TeV slope and redshift. The second effect, spectral steepening by intergalactic absorption, affects sources progressively with distance and effectively wipes out the intrinsic slope-redshift correlation.

  18. Intergalactic absorption and blazar gamma-ray spectra

    E-print Network

    Massimo Persic; Alessandro De Angelis

    2008-03-24

    The distribution of TeV spectral slopes versus redshift for currently known TeV blazars (16 sources with z0.25) is essentially a scatter plot with hardly any hint of a global trend. We suggest that this is the outcome of two combined effects of intergalactic gamma-gamma absorption, plus an inherent feature of the SSC (synchro-self-Compton) process of blazar emission. First, flux dimming introduces a bias that favors detection of progressively more flaring sources at higher redshifts. According to mainstream SSC models, more flaring source states imply sources with flatter TeV slopes. This results in a structured relation between intrinsic TeV slope and redshift. The second effect, spectral steepening by intergalactic absorption, affects sources progressively with distance and effectively wipes out the intrinsic slope-redshift correlation.

  19. A New Determination of the Spectra and Luminosity Function of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars

    E-print Network

    Ilias Cholis; Dan Hooper; Tim Linden

    2014-07-21

    In this article, we revisit the gamma-ray emission observed from millisecond pulsars and globular clusters. Based on 5.6 years of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, we report gamma-ray spectra for 61 millisecond pulsars, finding most to be well fit by a power-law with an exponential cutoff, producing to a spectral peak near ~1-2 GeV (in $E^2 dN/dE$ units). Additionally, while most globular clusters exhibit a similar spectral shape, we identify a few with significantly softer spectra. We also determine the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars using the population found in the nearby field of the Milky Way, and within the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. We find that the gamma-ray emission observed from globular clusters is dominated by a relatively small number of bright millisecond pulsars, and that low-luminosity pulsars account for only a small fraction of the total flux. Our results also suggest that the gamma-ray emission from millisecond pulsars is more isotropic and less strongly beamed than the emission at X-ray wavelengths. Furthermore, the observed distribution of apparent gamma-ray efficiencies provides support for the slot gap or the outer gap models over those in which the gamma-ray emission originates from regions close to the neutron star's magnetic poles (polar cap models).

  20. Principal Component Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts' Spectra

    E-print Network

    Z. Bagoly; I. Horvath; L. G. Balazs; L. Borgonovo; S. Larsson; A. Meszaros; F. Ryde

    2007-05-02

    Principal component analysis is a statistical method, which lowers the number of important variables in a data set. The use of this method for the bursts' spectra and afterglows is discussed in this paper. The analysis indicates that three principal components are enough among the eight ones to describe the variablity of the data. The correlation between spectral index alpha and the redshift suggests that the thermal emission component becomes more dominant at larger redshifts.

  1. Absorption spectra of gamma-irradiation TM-doped cabal glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir Y. Marzouk; Fatma H. Elbatal; A. M. Salem; S. M. Abo-Naf

    2007-01-01

    The UVvisible absorption spectra of nominally pure and transition metals-doped (Ti?Cu 0.1%) cabal glasses were measured from 200 to 1000nm before and after successive gamma irradiation. The absorption spectra of the undoped glass exhibit charge transfer bands due to iron trace impurities which eventually affect the induced absorption due to some transition metals and that due to the host base

  2. Changes in the optical spectra of poly(vinyl chloride) as a result of gamma irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. El-Zaher; W. G. Osiris

    1997-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of different doses of gamma rays ranging from 50 to 500 kGy on the transmission spectra and the tristimulus transmittance as well as the absorption coefficient in the range 400-700 nm of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were studied by the optical transmission spectra. Variation in the group coordination in the near infrared region (700-3000 nm)

  3. Changes in the optical spectra of poly(vinyl chloride) as a result of gamma irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. El-Zaher; W. G. Osiris

    1997-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of different doses of gamma rays ranging from 50 to 500 kGy on the transmission spectra and the tristimulus transmittance as well as the absorption coefficient in the range 400700 nm of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were studied by the optical transmission spectra. Variation in the group coordination in the near infrared region (7003000 nm)

  4. Intergalactic magnetic field spectra from diffuse gamma rays

    E-print Network

    Wenlei Chen; Borun D. Chowdhury; Francesc Ferrer; Hiroyuki Tashiro; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2014-12-10

    Non-vanishing parity-odd correlators of gamma ray arrival directions observed by Fermi-LAT indicate the existence of a helical intergalactic magnetic field (Tashiro et al.2013). We successfully test this hypothesis using more stringent cuts of the data, Monte Carlo simulations with Fermi-LAT time exposure information, separate analyses for the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, and confirm predictions made in Tashiro & Vachaspati (2014). With some further technical assumptions, we show how to reconstruct the magnetic helicity spectrum from the parity-odd correlators.

  5. Intergalactic magnetic field spectra from diffuse gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenlei; Chowdhury, Borun D.; Ferrer, Francesc; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2015-07-01

    Non-vanishing parity-odd correlators of gamma-ray arrival directions observed by Fermi-LAT indicate the existence of a helical intergalactic magnetic field with strength B 10-14 G on 10 Mpc scales. We successfully test this hypothesis using more stringent cuts of the data, Monte Carlo simulations with Fermi-LAT time exposure information, separate analyses for the Northern and Southern galactic hemispheres, and confirm predictions made in Tashiro & Vachaspati. With some further technical assumptions, we show how to reconstruct the magnetic helicity spectrum from the parity-odd correlators.

  6. Testing of regolith of celestial bolides with active neutron gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrukhin, Andrey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Golovin, Dmitry; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Current space instruments for studying planet's surface include gamma ray spectrometers that detect natural radioactive isotopes as well as gamma-rays induced in subsurface by galactic cosmic rays. When measuring from celestial body's surface, statistics and amount of detected elements can be dramatically increased with active methods, where soil exposed to artificial flux of particles. One good example is the Russian Dynamic Albedo of Neutron (DAN) instrument onboard Martian Science Laboratory mission (Curiosity rover) developed in 2005-2011. It is the first active neutron spectrometer flown to another planet as part of a landed mission to investigate subsurface water distribution and which has now successfully operated for more than two years on the Martian surface. Presentation describes a number of space instruments for different landers and rovers being developed in Russian Space Research Institute for studying Moon and Mars, as well as method of active neutron and gamma spectrometry overview.

  7. High resolution gamma-ray spectra for {sup 235}U(n{sub th},ff)

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, D.J.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, Shengjie; Nguyen, Hung V.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H.; Tipnis, S.V. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States); England, T.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    High-resolution gamma ray spectra from thermal fission of {sup 235}U have been measured for 21 delay time intervals in the range 0.2s to nearly 100,000s. More than 170 gamma transitions have so far been studied out to 1000s in 27 different fission products. Relative line intensities and time evolutions for the gamma lines provide information on relative production probabilities for fission products, direct-vs.-beta chain production ratios, isomeric to ground-state production ratios, as well as precursor halflives, for comparison with ENDF/B-VI.

  8. Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra and Time Histories from 2 to 400 keV

    E-print Network

    E. E. Fenimore

    1998-02-12

    The Gamma-Ray burst detector on Ginga consisted of a proportional counter to observe the x-rays and a scintillation counter to observe the gamma-rays. It was ideally suited to study the x-rays associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Ginga detected 120 GRBs and 22 of them had sufficient statistics to determine spectra from 2 to 400 keV. Although the Ginga and BATSE trigger criteria were very similar, the distribution of spectral parameters was different. Ginga observed bend energies in the spectra down to 2 keV and had a larger fraction of bursts with low energy power law indexes greater than zero. The average ratio of energy in the x-ray band (2 to 10 keV) compared to the gamma-ray band (50 to 300 keV) was 24%. Some events had more energy in the x-ray band than in the gamma-ray band. One Ginga event had a period of time preceding the gamma rays that was effectively pure x-ray emission. This x-ray ``preactivity'' might be due to the penchant for the GRB time structure to be broader at lower energy rather than a different physical process. The x-rays tend to rise and fall slower than the gamma rays but they both tend to peak at about the same time. This argues against models involving the injection of relativistic electrons that cool by synchrotron radiation.

  9. Study of total gamma spectra correlation for extending identification range over photopeak analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, A. W.

    1984-03-01

    This report shows that gamma spectra identification by total flux correlation can be used to extend identification range over photo peak methods. Identification was based on two decision rules both employing cross-correlation coefficients. The largest coefficient (first decision rule) matched the unknown spectra with the correct source thirty-seven out of thirty-eight trials. The proposed likelihood function (second decision rule) had a success rate of thirty-five out of thirty-eight trials. These results were based on spectra generated by the transport code, Morse.

  10. Programs in C for parameterizing measured 5? 5? NaI gamma response functions and unfolding of continuous gamma spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Pullen, D. J.; Schier, W. A.; Seabury, E. H.; Tipnis, S. V.

    1996-02-01

    A 5? 5? NaI(Tl) detector has been used to measure gamma-ray spectra resulting from the decay of aggregate fission products. In order to extract the true gamma-ray energy distribution from the measured spectra, the detector response functions for monoenergetic gamma rays spanning the energy range of the measurements must be determined. At present we have measured 13 such response functions in the energy range 0.081-6.13 MeV. NGRC is a program in C written to implement an interpolation scheme for estimating the response function at any other intermediate energy. This program takes a library of response function tails and constructs a response function matrix which is used as input to a second program CRSUP written for obtaining gamma-ray energy distributions. It assumes the measured spectrum consists of a superposition of a specified number of response functions placed at energies determined by the program according to the detector resolution and spectrum end point energy. The program then computes the distribution of the strength of the response functions in a least-squares fashion. This program is designed to maximize the number of response functions that can be used in modeling the measured spectrum without reducing the number of bins used in each response function. The response functions constructed by the interpolation procedure have been used in the program SPEC-FIT to fit in a least-squares fashion the gamma-ray spectrum of 152Eu. The fit is an excellent reproduction of both the photopeak and continuous regions of the entire measured spectrum. Finally the validity of the least-square method implemented by CRSUP has also been tested by using this program to unfold an analytically constructed continuous spectrum. The results obtained were in excellent agreement with the assumed distribution function, illustrating the applicability of CRSUP for unfolding other types of continuous spectra as encountered in beta, neutron-time-of-flight and Rutherford-backscattering spectroscopy.

  11. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) airborne gamma spectrometry system for environmental and emergency response surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, John, II; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy

    2010-08-01

    The EPA Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) Program provides airborne ortho-rectified imagery, video, chemical and now radiological information directly to emergency response personnel via a commercial satellite link onboard the aircraft. EPA initiated the ASPECT Gamma Emergency Mapper GEM Project in 2008 to improve its airborne gamma-screening and mapping capability for monitoring any ground-based gamma contamination. This paper will provide an overview of the system, which can be configured to carry six 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors and two 3"x3" LaBr3(Ce) detectors or eight 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors. The paper will provide an overview of the analysis of gamma radiation spectra, system limitations, and emergency response applications.

  12. Delaminated method to determine the depth distribution of 152Eu in soil by in-situ HPGe gamma spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Feng; M. Y. Jia; B. Long; C. Y. Su; R. Wu; J. P. Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The main limitation of in-situ gamma spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. This paper describes a specific delaminated method to obtain depth distribution of 152Eu in soil. It is based on the notion that the relative gamma-ray flux contribution from a certain soil layer varies with the depth distribution shape and a certain gamma-ray energy. Through one

  13. Spatially-Aware Temporal Anomaly Mapping of Gamma Spectra

    E-print Network

    Reinhart, Alex; Biegalski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    For security, environmental, and regulatory purposes it is useful to continuously monitor wide areas for unexpected changes in radioactivity. We report on a temporal anomaly detection algorithm which uses mobile detectors to build a spatial map of background spectra, allowing sensitive detection of any anomalies through many days or months of monitoring. We adapt previously-developed anomaly detection methods, which compare spectral shape rather than count rate, to function with limited background data, allowing sensitive detection of small changes in spectral shape from day to day. To demonstrate this technique we collected daily observations over the period of six weeks on a 0.33 square mile research campus and performed source injection simulations.

  14. Effects of axion-photon mixing on gamma-ray spectra from magnetized astrophysical sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmuth, Kathrin A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [APC - AstroParticules et Cosmologie, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France) and Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2007-12-15

    Astrophysical {gamma}-ray sources come in a variety of sizes and magnetizations. We deduce general conditions under which {gamma}-ray spectra from such sources would be significantly affected by axion-photon mixing. We show that, depending on strength and coherence of the magnetic field, axion couplings down to {approx}(10{sup 13}GeV){sup -1} can give rise to significant axion-photon conversions in the environment of accreting massive black holes. Resonances can occur between the axion mass term and the plasma frequency term as well as between the plasma frequency term and the vacuum Cotton-Mouton shift. Both resonances and nonresonant transitions could induce detectable features or even strong suppressions in finite energy intervals of {gamma}-ray spectra from active galactic nuclei. Such effects can occur at keV to TeV energies for couplings that are currently allowed by all experimental constraints.

  15. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  16. High resolution GRB spectra from the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Pehl, R.; Madden, N.; Owens, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) is a germanium spectrometer designed to produce high-resolution (2-3 keV) spectra of bright gamma-ray bursts. In its first year of operation it has triggered on 62 GRBs, of which ~33 were bright enough for spectroscopy. Almost all of these bursts were also seen by the Konus detectors on the same spacecraft, and about half were also observed by BATSE. This allows the instruments and their results to be compared and will allow line candidates seen by any of the instruments to be confirmed or refuted by the others. This paper presents some typical spectra from GRBs observed by TGRS, and includes for comparison the corresponding BATSE and Konus spectra.

  17. Distribution of iron&titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Elphic, R. C. (Richard C.); Gasnault, O. M. (Olivier M.); Maurice, S. (Sylvestre); Moore, K. R. (Kurt R.); Binder, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. {approx}140 g/cm{sup 2} for inelastic scattering and {approx}50 g/cm{sup 2} for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods [e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)], which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  18. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.560.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.560.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  19. Assay for uranium and determination of disequilibrium by means of in situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Allan B.; Moxham, Robert M.; Senftle, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    Two sealed sondes, using germanium gamma-ray detectors cooled by melting propane, have been field tested to depths of 79 m in water-filled boreholes at the Pawnee Uranium Mine in Bee Co., Texas. When, used as total-count devices, the sondes are comparable in logging speed and counting rate with conventional scintillation detectors for locating zones of high radioactivity. When used with a multichannel analyzer, the sondes are detectors with such high resolution that individual lines from the complex spectra of the uranium and thorium series can be distinguished. Gamma rays from each group of the uranium series can be measured in ore zones permitting determination of the state of equilibrium at each measurement point. Series of 10-minute spectra taken at 0.3- to 0.5-m intervals in several holes showed zones where maxima from the uranium group and from the 222Rn group were displaced relative to each other. Apparent excesses of 230Th at some locations suggest that uranium-group concentrations at those locations were severalfold greater some tens of kiloyears, ago. At the current state of development a 10-minute count yields a sensitivity of about 80 ppm U308. Data reduction could in practice be accomplished in about 5 minutes. The result is practically unaffected by disequilibrium or radon contamination. In comparison with core assay, high-resolution spectrometry samples a larger volume; avoids problems due to incomplete core recovery, loss of friable material to drilling fluids, and errors in depth and marking; and permits use of less expensive drilling methods. Because gamma rays from the radionuclides are accumulated simultaneously, it also avoids the problems inherent in trying to correlate logs made in separate runs with different equipment. Continuous-motion delayed-gamma activation by a 163-?g 252Cf neutron source attached to the sonde yielded poor sensitivity. A better neutron-activation method, in which the sonde is moved in steps so as to place the detector at the previous activation point, could not be evaluated because of equipment failure.

  20. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States)] [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Lit, Peter [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)] [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were calculated. From the scanning data, locations with observed Cs-137 ratios exceeding six standard deviations above the mean ratio were mapped in high resolution [2]. Field teams returned to those locations to collect static count measurements using the same detection systems. Soil surface samples were collected at 30 locations and analyzed for Cs-137. An exponential correlation was identified between Cs-137 concentrations in surface soil and field-scanned Cs-137 ratios. The data indicate field minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of Cs-137 at 0.02 Bq/g (0.5 pCi/g) or lower depending on contaminant distribution in soil. (authors)

  1. Determination of 226Ra Activity Using Gamma Spectrometry with 226Ra-222Rn Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Wang, Shilian; Zhao, Yungang; Liu, Shujiang; Fan, Yuanqing; Shi, Jianfang; Jia, Huaimao; Yu, Weixiang

    2015-08-01

    Radium-226 (Ra) activity is normally determined indirectly by gamma spectrometry, in particular by measuring the characteristic ?-ray emitted from its progeny (Pb and Bi) when Ra-Rn secular equilibrium is reached. This article describes a measurement method involving the measurement of Pb ingrowth. The activity of Ra determined by this method agrees with that measured after Ra-Rn equilibrium. The method of Pb ingrowth allows rapid and sufficiently accurate determination of Ra activity without the need to wait for Ra-Rn equilibrium. PMID:26107431

  2. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvad, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times. PMID:24607535

  3. Simulation of gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum simulation program BSIMUL was designed to allow the operator to follow the path of a gamma-ray through a detector, shield and collimator whose dimensions are entered by the operator. It can also be used to simulate spectra that would be generated by a detector. Several improvements have been made to the program within the last few months. The detector, shield and collimator dimensions can now be entered through an interactive menu whose options are discussed below. In addition, spectra containing more than one gamma-ray energy can now be generated with the menu - for isotopes listed in the program. Adding isotopes to the main routine is also quite easy. Subroutines have been added to enable the operator to specify the material and dimensions of a collimator. This report details the progress made in simulating gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs. In addition, a short discussion of work done in the related areas of pulse shape analysis and the spectral analysis is included. The pulse shape analysis and spectral analysis work is being performed pursuant to the requirements of contract F-94-C-0006, for the Advanced Research Projects Agency and the U.S. Air Force.

  4. Coincidence summing corrections for the natural decay series in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garca-Talaver, M; Laedermann, J P; Dcombaz, M; Daza, M J; Quintana, B

    2001-05-01

    Using a Monte Carlo code and a Markov formalism to describe the decay schemes, coincidence-summing correction factors can be calculated with a suitable accuracy. For two different measuring geometries and an HPGe detector, calculated and experimental correction factors have been shown to closely agree for 152Eu. The simulation method has subsequently been applied in assessing the need for coincidence-summing corrections for members of the uranium, thorium and actinium series measurable by gamma-spectrometry. Correction factors were calculated for predominant gamma emissions significantly affected by coincidence-summing effects and the correctness of our calculations tested for environmental samples. The test makes it evident that in order to obtain reliable and unbiased activity values for some natural radionuclides coincidence summing cannot be neglected in environmental measurements at small source-detector distances. PMID:11258526

  5. GEANT4 calibration of gamma spectrometry efficiency for measurements of airborne radioactivity on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2014-11-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring airborne radioactivity collected on filter paper, was based on Monte Carlo simulations using the toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of an HPGe detector were calculated for a multi-gamma disk source. These efficiency values were compared to their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Such comparison revealed biases of 24, 10, 1, 3, 7, and 3% for the radionuclides (photon energies in keV) of Ce (166), Sn (392), Cs (662), Co (1,173), Co (1,333), and Y (1,836), respectively. The output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method. PMID:25271933

  6. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. gamma. -ray spectrometry for determination of radium-228 and radium-226 in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, J.; Moore, W.S.; King, P.T.

    1981-10-01

    A technique has been developed for the measurement of /sup 228/Ra and /sup 226/Ra in both fresh- and seawater using Ge(Li) ..gamma..-ray spectrometry. Radium isotopes are preconcentrated in the field from 100 to 1000 L onto Mn-impregnated acrylic fiber cartridges, leached from the fiber and coprecipitated with BaSO/sub 4/. Lower limits of detection are controlled by the volume of water processed through the Mn fibers. In a 1-day count, samples as low as 10 dpm are measured to +-10% uncertainty. This Mn-fiber-..gamma..-ray technique is shown to be more accurate than the /sup 228/Ac methods recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency and as accurate but more rapid than the /sup 228/Th-Ingrowth procedure.

  8. Use of MCNP + GADRAS in Generating More Realistic Gamma-Ray Spectra for Plutonium and HEU Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mattingly, John [North Carolina State University; Mitchell, Dean [Sandia National Laboratory

    2012-08-07

    The ability to accurately simulate high-resolution gamma spectra from materials that emit both neutrons and gammas is very important to the analysis of special nuclear materials (SNM), e.g., uranium and plutonium. One approach under consideration has been to combine MCNP and GADRAS. This approach is expected to generate more accurate gamma ray spectra for complex three-dimensional geometries than can be obtained from one-dimensional deterministic transport simulations (e.g., ONEDANT). This presentation describes application of combining MCNP and GADRAS in simulating plutonium and uranium spectra.

  9. Mapping the terrestrial air-absorbed gamma dose rate based on the data of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in southern cities of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengqing Xiong; Nanping Wang; Zhengguo Fan; Xingming Chu; Qifan Wu; Shaoying Pei; Jianhua Wan; Lihui Zeng

    2012-01-01

    An environmental radioactivity survey by Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) on a large scale was undertaken in Zhuhai Zone (ZZ) and Shenzhen Zone (SZ), which include major cities in southern China, covering areas of 3800km and 4660km, respectively. The estimated dose rates by AGS have been compared with observed results by ionization chamber and portable dosemeter. Maps of the terrestrial dose

  10. Self-Correction of Lanthanum-Cerium Halide Gamma Spectra (pre-print)

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Yuan, Paul Guss, and Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2009-04-01

    Lanthanum-cerium halide detectors generally exhibit superior energy resolutions for gamma radiation detection compared with conventional sodium iodide detectors. However, they are also subject to self-activities due to lanthanum-138 decay and contamination due to beta decay in the low-energy region and alpha decay in the high-energy region. The detectors self-activity and crystal contamination jointly contribute a significant amount of uncertainties to the gamma spectral measurement and affect the precision of the nuclide identification process. This paper demonstrates a self-correction procedure for self-activity and contamination reduction from spectra collected by lanthanum-cerium halide detectors. It can be implemented as an automatic self-correction module for the future gamma radiation detector made of lanthanum-cerium halide crystals.

  11. Turbulent spectra of the brightest gamma-ray flares of blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the spectral properties of the brightest gamma-ray flares of blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We search for the presence of spectral breaks and measure the spectral curvature on typical time-scales of a few days. We identify significant spectral breaks in fewer than half of the analysed flares, but their parameters do not show any discernible regularities, and in particular there is no indication for gamma-ray absorption at any fixed source-frame photon energy. More interestingly, we find that the studied blazars are characterized by significant spectral variability. Gamma-ray flares of short duration are often characterized by strong spectral curvature, with the spectral peak located above 100 MeV. Since these spectral variations are observed despite excellent photon statistics, they must reflect temporal fluctuations in the energy distributions of the emitting particles. We suggest that highly regular gamma-ray spectra of blazars integrated over long time-scales emerge from a superposition of many short-lived irregular components with relatively narrow spectra. This would imply that the emitting particles are accelerated in strongly turbulent environments.

  12. The role of photon scattering in shaping the lightcurves and spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Davide Lazzati

    2002-09-01

    We analyze the power spectra of the lightcurves of long gamma-ray bursts, dividing the sample in bins of luminosity, using the recently discovered variability-luminosity correlation. We find that the value of the variability parameter strongly correlates with the frequency that contains most of the power in the burst comoving frame. We compute the average power spectra in luminosity bins. The average power spectrum is well described by a broken power-low and the break frequency is a function of the variability parameter, while the two slopes are roughly constant. This allow us to conclude that scattering processes do not play a relevant role in modelling the lightcurves. We finally discuss in which conditions scattering may still play a relevant role in shaping the spectra of GRBs.

  13. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  14. The 124Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. C. M.; Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; da Silva, R. L.

    2010-07-01

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of 124Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. 124Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. 124Sb decays by ?-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point 124Sb solid sources were obtained from a 166mHo standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of 124Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% ( k=2) were obtained.

  15. In-Situ gamma-ray spectrometry: the influence of topography on the accuracy of activity determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P. Laedermann; F. Byrde; C. Murith

    1998-01-01

    Determination of gamma-ray activity in soil by in-situ spectrometry with portable high purity germanium detectors is highly dependent on the nature of the site and the source distribution in the soil. Disturbances of the model distribution of radionuclides related to ground irregularities, incidence angle of the particles transporting activity at the time of contamination and plant cover affect the accuracy

  16. A theoretical comparison of methods of quantification of radioactive contamination in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. MacDonald; C. J. Gibson; P. J. Fish; D. J. Assinder

    1997-01-01

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry offers a rapid method of assessing radioactive contamination in soil. For accurate quantification, however, a knowledge of the activity - depth distribution is essential. Three methods, the multiple peak method, the peak to valley method and the lead plate method, for deriving the distribution were compared by evaluating the uncertainty on the derived activity concentration for

  17. Estimating and accounting for 137Cs source burial through In-situ gamma spectrometry in salt marsh environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Tyler; D. C. W. Sanderson; E. M. Scott

    1996-01-01

    The use of in-situ gamma ray spectrometry provides a means of rapidly estimating environmental radioactivity inventories. However, one of the principal limitations of this technique has been the influence of variations in vertical activity distribution on the observed photon fluence. This paper demonstrates that the quantification of the forward scattered ratio of the spectrum (Q) can be used to: (i)

  18. Experimental evaluation of the submerged detector method to improve the accuracy of in-situ gamma spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. MacDonald; C. J. Gibson; P. J. Fish; D. J. Assinder

    1999-01-01

    The rapid and accurate quantification of radioactivity in the ground is important in many instances to enable appropriate decisions to be made about limiting its use. In-situ gamma spectrometry has been shown to be a potentially powerful technique for providing this information but its accuracy is dependent on knowledge of the activity variation with depth which is generally unavailable. Methods

  19. Extragalactic background light absorption signal in the TeV gamma-ray spectra of blazars

    E-print Network

    V. V. Vassiliev

    1999-08-09

    Recent observations of the TeV gamma-ray spectra of the two closest active galactic nuclei (AGNs), Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) and Markarian 421 (Mrk 421), by the Whipple and HEGRA collaborations have stimulated efforts to estimate or limit the spectral energy density (SED) of extragalactic background light (EBL) which causes attenuation of TeV photons via pair-production when they travel cosmological distances. In spite of the lack of any distinct cutoff-like feature in the spectra of Mrk 501 and Mrk 421 (in the interval 0.26-10 TeV) which could clearly indicate the presence of such a photon absorption mechanism, we demonstrate that strong EBL attenuation signal (survival probability of 10 TeV photon <10^{-2}) may still be present in the spectra of these AGNs. By estimating the minimal and maximal opacity of the universe to TeV gamma-ray photons, we calculate the visibility range for current and future gamma-ray observatories. Finally, we show that the proposed experiments, VERITAS, HESS, and MAGIC, may even be able to actually measure the EBL SED because their observations extend to the critical 75-150 GeV regime. In this transition region a distinct ``knee-like'' feature should exist in the spectra of blazars, which is invariant with respect to their intrinsic properties. The change of the spectral index and flux amplitude across this knee, if observed for several blazars, will provide missing pieces of information needed to measure EBL in the wavelength range 0.1-30 $\\mu$m.

  20. Spectra of cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Share, G. H.; Kane, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Hard X-ray measurements of six gamma-ray bursts observed by detectors on the OGO-5 and OSO-6 satellites during the period Oct. 1969 to Apr. 1971 are presented. Spectra for five of the six bursts were determined using measurements from both satellites in order to reduce ambiguities due to uncertain source locations. A significant fraction, 20 to 60%, of the energy of the bursts fall in the hard X-ray range (20 to 130 keV). The time-integrated spectra were fitted by power-law, exponential, and thermal bremsstrahlung functions. They are consistent with power-laws which steepen at energies approx. above 150 keV, as reported earlier for two other bursts. Evidence for spectral variability from event to event in the hard X-ray region is presented. The hard X-ray spectra of the gamma-ray bursts differ from those of the recently discovered 1 to 15 keV bursts.

  1. Hard X-ray spectra of cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, S. R.; Share, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Hard X-ray measurements of six gamma-ray bursts observed during the period from October 1969 to April 1971 are presented. The measurements were made with detectors on the OGO-5 and OSO-6 satellites. Spectra for five of the six bursts have been determined using measurements from both satellites in order to reduce ambiguities due to uncertain source locations. A significant fraction, about 20-60%, of the energy of the bursts falls in the hard X-ray range (20-130 keV). The time-integrated spectra have been fitted by power-law, exponential, and thermal-bremsstrahlung functions. They are consistent with power laws which steepen at energies of at least 150 keV, as reported earlier for two other bursts. Evidence for spectral variability from event to event in the hard X-ray region is presented. For a power-law representation, the power-law index has values ranging from approximately unity to 2.5. The hard X-ray spectra of the gamma-ray bursts differ significantly from those of the recently discovered 1-15-keV X-ray bursts.

  2. The role of photon scattering in shaping the light curves and spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Lazzati

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the power spectra of the light curves of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), dividing the sample into luminosity bins, using the recently discovered variability-luminosity correlation. We find that the value of the variability parameter strongly correlates with the frequency that contains most of the power in the burst comoving frame. We compute the average power spectra in luminosity bins.

  3. Axion-like particles explain the unphysical redshift-dependence of AGN gamma-ray spectra

    E-print Network

    Galanti, Giorgio; De Angelis, Alessandro; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are a class of AGN known to be powerful very-high-energy (VHE, 100 GeV - 100 TeV) celestial gamma-ray emitters. At the time of writing, 41 blazars, spread all over the sky and with known redshift in the range $0.0215 \\leq z \\leq 0.635$ have been observed in the VHE band by the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. Thus, they represent an isotropic and relatively local extragalactic sample, unaffected by significant cosmological evolution. The blazar emitted spectra are well fitted by a power law with index $\\Gamma_{\\rm em}$. We show that the $\\Gamma_{\\rm em}$ distribution exhibits an unexpected and previously unnoticed unphysical redshift-dependence. We demonstrate that this result is not due to any selection effect. It is difficult to imagine an intrinsic mechanism which could lead to such a spectral variation, and so this result seriously challenges the conventional view. We propose that such a behaviour is explained by oscillations between the VHE gamma-rays and Axio...

  4. The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Schady, P.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Domnguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kndlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Tramacere, A.; Nuss, E.; Greiner, J.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rain, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rau, A.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Snchez-Conde, M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgr, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, ?ukasz; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.

    2012-11-01

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  5. The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Schady, P; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Domnguez, A; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Kataoka, J; Kndlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Tramacere, A; Nuss, E; Greiner, J; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rain, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Rau, A; Romoli, C; Roth, M; Snchez-Conde, M; Sanchez, D A; Scargle, J D; Sgr, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stawarz, ?ukasz; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M

    2012-11-30

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z ? 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band. PMID:23118013

  6. Expected gamma-ray emission spectra from the lunar surface as a function of chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    The gamma rays emitted from the moon or any similar body carry information on the chemical composition of the surface layer. The elements most easily measured are K, U, Th and major elements such as O, Si, Mg, and Fe. The expected fluxes of gamma ray lines were calculated for four lunar compositions and one chondritic chemistry from a consideration of the important emission mechanisms: natural radioactivity, inelastic scatter, neutron capture, and induced radioactivity. The models used for cosmic ray interactions were those of Reedy and Arnold and Lingenfelter. The areal resolution of the experiment was calculated to be around 70 to 140 km under the conditions of the Apollo 15 and 16 experiments. Finally, a method was described for recovering the chemical information from the observed scintillation spectra obtained in these experiments.

  7. Determination of the stellar (n,gamma) cross section of 40Ca with accelerator mass spectrometry

    E-print Network

    I. Dillmann; C. Domingo-Pardo; M. Heil; F. Kppeler; A. Wallner; O. Forstner; R. Golser; W. Kutschera; A. Priller; P. Steier; A. Mengoni; R. Gallino; M. Paul; C. Vockenhuber

    2009-07-01

    The stellar (n,gamma) cross section of 40Ca at kT=25 keV has been measured with a combination of the activation technique and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This combination is required when direct off-line counting of the produced activity is compromised by the long half-life and/or missing gamma-ray transitions. The neutron activations were performed at the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator using the quasistellar neutron spectrum of kT=25 keV produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. The subsequent AMS measurements were carried out at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) with a 3 MV tandem accelerator. The doubly magic 40Ca is a bottle-neck isotope in incomplete silicon burning, and its neutron capture cross section determines the amount of leakage, thus impacting on the eventual production of iron group elements. Because of its high abundance, 40Ca can also play a secondary role as "neutron poison" for the s-process. Previous determinations of this value at stellar energies were based on time-of-flight measurements. Our method uses an independent approach, and yields for the Maxwellian-averaged cross section at kT=30 keV a value of 30 keV= 5.73+/-0.34 mb.

  8. In-situ high-resolution gamma-spectrometric survey of burial ground-monitoring wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    In situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with an intrinsic germanium detector assembly of special design surveyed the burial ground monitoring wells to locate and identify gamma emitters that may have migrated from the burial trenches toward the water table. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired as a function of depth in each well and recorded on magnetic tape. These spectra were reduced

  9. The Power Spectra of Two Classes of Long-duration Gamma-ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    R. F. Shen; L. M. Song

    2003-01-28

    We have studied the averaged power density spectra (PDSs) of two classes of long-duration gamma-ray bursts in the recent classification by Balastegui et al.(2001) based on neural network analysis. Both PDSs follow a power law over a wide frequency range with approximately the same slope, which indicates that a process with a self-similar temporal property may underlie the emission mechanisms of both. The two classes of bursts are divided into groups according to their brightness and spectral hardness respectively and each group's PDS was calculated; For both classes, the PDS is found to flatten both with increasing burst brightness and with increasing hardness.

  10. On the absorption features in cosmic gamma-ray burst spectra recorded by the LILAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, C.; Atteia, J. L.; Jourdain, E.; Vedrenne, G.; Sunyaev, R.

    1991-02-01

    The Franco-Soviet LILAS experiment aboard the Phobos 2 probe was designed for investigation of cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the 3-1000 keV energy range. Two consecutive spectra, from the August 6, 1988 event, exhibit multiple absorption structures when the emission appears to soften progressively. The line energies at about 14 and 28 keV for the first spectrum, and at about 20, 40 and 60 keV for the second one, strongly support a cyclotron resonance mechanism in a greater than 10 to the 12th G magnetic field.

  11. Anomalies in low-energy Gamma-Ray Burst spectra with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    E-print Network

    Tierney, Dave; Preece, Robert D; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Guiriec, Sylvain; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Briggs, Michael S; Burgess, J Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Greiner, Jochen; Gruber, David; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; McGlynn, Sinead; Paciesas, William S; Pelassa, Veronique; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A Band function has become the standard spectral function used to describe the prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, deviations from this function have previously been observed in GRBs detected by BATSE and in individual GRBs from the \\textit{Fermi} era. We present a systematic and rigorous search for spectral deviations from a Band function at low energies in a sample of the first two years of high fluence, long bursts detected by the \\textit{Fermi} Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The sample contains 45 bursts with a fluence greater than 2$\\times10^{-5}$ erg / cm$^{2}$ (10 - 1000 keV). An extrapolated fit method is used to search for low-energy spectral anomalies, whereby a Band function is fit above a variable low-energy threshold and then the best fit function is extrapolated to lower energy data. Deviations are quantified by examining residuals derived from the extrapolated function and the data and their significance is determined via comprehensive simulations which account for the ...

  12. Measurement of U-235 Fission Neutron Spectra Using a Multiple Gamma Coincidence Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Chuncheng; Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.; DeSimone, D.J.; Alimeti, A.; Roldan, C.F.; McKittrick, T.M.; Kim, D.-S.; Chen, X.; Tremblay, S.E. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2005-05-24

    The Los Alamos Model of Madland and Nix predicts the shape of the fission neutron energy spectrum for incident primary neutrons of different energies. Verifications of the model normally are limited to measurements of the fission neutron spectra for energies higher than that of the primary neutrons because the low-energy spectrum is distorted by the admixture of elastically and inelastically scattered neutrons. This situation can be remedied by using a measuring technique that separates fission from scattering events. One solution consists of using a fissile sample so thin that fission fragments can be observed indicating the occurrence of a fission event. A different approach is considered in this paper. It has been established that a fission event is accompanied by the emission of between seven and eight gamma rays, while in a scattering interaction, between zero and two gammas are emitted, so that a gamma multiplicity detector should supply a datum to distinguish a fission event from a scattering event. We proceed as follows: A subnanosecond pulsed and bunched proton beam from the UML Van de Graaff generates nearly mono-energetic neutrons by irradiating a thin metallic lithium target. The neutrons irradiate a 235U sample. Emerging neutron energies are measured with a time-of-flight spectrometer. A set of four BaF2 detectors is located close to the 235U sample. These detectors together with their electronic components identify five different events for each neutron detected, i.e., whether four, three, two, one, or none of the BaF2 detectors received one (or more) gamma rays. We present work, preliminary to the final measurements, involving feasibility considerations based on gamma-ray coincidence measurements with four BaF2 detectors, and the design of a Fission-Scattering Discriminator under construction.

  13. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. C. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Loredo, T. J.; Wasserman, I. M.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    Fits of theoretical spectra from Monte Carlo radiation-transfer calculations to dips at approximately 20 and 40 keV in a spectrum of the gamma-ray burst source GB 880 205 give best-fit values and 68 percent-confidence intervals for the magnetic field of (1.71 + or - 0.07) x 10 to the 12th G, the electron density of (1.2 + or - 0.6) x 10 to the 21st electrons/cm-squared, and the cosine of the viewing angle relative to the field of 0.31 + or - 0.05. The dips observed at approximately 20 keV in the spectra are interpreted as cyclotron resonant scattering, in which electrons undergo radiative 0 to 1 to 0 Landau transitions initiated by photons near the first harmonic. Physical self-consistency fixes the temperature, and the equilibrium temperature equals 5.3 + 0.3 or - 0.2 keV. These results suggest that this gamma-ray burst and many others which exhibit a low-energy dip originate from strongly magnetic neutron stars and are galactic in origin.

  14. Gamma-ray spectra of methane in the positron-electron annihilation process

    E-print Network

    Ma, Xiaoguang

    2012-01-01

    Bound electron contribution to the Doppler-shift of gamma-ray spectra in the positron-electron annihilation process of molecular methane has been studied in gas phase. Two accurate ab initio quantum mechanical schemes, i.e. the delocalized molecular orbital (MO) and the localized natural bond orbital (NBO) schemes, are applied to study the multi-centred methane molecule. The present ab initio calculations of methane indicate that the C-H bonds are polarized with the partial negative charge of -0.36 a.u. on the carbon atom and the partial positive charge of +0.09 a.u. on each of the hydrogen atoms. The positively charged hydrogen atoms produce repulsive Coulomb potentials to a positron. Both the MO and NBO schemes further reveal that the 2a1 electrons of methane, that is, the 2a1 electron component of the C-H bonds rather than the whole C-H bonds of methane, predominates the positron-electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of the molecule. Electrons of a molecule which are dominant the positron-electron annihi...

  15. Gamma-ray spectra of methane in the positron-electron annihilation process

    E-print Network

    Xiaoguang Ma; Feng Wang

    2013-03-20

    Bound electron contribution to the Doppler-shift of gamma-ray spectra in the positron-electron annihilation process of molecular methane has been studied in gas phase. Two accurate ab initio quantum mechanical schemes, i.e. the delocalized molecular orbital (MO) and the localized natural bond orbital (NBO) schemes, are applied to study the multi-centred methane molecule. The present ab initio calculations of methane indicate that the C-H bonds are polarized with the partial negative charge of -0.36 a.u. on the carbon atom and the partial positive charge of +0.09 a.u. on each of the hydrogen atoms. The positively charged hydrogen atoms produce repulsive Coulomb potentials to a positron. Both the MO and NBO schemes further reveal that the 2a1 electrons of methane, that is, the 2a1 electron component of the C-H bonds rather than the whole C-H bonds of methane, predominates the positron-electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of the molecule. Electrons of a molecule which are dominant the positron-electron annihilation processes are called positrophilic electrons in the present study. It is further shown that the negative electrostatic potential (ESP) of methane facilitates with the density of the positrophilic 2a1 electrons of methane. Other valence electrons (e.g. 1t2) in the C-H bonds play a minor spectator role in the annihilation process of methane.

  16. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.00500.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.00500.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.00480.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  17. The spectra and light curves of two gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. K.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations made by the Hard X-ray and Low Energy Gamma-Ray Experiment on board HEAO-1 of the spectra and light curves of two gamma-ray bursts for which localized arrival directions will become available are presented. The burst of October 20, 1977 is found to exhibit a fluence of 0.000031 + or - 0.000005 erg/sq cm over the energy range 0.135-2.05 MeV and a duration of 38.7 sec, while that of November 10, 1977 is found to have a fluence of 0.000021 + or - 0.000008 erg/sq cm between 0.125 and 3 MeV over 2.8 sec. The light curves of both bursts exhibit time fluctuations down to the limiting time resolution of the detectors. The spectrum of the October burst can be fit by a power law of index -1.93 + or -0.16, which is harder than any other gamma-burst spectrum yet reported. The spectrum of the second burst is softer (index -2.4 + or - 0.7), and is consistent with the upper index in the double power law fit to the burst of April 27, 1972.

  18. The signature of the cosmological redshift in population studies of gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The slope of a gamma-ray burst spectrum determines how the burst flux decreases as the cosmological redshift z increases. This provides a test for the presence of a cosmological redshift in a sample of gamma-ray bursts. Many bursts have spectra characterized by a frequency-dependent power-law index, so a burst subset can be created by requiring that each subset member have a power-law index of the given value at a low frequency and an index of a different given value at a high frequency. If all bursts in this subset are at z much less than 0.1, then the flux at low frequency will change proportionally with the flux at high frequency. If, however, z greater than 0.1 for most bursts, then the linear dependence of the high-frequency flux on the low-frequency flux disappears at the flux characterizing the spatial cutoff in the log N-log C(max)/C(min) diagram. This signature of the cosmological redshift generally persists when gamma-ray bursts are given a broad distribution of intrinsic fluxes and spectral shapes. The characteristics that a burst distribution must have to mask the cosmological redshift are discussed. The limitations of this test are observational, arising primarily from errors in measuring the photon flux and in determining the spectral index of the burst spectrum.

  19. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  20. Application of blind source separation to gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND around Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzon, H.; Toplis, M. J.; Forni, O.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    The bismuth germinate (BGO) scintillator is one of the sensors of the gamma ray and neutron detector (GRaND)1 on board the Dawn spacecraft, that has spent just over one year in orbit around the asteroid 4-Vesta. The BGO detector is excited by energetic gamma-rays produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or energetic solar particles interacting either with Vesta and/or the Dawn spacecraft. In detail, during periods of quiet solar activity, gamma ray spectra produced by the scintillator can be considered as consisting of three signals: i) a contribution of gamma-rays from Vesta produced by GCR interactions at the asteroid's surface, ii) a contribution from the spacecraft excited by neutrons coming from Vesta, and iii) a contribution of the spacecraft excited by local interaction with galactic cosmic rays. While the first two contributions should be positive functions of the solid angle of Vesta in the field of view during acquisition, the last one should have a negative dependence because Vesta partly shields the spacecraft from GCR. This theoretical mix can be written formally as: S=a?SV+b?SSCNV+c(4?-?)SSCGCR (1) where S is the series of recorded spectra, ? is the solid angle, SV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from Vesta, SSCNV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by the neutron coming from Vesta and SSCGCR is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by GCR. A blind source separation method called independent component analysis enables separating additive subcomponents supposing the mutual statistical independence of the non-Gaussian source signals2. Applying this method to BGO spectra acquired during the first three months of the low-altitude measurement orbit (LAMO) reveals two main independent components. The first one is dominated by the positron electron annihilation peak and is positively correlated to the solid angle. The second is negatively correlated to the solid angle and displays peaks of elements present in the spacecraft, of energy in the range 1 to 3.5 MeV. At energy >3.5 MeV, the dominant independent component highlighted by this method has no significant peaks, suggesting that it is not influenced by Vesta itself which is known to have a strong signal associated with iron at 7.6 MeV. Our method therefore represents a first step in retrieving the contribution of the spacecraft that could be used in conjunction with the mixing equation (1) to determine the contribution from the planet itself. 1 : Prettyman, T. H., Mcsween, Jr., H. Y., Feldman, W. C., JUN 2010. Dawn's GRaND to map the chemical composition of asteroids Vesta and Ceres. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta 74 (12, 1), A832, Con- ference on Goldschmidt 2010 - Earth, Energy, and the Environment, Knoxville, TN, JUN 13-18, 2010. 2 : Hyvarinen, A., Oja, E., May-Jun 2000. Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications. Neural Networks 13 (4-5), 411-430.

  1. Application of low-background gamma-ray spectrometry to monitor radioactivity in the environment and food.

    PubMed

    Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Beach, S E; Haines, D K; Bradt, C J; Bari, A; Syed, U-F; Torres, M; Marrantino, J; Kitto, M E; Menia, T; Fielman, E

    2014-08-01

    The results are described of an upgrade of the low-background gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory at New York State Department of Health by acquiring sensitivity to low-energy gamma rays. Tuning of the spectrometer and its low-energy response characteristics are described. The spectrometer has been applied to monitor the environment by measuring aerosols and water in New York State contaminated by the 2011 Fukushima accident plume. In addition, the spectrometer has been used to monitor radioactivity in food by performing a study of cesium in Florida milk. PMID:24836905

  2. Implementation of gamma-ray spectrometry in two real-time water monitors using NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvad, M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the implementation of gamma-ray spectrometry in two real-time water monitors using 2 in. 2 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors is described. These monitors collect the water from the river through a pump and it is analyzed in a vessel, which is shielded with Pb. The full calibration of the monitors was performed experimentally, except for the efficiency curve, which was set using validated Monte Carlo simulations with the EGS5 code system. After the calibration, the monitors permitted the identification and quantification of the involved isotopes in a possible radioactive increment and made it possible to discard possible leaks in the nuclear plants. As an example, a radiological increment during rain is used to show the advantages of gamma-ray spectrometry. To study the capabilities of the monitor, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I, (137)Cs and (40)K are presented for different integration times. PMID:23827508

  3. Photon and neutrino spectra of time-dependent photospheric models of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, K. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Mszros, P., E-mail: asanok@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: nnp@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal photons from the photosphere may be the primary source of the observed prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In order to produce the observed non-thermal spectra, some kind of dissipation mechanism near the photosphere is required. In this paper we numerically simulate the evolution of the photon spectrum in a relativistically expanding shell with a time-dependent numerical code. We consider two basic models. One is a leptonic model, where a dissipation mechanism heats the thermal electrons maintaining their high temperature. The other model involves a cascade process induced by pp(pn)-collisions which produce high-energy electrons, modify the thermal spectrum, and emit neutrinos. The qualitative properties of the photon spectra are mainly determined by the optical depth at which the dissipation mechanism sets in. Too large optical depths lead to a broad and curved spectrum contradicting the observations, while for optical depths smaller than unity the spectral hardness becomes softer than observed. A significant shift of the spectral peak energy to higher energies due to a large energy injection can lead to an overly broad spectral shape. We show ideal parameter ranges for which these models are able to reproduce the observed spectra. For the pn-collision model, the neutrino fluence in the 10100 GeV range is well above the atmospheric neutrino fluence, but its detection is challenging for presently available detectors.

  4. Portable gamma spectrometry with cerium-doped lanthanum bromide scintillators: Suitability assessments for luminescence and electron spin resonance dating applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Arnold; M. Duval; C. Falgures; J.-J. Bahain; M. Demuro

    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) crystals offer a range of improved scintillation properties over traditional NaI:Tl crystals for in situ gamma spectrometry. At present, however, it remains unclear whether the internal radioactivity of LaBr3:Ce detectors compromises their suitability for low-level activity radioisotope measurements of natural sedimentary deposits, such as those required in luminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating. In this

  5. Substrate characterization for underwater gamma spectrometry: tank measurement results utilizing efficiencies calculated via Monte-Carlo code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ocone; A. Kostezh; V. Kurinenko; A. Tyshchenko; G. Derkach; P. Leone

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the sediment contamination, underwater gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed by the sub-marine detector Canberra HpGe with a relative efficiency of 80% were carried out in an equipped tank at the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute of Kiev. Different substrates, certified sources and experiment geometrical set-up were arranged. Efficiencies were calculated by in situ object counting system (ISOCS) software. ISOCS

  6. Evaluation of Monte Carlo-based calibrations of HPGe detectors for in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Boson; Agneta H. Plamboeck; Henrik Ramebck; Gran gren; Lennart Johansson

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of Monte Carlo-based calibrations for in situ gamma-ray spectrometry. We have performed in situ measurements at five different sites in Sweden using HPGe detectors to determine ground deposition activity levels of 137Cs from the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Monte Carlo-calculated efficiency calibration factors were compared with corresponding values calculated using a

  7. Spectra

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2012-06-26

    Learners construct a spectroscope out of a shoe box or mailing tube, diffraction grating, and other simple materials. They then use their spectroscope to observe spectra, the colors that make up light. Learners compare the spectra of various light sources. Use this activity to introduce learners to basic principles of light and color. Also, look at a related page about auroras to understand how distinguishing spectra of different atoms helps scientists understand the universe.

  8. Spectra

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kaler, James B.

    Spectra is a website illustrating how astronomers use spectra to understand what stars are made of, their structures, and their evolution. The page begins with an introduction to the electromagnetic spectrum and then goes into detail about the properties of light. Then it discusses how matter both creates and destroys radiation. It goes on to interpret absorption and emission lines. The website ends with discussing how astronomers use spectra to understand stars, galaxies, and other objects in the universe.

  9. X-ray fluorescence and gamma-ray spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis for topographic studies in agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    de Castilhos, Natara D B; Melquiades, Fbio L; Thomaz, Edivaldo L; Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2014-10-15

    Physical and chemical properties of soils play a major role in the evaluation of different geochemical signature, soil quality, discrimination of land use type, soil provenance and soil degradation. The objectives of the present study are the soil elemental characterization and soil differentiation in topographic sequence and depth, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) as well as gamma-ray spectrometry data combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The study area is an agricultural region of Boa Vista catchment which is located at Guamiranga municipality, Brazil. PCA analysis was performed with four different data sets: spectral data from EDXRF, spectral data from gamma-ray spectrometry, concentration values from EDXRF measurements and concentration values from gamma-ray spectrometry. All PCAs showed similar results, confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis, allowing the data grouping into top, bottom and riparian zone samples, i.e. the samples were separated due to its landscape position. The two hillslopes present the same behavior independent of the land use history. There are distinctive and characteristic patterns in the analyzed soil. The methodologies presented are promising and could be used to infer significant information about the region to be studied. PMID:25464179

  10. Uncertainty in HPGe detector calibrations for in situ gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boson, Jonas; Johansson, Lennart; Ramebck, Henrik; Agren, Gran

    2009-06-01

    Semi-empirical methods are often used for efficiency calibrations of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements with high-purity germanium detectors. The intrinsic detector efficiency is experimentally determined for different photon energies and angles of incidence, and a suitable expression for the efficiency is fitted to empirical data. In this work, the combined standard uncertainty of such an efficiency function for two detectors was assessed. The uncertainties in individual efficiency measurements were found to be about 1.9 and 3.1% (with a coverage factor k = 1, i.e. with a confidence interval of about 68%) for the two detectors. The main contributions to these uncertainties were found to originate from uncertainties in source-to-detector distance, source activity and full-energy peak count rate. The standard uncertainties of the fitted functions were found to be somewhat higher than the uncertainty of individual data points, i.e. 5.2 and 8.1% (k = 1). With the introduction of a new expression for the detector efficiency, these uncertainties were reduced to 3.7 and 4.2%, i.e. with up to a factor of two. Note that this work only addresses the uncertainty in the determination of intrinsic detector efficiency. PMID:19429646

  11. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry for environmental monitoring: a semi empirical calibration method.

    PubMed

    Boson, Jonas; Lidstrm, Kenneth; Nyln, Torbjrn; Agren, Gran; Johansson, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    In situ gamma spectrometry using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is a frequently used method for the determination of radionuclide ground deposition levels. Such measurements do, however, require an efficiency calibration based on detector sensitivity and parameters such as soil density and vertical activity distribution. In this work, a novel expression is used for the detector efficiency, incorporating both the influence of photon energy and incidence angle. Detector-specific efficiency data are determined empirically. For the theoretical calculation of the photon fluence at the detector, a three-layer model of finite thickness is developed for the description of soil density and vertical activity distribution. In order to facilitate the calibration of in situ measurements, a PC program has been developed to enable rapid, on-site calculations of radionuclide ground deposition levels. The semi empirical calibration method was tested on in situ measurements with two different detectors, and the results show good agreement with results obtained from traditional soil sampling. PMID:16632586

  12. Gamma-ray spectra and doses from the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Most radiation safety guidelines in the nuclear industry are based on the data concerning the survivors of the nuclear explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Crucial to determining these guidelines is the radiation from the explosions. We have measured gamma-ray pulse-height distributions from an accurate replica of the Little Boy device used at Hiroshima, operated at low power levels near critical. The device was placed outdoors on a stand 4 m from the ground to minimize environmental effects. The power levels were based on a monitor detector calibrated very carefully in independent experiments. High-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with a germanium detector to identify the lines and to obtain line intensities. The 7631 to 7645 keV doublet from neutron capture in the heavy steel case was dominant. Low-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with bismuth-germanate detectors. We calculated flux spectra from these distributions using accurately measured detector response functions and efficiency curves. We then calculated dose-rate spectra from the flux spectra using a flux-to-dose-rate conversion procedure. The integral of each dose-rate spectrum gave an integral dose rate. The integral doses at 2 m ranged from 0.46 to 1.03 mrem per 10/sup 13/ fissions. The output of the Little Boy replica can be calculated with Monte Carlo codes. Comparison of our experimental spectra, line intensities, and integral doses can be used to verify these calculations at low power levels and give increased confidence to the calculated values from the explosion at Hiroshima. These calculations then can be used to establish better radiation safety guidelines. 7 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Optical and FTIR spectra of NdF3-doped borophosphate glasses and effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElBatal, F. H.; Ibrahim, S.; Abdelghany, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    UV-visible, FTIR absorption spectra of some prepared undoped and NdF3-doped borophosphate glasses with varying dopant contents were studied before and after gamma irradiation. The base undoped borophosphate glass exhibits strong UV absorption which is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the chemicals used for the preparation of such glass. NdF3-doped samples show characteristic bands specifically at high concentration which are attributed to the Nd3+ ions. Gamma irradiation on the undoped borophosphate glass causes no obvious induced defects. On the other hand, the low NdF3 content glass produces extended UV absorption together with the resolution of an extra induced visible at about 500 nm. On increasing the NdF3 content, gamma irradiation retains the characteristic bands due to Nd3+ ions. Infrared absorption spectra of undoped and NdF3-doped glasses reveal characteristic IR vibrational bands due to the combination of both phosphate and borate groups (BO3 and BO4) with the first phosphate partner dominating in response to the high percent (50 mol%). The introduction of NdF3 within the dopant level (1.5-6%) produces no distinct effect on the FTIR spectra. Gamma irradiation is observed to cause no obvious effects on the FTIR spectra which is related to the stability of mixed phosphate and borate units causing the compactness and resistance towards gamma irradiation.

  14. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry in forests: determination of kerma rate in air from 137Cs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gering; P. Kiefer; S. Fesenko; G. Voigt

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented to determine the kerma rate in air from 137Cs due to Chernobyl fallout in forests. In situ gamma-ray spectra from several forest sites in Russia, in the Ukraine and in Southern Germany are evaluated with the aim of deducing the ratio of primary and forward scattered photons for 137Cs. With this ratio and the results of

  15. GRABGAM: A Gamma Analysis Code for Ultra-Low-Level HPGe SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been developed for analysis of ultra-low-level HPGe gamma spectra. The code employs three different size filters for the peak search, where the largest filter provides best sensitivity for identifying low-level peaks and the smallest filter has the best resolution for distinguishing peaks within a multiplet. GRABGAM basically generates an integral probability F-function for each singlet or multiplet peak analysis, bypassing the usual peak fitting analysis for a differential f-function probability model. Because F is defined by the peak data, statistical limitations for peak fitting are avoided; however, the F-function does provide generic values for peak centroid, full width at half maximum, and tail that are consistent with a Gaussian formalism. GRABGAM has successfully analyzed over 10,000 customer samples, and it interfaces with a variety of supplementary codes for deriving detector efficiencies, backgrounds, and quality checks.

  16. Constraining the Lorentz invariance violation from the continuous spectra of short gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Sang, Yu; Wang, Ping; Wang, Sai

    2015-01-01

    In quantum gravity, a foamy structure of space-time leads to Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). As the most energetic astrophysical processes in the Universe, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide an effective way to probe quantum gravity effects. We use continuous spectra of 20 short GRBs detected by the Swift satellite to give a conservative lower limit of quantum gravity energy scale $M_\\textrm{QG} $. Due to the LIV effect, photons with different energy have different velocities. This will lead to the delayed arrival of high energy photons relative to the low energy ones. Based on the fact that the LIV-induced time delay can't be longer than the duration of a GRB, we present the most conservative estimation of the quantum gravity energy scales from 20 short GRBs. The most strict constraint, $M_\\textrm{QG}>5.05\\times10^{14}$ GeV, is from GRB 140622A.

  17. Signatures of axionlike particles in the spectra of TeV gamma-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G.; Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2007-07-01

    One interpretation of the unexplained signature observed in the PVLAS experiment invokes a new axionlike particle (ALP) with a two-photon vertex, allowing for photon-ALP oscillations in the presence of magnetic fields. In the range of masses and couplings suggested by PVLAS, the same effect would lead to a peculiar dimming of high-energy photon sources. For typical parameters of the turbulent magnetic field in the galaxy, the effect sets in at E??10TeV, providing an ALP signature in the spectra of TeV gamma sources that can be probed with Cherenkov telescopes. A dedicated search will be strongly motivated if the ongoing photon regeneration experiments confirm the PVLAS particle interpretation.

  18. Spectra of GRB970228 from the transient gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Hurley, K.; Kurczynski, P.; Madden, N.; Pehl, R.; Ramaty, R.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1998-05-01

    Visible afterglow counterparts have now been detected for two GRBs (970228 and 970508) but are absent, with Lopt/L? ratios at least two orders of magnitude lower, for other GRBs, e.g., 970828. The causes of this variation are unknown. Any correspondence which could be discovered between the ?-ray properties of a GRB and its Lopt/L? would be useful, both in determining the GRB mechanisms, and in allocating resources for counterpart searches and studies. This paper presents the ?-ray spectra of GRB970228 as measured by the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer and comments on characteristics of this GRB compared to others that do and do not have observable counterparts.

  19. Performance of cerium-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG:Ce) scintillator in gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanowska, Joanna; Swiderski, Lukasz; Szczesniak, Tomasz; Sibczynski, Pawel; Moszynski, Marek; Grodzicka, Martyna; Kamada, Kei; Tsutsumi, Kousuke; Usuki, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2013-06-01

    Performance of cerium-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG:Ce) scintillator in gamma-ray spectrometry has been investigated. The measurements of two samples of GAGG:Ce cover the tests of emission spectra (maximum of emission at about 530 nm), light output, non-proportionality, energy resolution, time resolution and decay time of light pulses. We compare the results with commonly known scintillators, such as NaI(Tl), LSO, LuAG etc. The results show that GAGG:Ce has a high light yield of about 33000 ph/MeV as measured with Hamamatsu S3590-18 Si PiN photodiode [1]. The total energy resolution for 662 keV gamma-rays from 137Cs source is equal to about 6%, whereas intrinsic resolution is equal to 5.2%. Additionally, we made basic measurements of photoelectron yield, non-proportionality and total energy resolution of small sample (555 mm3) of GAGG:Ce crystal coupled to Hamamatsu MPPC array (66 mm2). The results show that the performance of GAGG:Ce measured with the MPPC array are similar to those measured with the PMT.

  20. Breaks in gamma-ray spectra of distant blazars and transparency of the Universe

    E-print Network

    Rubtsov, G I

    2014-01-01

    The expected opacity of the intergalactic space limits the mean free path of TeV gamma rays to dozens of Megaparsecs. However, TeV photons from numerous more distant sources have been detected. This might be interpreted, in each particular case, in terms of hardening of the emitted spectrum caused by presently unknown mechanisms at work in the sources. Here we show that this interpretation is not supported by the analysis of the ensemble of all observed sources. In the frameworks of an infrared-background model with the lowest opacity, we reconstruct the emitted spectra of distant blazars and find that upward spectral breaks appear precisely at those energies where absorption effects are essential. Since these energies are very different for similar sources located at various distances, we conclude that the breaks are artefacts of the incorrect account of absorption and, therefore, the opacity of the Universe for gamma rays is overestimated even in the most conservative model. This implies that some novel phy...

  1. THE GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA PRODUCED BY INELASTIC FAST NEUTRON SCATTERING IN Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Sn, AND Sb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. F. Barchuk; M. V. Pasechnik; Iu. A. Tsybulko

    1958-01-01

    Measurements were made of gamma -ray spectra in Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Sn, and ; Sb produced by inelastic neutron scattering at 2.8 Mev. The measurements were ; carried out with a scintillation spectrometer with NaI crystal detector, ; photoelectron multiplier, and 50 channel pulse analyzer with a magnetic drum ; recorder. The spectrometer resolution was 6.5 to 7% for

  2. Verification of the content, isotopic composition and age of plutonium in Pu-Be neutron sources by gamma-spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Cong Tam Nguyen

    2005-08-29

    A non-destructive, gamma-spectrometric method for verifying the plutonium content of Pu-Be neutron sources has been developed. It is also shown that the isotopic composition and the age of plutonium (Pu) can be determined in the intensive neutron field of these sources by the ``Multi-Group Analysis'' method. Gamma spectra were taken in the far-field of the sample, which was assumed to be cylindrical. The isotopic composition and the age of Pu were determined using a commercial implementation of the Multi-Group Analysis algorithm. The Pu content of the sources was evaluated from the count rates of the gamma-peaks of 239Pu, relying on the assumption that the gamma-rays are coming to the detector parallel to each other. The determination of the specific neutron yields and the problem of neutron damage to the detector are also discussed.

  3. Verification of the content, isotopic composition and age of plutonium in Pu-Be neutron sources by gamma-spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, C T

    2006-01-01

    A non-destructive, gamma-spectrometric method for verifying the plutonium content of Pu-Be neutron sources has been developed. It is also shown that the isotopic composition and the age of plutonium (Pu) can be determined in the intensive neutron field of these sources by the ``Multi-Group Analysis'' method. Gamma spectra were taken in the far-field of the sample, which was assumed to be cylindrical. The isotopic composition and the age of Pu were determined using a commercial implementation of the Multi-Group Analysis algorithm. The Pu content of the sources was evaluated from the count rates of the gamma-peaks of 239Pu, relying on the assumption that the gamma-rays are coming to the detector parallel to each other. The determination of the specific neutron yields and the problem of neutron damage to the detector are also discussed.

  4. Qualities related to spectra acquisition in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Mermet

    2001-01-01

    As many elements emit line-rich spectra in ICP-AES, the role of the resolution of the dispersive system has been considered as crucial not only to minimize spectral interferences but also to improve signal-to-background ratios. Resolution is mainly based on the line width measured at half of the peak intensity. Because of the availability of modern gratings, the practical resolution is

  5. \\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma

    E-print Network

    Laske, Gabi

    \\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma yyy yyy \\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma@@####\\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma @@@ @@@ ### ### ### ### \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma \\Gamma\\Gamma\\Gamma yyy

  6. Substrate characterization for underwater gamma spectrometry: tank measurement results utilizing efficiencies calculated via Monte-Carlo code.

    PubMed

    Ocone, R; Kostezh, A; Kurinenko, V; Tyshchenko, A; Derkach, G; Leone, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the sediment contamination, underwater gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed by the sub-marine detector Canberra HpGe with a relative efficiency of 80% were carried out in an equipped tank at the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute of Kiev. Different substrates, certified sources and experiment geometrical set-up were arranged. Efficiencies were calculated by in situ object counting system (ISOCS) software. ISOCS performance tests using certified sources were carried out by comparing laboratory measurements, and measurement results for mineralogy and density performances are reported. PMID:15177333

  7. Inter-pulse high-resolution gamma-ray spectra using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, L.G.; Trombka, J.I.; Jensen, D.H.; Stephenson, W.A.; Hoover, R.A.; Mikesell, J.L.; Tanner, A.B.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A neutron generator pulsed at 100 s-1 was suspended in an artificial borehole containing a 7.7 metric ton mixture of sand, aragonite, magnetite, sulfur, and salt. Two Ge(HP) gamma-ray detectors were used: one in a borehole sonde, and one at the outside wall of the sample tank opposite the neutron generator target. Gamma-ray spectra were collected by the outside detector during each of 10 discrete time windows during the 10 ms period following the onset of gamma-ray build-up after each neutron burst. The sample was measured first when dry and then when saturated with water. In the dry sample, gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering, neutron capture, and decay were counted during the first (150 ??s) time window. Subsequently only capture and decay gamma rays were observed. In the wet sample, only neutron capture and decay gamma rays were observed. Neutron capture gamma rays dominated the spectrum during the period from 150 to 400 ??s after the neutron burst in both samples, but decreased with time much more rapidly in the wet sample. A signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) analysis indicates that optimum conditions for neutron capture analysis occurred in the 350-800 ??s window. A poor S/N in the first 100-150 ??s is due to a large background continuum during the first time interval. Time gating can be used to enhance gamma-ray spectra, depending on the nuclides in the target material and the reactions needed to produce them, and should improve the sensitivity of in situ well logging. ?? 1984.

  8. Methylation of gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) allows detection by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the identification of Gla residues in the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, K. W.; Zhang, D.; Kinter, M.; Willard, B.; Berkner, K. L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) is a post-translational modification required for the activity of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins that has been difficult to study by mass spectrometry due to the properties of this negatively-charged residue. Gla is generated by a single enzyme, the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, which has broad biological impact because VKD proteins have diverse functions that include hemostasis, apoptosis, and growth control. The carboxylase also contains Glas, of unknown function, and is an integral membrane protein with poor sequence coverage. To locate these Glas, we first established methods that resulted in high coverage (92%) of uncarboxylated carboxylase. Subsequent analysis of carboxylated carboxylase identified a Gla-peptide (729-758) and a missing region (625-647) that was detected in uncarboxylated carboxylase. We therefore developed an approach to methylate Gla, which efficiently neutralized Gla and improved mass spectrometric analysis. Methylation eliminated CO2 loss from Gla, increased the ionization of Gla-containing peptide, and appeared to facilitate trypsin digestion. Methylation of a carboxylated carboxylase tryptic digest identified Glas in the 625-647 peptide. These studies provide valuable information for testing the function of carboxylase carboxylation. The methylation approach for studying Gla by mass spectrometry is an important advance that will be broadly applicable to analyzing other VKD proteins. PMID:22536908

  9. Breaks in gamma-ray spectra of distant blazars and transparency of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, G. I.; Troitsky, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    Energetic gamma rays scatter on soft background radiation when propagating through the Universe, producing electron-positron pairs (A.I. Nikishov, Sov. Phys. JETP 14, 393 (1962)). Gamma rays with energies between 100 GeV and a few TeV interact mostly with infrared background photons whose amount is poorly known experimentally but safely constrained from below by account of the contribution of observed light from known galaxies (R.C. Keenan, A.J. Barger, L.L. Cowie, and W.-H. Wang, Astrophys. J. 723, 40 (2010); arXiv: 1102.2428). The expected opacity of the intergalactic space limits the mean free path of TeV gamma rays to dozens of Megaparsecs. However, TeV photons from numerous more distant sources have been detected (S.P. Wakely and D. Horan, http://tevcat.uchicago.edu/). This might be interpreted, in each particular case, in terms of hardening of the emitted spectrum caused by presently unknown mechanisms at work in the sources (S. Archambault et al. (VERITAS and Fermi LAT Collaborations), Astrophys. J. 785, L16 (2014); arXiv: 1403.4308). Here we show that this interpretation is not supported by the analysis of the ensemble of all observed sources. In the frameworks of an infrared-background model with the lowest opacity (R.C. Gilmore, R.S. Somerville, J.R. Primack, and A. Dominguez, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 422, 3189 (2012); arXiv: 1104.0671), we reconstruct the emitted spectra of distant blazars and find that upward spectral breaks appear precisely at those energies where absorption effects are essential. Since these energies are very different for similar sources located at various distances, we conclude that the breaks are artefacts of the incorrect account of absorption and, therefore, the opacity of the Universe for gamma rays is overestimated even in the most conservative model. This implies that some novel physical or astrophysical phenomena should affect long-distance propagation of gamma rays. A scenario in which a part of energetic photons is converted to an inert new particle in the vicinity of the source and reconverts back close to the observer (M. Simet, D. Hooper, and P. Serpico, Phys. Rev. D 77, 063001 (2008); arXiv: 0712.2825; M. Fairbairn, T. Rashba, and S. Troitsky, Phys. Rev. D 84, 125019 (2011); arXiv:0901.4085) does not contradict our results. This new axion-like particle appears in several extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics (J. Jaeckel and A. Ringwald, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 60, 405 (2010); arXiv: 1002.0329) and may constitute the dark matter (P. Arias et al., JCAP 1206, 013 (2012); arXiv: 1201.5902).

  10. Spectra and structure of complexes formed by sodium fusidate and potassium helvolate with beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Jover, Aida; Budal, Rosane M; Al-Soufi, Wajih; Meijide, Francisco; Vzquez Tato, Jos; Yunes, Rosendo A

    2003-01-01

    The complexation of two steroid antibiotics of the fusidane family, sodium fusidate and potassium helvolate, by beta-CD and gamma-CD has been studied by using 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Both guests form 1:1 complexes with gamma-CD and 1:2 (guest:cyclodextrin) complexes with beta-CD. Thus, both antibiotics behave as monotopic and ditopic guests when they are complexed by gamma-CD and beta-CD, respectively. Both steroids enter into the cavity of the gamma-CD by the side chain, reaching the central region of the steroid (rings C and D), whereas the A and B (partially) rings remain outside. For beta-CD complexes, ROESY spectra show a remarkable absence of interactions of the protons of the C and D rings, whereas clear interactions corresponding to the side chain, and A and B rings are observed. The obtained equilibrium constants (see previous paper) are discussed in terms of the structures proposed for the complexes. NMR spectra of sodium fusidate are revised, and a full assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra is presented for potassium helvolate. PMID:12475723

  11. Effects induced by gamma-irradiation and thermal treatment on the infrared spectra of ferrocene in its disordered state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, M. A.; Abd-Elrahman, M. I.

    2004-10-01

    Lattice, rotation and intramolecular vibrations of ferrocene, Fe(C5H5)(2), crystallites of the C-2h(5) factor group in the disordered phase are calculated using the correlation theorem based on group theory. The correlation between the species of the C-1 site symmetry occupied by cyclopentadienyl molecules and those of the factor group C-2h, of the crystal are calculated. The number of lattice vibrations of the cyclopentadienyl molecules is found to be 12. with active modes in Raman and infrared (IR) spectra. The same number of rotations for the cyclopentadienyl molecules is expected to be allowed in both spectra. The active number of intramolecular vibrations for the cyclopentadienyl molecules having D-5 molecular symmetry is expected to be 80 vibrations in both the Raman and the IR spectra. The effect of gamma-irradiation with different doses and heat treatment at different temperatures on the IR spectra of ferrocene in the energy range 4000-200 cm(-1) is discussed. A number of bands continuously shifted their position, and a decrease in intensity with increasing gamma-dose is observed. New bands appeared in this spectral region for different annealing temperatures and different gamma-doses. These changes are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions between molecules within the unit cell.

  12. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)] [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  13. Dating of sediments from four Swiss prealpine lakes with (210)Pb determined by gamma-spectrometry: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Putyrskaya, V; Klemt, E; Rllin, S; Astner, M; Sahli, H

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the most important problems in dating lake sediments with unsupported (210)Pb are summarized and the progress in gamma-spectrometry of the unsupported (210)Pb is discussed. The main topics of these studies concern sediment samples preparation for gamma-spectrometry, measurement techniques and data analysis, as well as understanding of accumulation and sedimentation processes in lakes. The vertical distributions of artificial ((137)Cs, (241)Am, (239)Pu) and natural radionuclides ((40)K, (210,214)Pb, (214)Bi) as well as stable trace elements (Fe, Mn, Pb) in sediment cores from four Swiss lakes were used as examples for the interpretation, inter-comparison and validation of depth-age relations established by three (210)Pb-based models (CF-CSR, CRS and SIT). The identification of turbidite layers and the influence of the turbidity flows on the accuracy of sediment dating is demonstrated. Time-dependent mass sedimentation rates in lakes Brienz, Thun, Biel and Lucerne are discussed and compared with published data. PMID:25875007

  14. Identification of filamentous fungi isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: clinical evaluation of an extended reference spectra library.

    PubMed

    Becker, Pierre T; de Bel, Annelies; Martiny, Delphine; Ranque, Stphane; Piarroux, Renaud; Cassagne, Carole; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2014-11-01

    The identification of filamentous fungi by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) relies mainly on a robust and extensive database of reference spectra. To this end, a large in-house library containing 760 strains and representing 472 species was built and evaluated on 390 clinical isolates by comparing MALDI-TOF MS with the classical identification method based on morphological observations. The use of MALDI-TOF MS resulted in the correct identification of 95.4% of the isolates at species level, without considering LogScore values. Taking into account the Brukers' cutoff value for reliability (LogScore >1.70), 85.6% of the isolates were correctly identified. For a number of isolates, microscopic identification was limited to the genus, resulting in only 61.5% of the isolates correctly identified at species level while the correctness reached 94.6% at genus level. Using this extended in-house database, MALDI-TOF MS thus appears superior to morphology in order to obtain a robust and accurate identification of filamentous fungi. A continuous extension of the library is however necessary to further improve its reliability. Indeed, 15 isolates were still not represented while an additional three isolates were not recognized, probably because of a lack of intraspecific variability of the corresponding species in the database. PMID:25349253

  15. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Optical and EPR Absorption Spectra of Phosphate and Fluoride Glasses Containing Lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Bocharova; G. O. Karapetyan

    2005-01-01

    The induced optical and EPR absorption spectra of phosphate and fluoride glasses containing lead are investigated. It is revealed\\u000a that exposure to gamma radiation leads to the formation of radiation-induced defects responsible for the induced absorption\\u000a band with a maximum at 1250013500 cm?1 and the EPR signal in the form of an almost symmetric line with a g factor of

  16. Data quality objectives for surface-soil cleanup operation using in situ gamma spectrometry for concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Fong, S H; Alvarez, J L

    1997-02-01

    In situ gamma spectrometry is an efficient method for monitoring the progress of cleanup activities for radioactive contaminants in surface soil and for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards. However, desired data precision and accuracy must be specified for such a detection system prior to the operation to ensure that the level of uncertainty associated with the concentration measurements is acceptable. A method for developing data quality objectives is described in this paper for in situ gamma spectrometry to achieve numerical goals for data precision and accuracy for cleanup operations. Concentration measurement for a radionuclide at its cleanup level must have a precision commensurate with the importance of cleanup decisions. The 95% lower limit of detection of the system is suggested to be about one tenth the expected system response at the cleanup level. The count time required to achieve the preferred 95% lower limit of detection, and hence the desired precision, can then be determined. The accuracy error arises from the overall calibration factor, which relates the detector responses (e.g., count rate) to physical quantities of interest (e.g., radionuclide soil concentration). The major source of error for the calibration factor using in situ gamma spectrometry is the misidentification of the type of the depth profile of radionuclide concentration in soil. If surrogate radionuclides are used, such as 241Am for plutonium, the variation in the concentration ratio would be another significant source of error. Soil sampling programs performed prior to a cleanup operation will greatly reduce the accuracy error for an in situ detection system, and the analysis of system errors may determine the degree of sampling required. The planning of such a program is discussed in the study. Uncertainty analysis using a Latin Hypercube sampling technique for the calibration factor is also demonstrated. The quantitative result of the uncertainty analysis is useful for determining a nuclide's maximum peak count rate using gamma spectrum that ensures the attainment of the cleanup standard for that nuclide with a pre-specified confidence level (e.g., 95%). The cleanup operation of 239,240Pu in surface soil in the safety shot areas at the Nevada Test Site serves as an example to illustrate the data quality objectives development. PMID:9003715

  17. Numerical simulations of planetary gamma-ray spectra induced by galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Masarik, J.; Reedy, R.C.

    1994-07-01

    The fluxes of cosmic-ray-produced gamma rays escaping from Mars were calculated using the LAHET Code System and basic nuclear data for {gamma}-ray production. Both surface water content and atmospheric thickness strongly affect the fluxes of {gamma}-ray lines escaping from Mars.

  18. Effects of annealing treatment and gamma irradiation on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Cr:GSGG laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D. L.; Luo, J. Q.; Xiao, J. Z.; Zhang, Q. L.; Jiang, H. H.; Yin, S. T.; Wang, Y. F.; Ge, X. W.

    2008-09-01

    The influence of annealing treatments and gamma-ray irradiation on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Cr:GSGG crystals grown by the Czochralski method has been investigated. Two absorption bands located near 686 nm and 1050 nm were weakened markedly after the crystal was re-annealed in H2 atmosphere, which is due to the Cr4+ ions being de-oxidized into Cr3+ ions. The other two weak additional absorption bands induced by gamma-ray irradiation appearing near 310 nm and 480 nm are ascribed to the Fe2+ ions and F-type color centers, respectively. In particular, the gamma-ray irradiation with a dose of 100 Mrad has an effect of improving slightly the luminescence properties of Cr:GSGG crystals. The improvement mechanism is analyzed and discussed.

  19. Continuous gamma-ray spectrometry in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gold; B. J. Kaiser; F. S. Moore Jr.; W. L. Bunch; W. N. McElroy; E. M. Sheen

    1980-01-01

    Gamma ray continua were measured at startup in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). A special FFTF insert, called the In-Reactor Thimble (IRT), provided an adequate environment for in situ operation of the gamma spectrometer. The IRT replaced a fuel assembly near core center (No. 2101) and measurements were conducted at three axial locations, namely midplane, the lower axial shield,

  20. Portable gamma spectrometry system for simultaneous monitoring of radiotracers in vivo using CdTe and CdZnTe radiation detector probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lorenz; J. van Ryn; H. Merk; M. Markert; W. G. Eisert

    1994-01-01

    A portable gamma spectrometry system has been designed to simultaneously monitor various radiotracers in vivo. This system includes a portable IBM compatible personal computer and miniaturized gamma radiation detector probes based on the semiconductor materials CdTe and CdZnTe. The computer has been expanded with pulse processing and analyzing electronics for three independent inputs and a software package. A portable NIM

  1. Determination of Vanadium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in Conjunction with Compton Suppression Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    W. H. Zhang; A. Chatt

    2000-11-12

    The toxicity of vanadium has been known for a long time. It is only recently that vanadium has been recognized as an essential trace element. The determination of vanadium with high precision and accuracy in tissues, foods, and other biological materials is needed for the purpose of studying its effect on human nutrition and health. Several techniques such as spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, X-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be used for its determination. Vanadium can be determined by NAA through its short-lived nuclide {sup 52}V produced via the {sup 51}V(n, {gamma}){sup 52}V reaction; it has a 1434.2-keV gamma ray and a half-life of 3.74 min. It has been reported that {sup 52}V has sufficient sensitivity for its measurement down to nanogram levels. However, it is seldom assayed in practice by instrumental NAA (INAA) in conjunction with conventional gamma-ray spectrometry, in particular for low vanadium content in high-salt biological materials, due to the Compton background interference from nuclides such as {sup 28}Al, {sup 38}Cl, {sup 56}Mn, and {sup 24}Na. Alternatively, radiochemical NAA or preconcentration NAA methods are used to separate vanadium from the major and interfering elements. A Compton suppression counting technique can be beneficially used under such situations. One of the objectives of this work was to fully explore the advantages of Compton suppression counting for the determination of vanadium in biological samples.

  2. Spatially-Dependent Measurements of Surface and Near-Surface Radioactive Material Using; In situ Gamma Ray Spectrometry (ISGRS) For Final Status Surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Chapman; A. J. Boerner; E. W. Abelquist

    2006-01-01

    In-situ, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (ISGRS) measurements were conducted at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) field laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of these tests was to provide analytical data for assessing how fit for use this technology is for detecting discrete particles in soil.

  3. Rapid measurements of soil contamination after the Chernobyl accident in the Federal Republic of Germany by in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Winkelmann; S. Weimer; S. Wolff; P. Neumann

    1988-01-01

    The method of in situ gamma ray spectrometry for measurements of soil surface contamination is described. The results of nuclide specific measurements of soil contamination in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident including exposure rate measurements of individual radionuclides are reported. A total of 22 artificial radionuclides could be detected. In the first days after the

  4. Muon and neutron-induced background in gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Haines; T. M. Semkow; A. J. Khan; T. J. Hoffman; S. T. Meyer; S. E. Beach

    2011-01-01

    A low-background gamma-ray spectrometer for environmental surveillance, emergency response, and environmental health research has been constructed. It consists of a 132% efficient HPGe detector, graded lead shielding, and muon-rejection shielding, as well as external steel and building shielding. Detailed operation of the gamma spectrometer and all of its components is described. Cosmic-ray muon and cosmic-neutron-induced background was accurately measured, and

  5. In situ gamma-spectrometry several years after deposition of radiocesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gering; U. Hillmann; P. Jacob; G. Fehrenbacher

    1998-01-01

    A new method is introduced for deriving radiocesium soil contaminations and kerma rates in air from in situ gamma-ray spectrometric\\u000a measurements. The approach makes use of additional information about gamma-ray attenuation given by the peak-to-valley ratio,\\u000a which is the ratio of the count rates for primary and forward scattered photons. In situ measurements are evaluated by comparing\\u000a the experimental data

  6. Determination of gamma radioactivity levels and associated dose rates of soil samples of the Akkuyu/Mersin using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, S F; Boztosun, I; Yavuz, M; Tun, M R

    2014-03-01

    In this study several soil samples were collected from the Bykeceli district where Turkey's first nuclear power plant will be built and radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in soil samples ranged from 9.8 0.7 to 258.6 15.8, 11.7 0.9 to 85.6 5.0, 173.8 2.1 to 1949.5 14.7 and 0.4 0.1 to 72.2 2.2 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. Findings are in good agreement with the published results of neighbouring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) in air and the annual effective dose of soil samples were calculated to be 80.2 nGy h(-1) and 98.3 mSv y(-1), respectively. The results show that the radiation hazard in the Bykeceli district is insignificant. The data presented in this study would be very useful to determine the future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment. PMID:24214909

  7. Monte carlo simulation of in situ gamma-spectra recorded by NaI (Tl) detector in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wu, Ning; Wu, Bingwei; Liu, Yan; Cao, Xuan; Wang, Qian

    2015-06-01

    To develop a NaI (Tl) detector for in situ radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment and enhance the confidence of the probability of the gamma-spectrum analysis, Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle ( MNCP ) code were performed to provide the response spectra of some interested radionuclides and the background spectra originating from the natural radionuclides in seawater recorded by a NaI (Tl) detector. A newly developed 75 mm 75 mm NaI (Tl) detector was calibrated using four reference radioactive sources 137Cs, 60Co, 40K and 54Mn in the laboratory before the field measurements in seawater. A simulation model was established for the detector immersed in seawater. The simulated spectra were all broadened with Gaussian pulses to reflect the statistical fluctuations and electrical noise in the real measurement. The simulated spectra show that the single-energy photons into the detector are mostly scattering low-energy photons and the high background in the low energy region mainly originates from the Compton effect of the high energy ?-rays of natural radionuclides in seawater. The simulated background spectrum was compared with the experimental one recorded in field measurement and they seem to be in good agreement. The simulation method and spectra can be used for the accurate analysis of the filed measurement results of low concentration radioactivity in seawater.

  8. Structural Characterization of Methylenedianiline Regioisomers by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, and Computational Strategies. 2. Electrospray Spectra of 3-Ring and 4-Ring Isomers.

    PubMed

    Stow, Sarah M; Onifer, Tiffany M; Forsythe, Jay G; Nefzger, Hartmut; Kwiecien, Nicholas W; May, Jody C; McLean, John A; Hercules, David M

    2015-06-16

    Building on results from our previous study of 2-ring methylenedianiline (MDA), a combined mass spectrometry approach utilizing ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with computational methods enables the structural characterization of purified 3-ring and 4-ring MDA regioisomers in this current study. The preferred site of protonation for the 3-ring and 4-ring MDA was determined to be on the amino groups. Additionally, the location of the protonated amine along the MDA multimer was found to influence the gas phase stability of these molecules. Fragmentation mechanisms similar to the 2-ring MDA species were observed for both the 3-ring and 4-ring MDA. The structural characterization of 3-ring and 4-ring MDA isomers using modern MS techniques may aid polyurethane synthesis by the characterization of industrial grade MDA, multimeric MDA species, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) mixtures. PMID:25971782

  9. Gamma-ray burst spectra and time histories from 2 to 400 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1998-07-01

    The Gamma-Ray burst detector on Ginga consisted of a proportional counter to observe the x-rays and a scintillation counter to observe the gamma-rays. Both instrument recorded the time histories in phase with each other and with 0.03125 s temporal resolution. The author compares the average of 21 gamma-ray bursts to determine the delay, in any, between the peak of the x-rays and the peak of the gamma-rays. The delay is less than or about equal to 30 msec. Thus, models must content with two average features of the temporal behavior. First, as a function of energy, the time structure scales as {approximately}E{sup {minus}0.45}. Second, the x-rays are not appreciable delayed relative to the gamma-rays. Some cooling models might have difficulties explaining these features.

  10. Attributes from NMIS Time Coincidence, Fast-Neutron Imaging, Fission Mapping, And Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Alicia L [ORNL] [ORNL; Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL] [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL] [ORNL; Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mihalczo, John T [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This work tests a systematic procedure for analyzing data acquired by the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with fast-neutron imaging and high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry capabilities. NMIS has been under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification since the mid-1990s, and prior to that by the National Nuclear Security Administration Y-12 National Security Complex, with NMIS having been used at Y-12 for template matching to confirm inventory and receipts. In this present work, a complete set of NMIS time coincidence, fast-neutron imaging, fission mapping, and HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry data was obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for a configuration of fissile and nonfissile materials. The data were then presented for analysis to someone who had no prior knowledge of the unknown object to accurately determine the description of the object by applying the previously-mentioned procedure to the simulated data. The best approximation indicated that the unknown object was composed of concentric cylinders: a void inside highly enriched uranium (HEU) (84.7 {+-} 1.9 wt % {sup 235}U), surrounded by depleted uranium, surrounded by polyethylene. The final estimation of the unknown object had the correct materials and geometry, with error in the radius estimates of material regions varying from 1.58% at best and 4.25% at worst; error in the height estimates varied from 2% to 12%. The error in the HEU enrichment estimate was 5.9 wt % (within 2.5{sigma} of the true value). The accuracies of the determinations could be adequate for arms control applications. Future work will apply this iterative reconstructive procedure to other unknown objects to further test and refine it.

  11. Dose rate constant of a Cesium-131 interstitial brachytherapy seed measured by thermoluminescent dosimetry and gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Bongiorni, P.; Nath, R. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06504 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    The aim of this work was to conduct an independent determination of the dose rate constant of the newly introduced Model CS-1 {sup 131}Cs seed. A total of eight {sup 131}Cs seeds were obtained from the seed manufacturer. The air-kerma strength of each seed was measured by the manufacturer whose calibration is traceable to the air-kerma strength standard established for the {sup 131}Cs seeds at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (1{sigma} uncertainty <1%). The dose rate constant of each seed was measured by two independent methods: One based on the actual photon energy spectrum emitted by the seed using gamma-ray spectrometry and the other based on the dose-rate measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) in a Solid Water{sup TM} phantom. The dose rate constant in water determined by the gamma-ray spectrometry technique and by the TLD dosimetry are 1.066{+-}0.064 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1} and 1.058{+-}0.106 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1}, respectively, showing excellent agreement with each other. These values, however, are approximately 15% greater than a previously reported value of 0.915 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1} [Med. Phys. 31, 1529-1538 (2004)]. Although low-energy fluorescent x rays at 16.6 and 18.7 keV, originating from niobium present in the seed construction, were measured in the energy spectrum of the {sup 131}Cs seeds, their yields were not sufficient to lower the dose rate constant to the value of 0.915 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1}. Additional determinations of the dose rate constant may be needed to establish an AAPM recommended consensus value for routine clinical use of the {sup 131}Cs seed.

  12. Gamma spectrometry and chemical characterization of ceramic seeds with samarium-153 and holmium-166 for brachytherapy proposal.

    PubMed

    Valente, Eduardo S; Campos, Tarcsio P R

    2010-12-01

    Ceramic seeds were synthesized by the sol-gel technique with Si:Sm:Ca and Si:Ho:Ca. One set of seeds was irradiated in the TRIGA type nuclear reactor IPR-R1 and submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), K(0) method, to determine mass percentage concentration of natural samarium and holmium in the seed as well as to determine all existing radionuclides and their activities. Attention was paid to discrimination of Si-31, Ca-40, Ca-45, Ca-47, Ca-49, Sm-145, Sm-155, Sm-153 and Ho-166. A second sample was submitted to atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) also to determine samarium and holmium concentrations in weight. A third sample was submitted to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to qualitatively determine chemical composition. The measured activity was due to Sm-153 and Ho-166 with a well-characterized gamma spectrum. The X-ray fluorescence spectrum demonstrated that there is no discrepancy in seed composition. The maximum ranges in the water of beta particles from Sm-153 and Ho-166 decay were evaluated, as well as the dose rate and total dose delivered within the volume delimited by the range of the beta particles. The results are relevant for investigation of the viability of producing Sm-153 and Ho-166 radioactive seeds for use in brachytherapy. PMID:20685128

  13. Mathematical model of gamma-ray spectrometry borehole logging for quantitative analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich

    1981-01-01

    A technique for analyzing gamma-ray spectral-logging data has been developed, in which a digital computer is used to calculate the effects of gamma-ray attentuation in a borehole environment. The computer model allows for the calculation of the effects of lithology, porosity, density, and the thickness of a horizontal layer of uniformly distributed radioactive material surrounding a centralized probe in a cylindrical borehole. The computer program also contains parameters for the calculation of the effects of well casing, drilling fluid, probe housing, and losses through the sodium-iodide crystal. Errors associated with the commonly used mathematical assumption of a point detector are eliminated in this model. (USGS)

  14. Determination of the stellar (n,{gamma}) cross section of {sup 40}Ca with accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Wallner, A.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Mengoni, A.; Gallino, R.; Paul, M.; Vockenhuber, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Wien, A-1090 Wien (Austria); International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Wien (Austria); Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, IL-Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B. C., V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    The stellar (n,{gamma}) cross section of {sup 40}Ca at kT=25 keV has been measured with a combination of the activation technique and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This combination is required when direct off-line counting of the produced activity is compromised by the long half-life and/or missing {gamma}-ray transitions. The neutron activations were performed at the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator using the quasistellar neutron spectrum of kT=25 keV produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The subsequent AMS measurements were carried out at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) with a 3 MV tandem accelerator. The doubly magic {sup 40}Ca is a bottle-neck isotope in incomplete silicon burning, and its neutron capture cross section determines the amount of leakage, thus impacting on the eventual production of iron group elements. Because of its high abundance, {sup 40}Ca can also play a secondary role as ''neutron poison'' for the s-process. Previous determinations of this value at stellar energies were based on time-of-flight measurements. Our method uses an independent approach, and yields for the Maxwellian-averaged cross section at kT=30 keV a value of <{sigma}>{sub 3}0 keV=5.73{+-}0.34 mb.

  15. SINGLE- AND TWO-COMPONENT GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRA IN THE FERMI GBM-LAT ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Veres, P.; Meszaros, P., E-mail: veresp@psu.edu, E-mail: nnp@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, and Center for Particle Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Most Fermi gamma-ray burst spectra appear as either a broken power law extending to GeV energies or as a broken power with a separate GeV power-law component. Here we show that such spectra can be understood in terms of magnetically dominated relativistic jets where a dissipative photosphere produces the prompt MeV emission, which is extended into the GeV range by inverse Compton scattering in the external shock, with possible contributions from a reverse shock as well. The bulk Lorentz factors required in these models are in the range of 300-600, and the MeV-GeV time delays arise naturally. In some cases an optical flash and a sub-dominant thermal component are also present.

  16. Cosmic infrared background from Population III stars and its effect on spectra of high-z gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    A. Kashlinsky

    2006-02-10

    We discuss the contribution of Population III stars to the near-IR (NIR) cosmic infrared background (CIB) and its effect on spectra of high-$z$ high-energy gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It is shown that if Population III were massive stars, the claimed NIR CIB excess will be reproduced if only ~ 4+/-2% of all baryons went through these stars. Regardless of the precise value of the NIR CIB produced by them, they would leave enough photons to provide a large optical depth for high-energy photons from high-z GRBs. Observations of such GRBs are expected following the planned launch of NASA's GLAST mission. The presence or absence of such damping in the spectra of high-$z$ GRBs will then provide important information on the emissions from the Population III. The location of this cutoff may also serve as an indicator of the GRB's redshift.

  17. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Wang, J. C. L.; Loredo, T. J.; Wasserman, I.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the GB880205 gamma-ray bursts are presented that have implications for the nature of gamma-ray burst sources. It is shown that cyclotron resonant scattering and Raman scattering account well for the positions, strengths, and shapes of the relative strengths of the first and second harmonics and their narrow widths. These results imply the existence of a superstrong (B of about 2 x 10 to the 12th G) magnetic field in the vicinity of the X-ray emission region of GB880205. Such a superstrong magnetic field points to a strongly magnetic neutron star as the origin of gamma-ray bursts, and to the fact that the gamma-ray sources belong to the Galaxy.

  18. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; /IAA, Granada /SLAC; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Prada, F.; /IAA, Granada /UC, Santa Cruz; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.; ,

    2009-06-23

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectra from natural radionuclides recorded by a NaI detector in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Vlastou, R; Ntziou, I Th; Kokkoris, M; Papadopoulos, C T; Tsabaris, C

    2006-01-01

    The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code has been used to simulate gamma-ray spectra of natural radionuclides collected by a NaI scintillation detector immersed in seawater. The gamma-rays emitted from the decay of (40)K, and the series of (232)Th and (238)U, were used to describe the radioactive water source around the NaI crystal. The simulated gamma-ray spectra were compared with real data recorded in situ by a newly constructed NaI spectrometer and were found to be in good agreement. The NaI spectrometer was calibrated in the laboratory in a water tank, before its deployment in seawater. Activity concentrations were deduced from the gamma-ray spectra and discussed in comparison with results from the literature. PMID:16150599

  20. Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using ?-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, B.; Dhavamani, V.; Ramkumar, S.; Philominathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U and 40K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using ?-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of 232Th, 238U and 40K is 42.99.4 Bq.kg?1, 14.71.7 Bq.kg?1 and 149.53.1 Bq.kg?1 respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h?1 and 59.1 nGy.h?1 with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 9 nGy.h?1. This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h?1. Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 ?Sv.y?1 with an arithmetic mean of 53.111 ?Sv.y?1. The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels. PMID:20177570

  1. Underwater gamma-spectrometry with HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Povinec; I. Osvath; M. S. Baxter

    1996-01-01

    An in situ ?-spectrometer designed for underwater operations consisting of HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors with electronics, data acquistion and processing electronics, and a supporting system consisting of a hydraulic winch with 1200 m conducting cable is described. The characteristics of the system and results obtained during operational tests and deployment in the Irish and Kara Seas are presented. The spectra

  2. Statistical data evaluation in mobile gamma spectrometry: an optimization of on-line search strategies in the scenario of lost point sources.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, T; Finck, R R; Samuelsson, C

    2001-06-01

    There is a potential risk that hazardous radioactive sources could enter the environment, e.g., via satellite debris, smuggled radioactive goods, or lost metal scrap. From a radiation protection point of view there is a need for rapid and reliable methods for locating and identifying sources. The methods could also be used to locate hot spots after radioactive fallout. Carborne and airborne gamma spectrometry systems are suitable for the task. This work focuses on a situation where the radionuclide to search for is known, which is not an unlikely scenario. The possibility that the source is located near a road can be high, and thus motivating a carborne spectrometer system. The main object is to optimize on-line statistical methods in order to achieve a high probability for locating the point source and still have reasonably few false alarms caused by variations in the natural background radiation. Data were obtained from a carborne 3-L NaI(Tl) detector and two point sources located at various distances from the road. The nuclides used were 137Cs and 131I. Spectra were measured stationary on the road. From these measurements we have reconstructed counts in spectral windows applicable to different speed and sampling times; the time 3 s and speeds 32 and 54 km h(-1) are used in this work. The maximum distance a source can be located from the road and still be detected is estimated with four different statistical analysis methods. This distance is called the critical distance, CD. The method is applied on gross counts in the full energy peak spectral window. For each method alarm levels have been calculated from background data obtained in Scania (Skne), in the south of Sweden. The results show large differences in CD. With the best approach, the two sources could be detected from about 180 m (137Cs, 6 GBq) and 170 m (131I, 4.5 GBq). PMID:11388725

  3. Measurement of Danube sediment radioactivity in Serbia and Montenegro using gamma ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Bikit; J. Slivka; M. Veskovi?; E. Varga; N. iki?-Todorovi?; D. Mr?a; S. Forkapi?

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide content of 54 sediment samples collected from 18 locations distributed along the Vojvodina part of the Danube was determined by means of low-level, high-resolution gamma-spectroscopy. Beside the members of the natural radioactive chains of 238U, 232Th and the natural 40K, 137Cs content of Chernobyl origin was also detected. The data obtained are compared with those collected during four

  4. Applications of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry. [Monitoring radionuclides in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Ragaini; J. A. Kirby

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric methods using high-resolution Ge(Li) and high purity Ge detectors have been used to quantify the concentrations and external exposure rates of radionuclides in the soil. These in situ methods have been used to study radionuclide deposition around nuclear power stations, the distribution of radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site, biogeochemical cycling of radionuclides, and the fate and impact

  5. Resolvin D1, protectin D1, and related docosahexaenoic acid-derived products: Analysis via electrospray\\/low energy tandem mass spectrometry based on spectra and fragmentation mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Hong; Yan Lu; Rong Yang; Katherine H. Gotlinger; Nicos A. Petasis; Charles N. Serhan

    2007-01-01

    Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and protectin D1 (Neuroprotectin D1, PD1\\/NPD1) are newly identified anti-inflammatory lipid mediators biosynthesized\\u000a from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this report, the spectra-structure correlations and fragmentation mechanisms were studied\\u000a using electrospray low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) for biogenic RvD1 and PD1, as\\u000a well as mono-hydroxy-DHA and related hydroperoxy-DHA. The loss of H2O and CO2 in the

  6. Production of beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes for improved analysis of nuclear explosion monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Derek Anderson

    Radioactive xenon gas is a fission product released in the detonation of nuclear devices that can be detected in atmospheric samples far from the detonation site. In order to improve the capabilities of radioxenon detection systems, this work produces beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual isotopes of radioxenon. Previous methods of radioxenon production consisted of the removal of mixed isotope samples of radioxenon gas released from fission of contained fissile materials such as 235U. In order to produce individual samples of the gas, isotopically enriched stable xenon gas is irradiated with neutrons. The detection of the individual isotopes is also modeled using Monte Carlo simulations to produce spectra. The experiment shows that samples of 131mXe, 133 Xe, and 135Xe with a purity greater than 99% can be produced, and that a sample of 133mXe can be produced with a relatively low amount of 133Xe background. These spectra are compared to models and used as essential library data for the Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) to analyze atmospheric samples of radioxenon for evidence of nuclear events.

  7. Cosmic Infrared Background From Population III Stars and Its Effect on Spectra of High-z Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of Population III stars to the near-IR (NIR) cosmic infrared background (CIB) and its effect on spectra of high-z, high-energy gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other sources. It is shown that if Population III is composed of massive stars, the claimed NIR CIB excess will be reproduced if only approx. 4% plus or minus 2% of all baryons went through these stars. Regardless of the precise amount of the NIR CIB due to them, they likely left enough photons to provide a large optical depth for high-energy photons from distant GRBs. Observations of such GRBs are expected following the planned launch of NASA's GLAST mission. Detecting such damping in the spectra of high-z GRBs will then provide important information on the emissions from the Population III epoch, and the location of this cutoff may serve as an indicator of the GRBs' redshifts. We also point out the difficulty of unambiguously detecting the CIB part originating from Population III in spectra of low-z blazars.

  8. In situ subterranean determination of actinides by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brodzinski

    1981-01-01

    A system utilizing high resolution germanium diode gamma-ray spectroscopy for the simple, safe, and economical in situ determination of actinides is described. Six isotopes, ²³⁵U, ²³⁸U, ²³⁷Np, ²³⁹Pu, ²⁴¹Pu, and ²⁴¹Am, can be simultaneously measured at the 10 nCi g⁻¹ level in less than 7 minutes. Collimators provide for measurement of horizontal strata as thin as 1 cm or solid

  9. Concentrations and their ratio of 222Rn decay products in rainwater measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low-background Ge detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Takeyasu; Takao Iida; Tadashi Tsujimoto; Keizo Yamasaki; Yoshihiro Ogawa

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations and the concentration ratios of individual short-lived 222Rn decay products (214Pb and 214Bi) in rainwater were measured at Kumatori village (34.39N, 135.35E, approximately 70m above sea level) in Osaka, Japan, by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low-background Ge detector. The dependence of the time variations of the concentrations and their ratios on rainfall rate was investigated. It was observed

  10. Applicability study of using in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry technique for 137Cs and 210Pb ex inventories measurement in grassland environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junjie Li; Yong Li; Yanglin Wang; Jiansheng Wu

    2010-01-01

    In-situ measurement of fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pbex has the potential to assess soil erosion and sedimentation rapidly. In this study, inventories of 137Cs and 210Pbex in the soil of Inner Mongolia grassland were measured using an In-situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). The results from the field study indicate that in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry has the following advantages over traditional laboratory

  11. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environs of Swieradow Zdroj in Sudetes, Poland, by in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Malczewski; L. Teper; J. Dorda

    2004-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of 40K, 208Ti, 212Pb, 212Bi, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac and the fallout of 137Cs in typical rocks and soils of ?wieradw Zdrj area (Sudetes Mountains, Poland) were measured in situ using a portable gamma-ray spectrometry workstation. The measurement points were chosen for different regional lithology: within hornfelses of the Szklarska Pore?ba schist-belt, quartz rocks, gneisses of the ?wieradw

  12. Determination of Radioactivity Level of U, 232Th and K in Surface Medium in Zhuhai City by in-situ Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanping WANG; Lei XIAO; Canping LI; Ying HUANG; Shaoying PEI; Shaomin LIU; Fan XIE; Yexun CHENG

    2005-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometry survey with NaI(Tl) (75 mm 75 mm) has been performed on a large scale to determine the distribution of K, U and Th in soil and rocks in Zhuhai, a southern Chinese city located in Guangdong Province. The survey sampled 970 sites which covered an area of more than 100km. The average activities of K, U

  13. Monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge along the Donnalucata coast in the south-eastern Sicily using underwater gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel P. Povinec; Jean-Francois Comanducci; Isabelle Levy-Palomo; Benjamino Oregioni

    2006-01-01

    A novel technique for monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones based on an in situ underwater gamma-ray spectrometry of radon-decay products is described. Several sites were visited during the IAEA2002 expedition offshore Donnalucata in the south-eastern Sicily. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn in the beach spring at Donnalucata has shown variable 222Rn activity concentrations in groundwater (from 12

  14. sup 6\\/LiI(Eu) in neutron and \\/spl gamma\\/-ray spectrometry-a highly sensitive thermal neutron detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Syntfeld; M. Moszynski; R. Arlt; M. Balcerzyk; M. Kapusta; M. Majorov; R. Marcinkowski; P. Schotanus; M. Swoboda; D. Wolski

    2005-01-01

    Europium doped 6LiI crystals (enriched to 96%6 Li) have been studied in neutron detection and gamma-ray spectrometry. Two crystals, 50 mmtimes5 mm and 30 mmtimes3 mm in size were coupled to a calibrated Photonis XP5200 photomultiplier, were tested. The response of 6LiI(Eu) to neutrons emitted from a paraffin moderated Pu-Be source has been investigated and the thermal neutron peak has

  15. Experimental and MCNP simulated gamma-ray spectra for the UNCOSS neutron-based explosive detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Eleon; B. Perot; C. Carasco; D. Sudac; J. Obhodas; V. Valkovic

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the FP7 UNCOSS project (Underwater Coastal Sea Surveyor), whose aim is to develop a neutron-based explosive detection system to identify unexploded ordnance (UXO) lying on the sea bottom, the choice of the gamma-ray detector is essential to reach the optimal performances. This paper presents comparative tests between the two candidates: NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) detectors, in favour

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of Nal(TI) gamma-spectra in sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Vlachos; C. Tsabaris

    2003-01-01

    In the field of gamma spectroscopy, detection systems such as NaI(Tl), HPGe, CdZnTe, Csl, BaF2, BGO, GaAs are widely known. In a marine environment only the NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors have been used for in situ monitoring of radioactivity due to their high efficiency and to their capability of detecting in a wide energy range. HPGe detectors have been used

  17. Reconciling observed gamma-ray burst prompt spectra with synchrotron radiation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Daigne; Z. Bosnjak; G. Dubus

    2011-01-01

    Context. Gamma-ray burst emission in the prompt phase is often interpreted as synchrotron radiation from high-energy electrons accelerated in internal shocks. Fast synchrotron cooling of a power-law distribution of electrons leads to the prediction that the slope below the spectral peak has a photon index alpha = -3\\/2 (N(E) ? Ealpha). However, this differs significantly from the observed median value

  18. Study of neutron and muon background in low-level germanium gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordel, R.; Mouchel, D.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Heusser, G.; Arnes, B. Quintana; Meynendonckx, P.

    1996-02-01

    Cosmic ray induced neutrons and muons cause activation of nuclei. Using low-background detectors, constructed with strictly selected materials, and sufficient shielding from the surrounding environmental ?-radiation, one can measure the activation products and deduce information about the flux of neutrons and muons. The results of such a study can be used to improve the shielding for ultra-low counting spectrometry systems. In this work two low-level HPGe detection systems have been used to study the thermal and fast neutron fluxes, as well as the muon flux at three different experimental sites: on the surface, at a depth of 15 m water equivalent (m w.e.) and at 500 m w.e. The study was based on measuring the activation of nuclei in the detector itself and in gold foils. The muons were identified due to their high energy deposition in the detector crystal. Fast and thermal neutron fluxes have been measured since 1985 and estimates of the neutron and muon fluxes are given. The results are discussed and compared to the values obtained by the Kiel Neutron Monitor for the same time period.

  19. Measurement of Absolute Fission Yields in the Fast Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinides: {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 243}Am, and {sup 244}Cm by Track-Etch-cum-Gamma Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, R.H.; Naik, H.; Pandey, A.K.; Kalsi, P.C.; Singh, R.J.; Ramaswami, A.; Nair, A.G.C. [Bhaha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2000-07-15

    The absolute fission yields of 46 fission products in {sup 238}U (99.9997 at.%), 46 fission products in {sup 237}Np, 27 fission products in {sup 238}Pu (99.21 at.%), 30 fission products in {sup 240}Pu (99.48 at.%), 30 fission products in {sup 243}Am (99.998 at.%), and 32 fission products in {sup 244}Cm (99.43 at.%) induced by fast neutrons were determined using a fission track-etch-cum-gamma spectrometric technique. In the case of highly alpha-active and sparingly available actinides - e.g., {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 243}Am, and {sup 244}Cm - a novel recoil catcher technique to collect the fission products on a Lexan polycarbonate foil followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was developed during the course of this work. This completely removed interferences from (a) gamma rays of daughter products in secular equilibrium with the target nuclide (e.g., {sup 243}Am-{sup 239}Np), (b) activation products of the catcher foil [e.g., {sup 24}Na from Al(n,{alpha})], and (c) activation products of the target [e.g., {sup 238}Np from {sup 237}Np(n,{gamma}) and {sup 239}Np from {sup 238}U(n,{gamma})] reactions, making the gamma spectrometric analysis very simple and accurate. The high-yield asymmetric fission products were analyzed by direct gamma spectrometry, whereas the low-yield symmetric products (e.g., Ag, Cd, and Sb) as well as some of the asymmetric fission products (e.g., Br) and rare earths (in the case of {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np) were radiochemically separated and then analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The neutron spectra in the irradiation positions of the reactors were measured and delineated in the thermal to 10-MeV region using threshold activation detectors. The present data were compared with the ENDF/VI and UKFY2 evaluated data files. From the measured cumulative yields, the mass-chain yields have been deduced using charge distribution systematics. The mass yields, along with similar data for other fast neutron-induced fissioning systems, show several important features:1. Fine structure in the interval of five mass units in even-Z fissioning systems due to odd-even effects. The fine structure decreases from lighter to heavier even-Z actinides, in accordance with their odd-even effect.2. Higher yields in the mass regions 133 to 135, 138 to 140, and 143 to 145 and their complementary mass regions, depending on the mass of the fissioning systems due to the presence of 82n-66n, 86n-62n, and 88n-56n shells.3. For odd-Z fissioning systems having no odd-even effect, the fine structure is very feeble and is due only to shell effects.4. Unusually high yields observed in the mass region 133 to 139 in the fissioning system {sup 239}U* as compared to other U isotopes are explained on the basis of a higher neutron-to-proton ratio (N/Z) of {sup 238}U compared to lower-mass uranium isotopes. The {nu}-bar, full-width at tenth-maximum, and A{sub L}-bar increase with increasing mass of the fissioning systems, whereas A{sub H}-bar of {approx}139 {+-} 1 remains constant throughout due to the strong preference for the formation of the deformed 88n shell, which is also favorable from the N/Z point of view.

  20. Determination of Copper by Neutron Activation Analysis in Conjunction with Compton Suppression Gamma Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    W. H. Zhang; A. Chatt

    2000-06-04

    Copper is considered to be an essential element. Its accurate determination in tissues, foods, and other biological materials is needed to study the effect of copper on human nutrition and health. Using and Advance Prediction Computer Program, it has been shown that short-lived {sup 66}Cu (half-life = 5.09 min) can be used to determine copper in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). However, it is seldom done in practice-in particular, for low copper content in high-salt biological materials-because of the Compton background interference from nuclides such as {sup 28}Al, {sup 38}Cl, and {sup 24}Na. To eliminate the Compton interference, a preconcentration NAA method has recently been developed in our laboratory using reversed-phase extraction chromatography of copper followed by short irradiation and conventional gamma-spectrometric counting of {sup 66}Cu; the detection limit is {approx}5 ppb.

  1. Analyses of the gamma-ray pulse-height spectra from the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    The method of inferring photon spectra from an analysis of the measured pulse-height spectrum is considered along with the spectrum shape and its variation energy. The case is examined where photoelastic absorption predominates, and Compton scattering and pair production are negligible. The analytic method for obtaining the elemental composition from the observed lunar surface spectrum is described, and theoretical and calculated weight fraction fluxes for average lunar composition are tabulated.

  2. Pile-up reconstruction algorithm for high count rate gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovi?, T.; Vencelj, M.; Lipoglavek, M.; Novak, R.; Savran, D.

    2013-04-01

    In high count rate ?-ray spectrometry, the pile-up phenomenon turns out to be an important problem with respect to energy resolution and detection efficiency. Pile-up effects occur when two events are detected so close in time that instrumentation cannot properly extract information from both of them. Because this kind of data is incorrect and marginally useful, such data had to be rejected in traditional pulse processors. In times of digital pulse processing however, one can reconstruct piled-up pulse amplitudes by special algebraic approaches. In fully digital signal acquisition, the moving window deconvolution (MWD) method is commonly used. This method requires two parameters to be carefully set, namely the flattop time (dictated by the maximum rise time of the signal) and the shaping time, to accomplish the best possible energy resolution. In this way, the maximum energy resolution is accomplished, but a lot of piled-up events are rejected, reducing detection efficiency. We propose a method that restores some of the pile-up events, using a parallel block MWD implementation where the shaping time parameter differs for every MWD block. Careful detection of as many true events as possible, as well as determining their exact occurrence in time (their respective timestamps) is the key in getting the most out of the measured signal. With proper analysis logic we get more experimental information through reduced dead time, at the cost of controlled and selectively worsened energy resolution, on an event-by-event basis, achieving better overall detection efficiency. This method was tested on real experimental data where the detection efficiency of our method is higher, by a factor of 4.4(9), than the efficiency of a standard method with pile-up rejection at 500 kcps count rate.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on commercial food packaging filmsstudy of changes in UV/VIS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, E. A. B.; Ortiz, A. V.; Wiebeck, H.; Paula, A. B. A.; Silva, A. L. A.; Silva, L. G. A.

    2004-09-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses up to 100 kGy on the optical properties of different commercial packaging films were studied in this paper. The packaging films analyzed were: polyethylene "LDPE", amide 6-amide 6.6 copolymer "PA6-PA6.6" and poly(ethylene terephthalate) "PET". An investigation on film samples before and after irradiation was performed by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The results showed that, in the absorption spectra of irradiated LDPE and PA6-PA6.6 films, a red-shift in the wavelength of the UV cutoff and a marked reduction in % transmittance (at low wavelengths) occur with increasing radiation dose. With respect to PET samples, no significant changes were observed in either light absorption or transmittance.

  4. Neutron activation analysis, gamma ray spectrometry and radiation environment monitoring instrument concept: GEORAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Talboys, D. L.; Sims, M. R.; Bannister, N. P.; Makarewicz, M.; Stevenson, T.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Watterson, J. I. W.; Lanza, R. C.; Richter, L.; Mills, A.; Fraser, G. W.

    2005-02-01

    Geological processes on Earth can be related to those that may have occurred in past epochs on Mars, if analytical methods used on Earth can be operated remotely on the surface of the Red Planet. Nuclear analytical techniques commonly used in terrestrial geology are neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS), which determine the elemental composition, elemental concentration and stratigraphical distribution of water in rocks and soils. We describe a detector concept called GEORAD (GEOlogical and RADiation environment package) for the proposed ExoMars rover within the ESA's Aurora Programme for the exploration of the Solar System. GEORAD consists of a compact neutron source for the NAA of rocks and soils and a GRS. The GRS has a dual role since it can be used for natural radioactivity studies and NAA. A fully depleted silicon detector coupled to neutron sensitive converters measures the solar particle and neutron flux interacting with the Martian surface. We describe how the GEORAD detector suite could contribute to the geological and biological characterisation of Mars both for the detection of extinct or extant life and to evaluate potential hazards facing future manned missions. We show how GEORAD measurements complement the astrobiological objectives of the Aurora programme.

  5. Determination of natural radionuclides content in some building materials in Nigeria by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study undertaken to determine the natural radioactivity present in some building materials in Nigeria using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a hyper pure germanium detector. A total of 118 samples of commonly used building materials were collected from manufacturers and suppliers of these materials. The mean radioactivity concentrations measured in the different building materials varied from 9.4 to 62.9, 1.3 to 88.4, and 21.5 to 762.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K. The average contents of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for all the samples were 36.3, 46.5, and 320.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively, lower than the world average for building materials (50, 50, and 500 Bq kg(-1)). The calculated mean radium equivalent activity and external and internal hazard indices for the entire sample were lower than United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation recommended limits and comparable with results of similar studies undertaken in other countries. The mean annual gonadal equivalent doses of some of the samples were higher than the world average value for soil. PMID:18091150

  6. On the non-existence of a sharp cooling break in gamma-ray burst afterglow spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: uhm@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Although the widely used analytical afterglow model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicts a sharp cooling break ? {sub c} in its afterglow spectrum, the GRB observations so far rarely show clear evidence for a cooling break in their spectra or a corresponding temporal break in their light curves. Employing a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. We precisely follow the cooling history of non-thermal electrons accelerated into each Lagrangian shell. We show that a detailed calculation of afterglow spectra does not in fact give rise to a sharp cooling break at ? {sub c}. Instead, it displays a very mild and smooth transition, which occurs gradually over a few orders of magnitude in energy or frequency. The main source of this slow transition is that different mini shells have different evolutionary histories of the comoving magnetic field strength B, so that deriving the current value of ? {sub c} of each mini shell requires an integration of its cooling rate over the time elapsed since its creation. We present the time evolution of optical and X-ray spectral indices to demonstrate the slow transition of spectral regimes and discuss the implications of our result in interpreting GRB afterglow data.

  7. On the Non-existence of a Sharp Cooling Break in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Although the widely used analytical afterglow model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicts a sharp cooling break ? c in its afterglow spectrum, the GRB observations so far rarely show clear evidence for a cooling break in their spectra or a corresponding temporal break in their light curves. Employing a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. We precisely follow the cooling history of non-thermal electrons accelerated into each Lagrangian shell. We show that a detailed calculation of afterglow spectra does not in fact give rise to a sharp cooling break at ? c . Instead, it displays a very mild and smooth transition, which occurs gradually over a few orders of magnitude in energy or frequency. The main source of this slow transition is that different mini shells have different evolutionary histories of the comoving magnetic field strength B, so that deriving the current value of ? c of each mini shell requires an integration of its cooling rate over the time elapsed since its creation. We present the time evolution of optical and X-ray spectral indices to demonstrate the slow transition of spectral regimes and discuss the implications of our result in interpreting GRB afterglow data.

  8. Toward a More Standardized Candle Using Gamma-Ray Burst Energetics and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Bloom, Joshua S.

    2005-07-01

    The use of gamma-ray burst (GRB) energetics for cosmography has long been advanced as a means to probe out to high redshifts, to the epoch of deceleration. However, although relatively immune to systematic biases from dust extinction, the prompt energy release in GRBs, even when corrected for jetting geometry, is far from being a standard candle. In this work we explore the cosmographic potential of a GRB standard candle based on the newly discovered relation by Ghirlanda and coworkers between the apparent geometry-corrected energies (E?) and the peak in the rest-frame prompt-burst spectrum (Ep). We present an explicit, self-consistent formalism for correcting GRB energies with a thorough accounting for observational uncertainties. In contrast to other work, we demonstrate that the current sample of 19 GRBs is not yet cosmographically competitive with results from Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), large-scale structure, and the microwave background. Although the Ep-E? relation is a highly significant correlation across a range of cosmologies [0<=?M, ??<=2], the goodness of fit of the data to a power law (Ep~E??) depends strongly on input assumptions. The most important of these assumptions concern the unknown density (and density profile) of the circumburst medium, the efficiency of converting explosion energy to gamma rays, data selection choices for individual bursts (some of which were not included in similar work), and assumptions in the error analysis. Independent of assumptions, with very few low-z bursts, the current sample is most sensitive to ?M but essentially insensitive to ?? (let alone the dark energy equation of state w). The relation clearly represents a significant improvement in the search for an empirical GRB standard candle but is further hindered by an unknown physical basis for the relation, the lack of a low-z training set to calibrate the relation in a cosmology-independent way, and several major potential systematic uncertainties and selection effects. Until these concerns are addressed, a larger sample is acquired, and attempts are made to marginalize or perform Monte Carlo simulations over the unknown density distribution (which itself may evolve with redshift), we urge caution concerning claims of the utility of GRBs for cosmography and especially attempts to combine the results from GRBs with those of SNe Ia.

  9. Applying in-silico retention index and mass spectra matching for identification of unknown metabolites in accurate mass GC-TOF mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sangeeta; Stevens, Doug; Kind, Tobias; Denkert, Carsten; Fiehn, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in metabolomics is the identification of unknown metabolites. We tested constraints for re-identifying the correct structures of 29 known metabolite peaks from GCT premier accurate mass chemical ionization GC-TOF mass spectrometry data without any use of mass spectral libraries. Correct elemental formulas were retrieved within the top-3 hits for most molecular ion adducts using the Seven Golden Rules algorithm. An average of 514 potential structures per formula was downloaded from the PubChem chemical database and in-silico derivatized using the ChemAxon software package. After chemical curation, Kovats retention indices (RI) were predicted for up to 747 potential structures per formula using the NIST MS group contribution algorithm and corrected for contribution of trimethylsilyl groups using the Fiehnlib RI library. When matching the range of predicted RI values against the experimentally determined peak retention, all but three incorrect formulas were excluded. For all remaining isomeric structures, accurate mass electron ionization spectra were predicted using the MassFrontier software and scored against experimental spectra. Using a mass error window of 10 ppm for fragment ions, 89% of all isomeric structures were removed and the correct structure was reported in 73% within the top-5 hits of the cases. PMID:21678983

  10. Simulation of gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs. Semiannual technical report, 1 March-31 August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rester, A.C. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum simulation program BSIMUL was designed to allow the operator to follow the path of a gamma-ray through a detector, shield and collimator whose dimensions are entered by the operator. It can also be used to simulate spectra that would be generated by a detector. Several improvements have been made to the program within the last few months. The detector, shield and collimator dimensions can now be entered through an interactive menu whose options are discussed below. In addition, spectra containing more than one gamma-ray energy can now be generated with the menu - for isotopes listed in the program. Adding isotopes to the main routine is also quite easy. Subroutines have been added to enable the operator to specify the material and dimensions of a collimator. This report details the progress made in simulating gamma-ray spectra for a variety of user-specified detector designs. In addition, a short discussion of work done in the related areas of pulse shape analysis and the spectral analysis is included. The pulse shape analysis and spectral analysis work is being performed pursuant to the requirements of contract F-94-C-0006, for the Advanced Research Projects Agency and the U.S. Air Force.

  11. Low-level activity measurement of 131Xem, 133Xem, 135Xe and 133Xe in atmospheric air samples using high-resolution dual X-gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Le Petit, G; Jutier, C; Gross, P; Greiner, V

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution dual X and gamma spectrometry has been optimized to improve the sensitivity in analyzing radioxenon from environmental samples, especially for the metastable isotopes (131Xem and 133Xem). The full-energy peak (FEP) efficiency curve in the 20-700 keV range has been established with a global uncertainty better than +/-3% using a Monte Carlo simulation. The minimum detectable activity concentrations (MDC) achievable at the laboratory for 131Xem, 133Xem, 133Xe and 135Xe are presented and the influence of 133Xe activity on the metastable radioxenon MDCs is evaluated. PMID:16603369

  12. Optical and infrared absorption spectra of 3d transition metal ions-doped sodium borophosphate glasses and effect of gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; ElBatal, F H; Azooz, M A; Ouis, M A; ElBatal, H A

    2012-12-01

    Undoped and transition metals (3d TM) doped sodium borophosphate glasses were prepared. UV-visible absorption spectra were measured in the region 200-900nm before and after gamma irradiation. Experimental optical data indicate that the undoped sodium borophosphate glass reveals before irradiation strong and broad UV absorption and no visible bands could be identified. Such UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for preparation of this base borophosphate glass. The TMs-doped glasses show absorption bands within the UV and/or visible regions which are characteristic to each respective TM ion in addition to the UV absorption observed from the host base glass. Infrared absorption spectra of the undoped and TMs-doped glasses reveal complex FTIR consisting of extended characteristic vibrational bands which are specific for phosphate groups as a main constituent but with the sharing of some vibrations due to the borate groups. This criterion was investigated and approved using DAT (deconvolution analysis technique). The effects of different TMs ions on the FTIR spectra are very limited due to the low doping level (0.2%) introduced in the glass composition. Gamma irradiation causes minor effect on the FTIR spectra specifically the decrease of intensities of some bands. Such behavior is related to the change of bond angles and/or bond lengths of some structural building units upon gamma irradiation. PMID:22995547

  13. Optical and infrared absorption spectra of 3d transition metal ions-doped sodium borophosphate glasses and effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; ElBatal, F. H.; Azooz, M. A.; Ouis, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Undoped and transition metals (3d TM) doped sodium borophosphate glasses were prepared. UV-visible absorption spectra were measured in the region 200-900 nm before and after gamma irradiation. Experimental optical data indicate that the undoped sodium borophosphate glass reveals before irradiation strong and broad UV absorption and no visible bands could be identified. Such UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for preparation of this base borophosphate glass. The TMs-doped glasses show absorption bands within the UV and/or visible regions which are characteristic to each respective TM ion in addition to the UV absorption observed from the host base glass. Infrared absorption spectra of the undoped and TMs-doped glasses reveal complex FTIR consisting of extended characteristic vibrational bands which are specific for phosphate groups as a main constituent but with the sharing of some vibrations due to the borate groups. This criterion was investigated and approved using DAT (deconvolution analysis technique). The effects of different TMs ions on the FTIR spectra are very limited due to the low doping level (0.2%) introduced in the glass composition. Gamma irradiation causes minor effect on the FTIR spectra specifically the decrease of intensities of some bands. Such behavior is related to the change of bond angles and/or bond lengths of some structural building units upon gamma irradiation.

  14. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume II. Software description and listings. [IAEAPU

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and has dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  15. Natural gamma-ray spectrometry, lithofacies, and depositional environments of selected upper Cretaceous marine mudrocks, western United States, including tropic shale and tununk member of Mancos shale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zelt

    1985-01-01

    In-situ measurements of gamma-ray spectra provide estimates of the potassium, thorium, the pre-weathering uranium contents of outcropping marine mudrocks. Th\\/U is a sensitive indicator of the oxidation potential of paleoenvironments of deposition of Phanerozoic epi- and pericontinental marine deposits. High (>10 x 10⁻⁴) ratios of uranium or organic carbon occur in phosphatic and cherty mudrocks; low (<1.5 x 10⁻⁴) ratios

  16. UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of gamma irradiated CuO-doped lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElBatal, H. A.; Abdelghany, A. M.; ElBatal, F. H.; ElBadry, Kh. M.; Moustaffa, F. A.

    2011-10-01

    Undoped and CuO-doped lithium phosphate, lead phosphate and zinc phosphate glasses were prepared. UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of the prepared samples were measured before and after successive gamma irradiation. Experimental optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands, which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the lithium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV bands due to combined absorption of trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The CuO-doped glasses reveal an extra broad visible band due to Cu 2+ ions in octahedral coordination. The effects of gamma irradiation have been analyzed for both the sharing of all constituent components including trace iron impurities. Infrared absorption spectra of the prepared samples were investigated by the KBr disk technique. The FTIR spectra reveal main characteristic absorption bands due to different phosphate groups. The IR spectra are observed to be slightly affected by the increase of CuO in the doping level (0.2-3%) indicating the stability of the main network units.

  17. A mass spectrometric analysis of {gamma}-GPS films

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, R.G.; Boerio, F.J.; Bertelsen, C. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Savina, M.R.; Lykke, K.R.; Calaway, W.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    {gamma}-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane ({gamma}-GPS) is used for pre-treatment of grit-blasted aluminum before adhesive bonding. This paper discusses analysis of non-reflective grit-blasted surfaces using mass spectrometry of species that were either sputtered off using an ion beam or thermally desorbed as neutrals using a pulsed laser and then post-ionized using a secondary laser. Results show that fragmentation is excessive and structural information is difficult to obtain from the spectra.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt gamma-ray spectra from depleted uranium under D-T neutron irradiation and electron recoil spectra in a liquid scintillator detector

    E-print Network

    Qin, Jianguo; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Tonghua; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the problem of inefficient computing time and unreliable results in MCNP5 calculation, a two-step method is adopted to calculate the energy deposition of prompt gamma-rays in detectors for depleted uranium spherical shells under D-T neutrons irradiation. In the first step, the gamma-ray spectrum for energy below 7 MeV is calculated by MCNP5 code; secondly, the electron recoil spectrum in a BC501A liquid scintillator detector is simulated based on EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code with the gamma-ray spectrum from the first step as input. The comparison of calculated results with experimental ones shows that the simulations agree well with experiment in the energy region 0.4-3 MeV for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum and below 4 MeVee for the electron recoil spectrum. The reliability of the two-step method in this work is validated.

  19. Accounting for the depth distribution of 137Cs in on-line mobile gamma spectrometry through primary and forward-scattered photons.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Thomas; Samuelsson, Christer

    2002-09-01

    Stationary and mobile field gamma spectrometry is a useful tool for rapid estimation of environmental radioactivity inventories on and in the ground. A weak point however, is that the depth distribution of the activity in the ground must be known in order to calculate the true activity per unit area or unit mass from an observed photon fluence rate. A promising method for converting incoming spectral data into both true activity content and depth distribution in real time is the peak-to-valley method, which is based on an analysis of the ratio between count rates from primary and forward-scattered photons. In this study the peak-to-valley method was adapted to car-borne mobile gamma spectrometry, where the depth distribution of (137)Cs is fitted to a Lorenz function. Results from field experiments with a large HPGe detector, utilising point sources at different depths, are presented. It was found that the method can be useful for mobile measurements with a measuring time of 5-10 min for activity concentrations of about 100 kBq.m(-2) or higher, resulting in an uncertainty in the estimate of the true activity of about 50%. PMID:12373332

  20. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped-sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M A; ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position. PMID:23816486

  1. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped - Sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.; Abdelghany, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na+, Pb2+, Zn2+ cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb2+, and Zn2+ to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position.

  2. Measurement of Radionuclides and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil and Transfer of Radionuclides from Soil to Vegetation, Vegetable of Some Northern Area of Pakistan Using ?-Ray Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan M. Khan; M. Ismail; Khalid Khan; Perveen Akhter

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of gamma emitters natural radionuclides, i.e., 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, has been carried out in soil, vegetation, vegetable, and water samples collected from some Northern area of Pakistan, using\\u000a gamma-ray spectrometry. The ?-ray spectrometry was carried out using high-purity Germanium detector coupled with a computer-based\\u000a high-resolution multi-channel analyzer. The activity concentrations in soil ranges from 24.7 to 78.5Bq?kg?1,

  3. Comparison of optimised germanium gamma spectrometry and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of 134Cs, 137Cs and 154Eu single ratios in highly burnt UO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, S.; Gnther-Leopold, I.; Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.

    2008-05-01

    Non-destructive and destructive methods have been compared to validate their corresponding assessed accuracies in the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs and 154Eu/137Cs isotopic concentration ratios in four spent UO2 fuel samples with very high (52 and 71 GWd/t) and ultra-high (91 and 126 GWd/t) burnup values, and about 10 (in the first three samples) and 4 years (in the latter sample) cooling time. The non-destructive technique tested was high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and a special tomographic station for the handling of highly radioactive 400 mm spent fuel segments that included a tungsten collimator, lead filter (to enhance the signal to Compton background ratio and reduce the dead time) and paraffin wax (to reduce neutron damage). The non-destructive determination of these isotopic concentration ratios has been particularly challenging for these segments because of the need to properly derive non-Gaussian gamma-peak areas and subtract the background from perturbing capture gammas produced by the intrinsic high-intensity neutron emissions from the spent fuel. Additionally, the activity distribution within each pin was determined tomographically to correct appropriately for self-attenuation and geometrical effects. The ratios obtained non-destructively showed a 1? statistical error in the range 1.9-2.9%. The destructive technique used was a high-performance liquid chromatographic separation system, combined online to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS), for the analysis of dissolved fuel solutions. During the mass spectrometric analyses, special care was taken in the optimisation of the chromatographic separation for Eu and the interfering element Gd, as also in the mathematical correction of the 154Gd background from the 154Eu signal. The ratios obtained destructively are considerably more precise (1? statistical error in the range 0.4-0.8% for most of the samples, but up to 2.8% for one sample). The HPGe gamma spectrometry can achieve a high degree of accuracy (agreement with HPLC-MC-ICP-MS within a few percent), only by virtue of the optimised setup, and the refined measurement strategy and data treatment employed.

  4. Classification of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry spectra from complex Cu-Fe sulphides by principal component analysis and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kalegowda, Yogesh; Harmer, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) and a hybrid principal component analysis-artificial neural network (PCA-ANN) classifiers have been successfully implemented for classification of static time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) mass spectra collected from complex Cu-Fe sulphides (chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite and pyrite) at different flotation conditions. ANNs are very good pattern classifiers because of: their ability to learn and generalise patterns that are not linearly separable; their fault and noise tolerance capability; and high parallelism. In the first approach, fragments from the whole ToF-SIMS spectrum were used as input to the ANN, the model yielded high overall correct classification rates of 100% for feed samples, 88% for conditioned feed samples and 91% for Eh modified samples. In the second approach, the hybrid pattern classifier PCA-ANN was integrated. PCA is a very effective multivariate data analysis tool applied to enhance species features and reduce data dimensionality. Principal component (PC) scores which accounted for 95% of the raw spectral data variance, were used as input to the ANN, the model yielded high overall correct classification rates of 88% for conditioned feed samples and 95% for Eh modified samples. PMID:23260673

  5. Gamma-rays interactions on optical, FTIR absorption and ESR spectra of 3d transition metals-doped sodium silicophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; ElBatal, H. A.

    2014-06-01

    Glasses of the basic composition mol% 50%P2O530%SiO220%Na2O together with samples containing one of 3d transition metal oxides (TiO2 ? CuO) were prepared. Combined optical and FTIR absorption spectra of the prepared glasses were measured before and after gamma irradiation with a dose of 8 Mrad (8 104 Gy). Undoped sodium phosphosilicate glass reveals strong UV absorption with a peak at 225 nm but with no visible bands. Such UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities contaminated with the chemicals used for preparation of this glass. 3d-transition metal ions-doped glasses exhibit characteristic absorption bands extended in the UV/Vis regions which are characteristics for the specific TM ions. Gamma irradiation causes broadness of the UV absorption bands in the spectrum of the undoped glass and the resolution of three peaks at about 250, 310 and 340 nm beside the appearance of an induced broad visible band centered at about 450 nm. Glasses doped with 3d TM ions reveal variations in their response towards gamma irradiation. FTIR absorption spectra show extended broad vibrational bands which are related to the presence of both vibrational modes due to silicate and phosphate groups but the later groups are predominant due to the high percent of P2O5 (50%). The presence of TM ions within the dopant level (0.2%) causes no obvious changes in the number and position of the IR structural vibrational bands. ESR spectra of 3d TM-ions-doped glasses reveal quite distinct spin resonance after gamma irradiation indicating that unpaired electrons increase through the capturing or releasing of energetic electrons during the irradiation process.

  6. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Extracting Spectra of N -Glycans Directly from Incubation Mixtures Following Glycan Release: Application to Glycans from Engineered Glycoforms of Intact, Folded HIV gp120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Harvey; Frank Sobott; Max Crispin; Antoni Wrobel; Camille Bonomelli; Snezana Vasiljevic; Christopher N. Scanlan; Charlotte A. Scarff; Konstantinos Thalassinos; James H. Scrivens

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of glycosylation from native biological sources is often frustrated by the low abundances of available material.\\u000a Here, ion mobility combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry have been used to extract the spectra of N-glycans released with PNGase F from a serial titration of recombinantly expressed envelope glycoprotein, gp120, from the\\u000a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Analysis was also performed

  7. Comparison of a digital and an analog signal processing system for neutron inelastic gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mitra; L. Wielopolski; G. Hendrey

    2004-01-01

    We compared the value of using a digital signal processing unit for gamma-ray spectroscopy with that of an analog one for in situ measurements of gamma-rays generated by inelastic neutron scattering reactions with soil elements. A large cylindrical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, 15.24cm high by 15.24cm diameter was used to measure carbon (C) and oxygen (O). The performance of the systems

  8. Evaluation of the Doppler-Broadening of Gamma-Ray Spectra from Neutron Inelastic Scattering on Light Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Barzilov, Alexander; Novikov, Ivan; Howard, Joseph; Musser, Jason

    2009-03-01

    Neutron-induced gamma-ray reactions are extensively used in the nondestructive analysis of materials and other areas where the information about the chemical composition of a substance is crucial. The common technique to find the intensity of the gamma ray is to fit gamma-ray line shape with an analytical function, for example, a Gaussian. However, the Gaussian fitting may fail if the gamma-ray peak is Doppler-broadened since this leads to the miscalculation of the area of the peak and, therefore, to misidentification of the material. Due to momentum considerations, Doppler-broadening occurs primarily with gamma rays from neutron-induced inelastic scattering reactions with light nuclei. The recoiling nucleus of interest must have excited states whose lifetimes are much smaller than the time of flight in the material. We have examined various light nuclei bombarded by 14 MeV neutrons to predict when the peak shape of a neutron-induced gamma ray emitted from these nuclei will be Doppler-broadened. We have found that nearly all the gamma rays from neutron-induced gamma-ray reactions on light elements (A<20) are Doppler-broadened with only a few exceptions. This means that utilization of resolution curves derived from isotopic sources or thermal neutron capture reactions have little value in the analysis.

  9. Gamma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Geometric Algorithms for Modeling, Motion, and Animation (GAMMA) research group is part of the Department of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina. Some of the topics of research include haptics, "robot motion planning," collision detection, and "real-time interaction with virtual environments." There are several projects that are described in detail for each of the main areas of investigation. Many recent papers are offered that describe the progress and findings of the group's research. Additionally, there is a large collection of videos demonstrating computer animation, simulation, and interactive applications. Some software can also be downloaded for the GAMMA Web site; however, access to a few of the titles must first be approved by the system administrator.

  10. Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the beta-decay of 100 Ag from total-absorption gamma spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Batist; A. Bykov; F. Moroz; V. Wittmann; G. D. Alkhazov; H. Keller; R. Kirchner; O. Klepper; E. Roeckl; M. Huse; P. Van Duppen; G. Reusen; A. Plochocki; M. Pftzner; K. Rykaczewski; J. Szerypo; J. ?ylicz; B. A. Brown

    1995-01-01

    The EC\\/+-decay of the odd-odd nucleus100Ag was studied by means of total absorption?-ray spectrometry. Most of the Gamow-Teller strength was found to be concentrated at an excitation energy of 5.6 MeV in100Pd, the FWHM of this resonance being 1.5 MeV. The measured strength distribution which is interpreted within the BCS approximation as being due to the dominant population of four-quasiparticle

  11. Variation of terrestrial gamma radiation in Toki, Japancomparison between gamma-ray spectrometry using Ge semiconductor and ICP-MS measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Fujikawa; M. Fukui; T. Baba; T. Yoshimoto; E. Ikeda; M. Saito; H. Yamanishi; T. Uda

    2005-01-01

    The cause of the spatial variation in external radiation levels in the Toki area in Japan was investigated by in-situ measurements of gamma-ray spectrum and by collections and measurements of soil samples. It was found that the radionuclide contents of topsoil largely governed the radiation level while land exploitation, gardening activities, and concrete-building constructions caused the variation in radiation there.

  12. Quantitative comparison between experimental and simulated gamma-ray spectra induced by 14 MeV tagged neutrons.

    PubMed

    Perot, B; El Kanawati, W; Carasco, C; Eleon, C; Valkovic, V; Sudac, D; Obhodas, J; Sannie, G

    2012-07-01

    Fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique can be used to identify explosives in cargo containers (EURITRACK FP6 project) and unexploded ordnance on the seabed (UNCOSS FP7 project), by detecting gamma radiations induced by 14 MeV neutrons produced in the 2H(3H,?)n reaction. The origin of the gamma rays can be determined in 3D by the detection of the alpha particle, which provides the direction of the opposite neutron and its time-of-flight. Gamma spectroscopy provides the relative counts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are converted to chemical fractions to differentiate explosives from other organic substances. To this aim, Monte Carlo calculations are used to take into account neutron moderation and gamma attenuation in cargo materials or seawater. This paper presents an experimental verification that C, N, and O counts are correctly reproduced by numerical simulation. A quantitative comparison is also reported for silicon, iron, lead, and aluminium. PMID:21782459

  13. Quantitative comparison between experimental and simulated gamma-ray spectra induced by 14 MeV tagged neutrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Perot; W. El Kanawati; C. Carasco; C. Eleon; V. Valkovic; D. Sudac; J. Obhodas; G. Sannie

    Fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique can be used to identify explosives in cargo containers (EURITRACK FP6 project) and unexploded ordnance on the seabed (UNCOSS FP7 project), by detecting gamma radiations induced by 14MeV neutrons produced in the 2H(3H,?)n reaction. The origin of the gamma rays can be determined in 3D by the detection of the alpha particle,

  14. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Clifford Dewey; Zachary David Whetstone; Kimberlee Jane Kearfott

    2011-01-01

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe

  15. A unifying explanation of complex frequency spectra of gamma Dor, SPB and Be stars: combination frequencies and highly non-sinusoidal light curves

    E-print Network

    Kurtz, Donald W; Murphy, Simon J; Bedding, Timothy R; Bowman, Dominic M

    2015-01-01

    There are many Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) stars and gamma Dor stars in the Kepler Mission data set. The light curves of these pulsating stars have been classified phenomenologically into stars with symmetric light curves and with asymmetric light curves. In the same effective temperature ranges as the gamma Dor and SPB stars, there are variable stars with downward light curves that have been conjectured to be caused by spots. Among these phenomenological classes of stars, some show `frequency groups' in their amplitude spectra that have not previously been understood. While it has been recognised that nonlinear pulsation gives rise to combination frequencies in a Fourier description of the light curves of these stars, such combination frequencies have been considered to be a only a minor constituent of the amplitude spectra. In this paper we unify the Fourier description of the light curves of these groups of stars, showing that many of them can be understood in terms of only a few base frequencies, which we at...

  16. Iron and titanium distribution on the moon from orbital gamma ray spectrometry with implications for crustal evolutionary models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Davis

    1980-01-01

    A set of Fe and Ti maps and regional values are obtained from the Apollo 15 and 16 orbital gamma ray data by energy band analysis. High-Ti basalts predominate the early and late stages of mare volcanism with high-Fe basaltic volcanism in the interim. The first evidence of a high-Ti-KREEP basalt association is found in the Aristarchus region. A N-S

  17. Synchrotron emission in short scale magnetic field as possible explanation to prompt emission spectra of Gamma-Ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Per, A; Pe'er, Asaf; Zhang, Bing

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron emission is believed to be a major radiation mechanism during gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) prompt emission phase. A significant drawback of this assumption is that the theoretical predicted spectrum, calculated within the framework of the ``internal shocks'' scenario using the standard assumption that the magnetic field maintains a steady value throughout the shocked region, leads to a slope F_\

  18. GRS: A Statistical and Non-Statistical Model Code for Calculations of Cross Sections and Gamma-Ray Spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukun Ho; Jianfeng Liu

    1986-01-01

    This paper briefs the non-statistical processes in neutron radiative capture reactions such as potential-valence captures, direct-semidirect captures, and captures in the compound elastic and inelastic channels, their physical significances and calculational expressions. Then a code GRS to calculate gamma-ray production data resulting from neutron induced reactions as well as relevant cross sections is described. In addition to multistep Hauser-Feshbach model,

  19. Measurement of chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress by quantification of isoketal/levuglandin gamma-ketoaldehyde protein adducts using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sean S; Amarnath, Venkataraman; Brame, Cynthia J; Boutaud, Olivier; Roberts, L Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs) has been independently verified as one of the most reliable approaches to assess oxidative stress in vivo. However, the rapid clearance of F(2)-IsoPs makes the timing of sample collection critical for short-lived oxidative insults. Isoketals (IsoKs) are gamma-ketoaldehydes formed via the IsoP pathway of lipid peroxidation that rapidly react with lysyl residues of proteins to form stable protein adducts. Oxidative stress can also activate cyclooxygenases to produce prostaglandin H(2), which can form two specific isomers of IsoK-levuglandin (LG) D(2) and E(2). Because adducted proteins are not rapidly cleared, IsoK/LG protein adduct levels can serve as a dosimeter of oxidative and inflammatory damage over prolonged periods of time as well as brief episodes of injury. Quantification of IsoK/LG protein adducts begins with liquid-phase extraction to separate proteins from lipid membranes, allowing measurement of both IsoK/LG protein adducts and F(2)-IsoP from the same sample if desired. IsoK/LG-lysyl-lactam adducts are measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after proteolytic digestion of extracted proteins, solid-phase extraction and preparative HPLC. PMID:17853863

  20. Monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge along the Donnalucata coast in the south-eastern Sicily using underwater gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Comanducci, Jean-Francois; Levy-Palomo, Isabelle; Oregioni, Benjamino

    2006-05-01

    A novel technique for monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones based on an in situ underwater gamma-ray spectrometry of radon-decay products is described. Several sites were visited during the IAEA'2002 expedition offshore Donnalucata in the south-eastern Sicily. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn in the beach spring at Donnalucata has shown variable 222Rn activity concentrations in groundwater (from 12 to 19kBqm-3), depending inversely on water levels during tide. Spatial variations of SGD have been observed in the Donnalucata boat basin. Average 222Rn activity concentrations in seawater varied from 0.1 to 3.7kBqm-3, showing an inverse relationship with salinity. A continuous monitoring carried out at the site closest to the coast has also revealed an inverse relationship of 222Rn activity concentration on tide and salinity. The 222Rn concentrations in seawater varied from 2.3kBqm-3 during high tides to 4.8kBqm-3 during low tides, confirming the tidal influence on SGD.

  1. Evaluation of natural radioactivity content in high-volume surface water samples along the northern coast of Oman Sea using portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Mahdi; Omidi, Zohre; Khorambagheri, Mahdi; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh; Ebrahimi, Mahmood; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-01

    Portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was carried out to determine the natural radioactivity levels in high volume surface water samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz strait to Goatr seaport, for the first time. The water samples from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analyses on the samples collected were carried out to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents. The concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in surface water samples ranged between 2.19 and 2.82Bq/L, 1.66-2.17Bq/L and 132.6-148.87Bq/L, respectively. The activity profile of radionuclides shows low activity across the study area. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices. The external hazard index was found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. PMID:25847859

  2. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 ?Sv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  3. Observations of gamma-ray burst spectra between 5 keV and 100 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Franco-Soviet Lilas, Apex (Phobos mission), and Phebus (Granat satellite) experiments allow spectral observations of cosmic gamma-ray bursts over a very broad energy range from 5 keV up to 100 MeV. We present here typical results on continuum shapes, multiple absorption dips at low-energy (less than 100 keV), emission features around 500 keV, and spectral breaks at about 1 MeV. These observations are discussed in the framework of a highly-mgnetized emission source.

  4. UV-visible and infrared absorption spectra of Bi2O3 in lithium phosphate glasses and effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of prepared undoped lithium phosphate glass and samples of the same nominal composition with additional Bi2O3 contents were measured before and after being subjected to gamma doses of 3 and 6 Mrad. The base undoped lithium phosphate glass exhibits strong charge transfer ultraviolet absorption bands, which are related to unavoidable presence of trace iron impurities within the raw materials for the preparation of this glass. Bi2O3-containing glasses show the extension of UV absorption beside the resolution of visible bands at 400, 450, and 700 nm with the increase of Bi2O3 content due the sharing of absorption of Bi3+ ions. Gamma irradiation of the base glass reveals extended induced bands; the UV bands are related to the conversion of some Fe2+ to Fe3+ through photochemical reactions during the irradiation process. The visible induced bands are related to the formation of positive hole centers from the host phosphate glass. Glasses containing Bi2O3 are observed to show some shielding behavior, which is attributed to the presence of heavy weight and large atomic number of Bi3+ ions. Infrared absorption spectral measurements of the base lithium phosphate glass show characteristic vibrational modes which are related to specific phosphate groups. The addition of Bi2O3 in measurable percent produces additional vibrational bands due to the introduction of Bi-O groups such as BiO3 and BiO6.

  5. Performance of FBK high-density SiPMs in scintillation spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzicka, M.; Moszy?ski, M.; Szcz??niak, T.; Ferri, A.; Piemonte, C.; Szaw?owski, M.; Gola, A.; Grodzicki, K.; Tarolli, A.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work is to provide the characteristics of two samples of Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) high-density SiPMs with an active area of 2.2 2.2 mm2 (15 15 ?m2 single cell size) and 4 4 mm2 (30 30 ?m2 single cell size) in gamma-ray spectrometry with LSO and CsI:Tl scintillators. The measurements presented in this work covered: measurements of spectra with low number of detected photons (one to a few fired APD cells), characteristics of the breakdown voltage versus temperature, verification of the excess noise factor, selection of the optimum operating voltage for energy resolution, verification of the linearity of the SiPM response for both used scintillators, verification of the number of fired APD cells and gamma-ray spectrometry for a wide range of X and gamma ray energies from 22.1 to 1408 keV.

  6. The use of the bulk properties of gamma-ray burst prompt emission spectra for the study of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Adam

    The study of bulk spectral properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) is important to understanding the physics behind these powerful explosions and may even be an aide in studying cosmology. The prompt emission spectral properties have long been studied by a growing community of researchers, and many theories have been developed since the discovery of GRBs. Even though the exact physics of these phenomena is not completely understood, GRBs have been proposed to give insight on other astrophysical phenomena from dark matter to the expansion of the universe. Obviously, using GRBs to study cosmology requires a large sample size to adequately constrain results and provide confident conjectures. For this reason, BATSE and GBM results are paramount to the study of the prompt emission of GRBs. Using results from both instruments, I study the bulk spectral properties of GRBs and describe analysis techniques that can be used to study cosmology.

  7. Size Effect on Nuclear Gamma-Ray Energy Spectra Acquired by Different Sized CeBr3, LaBr3:Ce, and NaI:Tl Gamma-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Paul [NSTec; Reed, Michael [NSTec; Yuan, Ding [NSTec; Beller, Denis [UNLV; Cutler, Matthew [UNLV; Contreras, Chris [UNLV; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy [NSTec; Wilde, Scott UNLV

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-ray energy spectra were acquired for different sizes of cerium tribromide (CeBr3), cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), and thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI:Tl) detectors. A comparison was conducted of the energy resolution and detection efficiency of these scintillator detectors for different sizes of detectors. The results of this study are consistent with the observation that for each size detector, LaBr3:Ce offers better resolution than either a CeBr3 or NaI:Tl detector of the same size. In addition, CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce detectors could resolve some closely spaced peaks in the spectra of several radioisotopes that NaI:Tl could not. As the detector size increased, all three detector materials exhibited higher efficiency, albeit with slightly reduced resolution. Significantly, the very low intrinsic activity of CeBr3 is also demonstrated in this study, which, when combined with energy resolution characteristics for a range of detector sizes, could lead to an improved ability to detect special nuclear materials compared to the other detectors.

  8. Rapid and direct analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in urine by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Rossella; Bortolotti, Federica; Trettene, Maristella; De Paoli, Giorgia; Tagliaro, Franco

    2004-10-01

    The present work was aimed at the development of a capillary electrophoretic analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) using electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry to achieve the direct and unequivocal detection of this analyte in human urine. Optimized capillary electrophoretic conditions were: injection, 20 s at 0.5 psi (1 psi = 6894.76 Pa); buffer electrolyte, 12.5 mM ammonium formate adjusted to pH 8.35 with diethylamine; fused silicacapillary: 100 cm x 50 microm i.d.; separation voltage, 25 kV (forward polarity) + 0.5 psi; room temperature. Electrospray and mass spectrometric conditions were: drying gas and nebulizing gas (nitrogen) at flow rate 3 l/min, temperature 250 degrees C, nebulizer pressure: 10 psi; sheath liquid solution: methanol-water (90:10) containing 0.1% ammonia delivered at 3 microl/min; spray voltage 3.5 kV. Mass spetrometric detection was carried out in the selected ion monitoring mode of negative molecular ions at 103 m/z for GHB and 115 m/z for maleic acid (I.S.). Under these conditions the baseline separation of GHB and the I.S. was obtained. The selectivity of the analysis allowed for direct injection of unextracted urine, previously diluted 1:4 with water. Linearity was assessed in the GHB concentration range from 80 to 1280 microg/ml in urine. Analytical sensitivity (as limit of detection) resulted about 5 microg/ml in water and 20 microg/ml in original urine. Analytical precision was fairly acceptable with R.S.D. values lower than 5% for migration times and 18% for quantitation in real samples, in both intra day and day-to-day experiments. On these grounds, the developed method can be adopted for rapid identification of acute intoxications from GHB in humans. PMID:15532575

  9. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W

    2012-10-15

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. PMID:22947616

  10. Mass spectrometry of priority pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Hines, H.B.; Missler, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This book presents information on the following subjects: anintroduction to gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; review of available methods for comparing spectra; selective ion monitoring; problems associated with the analysis of volatile samples and problems of data processing; use of mass spectrometry in environmental science, cosmo-chemistry, geochemistry, and the pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries; and modern mass spectrometers.

  11. Natural gamma-ray spectrometry, lithofacies, and depositional environments of selected upper Cretaceous marine mudrocks, western United States, including tropic shale and tununk member of Mancos shale

    SciTech Connect

    Zelt, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    In-situ measurements of gamma-ray spectra provide estimates of the potassium, thorium, the pre-weathering uranium contents of outcropping marine mudrocks. Th/U is a sensitive indicator of the oxidation potential of paleoenvironments of deposition of Phanerozoic epi- and pericontinental marine deposits. High (>10 x 10/sup -4/) ratios of uranium or organic carbon occur in phosphatic and cherty mudrocks; low (<1.5 x 10/sup -4/) ratios occur in nonmarine mudrocks and in epicontinental marine strata that were deposited during unusual paleo-oceanographic conditions, which sometimes accompanied global extinction events. Spectrometric data compliment sedimentologic data in defining five lithologic/geochemical facies in marine mudrocks of the Cenomanian-Turonian Greenhorn marine cycle. The rock units that were studied in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah are the Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Garlile Shale, Mancos Shale, and Tropic Shale. Results of analyses of the different rock units are used to explain various geological structures of the area under investigation. Outcrops and geophysical well logs combine to indicate the distribution of lithologic/geochemical focus of marine mudrocks.

  12. HOTSPUR: gamma ray emission from spheres pulsed with D-T neutrons. I. Calibration of improved NE213 detector assembly. II. Comparison of TART/SANDYL electron recoil spectra to experiment; preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, E.; Hansen, L.F.; Komoto, T.T.; Pohl, B.A.

    1986-09-01

    The NE213 scintillator detector was modified so that the pulse height would be linear with electron energy over the full range of interest - up to 7.1 MeV. Absolute calibration was done with four different calibrated gamma sources. An average correction factor is obtained which normalizes SANDYL calculations with respect to the calibration experiments. The procedure for calculating neutron-induced gamma-ray output and electron recoil spectra is described, and experimental data from a number of spherical assemblies are given and compared to TART/SANDYL calculations. (LEW)

  13. Multi-group approximation, scattering and calibration coefficients, uncertainty estimates and detection limits of a NaI(Tl)-based gamma spectrometry set-up for low-level activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Owono, Ateba P

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a quantitative radioactivity analysis method especially suitable for environmental samples with low-level activity. The method, consisting of a multi-group approximation based on total absorption and Compton spectra of gamma rays, is coherently formalized and a computer algorithm thereof designed to analyze low-level activity NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectra of environmental samples. Milk powder from 1988 was used as the example case. Included is a special analysis on the uncertainty estimation. Gamma sensitiveness is defined and numerically evaluated. The results reproduced the calibration data well, attesting to the reliability of the method. The special analysis shows that the uncertainty of the assessed activity is tied to that of the calibration activity data. More than 77% of measured 1461-keV photons of (40)K were counted in the range of clearly lower energies. Pile-up of single line photons ((137)Cs) looks negligible compared to that of a two-line cascade ((134)Cs). The detection limit varies with radionuclide and spectrum region and is related to the gamma sensitiveness of the detection system. The best detection limit always lies in a spectrum region holding a line of the radionuclide and the highest sensitiveness. The most radioactive milk powder sample showed a activity concentration of 21+/-1 Bq g(-1)for (137)Cs, 323+/-13 Bq g(-1) for (40)K and no (134)Cs. PMID:20471729

  14. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of components of pyridine temperature-programmed desorption spectra from surface of copper-supported catalysts.

    PubMed

    Pribylov, Lenka; Dvork, Bohumr

    2009-05-01

    The method of pyridine temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) was applied for the measurement of acid properties of in situ reduced copper catalysts on silicate support. A thermal-conductivity detector (TCD) was used for the detection of TPD spectra of pyridine. The combination of flame-ionization detector and thermal conductivity detector shows that the region of TPD spectrum with the peak maxima T(MAX1)=350 degrees C is a superposition of the TCD response on spectra of desorbed pyridine, water and carbon dioxide, desorbing simultaneously from the catalyst surface. The method for the elimination of H(2)O and CO(2) on the layer of NaOH was tested and the pure TPD spectrum of pyridine was obtained. The exact determination of pyridine concentration allows to estimate the amount of weak and medium acid centers of the catalyst. The gas chromatography with the mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses was used for the interpretation of high temperature region of the pyridine TPD spectra (T(MAX2)=620 degrees C). It was found that pyridine bonded on the strong acid centers is decomposed to N(2) and CO under very high temperature. The available chromatographic method for the separation of components present in pyridine TPD spectrum in the high-temperature region was suggested. The method for the quantification of strong acidity of copper-supported catalyst was found. PMID:19303075

  15. Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F? reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F? with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F? reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 ?m. In pure NF3, F? is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F? is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF? (n = 1?3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M ? 1)? ion was observed in the F? chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)? ions upon reaction with F?. A weaker (M + F)? ion was also detected in the F? chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F? chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO?, X?, CN?, NO2?, and OR?, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M ? 1)? ion (except formates). In the F? chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)? ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F? ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several experimental parameters, including source pressure, relative proportions of the reagent and analyte, and other ion source parameters, on the observed chemical ionization mass spectra were also investigated. In a mixture of NF3 and n-butanol, for example, the ratio of the intensities of the ions characteristic of the alcohol to that of the (HF)nF? ion was found to decrease with increasing sample pressure, with increasing NF3 pressure, and with increasing electron energy. No significant effects on the spectra were observed to result from variation of the source repeller field or the source temperature. The addition of argon to the source as a potential moderator did not alter the F? chemical ionization spectrum significantly, but the use of oxygen appears to inhibit formation of the (HF)nF? cluster ion. The advantages of using F? as a chemical ionization reagent are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reagent ions. PMID:7428746

  16. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Extracting Spectra of N-Glycans Directly from Incubation Mixtures Following Glycan Release: Application to Glycans from Engineered Glycoforms of Intact, Folded HIV gp120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David J.; Sobott, Frank; Crispin, Max; Wrobel, Antoni; Bonomelli, Camille; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Scarff, Charlotte A.; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H.

    2011-03-01

    The analysis of glycosylation from native biological sources is often frustrated by the low abundances of available material. Here, ion mobility combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry have been used to extract the spectra of N-glycans released with PNGase F from a serial titration of recombinantly expressed envelope glycoprotein, gp120, from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Analysis was also performed on gp120 expressed in the ?-mannosidase inhibitor, and in a matched mammalian cell line deficient in GlcNAc transferase I. Without ion mobility separation, ESI spectra frequently contained no observable ions from the glycans whereas ions from other compounds such as detergents and residual buffer salts were abundant. After ion mobility separation on a Waters T-wave ion mobility mass spectrometer, the N-glycans fell into a unique region of the ion mobility/ m/z plot allowing their profiles to be extracted with good signal:noise ratios. This method allowed N-glycan profiles to be extracted from crude incubation mixtures with no clean-up even in the presence of surfactants such as NP40. Furthermore, this technique allowed clear profiles to be obtained from sub-microgram amounts of glycoprotein. Glycan profiles were similar to those generated by MALDI-TOF MS although they were more susceptible to double charging and fragmentation. Structural analysis could be accomplished by MS/MS experiments in either positive or negative ion mode but negative ion mode gave the most informative spectra and provided a reliable approach to the analysis of glycans from small amounts of glycoprotein.

  17. Radiation metabolomics. 3. Biomarker discovery in the urine of gamma-irradiated rats using a simplified metabolomics protocol of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with random forests machine learning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Patterson, Andrew D; Slavk, Josef; Krausz, Kristopher W; Ledermann, Monika; Gonzalez, Frank J; Idle, Jeffrey R

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Radiation metabolomics employing mass spectral technologies represents a plausible means of high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry. A simplified metabolomics protocol is described that employs ubiquitous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and open source software including random forests machine learning algorithm to uncover latent biomarkers of 3 Gy gamma radiation in rats. Urine was collected from six male Wistar rats and six sham-irradiated controls for 7 days, 4 prior to irradiation and 3 after irradiation. Water and food consumption, urine volume, body weight, and sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, phosphate and urea excretion showed major effects from exposure to gamma radiation. The metabolomics protocol uncovered several urinary metabolites that were significantly up-regulated (glyoxylate, threonate, thymine, uracil, p-cresol) and down-regulated (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelaate) as a result of radiation exposure. Thymine and uracil were shown to derive largely from thymidine and 2'-deoxyuridine, which are known radiation biomarkers in the mouse. The radiation metabolomic phenotype in rats appeared to derive from oxidative stress and effects on kidney function. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a promising platform on which to develop the field of radiation metabolomics further and to assist in the design of instrumentation for use in detecting biological consequences of environmental radiation release. PMID:19630524

  18. Effects of Fe as a physical filter on spectra of Technitium- 99m, uniformity, system volume sensitivity and spatial resolution of Philip ADAC Forte dual-head gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohaimi, N.; Abdullah, N.; Shah, S. I.; Zakaria, A.

    2014-11-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging inherits some limitations, i.e., due to scattered gamma photons which degrade spatial resolution causes poor image quality. This study attempts to reduce a fraction of scattered gamma photons before reaching gamma camera detector by using Fe sheet (0.35 mm and 0.40 mm) as a physical filter. Also investigate the effects on spectra of Tc-99m, spatial resolution, system volume sensitivity and uniformity. The thickness of Fe physical filter is selected on the basis of percentage attenuation calculations of different gamma ray energies by various thicknesses of material. Data were acquired using Philip ADAC forte dual-head gamma camera without and with physical filter with LEHR collimator installed. For spectra, uniformity and system volume sensitivity, a cylindrical source tank filled with water added with Tc-99m was scanned. Uniformity and system volume sensitivity images were reconstructed with FBP method by applying Butterworth filter of order 5, cut-off frequency 0.35 cycles/cm and Chang's attenuation correction method using 0.13 cm?1 linear attenuation coefficient. Spatial resolution study was done by scanning a line source (0.8 mm inner diameter) of Tc-99m at various source-to-collimator distances in air and in scattering medium without and with physical filter. A substantial reduction in count rate from Compton and photopeak regions of Tc-99m spectra with physical filter is recorded. Improvement in spatial resolution with physical filter up to 4 cm source-to-collimator distance is obtained. System volume sensitivity was reduced and no improvement in uniformity. These thicknesses of physical filter may be tested further by scanning different planar/SPECT phantoms in Tc-99m imaging.

  19. ANNEX 52 Monte Carlo model of a gamma spectrometry system for in situ assessment of induced activity at fusion reactor components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tzika; I. E. Stamatelatos

    In this work, a preliminary design of a gamma spectrometer system for in situ radioactivity assay of induced activity at components of a future fusion power plant is presented. The system incorporates a HPGe detector, gamma ray shielding and an adjustable collimator. Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to predict the system response for assaying a wall composed of activated

  20. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Hthelyi, E; Ttnyi, P; Dabi, E; Dnos, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  1. Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance Sebastian B¨ocker1, Hans-Michael Kaltenbach2 1 Research, Universit¨at Bielefeld B¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics Protein

  2. Low-level measurement of the cosmogenic 22 Na radionuclide in fresh water by ultra low-background gamma-ray spectrometry after simple radiochemical separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sakaguchi; M. Yamamoto; Y. Ohtsuka; K. Sasaki; K. Yokota; K. Komura

    2003-01-01

    A simple analytical method was developed for the determination of cosmogenic 22Na radionuclide in fresh water samples by ultra low-background g-ray spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The method consists in pre-concentration of 22Na(Na) by a ion exchange resin column from a large volume of ca. 500-liter water samples, elution with 4M HCl from the resin, and removal of the main metal

  3. In-Situ Environmental Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Using an Upward-Looking DipStick Type Ge(Li) Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Sakai; Hiroshi Yoshida; Hiromi Terada; Masaki Katagiri

    1978-01-01

    For in-situ Ge(Li) measurement of environmental gamma-rays, down-looking Ge(Li) detectors are generally used. Similar measurement can be made using ordinary upward-looking dip-stick type Ge(Li) detectors. The detection characteristics of an upward-looking 49cm3 coaxial Ge(Li) detector mounted in a vertical dip-stick type cryostat is described as an in-situ environmental gamma-ray spectrometer. A comparison is made between the results obtained using the

  4. Low-spin states of /sup 250/Cf populated in the electron capture decay of 2. 22-h /sup 250/Es. [ULTIPOLE TRANSITIONS; PARITY; ROTATIONAL STATES; SPIN; VIBRATIONAL STATES; GAMMA SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Sjoblom, R.K.

    1980-09-01

    Low-spin states of /sup 250/Cf have been investigated by measuring ..gamma.. rays and conversion electrons associated with the electron capture decay of 2.22-h /sup 250/Es. Mass-separated /sup 250/Es samples produced by the /sup 249/Cf(d,n) reaction were used for these measurements. The ..gamma..-ray spectra were measured with a 25-cm/sup 3/ coaxial Ge(Li) spectrometer and the electron spectra were measured with a cooled Si(Li) detector. Multipolarities of intense transitions in /sup 250/Cf were deduced and logft values of electron capture transitions were derived from measured electron capture intensities. On the basis of the results of the present investigation the following bandheads were identified in /sup 250/Cf: E (keV),K,I..pi..=871.6, 2,2-; 1031.9, 2,2+; 1154.2, 0,0+; 1175.5, 1,1-; 1210.0, 2,2-; 1244.4, 2,2+; 1266.5, 0,0+; and 1658.1, 2,2+. The 2.22-h state in /sup 250/Es has been given a spin-parity assignment of 1- with configuration )n(734)9/2-; p(633)7/2+)/sub 1//sub -/.

  5. Neutron capture cross section and capture gamma-ray spectra of 138Ba in the keV-neutron energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katabuchi, T.; Yanagida, S.; Terada, K.; Iwamoto, N.; Igashira, M.

    2015-05-01

    The neutron capture cross sections and the capture ?-ray spectra of 138Ba were measured in the astrophysically important energy region. Measurements were made at neutron energies from 15 to 80 keV. The neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method. The ?-ray spectra showed that the primary transition pattern strongly depended on the incident neutron energy. The neutron capture cross sections were derived by the pulse height weighting technique. The present cross section values were compared with evaluated cross section data and previous measurements.

  6. A search for narrow states in the inclusive gamma ray spectra resulting from antiproton annihilations at rest in liquid hydrogen and deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; Fero, M.; Gee, M. [and others

    1991-08-01

    The energy spectrum of gamma rays produced in proton-antiproton annihilation at rest in hydrogen and deuterium has been measured with good energy resolution and high statistics. The data were taken using the PS183 magnetic pair spectrometer at LEAR (CERN). A detailed search of the gamma spectrum yielded no evidence of gamma transitions to narrow states with widths consistent with the spectrometer resolution. In hydrogen, upper limits (95% CL) are obtained for the yield of narrow states of 2--5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for states below 1,700 MeV/c{sup 2}, and 5--10 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for states between 1,700 and 1,800 MeV/c{sup 2}. In deuterium, the corresponding upper limits are, 1--7 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} for masses between 700 and 1,730 MeV/c{sup 2}, and 1--2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} for masses between 1,750 and 1,835 MeV/c{sup 2}. These results contradict reports of the observation of narrow lines made by previous experiments. Valid pacs appear here.

  7. Potential of natural gamma-ray spectrometry for mapping and environmental monitoring of black-sand beach deposits on the northern coast of Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aboelkhair, Hatem; Zaaeimah, Mostafa

    2013-04-01

    The concentrations and distributions of naturally occurring radioactive materials were studied with the aim of detecting and mapping radioactive anomalies as well as monitoring the environment for black-sand beach deposits in Northern Sinai, Egypt. For this purpose, ground gamma-ray spectrometric surveys were conducted using a portable GS-512 spectrometer, with an NaI (Tl) detector, on an area 77.5 km(2) in surface area located between the cities of Rafah and Elareish on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The results revealed that the black-sand beach deposits could be differentiated according to their total-count (TC) radioactivity into five normally distributed interpreted radiometric lithologic (IRL) units denoted by U1, U2, U3, U4 and U5. The computed characteristic TC radiometric statistics of these five IRL units range from 4.67 to 9.96 Ur for their individual arithmetic means. The computed arithmetic means for the three radioelements K, eU and eTh reach 0.46 %, 2.25 and 6.17 ppm, respectively for the whole study area. Monitoring the environmental effects of radioelement concentrations on the study area showed that the mean natural equivalent radiation dose rate from the terrestrial gamma-radiation of the whole area attains 0.33 mSv y(-1). This average value remains on the safe side and within the maximum permissible safe radiation dose (<1.0 mSv y(-1)) without harm to the individual, except at three scattered points reaching more than these values. Some of the local inhabitants in the region sometimes use black sands as a building material. Consequently, they are not recommended for use as building materials, because the inhabitants will, then, receive a relatively high radioactive dose generated mainly by monazite and zircon minerals, two of the main constituents of black sands. PMID:22869819

  8. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biofluids using a one-step procedure with "in-vial" derivatization and headspace-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ingels, Ann-Sofie M E; Neels, Hugo; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2013-06-28

    A headspace-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap GC-MS) method was developed to determine GHB, a low molecular weight compound and drug of abuse, in various biological fluids. Combining this relatively novel and fully automated headspace technique with "in-vial" methylation of GHB allowed for a straightforward approach. One single method could be used for all biofluids (urine, plasma, serum, whole blood or lyzed blood), requiring only 100?l of sample. Moreover, our approach involves mere addition of all reagents and sample into one vial. Following optimization of headspace conditions and trap settings, validation was performed. Although sample preparation only consists of the addition of salt and derivatization reagents directly to a 100?l-sample in a HS-vial, adequate method sensitivity and selectivity was obtained. Calibration curves ranged from 5 to 150?g/ml GHB for urine, from 2 to 150?g/ml for plasma, and from 3.5 to 200?g/ml for whole blood. Acceptable precision and accuracy (<13% bias and imprecision) were seen for all quality controls (QC's) (LLOQ-level, low, medium, high), including for the supplementary serum- and lyzed blood-based QC's, using calibration curves prepared in plasma or whole blood, respectively. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated assay reproducibility, while cross-validation with another GC-MS method demonstrated that our method is a valuable alternative for GHB determination in toxicological samples, with the advantage of requiring only 100?l and minimal hands-on time, as sample preparation is easy and injection automated. PMID:23664352

  9. Small Scale Assessment of Spatial and Vertical Redistribution of Fukushima Fallouts Radiocaesium in Contaminated Soil Using in-situ HPGe Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patin, J.; Onda, Y.; Yoda, H.; Kato, H.

    2011-12-01

    After Tohoku earthquake on March 11th 2011, the subsequent tsunami and the resulting Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster, gamma emitting particles, first release into the atmosphere, were quickly deposited on the soil surface, with potentially harmful level in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant. Thus, the evaluation of soil deposition pattern, depth migration and afterward radionuclides redistribution and export by erosion and hydrological processes is fundamental for contamination assessments and to plan future actions. Our study site is located 37km from Fukushima power plant, inside the evacuated zone. In this study, we used a bounded erosion plot of 22.1m x 5m to assess global export of sediments and 137Cs. This plot, previously cropped with tobacco, is morphologically divided into inter-rill areas separated by rills that formed into former wheel tracks. The bottom of the plot is subject to deposition of sediments. In order to determine and quantify the internal processes responsible of the export of sediment, the depth distribution of 137Cs is estimated using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Such a portable device, associated to the high radiation levels, allow an acquisition of spatially distributed data within the plot in a reasonable time (1 min/sample). At the same time, depth distribution of 137Cs are measured using the scrapper plate technique, adapted to obtain a fine resolution in the first, highly contaminated, centimeters of soil. Finally, 137Cs depth profiles, associated with in situ and laboratory gamma spectrums acquired with the portable detector, allow for the detector calibration. Although the initial deposit can reasonably be supposed homogeneous at the plot scale, the dataset obtained 3 months later shows high spatial and temporal variability due to erosion processes. Measurements with the portable HPGe detector proved to be useful at this small scale, avoiding the needs of a large number of soil samples, and our results are promising to understand erosion at larger scale where horizontal patterns of deposition and redistribution are usually supposed homogeneous over quite larger areas.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on electroluminescence spectra from Au\\/amorphous Si\\/SiO 2 superlattices\\/pSi structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y Ma

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous-Si\\/SiO2 superlattices have been grown using the two-target alternation magnetron sputtering technique. The thickness of the SiO2 layers in all the superlattices was 2.0 nm and that of the Si layers in nine types of the superlattice ranged from 0.6 to 3.8 nm in steps of 0.4 nm. Visible electroluminescence (EL) spectra of Au\\/amorphous-Si\\/SiO2 superlattices\\/p-Si structures with Si layers of

  11. Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in surface soils from Jaduguda uranium mineralization zone, Jharkhand, India, using ?-ray spectrometry, and determination of outdoor dose to the population

    PubMed Central

    Maharana, Mandakini; Krishnan, Narayani; Sengupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface soil samples around selected villages of Jaduguda were investigated and compared with the radioactivity level in the region. Concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K were determined by a gamma ray spectrometer using the HPGe detector with 50% relative efficiency, and the radiation dose to the local population was estimated. The average estimated activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the surface soil were 53.8, 44.2 and 464.2 Bq kg?1 respectively. The average absorbed dose rate in the study area was estimated to be 72.5 nGy h-1, where as the annual effective dose to the population was 0.09 mSv y-1. A correlation analysis was made between measured dose rate and individual radionuclides, in order to delineate the contribution of the respective nuclides towards dose rate. The radio-elemental concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium estimated for the soils, in the study area, indicated the enrichment of uranium series nuclide. The results of the present study were subsequently compared with international and national recommended values. PMID:21170189

  12. Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keliher, Peter N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented is a review of selected literature on emission spectrometry published during 1982 and 1983. The review is organized under these headings: books and reviews; spectral descriptions and classifications; instrumentation; standards, samples, nomenclature, calibration, calculations; excitation sources; selected applications; and meetings. (JN)

  13. A preliminary report on the determination of natural radioactivity levels of the State of Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, H.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.; Malain, D.; Santawamaitre, T.; Habib, A.; Matthews, M.; Bukhari, S.; Al-Dosari, M.

    2010-07-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technically enhanced levels of radiation in soil samples collected across the landscape of Qatar. Representative soil samples from various locations across the Qatarian peninsula have been collected and analyzed in order to establish activity concentrations associated with the 235,8U and 232Th natural decay chains and also the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40K. The activity concentrations have been measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the preliminary values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for six soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. Sample 228, which has been collected from an inshore oil-field area, was observed to have the highest observed value of 226Ra concentration among the six samples. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in one particular sample (sample 228) were, respectively, found to be 213.91.4, 4.550.11 and 111.43.6 Bq/kg, which compare with the worldwide weighted mean values in soil samples, 33, 45 and 420 Bq/kg, respectively. The deduced activity concentration of 238U in sample 228 in the current work was found to be significantly higher than the worldwide average value and was also significantly higher than the values determined for the five other initial samples discussed here. The mean values of the activity concentration of the 232Th series, 40K and 137Cs in Bq/kg from the six investigated soil samples were found to be 9.41.3, 20422 and 5.85.6, respectively, with the quoted uncertainty referring to the standard deviation among these measurements.

  14. Mass spectra of copolymers.

    PubMed

    Montaudo, Maurizio S

    2002-01-01

    Recent and older literature (covering the last 12-13 years) in the field of mass spectra of random and block copolymers is reviewed. A detailed description is given of the information on copolymer properties that can be recovered from the analysis of the low-mass region of the spectrum (the region below 500 Da) and the high-mass region. The features of mass spectra of copolymers obtained by different synthetic routes are discussed, such as free radical, condensation, ring-chain equilibration, microbial synthesis, ring-opening, simple anionic, cationic, Ziegler-Natta, and/or metallocene catalysis, along with some random and block copolymers that occur in Nature. The emphasis is on copolymer composition and average molar mass determination, and on the benefits of coupling mass spectrometry (MS) with separation techniques such as size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:12373747

  15. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Fourier transform electrospray ion mobility spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Hong Chen; William F. Siems; Herbert H. Hill

    1996-01-01

    The analytical merit of Fourier transform electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (FT-ESI-IMS) was investigated. When compared with signal-averaged electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (SA-ESI-IMS) an increase in both signal\\/noise ratio (SN) and ion mobility resolving power was observed for the FT mode of operation. Using angiotensin II, glucosamine, n-tetradecylamine and gramicidin s as test compounds, electrospray ion mobility spectra were

  17. Broadband Analysis of Bioagents by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenselau, Catherine; Wynne, Colin; Edwards, Nathan

    Mass spectrometry was first reported to provide analysis of intact metabolite biomarkers from whole cells in 1975.1 Since then advances in ionization techniques have extended our capabilities to polar lipids and, eventually, to proteins.2, 3 Mass spectrometry provides a broadband detection system, which, however, has great specificity. Bioinformatics plays an important role in providing flexible and rapid characterization of species, based on protein and peptide mass spectra collected in the field.

  18. Modifications induced by gamma irradiation to Makrofol polymer nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Tayel, A; Zaki, M F; El Basaty, A B; Hegazy, Tarek M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was extended from obtaining information about the interaction of gamma rays with Makrofol DE 7-2 track detector to introduce the basis that can be used in concerning simple sensor for gamma irradiation and bio-engineering applications. Makrofol polymer samples were irradiated with 1.25MeV (60)Co gamma radiations at doses ranging from 20 to 1000kGy. The modifications of irradiated samples so induced were analyzed using UV-vis spectrometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and the measurements of Vickers' hardness. Moreover, the change in wettability of irradiated Makrofol was investigated by the contact angle determination of the distilled water. UV-vis spectroscopy shows a noticeable decrease in the energy band gap due to gamma irradiation. This decrease could be attributed to the appearance of a shift to UV spectra toward higher wavelength region after irradiation. Photoluminescence spectra reveal a remarkable change in the integrated photoluminescence intensity with increasing gamma doses, which may be resulted from some matrix disorder through the creation of some defected states in the irradiated polymer. The hardness was found to increase from 4.78MPa for the unirradiated sample to 23.67MPa for the highest gamma dose. The contact angle investigations show that the wettability of the modified samples increases with increasing the gamma doses. The result obtained from present investigation furnishes evidence that the gamma irradiations are a successful technique to modify the Makrofol DE 7-2 polymer properties to use it in suitable applications. PMID:25750755

  19. Laser probe mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Joseph E.

    1991-04-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT/MSR) has been recognized as a powerful analytical technique for the determination of elemental compositions and the molecular structure of materials. The simultaneous measurement of all species, produced in a single event, in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer provides a natural combination with pulsed lasers, where the pulsed laser is used to ablate and ionize a portion of a sample. This unique combination of lasers with FTMS provides elemental and molecular information from inorganic and organic materials and from surface layers and from bulk materials. Microanalysis of materials, allowing spatially-resolved high-resolution mass spectra to be obtained, is possible with small laser spot sizes and optical systems for viewing samples inside the mass spectrometer. The advantages of FTMS are reviewed, and several examples of laser probe FTMS are illustrated to demonstrate applications of the technique to industrial problem solving.

  20. Recent developments in radiometric and mass spectrometry methods for marine radioactivity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Povinec; J. J. La Rosa; S. H. Lee; S. Mulsow; I. Osvath; E. Wyse

    2001-01-01

    The most important recent developments in radiometric techniques have been the operation of high efficiency HPGe detectors with anticosmic or antiCompton shielding often placed underground, ship-board measurements of 234Th using gamma-spectrometry or beta-counting and underwater gamma-spectrometry. In mass spectrometry techniques, the availability of high resolution ICP-MS and applications of AMS for the analysis of long-lived radionuclides have opened doors for

  1. EPR study of free radicals in non- and gamma-irradiated nutritive supplements containing anthocyanins concentrate from lyophilized red wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenova, Ralitsa B.; Firzov, Cyril; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2010-09-01

    Nutritive supplements Enoviton, Enoviton C and Enoviton CE containing standardized anthocyanins from lyophilized red wine, vitamins (some of them) and excipients were investigated by EPR spectrometry before and after gamma-irradiation. Non-irradiated samples exhibit one singlet line with g=2.00390.0002, most probably due to free radicals from anthocyanins. After irradiation with 10 kGy gamma-rays, tablets of ?noviton, ?noviton ? and ?noviton ??, all exhibit complex EPR signals centered at a g-value of g=2.0034. The EPR spectrum of irradiated Enoviton is different from that of ?noviton ? or ?noviton ?? due to the overlap of the spectra of microcrystalline cellulose and the background singlet spectrum present in all tablets with the EPR resonance due to irradiated ascorbic acid (in ?noviton ? and ?noviton ??). Gamma-induced free radicals exhibit long time stabilityfor a six months period the intensity of central peak decrease with 30-40%.

  2. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  3. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheymits, Maxim; Leonov, Alexey

    The measurements of gamma-ray fluxes and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV, which will be realized by the specially designed GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope, concern with the following broad range of science topics. Search for signatures of dark matter, surveying the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measuring the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, study of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. To clarify these scientific problems with the new experimental data the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics comparing with previous and present experiments. For gamma-ray energies more than 100 GeV GAMMA-400 provides the energy resolution nearby 1% and angular resolution better than 0.02 deg. The methods, developed to reconstruct the direction of incident gamma photon, are presented in this paper. The main point concerns with the space topology of high energy gamma photon interaction in the matter of GAMMA-400. Multiple secondary particles, generated inside gamma-ray telescope, produce significant problems to restore the direction of initial gamma photon. Also back-splash particles, i.e., charged particles and gamma photons generated in calorimeter and moved upward, mask the initial tracks of electron/positron pair from conversion of incident gamma photon. The processed methods allow us to reconstruct the direction of electromagnetic shower axis and extract the electron/positron trace. As a result, the direction of incident gamma photon with the energy of 100 GeV is calculated with an accuracy of more than 0.02 deg.

  4. Expression of recombinant bovine gamma B-, gamma C- and gamma D-crystallins and correlation with native proteins.

    PubMed

    Hay, R E; Andley, U P; Petrash, J M

    1994-05-01

    Despite the use of bovine gamma-crystallins in numerous biophysical and chemical studies, characterization of these proteins at the molecular level is incomplete. Bovine lenses have at least six gamma-crystallin protein fractions currently assigned as gamma s/I, gamma A/IVb, gamma B/II, gamma C/IIIb, gamma D/IIIa and gamma E/IVa. A lack of primary sequence data for corresponding gamma-crystallin genes and proteins, however, has made these assignments tenuous. To clarify these assignments, we have over-expressed recombinant bovine gamma-crystallin proteins in Escherichia coli using complementary DNAs corresponding to gamma B-, gamma C-, and gamma D-crystallin genes. The recombinant crystallins were characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic comparisons with native bovine crystallin fractions gamma II, gamma IIIa and gamma IIIb. The elution of recombinant gamma B and native gamma II proteins was identical on cation-exchange chromatography as expected; however, recombinant gamma C coeluted with gamma IIIa and recombinant gamma D co-eluted with gamma IIIb. Sequential Edman degradation through the first 29 residues of the native gamma IIIa and gamma IIIb polypeptides confirmed the colinearity of their sequences with those predicted from the gamma C- and gamma D-crystallin genes, respectively. Absorption and UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the recombinant proteins were almost identical to those of their native counterparts, indicating that the secondary and tertiary structures of the recombinant proteins were characteristic for gamma-crystallins. Based on these data the bovine gamma-crystallins proteins and genes are correlated as follows: II/gamma B, IIIa/gamma C and IIIb/gamma D. The assignment of gamma IIIb (previously characterized as having a low critical temperature for phase separation) with gamma D rather than gamma C proves an exception to the hypothesis that the gamma ABC-crystallin group is more resistant to phase separation than the gamma DEF group. These corrected assignments should provide a more substantial base for investigations of residues responsible for phase separation and other biophysical characteristics. Additionally, expression of recombinant gamma-crystallins with structures similar to native proteins may prove to be useful in probing specific structure-function relationships of the gamma-crystallins. PMID:7925695

  5. Atomic Spectra

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nave, Carl R.

    This page from Hyperphysics contains images depicting the light emitted by several elements and their respective spectra. The page also provides a description of how the size of a holographic image scales with the wavelength of the light used to observe it.

  6. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  7. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L. (editor); Ramaty, R. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

  8. Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Scott; Thakur, Rohan A.

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is unique among the various spectroscopy techniques in both theory and instrumentation. As you may recall, spectroscopy involves the interaction of electromagnetic radiation or some form of energy with molecules. The molecules absorb the radiation and produce a spectrum either during the absorption process or as the excited molecules return to the ground state. MS works by placing a charge on a molecule, thereby converting it to an ion in a process called ionization. The generated ions are then resolved according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) by subjecting them to electrostatic fields (mass analyzer) and finally detected. An additional stage of ion fragmentation may be included before detection to elicit structural information in a technique known as tandem MS. The result of ion generation, separation, fragmentation, and detection is manifested as a mass spectrum that can be interpreted to yield molecular weight or structural information. The uniqueness of this process allows the method to be used for both detection and identification of an unknown compound.

  9. Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflieger, D.; Forest, E.; Vinh, J.

    For twenty years or so now, mass spectrometry has been used to get exact measurements of the mass of biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids,oligosaccharides, and so on. Over the past ten years, this technology has followed the trend toward miniaturisation and the samples required can be much smaller. In particular, the nanoelectrospray source (online or by needle) allow one to work at flow rates of a few tens of nanolitres/min. There are many applications, both in the field of proteomics and in the analysis of protein structure, dynamics, and interactions. Combining this source with nanoHPLC, complex mixtures only available in small quantities can be separated and analysed online. There are also some advantages over conventional HPLC, despite a set of constraints related to the small dimensions and low flow rates. Combining capillary electrophoresis with the electrospray source also gives useful results, with its own set of advantages and constraints. Finally, developments are currently underway to combine this source with chips, providing a means of separation and analysis online.

  10. NEGATIVE-ION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF SULFONYLUREA HERBICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfonylurea herbicides have been studied using neg-ion desorption chem.-ionization (DCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and DCI-MS/MS techniques. Both {M-H]- and M.- ions were obsd. in the DCI mass spectra. The collisonally activated dissocn. (CAD) spectra were characteristic of the str...

  11. Electronic absorption spectra dibenzotetraazaannulenes: Effect of periphery substituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Snopok; Ya D. Lampeka

    1992-01-01

    We resolved the electronic absorption spectra of three tetraazaannulenes of different symmetry measured in solution at 298 and 77 K. The results obtained allow us to assign the bands observed in the visible region to n yields gamma(sup *) transitions and to vibronic components of two gamma yields gamma(sup *) transitions. The efficiency of vibronic interaction is shown to depend

  12. SAMPI: Protein Identification with Mass Spectra Alignments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-michael Kaltenbach; Andreas Wilke; Sebastian Bcker

    2007-01-01

    Background: Mass spectrometry based peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) offer a fast, efficient, and robust method for protein identification. A protein is digested (usually by trypsin) and its mass spectrum is compared to simulated spectra for protein sequences in a database. However, existing tools for analyzing PMFs often suffer from missing or heuristic analysis of the significance of search results and

  13. Radio, millimeter-submillimeter, and infrared spectra of flat-spectrum extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Steven D.; Marscher, Alan P.; Gear, Walter K.; Terasranta, Harri; Valtaoja, Esko; Aller, Hugh D.; Aller, Margo F.

    1994-01-01

    We present radio to submillimeter-wave continuum spectra of 44 bright, compact extragalactic radio sources with flat spectra at centimeter wavelengths ('blazars'). Infrared J, H, and K flux densities are added to the spectra of six of these objects. These spectra are useful in comparisons of x-ray and gamma-ray measurements with the multiwaveband properties of blazars. A number of the objects have been detected as strong, hard gamma-ray sources by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The millimeter-wave spectra of the gamma-ray bright blazars we observe are flatter on average than for the sample as a whole.

  14. Infrared spectra of olivine polymorphs - Alpha, beta phase and spinel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.

    1980-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of several olivines (alpha phase) and their corresponding beta phase (modified spinel) and spinel (gamma) high-pressure polymorphs are determined. Spectra were measured for ground and pressed samples of alpha and gamma A2SiO4, where A = Fe, Ni, Co; alpha and gamma Mg2GeO4; alpha Mg2SiO4; and beta Co2SiO4. The spectra are interpreted in terms of internal, tetrahedral and octagonal, and lattice vibration modes, and the spinel results are used to predict the spectrum of gamma Mg2SiO4. Analysis of spectra obtained from samples of gamma Mg2GeO4 heated to 730 and 1000 C provides evidence that partial inversion could occur in silicate spinels at elevated temperatures and pressures.

  15. The GAMMA-400 Space Mission

    E-print Network

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission which will be installed on board the Russian space platform Navigator. It is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of the next decade. GAMMA-400 is designed to study simultaneously gamma rays (up to 3 TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons and positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, nuclei up to 10$^{15}$-10$^{16}$ eV). Being a dual-purpose mission, GAMMA-400 will be able to address some of the most impelling science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, cosmic-rays origin and propagation, and the nature of transients. GAMMA-400 will try to solve the unanswered questions on these topics by high-precision measurements of the Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission and the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons + positrons and nuclei, thanks to excellent energy and angular resolutions.

  16. k e h k k e h k k e h k \\Gamma4 2 \\Gamma6 \\Gamma6 \\Gamma2 \\Gamma9 \\Gamma8 9 \\Delta 2 \\Gamma14

    E-print Network

    Sweldens, Wim

    \\Delta 2 \\Gamma14 \\Gamma3 0 \\Gamma5 0 \\Gamma7 0 \\Gamma2 \\Gamma2 \\Gamma3 \\Gamma4 9 \\Delta 2 \\Gamma8 \\Gamma6 \\Gamma35 \\Delta 2 \\Gamma12 \\Gamma1 2 \\Gamma2 \\Gamma3 \\Gamma2 \\Gamma5 \\Gamma5 9 \\Delta 2 \\Gamma10 0 23 \\Delta 2 \\Gamma5 \\Gamma2 \\Gamma63 \\Delta 2 \\Gamma9 \\Gamma4 189 \\Delta 2 \\Gamma12 1 2 \\Gamma2

  17. Simultaneous determination of Ni-63 and Ni-59 in radioactive wastes by liquid scintillation spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Kim, Esther Miyeun

    1988-01-01

    isotope from the ratio of initial sample activity to sample activity after separation, using liquid scintillation counting for beta emitting isotopes and gamma ray spectrometry for gamma emitting isotopes. Nickel-59 was not available for this study, so...SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF Ni-63 AND Ni-59 IN RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by ESTHER MIYEUN KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgtM University in partial fulfillment...

  18. Gamma Ray Astronomy with Muons

    E-print Network

    F. Halzen; T. Stanev; G. B. Yodh

    1996-08-29

    Although gamma ray showers are muon-poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard gamma ray spectra there is a relative `enhancement' of muons from gamma ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower gamma rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons $N_\\mu$, which is thus proportional to the primary gamma ray energy. With gamma ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the gammas of about 1\\%, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by $10^4$. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal and by gamma ray detectors like MILAGRO. TeV muons from gamma ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy gamma rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal and MILAGRO detectors.

  19. {gamma} ray astronomy with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, F. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanev, T. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Yodh, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Although {gamma} ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard {gamma} ray spectra there is a relative {open_quotes}enhancement{close_quotes} of muons from {gamma} ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower {gamma} rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N{sub {mu}}, which is thus proportional to the primary {gamma} ray energy. With {gamma} ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the {gamma}{close_quote}s of about 1{percent}, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10{sup 4}. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by {gamma} ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from {gamma} ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy {gamma} rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. C NMR Spectra C NMR Spectra

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    S16 1 H and 13 C NMR Spectra (see p S3) Me N-i-Pr #12;S17 1 H and 13 C NMR Spectra (see p S3) Me NBn #12;S18 1 H and 13 C NMR Spectra (see p S4) NBn #12;S19 1 H and 13 C NMR Spectra (see p S4) NBn Me Me Me #12;S20 1 H and 13 C NMR Spectra (see p S4) N-n-Bu Me Me Me #12;S21 1 H and 13 C NMR Spectra

  1. Radiation Metabolomics. 3. Biomarker Discovery in the Urine of Gamma-Irradiated Rats Using a Simplified Metabolomics Protocol of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Combined with Random Forests Machine Learning Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Christian; Patterson, Andrew D.; Slavk, Josef; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Ledermann, Monika; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation metabolomics employing mass spectral technologies represents a plausible means of high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry. A simplified metabolomics protocol is described that employs ubiquitous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and open source software including random forests machine learning algorithm to uncover latent biomarkers of 3 Gy ? radiation in rats. Urine was collected from six male Wistar rats and six sham-irradiated controls for 7 days, 4 prior to irradiation and 3 after irradiation. Water and food consumption, urine volume, body weight, and sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, phosphate and urea excretion showed major effects from exposure to ? radiation. The metabolomics protocol uncovered several urinary metabolites that were significantly up-regulated (glyoxylate, threonate, thymine, uracil, p-cresol) and down-regulated (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelaate) as a result of radiation exposure. Thymine and uracil were shown to derive largely from thymidine and 2?-deoxyuridine, which are known radiation biomarkers in the mouse. The radiation metabolomic phenotype in rats appeared to derive from oxidative stress and effects on kidney function. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a promising platform on which to develop the field of radiation metabolomics further and to assist in the design of instrumentation for use in detecting biological consequences of environmental radiation release. PMID:19630524

  2. An improved in situ method for determining depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland R. Benke; Kimberlee J. Kearfott

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry determines the quantities of radionuclides in some medium with a portable detector. The main limitation of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. This limitation is addressed by developing an improved in situ method for determining the depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in large area sources. This paper implements a

  3. Gamma Rays

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Decay Chains Radioactive Equilibrium Curies Alpha Particles Beta Particles Gamma Rays Other Decay Modes A gamma ray is a packet of ... energy. It often follows the emission of a beta particle. What happens ... an example of radioactive decay by gamma radiation. When a neutron transforms to ...

  4. Erratum: Intergalactic Photon Spectra from the Far IR to the UV Lyman Limit for 0 < z < 6 and the Optical Depth of the Universe to High Energy Gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Malkan, M. A.; Scully, S. T.

    2007-01-01

    Table 1 in our paper had erroneous numbers for the coefficients fitting the parametric form for the optical depth of the universe to gamma-rays; tau. The correct values for these parameters as described in the original text are given in the table for various redshifts for the baseline model (upper row) and fast evolution (lower row) for each individual redshift.

  5. Intergalactic Photon Spectra from the Far-IR to the UV Lyman Limit for 0 < z < 6 and the Optical Depth of the Universe to High-Energy Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Malkan, M. A.; Scully, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0Gamma-rays in intergalactic space owing to interactions with low-energy photons and the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation. We calculate the optical depth of the universe, Tau , for Gamma-rays having energies from 4 GeV to 100 TeV emitted by sources at redshifts from 0 to 5. We also give an analytic fit with numerical coefficients for approximating (E(Gamma), z). As an example of the application of our results, we calculate the absorbed spectrum of the blazar PKS 2155-304 at z=0.117 and compare it with the spectrum observed by the HESS air Cerenkov Gamma-ray telescope array.

  6. Study of laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry using a glow discharge source

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, X. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)]|[Eastern Analytical, Inc., College Park, MD (United States); Hutchinson, J.M.R.; Fassett, J.D.; Lucatorto, T.B.; Schima, F.J.; Bowman, W.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hess, K.R. [Franklin and Marshall Coll., Lancaster, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-09-01

    The mass spectra of a metal alloy sample consisting of Al, Cu and Fe were studied using both glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). Particular emphasis was placed on the reduction of isobaric interferences and discrimination between those ions formed by the discharge and those formed by the laser radiation.

  7. Study of laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry using a glow discharge source

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, X.; Hutchinson, J. M. R.; Fassett, J. D.; Lucatorto, T. B.; Schima, F. J.; Bowman, W. A.; Hess, K. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Eastern Analytical, Inc., 335 Paint Branch Dr., College Park, Maryland (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Department of Chemistry, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The mass spectra of a metal alloy sample consisting of Al, Cu and Fe were studied using both glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). Particular emphasis was placed on the reduction of isobaric interferences and discrimination between those ions formed by the discharge and those formed by the laser radiation.

  8. What is Mass Spectrometry?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chiu, Chia M.

    This site from the American Society for Mass Spectrometry includes information about what mass spectometry is and how it is used. It has many useful figures and references to other materials. The material answers questions such as "What is mass spectrometry and what can it do for you?"

  9. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical

  10. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  11. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations and experiments, using fission-spectrum neutron sources to assess neutron transmission through composite low-Z attenuators.

  12. Gamma ray production in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Stephens, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simple representation of the observed invariant cross section for the production of neutral pions in pp collisions has been obtained. This representation is used to calculate the differential and integral production spectra of gamma rays in galactic space from the interactions of cosmic-ray nuclei with interstellar gas. These spectra are compared with those from existing calculations.

  13. Detection of low levels of plutonium in natural environments from gamma-ray spectra with advanced methods in robust fitting 1 This work is supported in part by the Department of Defense Nuclear Treaty Programs Office through the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command agent for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and performed at the Pinellas Science, Technology, and Research Center under Grant DASG-609-610-007. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P Lasche; R. L Coldwell; J. A Nobel

    1999-01-01

    A newly developed spectral analysis methodology, RobWin, is experimentally tested for its ability to identify plutonium in highly background-dominated gamma-ray spectra. The method, which builds upon nonlinear robust fitting techniques from RobFit spectral analysis software, emphasizes gradually adding structure to the entire spectrum background shape function after accounting for re-optimized combinations of entire-spectrum photopeak response functions from a user-defined set

  14. Novel methods of gamma ray spectroscopy focusing on the determination of the vertical source distribution in a media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Dewey

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents novel techniques for performing gamma ray spectrometry. It presents methods applicable to in situ measurements and laboratory measurements. For in situ gamma ray spectrometry, in order to obtain accurate estimates of the radionuclide activity present at a particular location, the distribution of the source being measured must be determined. Typically, the horizontal distribution can be assumed to

  15. AN EM APPROACH TO MINERAL ANALYSIS USING NATURAL GAMMA RAYS

    E-print Network

    Huynh, Du

    ). The lead serves to shield the detector from terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiation, which would Figure 1 spectra collected with a BGO (Bismuth Germanate) gamma ray detector. This detector collects gamma ray on these data, and using a Poisson model for the data generation, a statistical model is proposed

  16. Investigating the properties of egg white pasteurised by ultra-high hydrostatic pressure and gamma irradiation by evaluating their NIR spectra and chemosensor array sensor signal responses using different methods of qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsolt Seregly; Jzsef Farkas; Eszter Tuboly; Istvn Dalmadi

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing consumer demand for high quality, minimally processed, additive-free and microbiologically safe foods. The future implication of non-thermal food processing techniques, such as ultra-high hydrostatic pressure and gamma irradiation develop rapidly in the food industrial area. Being non-thermal treatments, components involved in the sensory and nutritional quality remain unaffected. In order to gain experience on feasibility

  17. Rapid detection of dihydrocodeine by thermospray mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Yoshida; Atsushi Akane; Yutaka Okii; Sumitaka Yoshimura; Takuma Tokiyasu; Toshimitsu Watabiki

    1998-01-01

    Rapid assay of dihydrocodeine (DHC) by thermospray mass spectrometry is explored. Liquidliquid extractions of blood, urine and gastric contents were injected into a thermospray mass spectrometer, to which there was no column connected, and DHC was assayed by the flow injection method. The mass spectra of DHC under thermospray ionization and filament-on ionization modes consist of the MH+ ion of

  18. Inferring lake water chemistry from filtered seston using NIR spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eigil Dbakk; Mats Nilsson; Paul Geladi; Svante Wold; Ingemar Renberg

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) is a rapid, inexpensive and reagent-free technique, widely used in industry in areas such as quality control and process management. The technique has great potential for environmental monitoring of aqueous systems. This study assesses relationships, using PLS regression, between NIR spectra of seston collected on glass fibre filters and the following measured lake water parameters: total organic

  19. Correlation Time-of-flight Spectrometry of Ultracold Neutrons

    E-print Network

    M. I. Novopoltsev; Yu. N. Pokotilovski

    2010-08-08

    The fearures of the correlation method used in time-of-flight spectrometry of ultracold neutrons are analyzed. The time-of-flight spectrometer for the energy range of ultracold neutrons is described, and results of its testing by measuring spectra of neutrons passing through interference filters are presented.

  20. Automatic Quality Assessment of Peptide Tandem Mass Spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall W. Bern; David Goldberg; W. Hayes Mcdonald; John R. Yates III

    2004-01-01

    Motivation: A powerful proteomics methodology couples high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry and database-search software, such as SEQUEST. Such a set-up, however, produces a large num- ber of spectra, many of which are of too poor quality to be useful. Hence a filter that eliminates poor spectra before the database search can significantly improve throughput and robustness. Moreover,

  1. Measurement of radionuclide activities induced in target components of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 by gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe and LaBr3: Ce detectors.

    PubMed

    Tomarchio, Elio

    2014-08-01

    Cyclotrons are used worldwide to produce radiopharmaceuticals by proton irradiation of a suitable target. The intense secondary neutron beam generated by proton interactions with the target induce high radionuclide activities in the target assembly parts that may result in an exposure to high dose levels of the operators during maintenance. The main goal of this work is to evaluate gamma-emitting radionuclide activities induced in Havar foils and titanium windows of a target assembly and carousel stripper forks of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 cyclotron. The knowledge of radionuclide inventory for each component is required by many companies to assess risk for operators before waste handling and disposal. Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses were carried out with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors. HPGe is the most used detector for its high energy resolution although it is more suitable for use in a laboratory. The use of LaBr3:Ce can be considered a viable option, particularly in realizing a portable spectrometric system to perform "on-site" measurements and a fast dose rate evaluation before the disposal of activated parts. Due to a high activity of target assembly components replaced after a typical irradiation cycle (about 5000 ?Ah integrated beam current), gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed at a large distance from the detector, even more than 100 cm, or by using a purposely realized Lead-walled collimator. The identification of some key-radionuclides allows to evaluate through simple formulations the dose rate behavior for each component as function of decay time from the last irradiation. The knowledge of the dose rate behavior is a significant piece of information to health physicists for waste handling with safety at work. For an Havar foil, the dose rate will be reduced to about 1/1,000 of the starting value after a decay period of approximately 4 y (about 1,500 d), with a relatively safety at product disposal work. For a longer time, only long-lived radionuclides (57)Co, (60)Co, and (54)Mn contribute to dose rate. PMID:24949919

  2. 2010: Status of the GAMMA-400 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, Nikolay; Galper, . M.; Arkhangelskaya, I. V.; Bonvicini, V.; Boezio, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Farber, M. O.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gecha, V. Ya.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Picozza, P.; Prilutskii, O. F.; Runtso, M. F.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.

    An optimized version of the GAMMA-400 telescope for detecting gamma rays, electrons, and positrons in the energy range 0.1-3000 GeV and high-energy nuclei is presented. Its performance (angular resolution 0.05 , energy resolution 3%, e/p rejection factor 106 ) enables to search gamma rays, electrons, and positrons from annihilation or decay of dark matter components, to detect high-energy gamma rays from galactic and extragalactic astrophysical objects, to measure energy spectra of galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, to search and investigate transient phenomena, high-energy (more than 1 GeV) gamma-ray bursts and gamma rays from solar flares, as well as galactic electron, positron, and nuclei fluxes.

  3. Targeted Quantitation of Proteins by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of proteins is one of the most fundamental analytical tasks in a biochemistry laboratory, but widely used immunochemical methods often have limited specificity and high measurement variation. In this review, we discuss applications of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, which allows sensitive, precise quantitative analyses of peptides and the proteins from which they are derived. Systematic development of MRM assays is permitted by databases of peptide mass spectra and sequences, software tools for analysis design and data analysis, and rapid evolution of tandem mass spectrometer technology. Key advantages of MRM assays are the ability to target specific peptide sequences, including variants and modified forms, and the capacity for multiplexing that allows analysis of dozens to hundreds of peptides. Different quantitative standardization methods provide options that balance precision, sensitivity, and assay cost. Targeted protein quantitation by MRM and related mass spectrometry methods can advance biochemistry by transforming approaches to protein measurement. PMID:23517332

  4. Line positions and intensities for the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands of (16)O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Flaud, J.-M.; Canypeyret, C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Using 0.005 cm-resolution Fourier transform spectra of (16)O3, generated by electric discharge from a greater than 99.98 percent pure sample of (16)O3, an extensive analysis of the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and the gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands in the 5.7 micron region was performed. The rotational energy levels of the upper (110) and (011) vibrational states of (16)O3 were reproduced within their experimental uncertainties using a Hamiltonian which takes explicitly into account the Coriolis-type interaction occurring between the rotational energy levels of both states. Improved vibrational energies and rotational and coupling constants were also derived for the (110) and (011) states. Precise transition moment constants for these two bands were deduced from analysis of 220 measured line intensities. Finally, a complete list of line positions, intensities, and lower state energies for both bands has been generated.

  5. Gamma-Ray Burst Lines

    E-print Network

    Michael S. Briggs

    1999-10-20

    The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

  6. A statistical approach to peptide identification from clustered tandem mass spectrometry data

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Soyoung; Goodlett, David R.; Noble, William S.; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry experiments generate from thousands to millions of spectra. These spectra can be used to identify the presence of proteins in biological samples. In this work, we propose a new method to identify peptides, substrings of proteins, based on clustered tandem mass spectrometry data. In contrast to previously proposed approaches, which identify one representative spectrum for each cluster using traditional database searching algorithms, our method uses all available information to score all the spectra in a cluster against candidate peptides using Bayesian model selection. We illustrate the performance of our method by applying it to seven-standard-protein mixture data. PMID:23828149

  7. before and after gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Zubida; Ikram, M.; Majid, Kowsar; Asokan, K.

    2014-09-01

    A series of samples of HoFe1- x Ni x O3 ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3) were prepared using the solid-state reaction technique to understand the structural, dielectric and conductivity properties before and after gamma irradiation of accumulated dose of 625 KGy. The X-ray diffraction confirms that all the samples exist in single-phase orthorhombic structure having space group Pbnm. With increasing dopant Ni, the unit cell volume and lattice parameters undergo small change. X-ray analysis show change in the interplanar spacing and full width at half maximum values after gamma irradiation. The Raman spectra of the samples show modifications after gamma irradiation. It can be easily seen that after gamma irradiation intensity, peak width are completely altered by gamma-absorbed dose. Measurement of dielectric loss and dielectric constant at room temperature was performed before and after gamma irradiation in the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz. It is observed that the value of dielectric constant decreases after irradiation. The ac conductivity is estimated from the dielectric constant and loss tangent. Exposure to gamma radiation results in substantial modification in the physical properties of the Ni-doped Ho-based orthoferrites.

  8. Discrimination of multilocus sequence typing-based Campylobacter jejuni subgroups by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni, the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis, shows a wide genetic diversity. Previously, we demonstrated by the combination of multi locus sequence typing (MLST)-based UPGMA-clustering and analysis of 16 genetic markers that twelve different C. jejuni subgroups can be distinguished. Among these are two prominent subgroups. The first subgroup contains the majority of hyperinvasive strains and is characterized by a dimeric form of the chemotaxis-receptor Tlp7m+c. The second has an extended amino acid metabolism and is characterized by the presence of a periplasmic asparaginase (ansB) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (ggt). Results Phyloproteomic principal component analysis (PCA) hierarchical clustering of MALDI-TOF based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) spectra was able to group particular C. jejuni subgroups of phylogenetic related isolates in distinct clusters. Especially the aforementioned Tlp7m+c+ and ansB+/ ggt+ subgroups could be discriminated by PCA. Overlay of ICMS spectra of all isolates led to the identification of characteristic biomarker ions for these specific C. jejuni subgroups. Thus, mass peak shifts can be used to identify the C. jejuni subgroup with an extended amino acid metabolism. Conclusions Although the PCA hierarchical clustering of ICMS-spectra groups the tested isolates into a different order as compared to MLST-based UPGMA-clustering, the isolates of the indicator-groups form predominantly coherent clusters. These clusters reflect phenotypic aspects better than phylogenetic clustering, indicating that the genes corresponding to the biomarker ions are phylogenetically coupled to the tested marker genes. Thus, PCA clustering could be an additional tool for analyzing the relatedness of bacterial isolates. PMID:24195572

  9. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-22

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques. PMID:26070716

  10. Improving the Similarity Search of Tandem Mass Spectra using Metric Access Methods

    E-print Network

    Skopal, Tomas

    of peptide mass spectra interpretation than the cosine similarity commonly mentioned in mass spectrometryImproving the Similarity Search of Tandem Mass Spectra using Metric Access Methods Jir Novk, Toms Skopal, David Hoksza and Jakub Lokoc SIRET Research Group Department of Software Engineering

  11. An algorithm for baseline correction of MALDI mass spectra Betsy Williams*

    E-print Network

    Bodenheimer, Bobby

    An algorithm for baseline correction of MALDI mass spectra Betsy Williams* Shannon Cornett Anna-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). In imaging MALDI- MS, spatial information and protein expression can be created. However, data from imaging MALDI-MS spectra require considerable signal

  12. Computational mass spectrometry for small molecules

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The identification of small molecules from mass spectrometry (MS) data remains a major challenge in the interpretation of MS data. This review covers the computational aspects of identifying small molecules, from the identification of a compound searching a reference spectral library, to the structural elucidation of unknowns. In detail, we describe the basic principles and pitfalls of searching mass spectral reference libraries. Determining the molecular formula of the compound can serve as a basis for subsequent structural elucidation; consequently, we cover different methods for molecular formula identification, focussing on isotope pattern analysis. We then discuss automated methods to deal with mass spectra of compounds that are not present in spectral libraries, and provide an insight into de novo analysis of fragmentation spectra using fragmentation trees. In addition, this review shortly covers the reconstruction of metabolic networks using MS data. Finally, we list available software for different steps of the analysis pipeline. PMID:23453222

  13. Computational mass spectrometry for small molecules.

    PubMed

    Scheubert, Kerstin; Hufsky, Franziska; Bcker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    : The identification of small molecules from mass spectrometry (MS) data remains a major challenge in the interpretation of MS data. This review covers the computational aspects of identifying small molecules, from the identification of a compound searching a reference spectral library, to the structural elucidation of unknowns. In detail, we describe the basic principles and pitfalls of searching mass spectral reference libraries. Determining the molecular formula of the compound can serve as a basis for subsequent structural elucidation; consequently, we cover different methods for molecular formula identification, focussing on isotope pattern analysis. We then discuss automated methods to deal with mass spectra of compounds that are not present in spectral libraries, and provide an insight into de novo analysis of fragmentation spectra using fragmentation trees. In addition, this review shortly covers the reconstruction of metabolic networks using MS data. Finally, we list available software for different steps of the analysis pipeline. PMID:23453222

  14. Biological particle analysis by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilker, V. L.; Platz, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    An instrument that analyzes the chemical composition of biological particles in aerosol or hydrosol form was developed. Efforts were directed toward the acquisition of mass spectra from aerosols of biomolecules and bacteria. The filament ion source was installed on the particle analysis by mass spectrometry system. Modifications of the vacuum system improved the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. After the modifications were incorporated, detailed mass spectra of simple compounds from the three major classes of biomolecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates were obtained. A method of generating bacterial aerosols was developed. The aerosols generated were collected and examined in the scanning electron microscope to insure that the bacteria delivered to the mass spectrometer were intact and free from debris.

  15. Night Spectra Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Night Spectra Quest, a pocket-sized chart that identifies in color the spectra of all the common night lights and has an integrally mounted, holographic diffraction grating to look through. (JRH)

  16. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  17. A separation of electrons and protons in the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope

    E-print Network

    Leonov, A A; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Cumani, P; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is intended to measure the fluxes of gamma rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV. Such measurements concern with the following scientific goals: search for signatures of dark matter, investigation of gamma-ray point and extended sources, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, studies of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the active Sun, as well as high-precision measurements of spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons, protons, and nuclei up to the knee. The main components of cosmic rays are protons and helium nuclei, whereas the part of lepton component in the total flux is ~10E-3 for high energies. In present paper, the capability of the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope to distinguish electrons and positrons from protons in cosmic rays is investigated. The individual contribution to the proton rejection is studied for each detector system of the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray tel...

  18. The influence of structural features on facile McLafferty-type, even-electron rearrangements in tandem mass spectra of carboxylate anions.

    PubMed

    Grossert, J Stuart; Cook, Matthew C; White, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to the well-described McLafferty rearrangement in odd-electron cations, relatively little has been reported on comparable rearrangements in even-electron ions, especially negative ions. This work reports a systematic study using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragment ion spectra of carboxylate anions having a suitably acidic proton in the gamma position. The rearrangement process was studied in both ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers; characteristic enolate anions and stable neutral products were formed at low collision energies. The process has diagnostic and analytical potential in, for example, the analysis of peptides having C-terminal serine residues and of 3-hydroxy- or 3-aminocarboxylic acids in complex mixtures. PMID:16628561

  19. Understanding Chemistry: Mass Spectrometry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clark, Jim

    This website, which is part of a larger project "ChemGuide" provides a nice introduction to mass spectrometry that is suitable for use by introductory analytical chemistry students. Content includes an introduction to the instrumentation, explanation of fragmentation and how it can be used to identify compound structure, the origin of the M+ and (M+1)+ peaks. Each section is succinct, well written and provides a simple example. As such the site should be useful to faculty introducing mass spectrometry in the analytical classroom and to chemistry students.

  20. VMSL: Virtual Mass Spectrometry Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-05

    This site presents a series of case studies that can be explored using modern mass spectrometry methods. The problem-solving nature of the site provides students a virtual laboratory experience that can supplement access to mass spectrometry instrumentation.

  1. Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

    2008-07-01

    The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

  3. AUTOMATIC AND INTERACTIVE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR BETA GAMMA COINCIDENCE SYSTEMS USED IN CTBT MONITORING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rynes; K. M. F. Biegalski; P. Donohoe; S. Biegalski

    A suite of software has been developed by Veridian Systems as part of the Prototype International Data Center (PIDC) to assist in the analysis of noble gas monitoring data for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban Treaty (CTBT). There are two acceptable noble gas monitoring methods for CTBT verification purposes: high-resolution gamma-ray (?) spectrometry and beta-gamma (?-?) coincidence. Data from ?- spectrometry

  4. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  5. Stable homotopical algebra and [Gamma]-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwede, Stefan

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we advertise the category of [Gamma]-spaces as a convenient framework for doing algebra over rings in stable homotopy theory. [Gamma]-spaces were introduced by Segal [Se] who showed that they give rise to a homotopy category equivalent to the usual homotopy category of connective (i.e. ([minus sign]1)-connected) spectra. Bousfield and Friedlander [BF] later provided model category structures for [Gamma]-spaces. The study of rings, modules and algebras based on [Gamma]-spaces became possible when Lydakis [Ly] introduced a symmetric monoidal smash product with good homotopical properties. Here we develop model category structures for modules and algebras, set up (derived) smash products and associated spectral sequences and compare simplicial modules and algebras to their Eilenberg-MacLane spectra counterparts.

  6. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus G. Heumann

    1992-01-01

    In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g.

  7. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  8. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  9. Z{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} {yields} 0 Processes in SANC

    SciTech Connect

    Bardin, D. Yu., E-mail: bardin@nu.jinr.ru; Kalinovskaya, L. V., E-mail: kalinov@nu.jinr.ru; Uglov, E. D., E-mail: corner@nu.jinr.ru [JINR, Dzhelepov Laboratory for Nuclear Problems (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    We describe the analytic and numerical evaluation of the {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}Z process cross section and the Z {yields} {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} decay rate within the SANC system multi-channel approach at the one-loop accuracy level with all masses taken into account. The corresponding package for numeric calculations is presented. For checking of the results' correctness we make a comparison with the other independent calculations.

  10. Mid-Infrared Spectra of Be Stars

    E-print Network

    S. A. Rinehart; J. R. Houck; J. D. Smith

    1999-10-11

    We present the first medium-resolution ($R\\sim 600$) mid-infrared (8-13.3\\micron) spectra of 11 Be stars. A large number of lines are observed and identified in these spectra, including, as an example, 39 hydrogen recombination lines in the spectrum of $\\gamma$ Cas. In the majority of our spectra, all of the observed lines are attributable to hydrogen recombination. Two of the sources, $\\beta$ Lyr and MWC 349 also show emission from other species. Both of these objects show evidence of [Ne II] emission, and $\\beta$ Lyr also shows evidence of He I emission. We tabulate the effective line strength and line widths for the observed lines, and briefly discuss the physical implications of the observed line series. We also use a simple model of free-free emission to characterize the disks around these sources.

  11. Gamma rays from molecular clouds

    E-print Network

    Stefano Gabici; Felix Aharonian; Pasquale Blasi

    2006-10-02

    It is believed that the observed diffuse gamma ray emission from the galactic plane is the result of interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar gas. Such emission can be amplified if cosmic rays penetrate into dense molecular clouds. The propagation of cosmic rays inside a molecular cloud has been studied assuming an arbitrary energy and space dependent diffusion coefficient. If the diffusion coefficient inside the cloud is significantly smaller compared to the average one derived for the galactic disk, the observed gamma ray spectrum appears harder than the cosmic ray spectrum, mainly due to the slower penetration of the low energy particles towards the core of the cloud. This may produce a great variety of gamma ray spectra.

  12. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; B. Anderson; W. B. Atwood; M. Axelsson; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; C. Cecchi; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; H. Dereli; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; S. W. Digel; G. di Bernardo; M. Dormody; E. Do Couto E Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; Y. Edmonds; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; D. Gaggero; F. Gargano; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; Y. Hanabata; A. K. Harding; M. Hayashida; E. Hays; R. E. Hughes; G. Jhannesson; A. S. Johnson; R. P. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Kndlseder; M. L. Kocian; F. Kuehn; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; M. N. Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; P. L. Nolan; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; A. Okumura; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rain; R. Rando; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; A. Y. Rodriguez; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; J. D. Scargle; A. Sellerholm; C. Sgr; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; F. W. Stecker; E. Striani; M. S. Strickman; A. W. Strong; D. J. Suson; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; Y. Uchiyama; T. L. Usher; V. Vasileiou; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess gamma-ray emission ≳1GeV relative to diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called ``EGRET GeV excess''). The Large Area Telescope

  13. Crack spectra analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.

  14. Beta particle spectrometer for measuring aggregate beta spectra following fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schier, W. A.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Tipnis, S. V.

    1998-02-01

    The beta spectrometer consists of a gated plastic scintillator suitable for measuring aggregate beta energy spectra following fission. This general utility spectrometer is very insensitive to the gamma rays accompanying the fission products, has good linearity, and adequate energy resolution for these continuous beta energy distributions. Response functions are measured below 1 MeV and trial sets of response functions are tested with known beta spectra extending to 5 MeV.

  15. Hydrocarbon polymer analysis by external MALDI fourier transform and reflectron time of flight mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arwah J. Jaber; Charles L. Wilkins

    2005-01-01

    The traditional solvent-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) preparation method has been used to analyze\\u000a nonpolar polymers of various molecular weights. High resolution silver cationized oligomers with masses of up to 12 KDa were\\u000a measured using 9.4 tesla Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) with an external ionization source. It was observed that\\u000a when time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used, the spectra

  16. Probabilistic Disease Classification of Expression-Dependent Proteomic Data from Mass Spectrometry of Human Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan H. Lilien; Hany Farid; Bruce Randall Donald

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm called Q5 for probabilistic classification of healthy vs. disease whole serum samples using mass spectrometry. The algorithm employs Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) on whole spectrum Surface- Enhanced Laser Desorption\\/Ionization Time of Flight (SELDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry (MS) data, and is demonstrated on four real datasets from complete, complex SELDI spectra

  17. Study of laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry using a glow discharge source

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, X. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)]|[Eastern Analytical, Inc., 335 Paint Branch Dr., College Park, Maryland (United States); Hutchinson, J.M.R.; Fassett, J.D.; Lucatorto, T.B.; Schima, F.J.; Bowman, W.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Hess, K.R. [Department of Chemistry, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The mass spectra of a metal alloy sample consisting of Al, Cu and Fe were studied using both glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). Particular emphasis was placed on the reduction of isobaric interferences and discrimination between those ions formed by the discharge and those formed by the laser radiation. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  18. Triacylglycerols of human milk: Rapid analysis by ammonia negative ion tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme J. Currie; Heikki Kallio

    1993-01-01

    Human milk traicylglycerols (TAG) were analyzed by ammonia negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The\\u000a deprotonated molecular ions of triacylglycerols were fractionated at the first mass spectrometry (MS) stage. Twenty-nine of\\u000a the deprotonated TAG ions were further analyzed based on their collisionally activated (CA) spectra. The tandem MS analysis\\u000a covered eleven major acyl carbon number fractions, two of which

  19. Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2007-12-01

    We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

  20. The spectral networks paradigm in high throughput mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guthals, Adrian; Watrous, Jeramie D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput proteomics is made possible by a combination of modern mass spectrometry instruments capable of generating many millions of tandem mass (MS2) spectra on a daily basis and the increasingly sophisticated associated software for their automated identification. Despite the growing accumulation of collections of identified spectra and the regular generation of MS2 data from related peptides, the mainstream approach for peptide identification is still the nearly two decades old approach of matching one MS2 spectrum at a time against a database of protein sequences. Moreover, database search tools overwhelmingly continue to require that users guess in advance a small set of 46 post-translational modifications that may be present in their data in order to avoid incurring substantial false positive and negative rates. The spectral networks paradigm for analysis of MS2 spectra differs from the mainstream database search paradigm in three fundamental ways. First, spectral networks are based on matching spectra against other spectra instead of against protein sequences. Second, spectral networks find spectra from related peptides even before considering their possible identifications. Third, spectral networks determine consensus identifications from sets of spectra from related peptides instead of separately attempting to identify one spectrum at a time. Even though spectral networks algorithms are still in their infancy, they have already delivered the longest and most accurate de novo sequences to date, revealed a new route for the discovery of unexpected post-translational modifications and highly-modified peptides, enabled automated sequencing of cyclic non-ribosomal peptides with unknown amino acids and are now defining a novel approach for mapping the entire molecular output of biological systems that is suitable for analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. Here we review the current state of spectral networks algorithms and discuss possible future directions for automated interpretation of spectra from any class of molecules. PMID:22610447

  1. The spectral networks paradigm in high throughput mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guthals, Adrian; Watrous, Jeramie D; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Bandeira, Nuno

    2012-10-01

    High-throughput proteomics is made possible by a combination of modern mass spectrometry instruments capable of generating many millions of tandem mass (MS(2)) spectra on a daily basis and the increasingly sophisticated associated software for their automated identification. Despite the growing accumulation of collections of identified spectra and the regular generation of MS(2) data from related peptides, the mainstream approach for peptide identification is still the nearly two decades old approach of matching one MS(2) spectrum at a time against a database of protein sequences. Moreover, database search tools overwhelmingly continue to require that users guess in advance a small set of 4-6 post-translational modifications that may be present in their data in order to avoid incurring substantial false positive and negative rates. The spectral networks paradigm for analysis of MS(2) spectra differs from the mainstream database search paradigm in three fundamental ways. First, spectral networks are based on matching spectra against other spectra instead of against protein sequences. Second, spectral networks find spectra from related peptides even before considering their possible identifications. Third, spectral networks determine consensus identifications from sets of spectra from related peptides instead of separately attempting to identify one spectrum at a time. Even though spectral networks algorithms are still in their infancy, they have already delivered the longest and most accurate de novo sequences to date, revealed a new route for the discovery of unexpected post-translational modifications and highly-modified peptides, enabled automated sequencing of cyclic non-ribosomal peptides with unknown amino acids and are now defining a novel approach for mapping the entire molecular output of biological systems that is suitable for analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. Here we review the current state of spectral networks algorithms and discuss possible future directions for automated interpretation of spectra from any class of molecules. PMID:22610447

  2. GAMMA DEFECTOSCOPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    Detection of defects such ag cracks and holes by nondestructive testing ; of cast iron and steel parts up to 150 mm wall thickness by gamma-transmission ; using Co⁶° and Ir¹⁹² as radiation source, is described. (Rev. Metal ; Lit., 19: No. 4, Apr. 1962);

  3. Gamma watermarking

    DOEpatents

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  4. Gamma Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the time of the k'th arrival in a Poisson process. The arrival number k and the rate of the Poisson process can be varied. The applet illustrates the gamma distribution and a special case of the central limit theorem.

  5. Biological Cluster Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Winograd, Nicholas; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the new physics and new applications of secondary ion mass spectrometry using cluster ion probes. These probes, particularly C60, exhibit enhanced molecular desorption with improved sensitivity owing to the unique nature of the energy-deposition process. In addition, these projectiles are capable of eroding molecular solids while retaining the molecular specificity of mass spectrometry. When the beams are microfocused to a spot on the sample, bioimaging experiments in two and three dimensions are feasible. We describe emerging theoretical models that allow the energy-deposition process to be understood on an atomic and molecular basis. Moreover, experiments on model systems are described that allow protocols for imaging on biological materials to be implemented. Finally, we present recent applications of imaging to biological tissue and single cells to illustrate the future directions of this methodology. PMID:20055679

  6. Continuous detection of hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine using ion mobility spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Leasure; G. A. Eiceman

    1985-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry was characterized and evaluated for continuous sensing of hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine in air at ambient pressure. Spectra for hydrazine and MMH consisted of a single ion with reduced mobilities of 2.48 and 2.43, respectively. Peak widths at half-height were 300 ..mu..s for product ions with both compounds. Limits of detection were near 0.01 mg\\/m³ for hydrazine and

  7. 252Cf Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Recent Advances and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kamensky; A. G. Craig

    1987-01-01

    Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) as utilized in the BIO-ION instruments is described. The sensitivity of the technique is investigated for varying amounts of bovine insulin. The results show accurate mass assignment for pmole amounts of sample.Several methods, currently used for sample preparation in PDMS, are described. Spectra of the antibiotic nisin (3,354.1 Dalton) using two different sample preparation

  8. Ground-based passive FT-IR spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Knapp; Roger J. Combs; Robert T. Kroutil

    2002-01-01

    Absorbance and transmittance spectra were acquired with ground-based passive FT-IR spectrometry for industrial stack evaluations and open-air controlled vapor generation experiments. The industrial stack effluents of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide were detected from a coal-burning power plant and an acid plant, respectively, with both MWIR and LWIR passive sensors. The controlled open-air experiments relied on only a LWIR sensor.

  9. Data processing and analysis for mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Xiong, Xingchuang; Ouyang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging produces large numbers of spectra that need to be efficiently stored, processed, and analyzed. In this chapter, we describe the protocol and methods for data processing, visualization, and statistical analysis, with related techniques and tools available presented. Examples are given with data collected for a 3D MS imaging of a mouse brain and 2D MS imaging of human bladder tissues. PMID:25361679

  10. Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 3. On the Origin of Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The origin of non-integer overtone peaks in overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS) spectra is investigated by ion trajectory simulations. Simulations indicate that these OMS features arise from higher-order overtone series. An empirically-derived formula is presented as a means of describing the positions of peaks. The new equation makes it possible to determine collision cross sections from any OMS peak. Additionally, it is extended as a means of predicting the resolving power for any peak in an OMS distribution.

  11. The mass spectrometry of iso and anteiso monoenoic fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap J. Boon; B. van de Graaf; P. J. W. Schuyl; F. de Lange; J. W. de Leeuw

    1977-01-01

    The normal, iso, and anteiso ?8- and ?9-17:1 fatty acid methyl esters were synthesized and their electron impact-induced fragmentation was studied by mass spectrometry.\\u000a The mass spectra of the preterminal branched monoenoic fatty acid methyl esters present characteristic fragment ions, now\\u000a understood to be indicative of the position of the methyl group. These fragment ions are in the iso compound

  12. Mass Spectrometry and Glycomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasna Peter-Katalinic

    Mass spectrometry (MS) in biochemical and biophysical research of complex carbohydrates has to meet a number of challenges\\u000a if compared to other biomacromolecules, like proteins and nucleic acids. MS, as an universal and indispensible tool for analysis\\u000a of biological samples after introduction of soft ionization techniques, like Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB), electrospray (ESI)\\u000a and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), allows

  13. The gamma 1 and gamma 3 bands of (16)O3: Line positions and intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Devi, V. Malathy; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Using 0.005/cm-resolution Fourier transform spectra of samples of ozone, the gamma 1 and gamma 3 bands of (16)O3 have been reanalyzed to obtain accurate line positions and an extended set of upper state rotational levels (J up to 69, K sub a up to 20). Combined with the available microwave data, these upper state rotational levels were satisfactorily fitted using a Hamiltonian which takes explicitly into account the strong Coriolis interaction affecting the rotational levels of these two interacting states. In addition, 350 relative line intensities were measured from which the rotational expansions of the transition moment operators for the gamma 1 and gamma 3 states have been deduced. Finally, a complete listing of line positions, intensities, and lower state energies of the gamma 1 and gamma 3 bands of (16)O3 has been generated.

  14. Mass Spectrometry and Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Glycosylation defines the adhesive properties of animal cell surfaces and the surrounding extracellular environments. Because cells respond to stimuli by altering glycan expression, glycan structures vary according to spatial location in tissue and temporal factors. These dynamic structural expression patterns, combined with the essential roles glycans play in physiology, drive the need for analytical methods for glycoconjugates. In addition, recombinant glycoprotein drug products represent a multibillion dollar market. Effective analytical methods are needed to speed the identification of new targets and the development of industrial glycoprotein products, both new and biosimilar. Mass spectrometry is an enabling technology in glycomics. This review summarizes mass spectrometry of glycoconjugate glycans. The intent is to summarize appropriate methods for glycans given their chemical properties as distinct from those of proteins, lipids, and small molecule metabolites. Special attention is given to the uses of mass spectral profiling for glycomics with respect to the N-linked, O-linked, ganglioside, and glycosaminoglycan compound classes. Next, the uses of tandem mass spectrometry of glycans are summarized. The review finishes with an update on mass spectral glycoproteomics. PMID:20443730

  15. Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

  16. Atmospheric gamma-ray and neutron flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, L. P., E-mail: babich@elph.vniief.ru; Kudryavtsev, A. Yu., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kudryavtseva, M. L., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kutsyk, I. M. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Gamma-ray pulses are calculated from 2D numerical simulations of an upward atmospheric discharge in a self-consistent electric field using the multigroup approach to the kinetics of relativistic runaway electrons (REs). Computed {gamma}-ray numbers and spectra are consistent with those of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs) observed aboard spacecrafts. The RE flux is concentrated mainly within the domain of the Blue Jet fluorescence. This confirms that exactly the domain adjacent to a thundercloud is the source of the observed {gamma}-ray flashes. The yield of photonuclear neutrons is calculated. One {gamma}-ray pulse generates {approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} neutrons. The possibility of the direct deposition of REs to the detector readings and the origin of the lightning-advanced TGFs are discussed.

  17. Developments in ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Collins; M. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been used for over 30 years as a sensitive detector of organic compounds. The following is a brief review of IMS and its principles with an emphasis on its usage when coupled to mass spectrometry. Since its inception, IMS has been interfaced with quadrupole, time-of-flight, and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. These hybrid instruments

  18. The particle-gamma coincidence method: A brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.; Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Hennig, A.; Netterdon, L.; Pascu, S.; Pickstone, S. G.; Sauerwein, A.; Scholz, P.; Spieker, M.; Streit, T.-M.; Zilges, A. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    Excitation energy information from particle detectors can significantly improve the analysis process of {gamma}-ray spectra and result in more detailed nuclear structure information. Therefore, a new setup at the HORUS {gamma}-ray spectrometer at the University of Cologne has been installed, housing silicon particle detectors at up to eight positions.

  19. Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1994-01-01

    The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

  20. Peptide Identification by Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Alternate Fragmentation Modes*

    PubMed Central

    Guthals, Adrian; Bandeira, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    The high-throughput nature of proteomics mass spectrometry is enabled by a productive combination of data acquisition protocols and the computational tools used to interpret the resulting spectra. One of the key components in mainstream protocols is the generation of tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra by peptide fragmentation using collision induced dissociation, the approach currently used in the large majority of proteomics experiments to routinely identify hundreds to thousands of proteins from single mass spectrometry runs. Complementary to these, alternative peptide fragmentation methods such as electron capture/transfer dissociation and higher-energy collision dissociation have consistently achieved significant improvements in the identification of certain classes of peptides, proteins, and post-translational modifications. Recognizing these advantages, mass spectrometry instruments now conveniently support fine-tuned methods that automatically alternate between peptide fragmentation modes for either different types of peptides or for acquisition of multiple MS/MS spectra from each peptide. But although these developments have the potential to substantially improve peptide identification, their routine application requires corresponding adjustments to the software tools and procedures used for automated downstream processing. This review discusses the computational implications of alternative and alternate modes of MS/MS peptide fragmentation and addresses some practical aspects of using such protocols for identification of peptides and post-translational modifications. PMID:22595789

  1. Evaporation neutron spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sidorov

    1962-01-01

    The neutron spectra produced in the bombardment or V, Co, and Ni targets ; by alpha particles at 11 to 20 Mev are measured using the time-of-flight method. ; The analysis of these spectra according to the statistical theory of nuclear ; reactions is performed with an electronic computer. The level density fanction ; type that gives optimal agreement with

  2. Spectra of porphyrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Gouterman

    1961-01-01

    The review opens by presenting the absorption spectra for three series of porphyrins derived from the basic skeleton: (a) compounds obtained by simple substitution; (b) compounds obtained by reduction of one or more pyrrole rings; and (c) compounds obtained from fusion of aromatic rings onto the basic skeleton. The spectra are discussed in terms of a four orbital model-that is

  3. Optical Spectra of Supernovae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei V. Filippenko

    1997-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the optical spectra of various types of supernovae (SNe) is illustrated, in part to aid observers classifying supernova candidates. Type II SNe are defined by the presence of hydrogen, and they exhibit a very wide variety of photometric and spectroscopic properties. Among hydrogen-deficient SNe (Type I), three subclasses are now known: those whose early-time spectra show

  4. The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of

    E-print Network

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of PSR 1706 spectrum of gamma rays between 0.5 to 4 TeV is obtained and is found to be consistent with previous results. In addition, we analyzed Chandra archive data, to derive the X-ray spectra of both the pulsar and the nebula

  5. Time-of-flight discrimination between gamma-rays and neutrons by neural networks

    E-print Network

    Serkan Akkoyun

    2012-08-13

    In gamma-ray spectroscopy, a number of neutrons are emitted from the nuclei together with the gamma-rays and these neutrons influence gamma-ray spectra. An obvious method of separating between neutrons and gamma-rays is based on the time-of-flight (tof) technique. This work aims obtaining tof distributions of gamma-rays and neutrons by using feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). It was shown that, ANN can correctly classify gamma-ray and neutron events. Testing of trained networks on experimental data clearly shows up tof discrimination of gamma-rays and neutrons.

  6. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain one of the most baffling phenomena in astrophysics. This talk will summarize the observations of GRBs with particular emphasis on those that present the greatest difficulty for theoretical interpretation. These include the short and highly variable temporal structure, the hard non-thermal spectra, and the enormous total energy output.

  7. Physics issues of gamma ray burst emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison

    1987-01-01

    The critical physics issues in the interpretation of gamma-ray-burst spectra are reviewed. An attempt is made to define the emission-region parameter space satisfying the maximum number of observational and theoretical constraints. Also discussed are the physical mechanisms responsible for the bursts that are most consistent with the above parameter space.

  8. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with transmission of energetic primary cluster ions through foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, K., E-mail: k.hirata@aist.go.jp [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Saitoh, Y.; Chiba, A.; Yamada, K.; Matoba, S.; Narumi, K. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    We developed time-of-flight (TOF) secondary ion (SI) mass spectrometry that provides informative SI ion mass spectra without needing a sophisticated ion beam pulsing system. In the newly developed spectrometry, energetic large cluster ions with energies of the order of sub MeV or greater are used as primary ions. Because their impacts on the target surface produce high yields of SIs, the resulting SI mass spectra are informative. In addition, the start signals necessary for timing information on primary ion incidence are provided by the detection signals of particles emitted from the rear surface of foil targets upon transmission of the primary ions. This configuration allows us to obtain positive and negative TOF SI mass spectra without pulsing system, which requires precise control of the primary ions to give the spectra with good mass resolution. We also successfully applied the TOF SI mass spectrometry with energetic cluster ion impacts to the chemical structure characterization of organic thin film targets.

  9. A new versatile underground gamma-ray spectrometry system.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Guillaume; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Andreotti, Erica; Rosengrd, Ulf; Misiaszek, Marcin; Yksel, Ayhan; Sahin, Namik

    2013-11-01

    The newest development in IRMM's underground analytical facility is a large lead shield lined with copper that is versatile and can host several detectors of different types. The characteristics and the background performance of the shield are described for four different detector configurations involving HPGe-detectors and NaI-detectors. The shield has been designed to swap detectors, while still maintaining a low background. This enables testing of detectors for other experiments and optimisation of detection limits for specific radionuclides in different projects. PMID:23743483

  10. Lily Pad Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the 'Lily Pad' bounce-mark area at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was acquired on the 3rd sol, or martian day, of Opportunity's mission (Jan.26, 2004). The upper left image is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera, showing regions from which spectra were extracted from the 'Lily Pad' area. As noted by the line graph on the right, the green spectra is from the undisturbed surface and the red spectra is from the airbag bounce mark.

  11. Eigenvalue-dependent neutron energy spectra: Definitions, analyses, and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Cacuci; Y. Ronen; Z. Shayer; J. J. Wagschal; Y. Yeivin

    1982-01-01

    A general qualitative analysis of spectral effects that arise from solving the kappa-, ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and sigma-eigenvalue formulations of the neutron transport equation for nuclear systems that deviate (to first order) from criticality is presented. Hierarchies of neutron spectra softness are established and expressed concisely in terms of the newly introduced spatialdependent local spectral indices for the core and

  12. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    PubMed

    Gardner; El; Zheng; Hayden; Mayo

    2000-10-01

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes 128I and 24Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2" x 2", 5" x 5", 6" x 6", and 1" x 6" NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known. PMID:11003483

  13. Quantitative biomedical mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leenheer, Andrp; Thienpont, Linda M.

    1992-09-01

    The scope of this contribution is an illustration of the capabilities of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for quantification of target substances in the biomedical field. After a brief discussion of the general principles of quantitative MS in biological samples, special attention will be paid to new technological developments or trends in IDMS from selected examples from the literature. The final section will deal with the use of IDMS for accuracy assessment in clinical chemistry. Methodological aspects considered crucial for avoiding sources of error will be discussed.

  14. A transportable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and analysis system applicable to mobile, autonomous or unattended applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Buckley; K. W. Neufeld

    1995-01-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing systems based on a compact electro-mechanically cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This detector system broadens the practicality of performing high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the field. Utilizing portable computers, multi-channel analyzers and software these systems greatly improve the ease of performing mobile high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Using industrial computers,

  15. Application of nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques for the safeguarding of irradiated fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Lee, D.M.; Beach, S.E.; Bement, T.R.; Dermendjiev, E.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kaieda, K.; Medina, E.G.

    1980-05-01

    Nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques were used to characterize the irradiation exposures of irradiated fuel assemblies. Techniques for the rapid measurement of the axial-activity profiles of fuel assemblies have been developed using ion chambers and Be(..gamma..,n) detectors. Detailed measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and passive neutron techniques were correlated with operator-declared values of cooling times and burnup.

  16. Varying Faces of Photospheric Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Axelsson, M

    2015-01-01

    Among the more than 1000 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, a large fraction show narrow and hard spectra inconsistent with non-thermal emission, signifying optically thick emission from the photosphere. However, only a few of these bursts have spectra consistent with a pure Planck function. We will discuss the observational features of photospheric emission in these GRBs as well as in the ones showing multi-component spectra. We interpret the observations in light of models of subphotospheric dissipation, geometrical broadening and multi-zone emission, and show what we can learn about the dissipation mechanism and properties of GRB jets.

  17. Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Characterization of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Fenselau, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Advances in instrumentation, proteomics, and bioinformatics have contributed to the successful applications of mass spectrometry (MS) for detection, identification, and classification of microorganisms. These MS applications are based on the detection of organism-specific biomarker molecules, which allow differentiation between organisms to be made. Intact proteins, their proteolytic peptides, and nonribosomal peptides have been successfully utilized as biomarkers. Sequence-specific fragments for biomarkers are generated by tandem MS of intact proteins or proteolytic peptides, obtained after, for instance, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. In combination with proteome database searching, individual biomarker proteins are unambiguously identified from their tandem mass spectra, and from there the source microorganism is also identified. Such top-down or bottom-up proteomics approaches permit rapid, sensitive, and confident characterization of individual microorganisms in mixtures and are reviewed here. Examples of MS-based functional assays for detection of targeted microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus anthracis, in environmental or clinically relevant backgrounds are also reviewed.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, G. E.; Shriner, J. F.

    2008-04-01

    Although random matrix theory had its initial application to neutron resonances, there is a relative scarcity of suitable nuclear data. The primary reason for this is the sensitivity of the standard measures used to evaluate spectrathe spectra must be essential pure (no state with a different symmetry) and complete (no states missing). Additional measures that are less sensitive to these experimental limitations are of significant value. The standard measure for long range order is the ?3 statistic. In the original paper that introduced this statistic, Dyson and Mehta also attempted to evaluate spectra with thermodynamic variables obtained from the circular orthogonal ensemble. We consider the thermodynamic "internal energy" and evaluate its sensitivity to experimental limitations such as missing and spurious levels. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the internal energy is less sensitive to mistakes than is ?3, and thus the internal energy can serve as a addition to the tool kit for evaluating experimental spectra.

  19. Study of coal structure using secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, G.L.; Lytle, J.M.; Baer, D.R.; Thomas, M.T.

    1980-12-01

    Secondary-ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is examined as a tool for studying the chemical structure of coal. SIMS has potential for analysis of coal because of the following characteristics: sensitivity to chemical structure; high sensitivity to all masses; application to solids; excellent depth resolution; and reasonable spatial resolution. SIMS spectra of solid coals show differences with respect to coal rank, the spectra of high rank coal being similar to that of graphite, and the spectra of low rank coal being similar to that of wood. Some functional group analysis is also possible using SIMS. Low rank coals show a larger peak at 15 amu indicating more methyl groups than found in the higher rank coals. Fragments with two and three carbon atoms have also been examined; much larger fragments are undoubtedly present but were not evaluated in this study. Examination of these groups, which are expected to contain valuable information on coal structure, is planned for future work. It has been observed that mineral atoms present in the coal have large secondary ion yields which complicate the interpretation of the spectra. Studies on mineral-free coals and model compounds are therefore recommended to facilitate determination of organic coal structure. In addition, mass spectrometry with much greater mass resolution will aid in distinguishing between various ion species.

  20. Spectra of Grid Turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahinder S. Uberoi; Stanley Wallis

    1969-01-01

    Energy spectra of the longitudinal and lateral turbulent velocities are measured behind grids of different geometries; the isotropic relation is not satisfied. Energy-dissipating eddies are more nearly isotropic than energy-containing eddies. Spectra of the energy-containing eddies and their deviation from isotropy depend on the grid geometry. Various microscales are measured to determine the anisotropy of the energy-dissipating eddies. The error

  1. Energetics of Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Jimnez, R; Piran, T; Jimenez, Raul; Band, David; Piran, Tsvi

    2001-01-01

    We determine the distribution of total energy emitted by gamma-ray bursts for bursts with fluences and distance information. Our core sample consists of eight bursts with BATSE spectra and spectroscopic redshifts. We extend this sample by adding four bursts with BATSE spectra and host galaxy R magnitudes. From these R magnitudes we calculate a redshift probability distribution; this method requires a model of the host galaxy population. From a sample of ten bursts with both spectroscopic redshifts and host galaxy R magnitudes (some do not have BATSE spectra) we find that the burst rate is proportional to the galaxy luminosity at the epoch of the burst. Assuming that the total energy emitted has a log-normal distribution, we find that the average emitted energy (assumed to be radiated isotropically) is $ = 1.3^{+1.2}_{-1.0} \\times 10^{53}$ ergs (for H$_0$ = 65 km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_m=0.3$ and $\\Omega_\\Lambda=0.7$); the distribution has a logarithmic width of $\\sigma_\\gamma=1.7^{+0.7}_{-0.3}$. The cor...

  2. Mass Spectrometry of Proteins in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltz-Knorr, Michelle; Papantonakis, Michael; Ermer Haglund, David, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Infrared matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (IR-MALDI) is an effective technique for mass identification and structural analysis of biomolecules. We are using liquid glycerol/water matrices in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with a liquid nitrogen cooled sample stage to provide a more natural environment for biomolecules. An Er:YAG laser (2.94 ?m) and also a tunable free electron laser (2-9 ?m) are used to induce desorption and ionization by exciting the O-H and CH2 stretching vibrations in the glycerol. This vibrationally enhanced ionization makes IR-MALDI very efficient, as observed in the mass spectra of small peptides. This work is a first step toward using mass spectrometry to study noncovalently bound protein complexes in vitro and to study proteins in their cellular environment. Supported by the Medical Free Electron Laser Program of the Office of Naval Research and the Vanderbilt Molecular Biophysics Training Grant of the National Institutes of Health

  3. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P

    2009-02-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

  4. Mass Spectrometry and Biotechnology Resource

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ionsource is a website that provides access to an index of resources including tutorials, links to downloadable sites, jobs and conference information involving mass spectrometry and biotechnology subjects. Examples of tutorials include lessons on atomic mass and amino acid residue mass. For a review of mass spectrometry or biotechnology or for an introduction, this site provides a well-rounded source of information.

  5. Mass spectrometry in ionospheric research.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eldon E

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry played a key role in the development of the understanding of the earth's ionosphere. Of primary importance was its use for in situ atmospheric measurements of the ion and neutral composition of the atmosphere. Mass spectrometry has also played an essential role in the laboratory measurement of critical ionospheric molecular processes. Examples of both are given. PMID:17099890

  6. Spectral archives: extending spectral libraries to analyze both identified and unidentified spectra.

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Ari M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Shah, Anuj R.; Carver, Jeremy J.; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Ronald J.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2011-07-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments yield multiple, nearly identical spectra of the same peptide in various laboratories, but proteomics researchers typically do not leverage the unidentified spectra produced in other labs to decode spectra they generate. We propose a spectral archives approach that clusters MS/MS datasets, representing similar spectra by a single consensus spectrum. Spectral archives extend spectral libraries by analyzing both identified and unidentified spectra in the same way and maintaining information about peptide spectra that are common across species and conditions. Thus archives offer both traditional library spectrum similarity-based search capabilities along with new ways to analyze the data. By developing a clustering tool, MS-Cluster, we generated a spectral archive from ?1.18 billion spectra that greatly exceeds the size of existing spectral repositories. We advocate that publicly available data should be organized into spectral archives rather than be analyzed as disparate datasets, as is mostly the case today.

  7. Electrons and protons separation in the GAMMA-400 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, Alexey

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is intended to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV. Such measurements concern with the following scientific tasks: search for signatures of dark matter, investigation of point sources of gamma-rays, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, studies of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun, as well as high precision measurements of spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons, protons and nuclei up to the knee. The main components of cosmic rays are protons and helium nuclei, whereas the part of lepton component in total flux is ~10^-3 for high energies. In present paper the capability of the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope to distinguish electrons and positrons from protons in cosmic rays is investigated. The separate investment in proton rejection is studied for each detector system of the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope. Using combined information from all detector systems allow us to provide rejection from protons with factor of ~410^5 for vertical incident particles and ~310^5 for particles with initial inclination of 30 deg.

  8. [Determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey].

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiaoqing; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Tao; Li, Lihua

    2012-08-01

    A novel method for the determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey using liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) was established. After pre-separation by gel column chromatography, the gamma-amylase in honey samples was separated from the sugars. The gamma-amylase was then used to catalyze maltose into glucose. This enzymatic reaction was under the conditions of 55 degrees C and 0.03 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for 48 h. The maltose and glucose in the above enzymatic reaction solution were separated using liquid chromatography. By measuring the content of glucose with isotope ratio mass spectrometry, the gamma-amylase in honey can be determined. The linear range of gamma-amylase was 5 - 200 U/kg with the quantification limit of 5 U/kg. The recoveries were between 89.6% and 108.2% with the relative standard deviations from 3.3% to 4.9%. This method was used to analyze 38 honey and rice syrup samples, and the detection rate of gamma-amylase was 76.3%. To further verify the detection capability of this method, an authentic honey was adulterated with 15% (mass fraction) rice syrup. The gamma-amylase content in this sample was 10.2 U/kg. This method can effectively identify honey adulteration with rice syrups from the perspective of enzymology. PMID:23256379

  9. Redshifts of the Long Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Z. Bagoly; I. Csabai; A. Meszaros; P. Meszaros; I. Horvath; L. G. Balazs; R. Vavrek

    2007-04-06

    The low energy spectra of some gamma-ray bursts' show excess components beside the power-law dependence. The consequences of such a feature allows to estimate the gamma photometric redshift of the long gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE Catalog. There is good correlation between the measured optical and the estimated gamma photometric redshifts. The estimated redshift values for the long bright gamma-ray bursts are up to z=4, while for the the faint long bursts - which should be up to z=20 - the redshifts cannot be determined unambiguously with this method. The redshift distribution of all the gamma-ray bursts with known optical redshift agrees quite well with the BATSE based gamma photometric redshift distribution.

  10. [Fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra of carvacrol].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Ran; Liu, Cui-Ge; Wei, Yong-Ju

    2011-10-01

    Fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra of carvacrol, an active component of Chinese herbal medicines, have been studied. The ionization constant and fluorescence quantum yield of carvacrol were measured according to spectral data. Under the condition of pH < 2.0, fluorescence intensity of carvacrol increases with the increase in pH value. In the range of pH 2.0-8.0, carvacrol gives a strong and steady fluorescence with maximum excitation wavelength 278 nm and emission wavelength 306 nm. When pH > 8.0, the fluorescence intensity decreases with the increase in pH value. Ionization constant of carvacrol was measured to be pK(a) = 10.44 +/- 0.06 using a pH-absorbance method; and pK(a) = 10.40 +/- 0.04 using a pH-fluorescence method. Fluorescence intensity of carvacrol was remarkably enhanced when methanol was added into its aqueous solution. Using L-tryptophane as a reference, the fluorescence quantum yield of carvacrol aqueous solution was measured to be 0.121 at excitation wavelength 278 nm; while in a solution containing 80% methanol, the quantum yield was measured to be 0.324. PMID:22250552

  11. Development of {gamma}-ray detectors for {sup 16}O(p,p'{gamma}) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, T.; Izumi, T.; Ou, I.; Yano, T.; Sakuda, M.; Tamii, A.; Suzuki, T.; Yosoi, M. [Department of physiscs, Okayama University, Okaymaa 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    The {gamma} ray production in neutral-current (NC) neutrino-oxygen interaction is very important to the detection of neutrinos from supernova explosion in a neutrino experiment, since those {gamma} rays can become extra signals or unexpected background in the energy region from 5 MeV to 30 MeV. We propose the experiment to measure {gamma} rays in {sup 16}O(p,p') reaction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP, Osaka) to provide good information on the {gamma}-ray emission spectra in neutrino-oxygen reactions. We present the design of {gamma}-ray detectors (NaI, CsI, HPGe), which will be used in proposed experiment.

  12. Investigation of {gamma} radiation from {sup 178}Hf in the respective (n, n Prime {gamma}) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Govor, L. I.; Demidov, A. M.; Kurkin, V. A., E-mail: kurkin@polyn.kiae.su; Mikhailov, I. V. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    The spectra and angular distributions of gamma rays were measured in the reaction {sup 178}Hf(n, n Prime {gamma}) induced by a beam of fast reactor neutrons. Data onmultipole mixtures in gamma transitions and a lot of new information about gamma transitions of energy 1.5 to 3.0 MeV were obtained. A comparison of these results with information known from the respective (n, {gamma}) reaction made it possible to refine the schemes of deexcitation of {sup 178}Hf levels at energies above 1.5 MeV, to determine more precisely features of these levels, and to introduce new levels and rotation bands at excitation energies of about 2MeV.

  13. Underwater gamma surveys of Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Povinec, P; Huynh-Ngoc, L; Comanducci, J F

    1999-09-30

    Underwater gamma-ray spectrometry is an effective alternative or complement to traditional sampling and laboratory analyses for applications such as contamination assessment in emergency situations, long-term monitoring of radioactive releases or investigation of sunken radioactive objects. This technique was recently used in a seabed contamination study undertaken at the South Pacific nuclear weapons test sites of the Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls in order to guide and focus sediment core sampling in the areas with highest gamma-emitting radionuclide levels. 60Co inventories estimated on the basis of the underwater gamma-ray spectrometry survey were in good agreement with results previously obtained by traditional sediment sampling and laboratory analysis. PMID:10568282

  14. Measurement of ?Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of ?-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A

    2014-05-01

    The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level. PMID:24332337

  15. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  16. Gamma, Beta, Erf

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page includes the encyclopedia entries for gamma, beta and erf functions including factorials, binomials, gamma functions and inverses, differentiated gamma functions, beta functions and inverses, probability integrals and inverses, Frensnel integrals and exponential integrals.

  17. Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casimir Bamberger; Uwe Renz; Andreas Bamberger

    2011-01-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield\\u000a novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass\\u000a resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the objects surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains\\u000a cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits

  18. Gamma rays and positrons from a decaying hidden gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Ren; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We study a scenario that a hidden gauge boson constitutes the dominant component of dark matter and decays into the standard model particles through a gauge kinetic mixing. Interestingly, gamma rays and positrons produced from the decay of hidden gauge boson can explain both the EGRET excess of diffuse gamma rays and the HEAT anomaly in the positron fraction. The spectra of the gamma rays and the positrons have distinctive features; the absence of line emission of the gamma ray and a sharp peak in the positron fraction. Such features may be observed by the FGST and PAMELA satellites.

  19. Application of Laser Mass Spectrometry to Art and Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulian, Lase Lisa E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Muliadi, Sarah; Owens, Shawn; McGovern, Patrick E.; Schmidt, Catherine M.; Trentelman, Karen A.; deVries, Mattanjah S.

    2011-01-01

    REMPI laser mass spectrometry is a combination of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and time of flight mass spectrometry, This technique enables the collection of mass specific optical spectra as well as of optically selected mass spectra. Analytes are jet-cooled by entrainment in a molecular beam, and this low temperature gas phase analysis has the benefit of excellent vibronic resolution. Utilizing this method, mass spectrometric analysis of historically relevant samples can be simplified and improved; Optical selection of targets eliminates the need for chromatography while knowledge of a target's gas phase spectroscopy allows for facile differentiation of molecules that are in the aqueous phase considered spectroscopically indistinguishable. These two factors allow smaller sample sizes than commercial MS instruments, which in turn will require less damage to objects of antiquity. We have explored methods to optimize REMPI laser mass spectrometry as an analytical tool to archaeology using theobromine and caffeine as molecular markers in Mesoamerican pottery, and are expanding this approach to the field of art to examine laccaic acid in shellacs.

  20. The POPOP4 library and codes for preparing secondary gamma-ray production cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, W. E., III

    1972-01-01

    The POPOP4 code for converting secondary gamma ray yield data to multigroup secondary gamma ray production cross sections and the POPOP4 library of secondary gamma ray yield data are described. Recent results of the testing of uranium and iron data sets from the POPOP4 library are given. The data sets were tested by comparing calculated secondary gamma ray pulse height spectra measured at the ORNL TSR-II reactor.

  1. Time-of-flight discrimination between gamma-rays and neutrons by using artificial neural networks

    E-print Network

    Akkoyun, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray tracking detector arrays, such as advanced gamma ray tracking array (AGATA), are quite powerful detection systems in nuclear structure physic studies. In these arrays, the sequences of the gamma-ray interaction points in the detectors can correctly be identified in order to obtain true gamma-ray energies emitted from the nuclei of interest. Together with the gamma-rays, a number of neutrons are also emitted from the nuclei and these neutrons influence gamma-ray spectra. An obvious method of separating between neutrons and gamma-rays is based on the time-of-flight (tof) technique. This work aims obtaining tof distributions of gamma-rays and neutrons by using feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). It was shown that, ANN can correctly classify gamma-ray and neutron events. Testing of trained networks on experimental data clearly shows up tof discrimination of gamma-rays and neutrons.

  2. Detection of undeclared erectile dysfunction drugs and analogues in dietary supplements by ion mobility spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie M. Gryniewicz; John C. Reepmeyer; John F. Kauffman; Lucinda F. Buhse

    2009-01-01

    An ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) method was developed to screen for the presence of undeclared synthetic erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs or drug analogues in herbal dietary supplements claiming to enhance male sexual performance. Ion mobility spectra of authenticated reference materials including three FDA approved drugs (sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, vardenafil hydrochloride trihydrate) and five previously identified synthetic analogues (methisosildenafil, homosildenafil, piperidenafil,

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GC/MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY) DATA ANALYSIS PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectra obtained by fused silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/data system (GC/MS/DS) analysis of mixtures of organic chemicals adsorbed on Tenax GC cartridges was subjected to manual and automated interpretative techniques. Synthetic mixtures (85 chemicals ...

  4. Determination of microelements in uncontaminated natural water from the Baikal region by atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, A.I.; Chumakova, N.L. [Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    In this study, concentration by evaporation was used to determine 17 microelements (B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ba, and Pb) in water from Lake Baikal and its tributaries by atomic-emission spectrometry with the arc excitation of spectra.

  5. Assigning Significance to Peptides Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Decoy Databases

    E-print Network

    Storey, John D.

    Assigning Significance to Peptides Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Decoy Databases, Washington 98195 Received September 18, 2007 Automated methods for assigning peptides to observed tandem mass spectra typically return a list of peptide-spectrum matches, ranked according to an arbitrary score

  6. Using Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Soil Organic Carbon in Native Prairie Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize soil organic carbon (SOC) with pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) and then to determine correlations between the mass spectra and associated soil characterization data. Both soil carbon chemistry and the organic forms in which SOC is...

  7. Transformation and other factors of the peptide mass spectrometry pairwise peak-list comparison process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Witold E. Wolski; Maciej Lalowski; Peter Martus; Ralf Herwig; Patrick Giavalisco; Johan Gobom; Albert Sickmann; Hans Lehrach; Knut Reinert

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Biological Mass Spectrometry is used to analyse peptides and proteins. A mass spectrum generates a list of measured mass to charge ratios and intensities of ionised peptides, which is called a peak-list. In order to classify the underlying amino acid sequence, the acquired spectra are usually compared with synthetic ones. Development of suitable methods of direct peak-list comparison may

  8. Identification of Streptothricin Class Antibiotics in the Earlystage of Antibiotics Screening by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiqin Ji; Shaopeng Wei; Jiwen Zhang; Wenjun Wu; Mingan Wang; W. Wu

    2008-01-01

    Several streptothricin antibiotics have been studied by tandem mass spectrometry. The dominant product ions were derived from the C7-N bond cleavage which lead to lose streptolidine from the [M+H]+. The fragmentation pathways of key ions were described and certained by parent scan. According to the generalized principles, streptothricin isomers could be distinguished easily by the difference of CID spectra. A

  9. Fuzzy Gamma-hypersemigroups

    E-print Network

    R. Ameri; R. Sadeghi

    2013-09-18

    We introduced and study fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroups, according to fuzzy semihyper- groups as previously defined [33] and prove that results in this respect. In this regard first we introduce fuzzy hyperoperation and then study fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroup. We will proceed by study fuzzy gamma-hyperideals and fuzzy gamma-bihyperideals. Also we study the relation between the classes of fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroups and semigroups. Precisely, we associate a gamma-hypersemigroup to every fuzzy hypersemigroup and vice versa. Finally, we introduce and study fuzzy hypersemigroups regular and fuzzy strongly regular relations of fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroups regular and fuzzy strongly regular relations of fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroups.

  10. Compressed sensing in imaging mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Andreas; Dlk, Patrick; Trede, Dennis; Alexandrov, Theodore; Maa, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a technique of analytical chemistry for spatially resolved, label-free and multipurpose analysis of biological samples that is able to detect the spatial distribution of hundreds of molecules in one experiment. The hyperspectral IMS data is typically generated by a mass spectrometer analyzing the surface of the sample. In this paper, we propose a compressed sensing approach to IMS which potentially allows for faster data acquisition by collecting only a part of the pixels in the hyperspectral image and reconstructing the full image from this data. We present an integrative approach to perform both peak-picking spectra and denoising m/z-images simultaneously, whereas the state of the art data analysis methods solve these problems separately. We provide a proof of the robustness of the recovery of both the spectra and individual channels of the hyperspectral image and propose an algorithm to solve our optimization problem which is based on proximal mappings. The paper concludes with the numerical reconstruction results for an IMS dataset of a rat brain coronal section.

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis and high resolution x-ray spectrometry for the determination of trace quantities of elements with short-lived activation products

    E-print Network

    Marshall, John Richard

    1974-01-01

    -ray generation process is illus- trated in Figure 1. The percentage converted gamma intensity is dependent upon the atomic number of the nucleus and upon the energy and type of the gamma transition. 2. 3 Interferences and Errors, X-ray Emission Spectrometry... presented below: 1) Prepare sample 2) Irradiate sample 3) Transfer sample to counting position 4) Perform gamma or x-ray spectrometry 5) Apply computer reduction code. The examination of each of these steps was used to determine the basic experimental...

  12. Revisiting $HW\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma\\ell\

    E-print Network

    Holdom, B

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for a 125 GeV state with loop induced couplings to $gg$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$. The possibility that this state is a pseudoscalar remains open until tree level couplings to $W$ and $Z$ are confirmed. A small but clean signal of the Higgs coupling to $W$ arises from associated production of a Higgs, with $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$. We consider the NLO enhancement of the irreducible background.

  13. Mass Spectrometry in the Postgenomic Era

    E-print Network

    Chait, Brian T.

    Mass Spectrometry in the Postgenomic Era Brian T. Chait Laboratory for Mass Spectrometry reserved 0066-4154/11/0707-0239$20.00 Keywords cellular systems, proteomics, protein complexes, native mass spectrometry, lipidomics Abstract Mass spectrometry (MS) is rapidly becoming an essential tool for bi- ologists

  14. An imaging neutron/gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Amanda C.; Bloser, Peter F.; Fourguette, Dominique; Larocque, Liane; Legere, Jason S.; Lewis, Matt; McConnell, Mark L.; Rousseau, Marissa; Ryan, James M.

    2013-05-01

    We present the test results of a neutron/gamma-ray imaging spectrometer for the identification and location of radioactive and special nuclear materials. Radioactive materials that could be fashioned into a radiation dispersal device typically emit gamma rays, while fissile materials such as uranium and plutonium emit both neutrons and gamma rays via spontaneous or induced fission. The simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays is a clear indication of the presence of fissile material. The instrument works as a double-scatter telescope, requiring a neutron or gamma ray to undergo an interaction in two detectors to be considered a valid event. While this requirement reduces the detector efficiency, it yields information about the direction and energy of the incident particle, which is then used to reconstruct an image of the emitting source. Because of this imaging capability background events can be rejected, decreasing the number of events required for high confidence detection and thereby greatly improving its sensitivity. The instrument is optimized for the detection of neutrons with energies from 1-20 MeV and gamma rays from 0.4 to 10 MeV. Images and energy spectra for neutron and gamma rays are reported for several sources including depleted uranium and plutonium. In addition, the effect of neutron source shielding is investigated.

  15. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The SAS-2 gamma ray experiment and its detection of celestial gamma rays are described. Data also cover intensity of high energy gamma rays, gamma ray distribution, gamma ray origin, and diffuse radiation.

  16. Cross sections and differential spectra for reactions of 2-20 MeV neutrons of /sup 27/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Komoto, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes product yields, secondary n,p and ..cap alpha.. spectra, and ..gamma..-ray spectra calculated for incident neutrons of 2-20 MeV on /sup 27/Al targets. Results are all from the code ALICE, using the version ALISO which does weighting of results for targets which are a mix of isotopes. Where natural isotopic targets are involved, yields and n,p,..cap alpha.. spectra will be reported weighted over isotopic yields. Gamma-ray spectra, however, will be reported for the most abundant isotope.

  17. Application of electrospray mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for molecular weight assignment of peptides in complex mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Perkins; Brian Smith; Richard T. Gallagher; Davis S. Jones; Stephen C. Davis; Andrew D. Hoffman; Kenneth B. Tomer

    1993-01-01

    Electrospray mass spectrometry (ES\\/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI\\/TOF\\/MS)\\u000a were used to provide mass spectra from seven elapid snake venoms. Spectral interpretation was much simpler for MALDI\\/TOF\\/MS.\\u000a ES\\/MS proved more useful for the provision of molecular weight data for very closely related peptides, but suppression of\\u000a higher molecular weight compounds was seen to occur during flow

  18. Field-Domain Ion Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. D.; Chuan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Field-domain ion spectrometry (FDIS) is variant of established technique known as ion-mobility spectrometry. Operates at atmospheric pressure and only requires small pump to draw air sample into instrument. Strength of retarding electric field varied to distinguish among ions of different mobilities. New concept offers potential for development of small, (hand-held), low-power, portable devices detecting airborne chemical substances in real-time at concentrations at parts-per-billion level.

  19. Mass Spectrometry and Protein Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bruno Domon (ETH Zurich; Institute of Molecular Systems Biology)

    2006-04-14

    Mass spectrometry is a central analytical technique for protein research and for the study of biomolecules in general. Driven by the need to identify, characterize, and quantify proteins at ever increasing sensitivity and in ever more complex samples, a wide range of new mass spectrometry??based analytical platforms and experimental strategies have emerged. Here we review recent advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation in the context of current and emerging research strategies in protein science.

  20. Cluster analysis on mass spectra of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, C.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Mensah, A.; Mentel, T.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOA) are of high importance in the atmosphere. The formation of SOA from the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of selected trees was investigated in the JPAC (Jlich Plant Aerosol Chamber) facility. The VOC (mainly monoterpenes) were transferred into a reaction chamber where vapors were photo-chemically oxidized and formed BSOA. The aerosol was characterized by aerosol mass spectrometry (Aerodyne Quadrupol-AMS). Inside the AMS, flash-vaporization of the aerosol particles and electron impact ionization of the evaporated molecules cause a high fragmentation of the organic compounds. Here, we present a classification of the aerosol mass spectra via cluster analysis. Average mass spectra are produced by combination of related single mass spectra to so-called clusters. The mass spectra were similar due to the similarity of the precursor substances. However, we can show that there are differences in the BSOA mass spectra of different tree species. Furthermore we can distinguish the influence of the precursor chemistry and chemical aging. BSOA formed from plants exposed to stress can be distinguished from BSOA formed under non stressed conditions. Significance and limitations of the clustering method for very similar mass spectra will be demonstrated and discussed.

  1. Gamma-ray Bursts: The Prompt Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the largest explosions in the Universe. The radiation is thought to come from a hypernova initiated from the collapse of a massive star or perhaps the merger of two compact stars such s neutron stars and/or black holes. Most of the observed energy is radiated as gamma rays, usually lasting from a fraction of a second to several hundred seconds. The energy generation process is usually referred to as the "central engine". Observed properties of this prompt emission, including spectra, time profiles and durations will be discussed. The history of these observations and future GRB spacecraft will also be described.

  2. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1989-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  3. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  4. Statistics of cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of gamma-ray burst spectra is used to calculate the statistics of gamma-ray bursts originating at cosmological distances. A model of bursters with no source evolution in a q sub 0 = 1/2 Friedmann cosmology is in accord with recent observations of the differential V/Vmax distribution. The data are best fit with an average peak-burst luminosity of (4 +/- 2) x 10 exp 51 ergs/s and a present-day source emissivity of 940 +/- 440 bursts/(10 exp 10 yr) cu Mpc. A spectral test of the cosmological hypothesis is proposed.

  5. Electron Acceleration and Efficiency in Nonthermal Gamma-Ray Sources

    E-print Network

    A. Bykov; P. Meszaros

    1996-02-02

    In energetic nonthermal sources such as gamma-ray bursts, AGN or galactic jet sources, etc., one expects both relativistic and transrelativistic shocks acompanied by violent motions of moderately relativistic plasma. We present general considerations indicating that these sites are electron and positron accelerators leading to a modified power law spectrum. The electron (or $e^\\pm$) energy index is very hard, $\\propto \\gamma^{-1}$ or flatter up to a comoving frame break energy $\\gamma_\\ast$, and becomes steeper above that. In the example of gamma-ray bursts the Lorentz factor reaches $\\gamma_\\ast\\sim 10^3$ for $e^{\\pm}$ accelerated by the internal shock ensemble on subhydrodynamical time scales. For pairs accelerated on hydrodynamical timescales in the external shocks similarly hard spectra are obtained, and the break Lorentz factor can be as high as $\\gamma_\\star \\siml 10^5$. Radiation from the nonthermal electrons produces photon spectra with shape and characteristic energies in qualitative agreement with observed generic gamma-ray burst and blazar spectra. The scenario described here provides a plausible way to solve one of the crucial problems of nonthermal high energy sources, namely the efficient transfer of energy from the proton flow to an apropriate nonthermal lepton component.

  6. Detection and Identification of Protein Isoforms Using Cluster Analysis of MALDI-MS Mass Spectra

    E-print Network

    Lunds Universitet,

    -dimensional electrophoresis gels. Mass spectra are matched against each other by utilizing extracted peak mass lists investigation. Shared peak masses in a cluster could be identified and were used to create novel peak mass lists of several hundreds or thousands of proteins simultaneously.1,2 Mass spectrometry is a central tool

  7. On the Nature of the Chemical Noise in MALDI Mass Spectra

    E-print Network

    Chait, Brian T.

    On the Nature of the Chemical Noise in MALDI Mass Spectra Andrew N. Krutchinsky and Brian T. Chait limit on the practical sensitivity of MALDI mass spectrometry. Typically, as the amount of material of interest subjected to MALDI analysis is reduced, the signal decreases to the point where it can no longer

  8. Mass spectrometry of oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zaia, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification to cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as well as to lipids. As a result, cells carry a dense coat of carbohydrates on their surfaces that mediates a wide variety of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that are crucial to development and function. Because of the historical difficulties with the analysis of complex carbohydrate structures, a detailed understanding of their roles in biology has been slow to develop. Just as mass spectrometry has proven to be the core technology behind proteomics, it stands to play a similar role in the study of functional implications of carbohydrate expression, known as glycomics. This review summarizes the state of knowledge for the mass spectrometric analysis of oligosaccharides with regard to neutral, sialylated, and sulfated compound classes. Mass spectrometric techniques for the ionization and fragmentation of oligosaccharides are discussed so as to give the reader the background to make informed decisions to solve structure-activity relations in glycomics. PMID:14966796

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Gran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. PMID:18470926

  10. Experimental simulation of negative ion chemistry in Martian atmosphere using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Martin; Lichvanov, Zuzana; Orszagh, Juraj; Mason, Nigel; Matej?k, tefan

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the formation of negative ions in a negative Corona Discharge (CD) fed by CO2/N2 mixtures (with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% N2) using the technique of ion mobility spectrometry-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry (IMS-oaTOF). The composition of the negative ions was found to be dependent on the initial gas composition, the gas flow regime, the concentrations of neutral reactive species formed in the discharge and the trace amounts on water in the gases were found to play an important role in the negative ions formation. In a pure CO2 discharge operating under standard gas flow conditions of IMS (associated with strong interaction of ions with neutral reactive species formed in discharge) the ions CO3 - (H2O) and CO4 -(H2O) dominated the measured negative ion spectrum while in CO2/N2 mixtures NO3 -(H2O) n , NO3 -(HNO3) ( n = 0, 1) ions prevailed. In the case of reverse gas flow regime (low interaction of ions with neutral reactive species formed in discharge), the negative ions detected were O2 -(H2O) n , and O2 -.CO2(H2O) n both in pure CO2 and N2/CO2 mixtures. The spectra of negative ions recorded for a gas mixture containing 4% N2 in CO2 were compared with theoretical predictions of negative ion composition in the lower atmosphere of Mars.

  11. Dual multifractal spectra.

    PubMed

    Roux, Stphane; Jensen, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    The multifractal formalism characterizes the scaling properties of a physical density rho as a function of the distance L. To each singularity alpha of the field is attributed a fractal dimension for its support f(alpha). An alternative representation has been proposed by considering the distribution of distances associated to a fixed mass. Computing these spectra for a multifractal Cantor set, it is shown that these two approaches are dual to each other, and that both spectra as well as the moment scaling exponents are simply related. We apply the same inversion formalism to exponents obtained for turbulent statistics in the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada shell model and observe that the same duality relation holds here. PMID:14995714

  12. Leading neutron spectra

    E-print Network

    A. B. Kaidalov; V. A. Khoze; A. D. Martin; M. G. Ryskin

    2006-05-27

    It is shown that the observation of the spectra of leading neutrons from proton beams can be a good probe of absorptive and migration effects. We quantify how these effects modify the Reggeized pion-exchange description of the measurements of leading neutrons at HERA. We are able to obtain a satisfactory description of all the features of these data. We also briefly discuss the corresponding data for leading baryons produced in hadron-hadron collisions.

  13. IMPLEMENTING THE STANDARD SPECTRUM METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF ?-? COINCIDENCE SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, S.; Flory, Adam E.; Schrom, Brian T.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.

    2011-09-14

    The standard deconvolution analysis tool (SDAT) algorithms were developed and tested at the University of Texas at Austin. These algorithms utilize the standard spectrum technique for spectral analysis of {beta}-{gamma} coincidence spectra for nuclear explosion monitoring. Work has been conducted under this contract to implement these algorithms into a useable scientific software package with a graphical user interface. Improvements include the ability to read in PHD formatted data, gain matching, and data visualization. New auto-calibration algorithms were developed and implemented based on 137Cs spectra for assessment of the energy vs. channel calibrations. Details on the user tool and testing are included.

  14. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of fluorinated phenols in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiceman, G. A.; Bergloff, J. F.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Munro, W.; Karpas, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mass spectrometry (MS) for fluorinated phenols (C6H5-xFxOH Where x = 0-5) in nitrogen with Cl- as the reagent ion yielded product ions of M Cl- through ion associations or (M-H)- through proton abstractions. Proton abstraction was controllable by potentials on the orifice and first lens, suggesting that some proton abstraction occurs through collision induced dissociation (CID) in the interface region. This was proven using CID of adduct ions (M Cl-) with Q2 studies where adduct ions were dissociated to Cl- or proton abstracted to (M-H)-. The extent of proton abstraction depended upon ion energy and structure in order of calculated acidities: pentafluorophenol > tetrafluorophenol > trifluorophenol > difluorophenol. Little or no proton abstraction occurred for fluorophenol, phenol, or benzyl alcohol analogs. Ion mobility spectrometry was used to determine if proton abstraction reactions passed through an adduct intermediate with thermalized ions and mobility spectra for all chemicals were obtained from 25 to 200 degrees C. Proton abstraction from M Cl- was not observed at any temperature for phenol, monofluorophenol, or difluorophenol. Mobility spectra for trifluorophenol revealed the kinetic transformations to (M-H)- either from M Cl- or from M2 Cl- directly. Proton abstraction was the predominant reaction for tetra- and penta-fluorophenols. Consequently, the evidence suggests that proton abstraction occurs from an adduct ion where the reaction barrier is reduced with increasing acidity of the O-H bond in C6H5-xFxOH.

  15. Gamma Ray Bursts: a 1983 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect; energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all; burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective; finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  16. Gamma ray bursts: a 1983 overview

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, T.L.

    1983-10-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect. Energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all. Burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective. Finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  17. Unthermalized positrons in gamma ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkaczyk, W.; Karakula, S.

    1992-01-01

    The spectra of the broadening 0.511 MeV annihilation line produced by high temperatures was calculated in the case of unthermalized plasma; i.e., T sub e(+) is not = T sub e(-). The flattening in the spectrum of the annihilation lines for large differences of electron and positron temperatures is a strong indication that the observed features of the hard tailed spectrum of the gamma bursts can be well described by annihilation of unthermalized positrons. It is proposed that the charge separation occurring in Eddington limited accretion onto a neutron star or the one photon pair production in strong magnetic fields as a mechanism for the production of unthermalized positrons in the sources of gamma bursts. From the best fit of experimental spectra by the model, the parameters of sources for which the regions with different plasma temperatures can exist is evaluated.

  18. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Gamma-Ray Bursts with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczynski, P.; Palmer, D.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R. H.

    2000-11-01

    A search for spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts detected with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer has been unable to confirm their existence. The spectrometer, aboard the Wind spacecraft, has detected gamma-ray bursts and other transients since 1995. We have performed a systematic search for narrow spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts detected with this instrument that augments and extends the results of a similar search of bursts detected with BATSE. This search procedure tests for statistically significant lines at all possible times and durations during a burst using the method of maximum likelihood and C-statistic. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of this procedure, particularly on Poisson distributed data, for distinguishing real features from statistical fluctuations. The most promising line candidates were consistent with chance fluctuations, given the large number of spectra searched.

  19. Bursts of gamma rays from Compton scattering at cosmological distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Svensson, Roland; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    Compton scattering of the microwave background photons by beams of ultrarelativistic electrons at large redshifts, z much greater than 1, is proposed as a source of some gamma-ray bursts. Such beams may be produced by cusps on superconducting cosmic strings. In the present model, a very narrow beam of ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs scatters the microwave background photons into a very narrow beam of gamma rays. While the pairs lose energy, the beam of gamma rays opens up and sweeps the observer. The expected time variability and spectra of the resulting gamma-ray burst are calculated. The bursts have a rapid rise time, followed by a more gradual decline. The spectra are initially very hard and become softer during the decline.

  20. Cross sections and differential spectra for reactions of 2-20 MeV neutrons on /sup nat/Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Komoto, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes product yields, secondary n,p and (alpha) spectra, and ..gamma..-ray spectra calculated for incident neutrons of 2-20 MeV on /sup nat/Ni targets. Results are all from the code ALICE, using the version ALISO which does weighting of results for targets which are a mix of isotpoes. Where natural isotopic targets are involved, yields and n,p,..cap alpha.. sepctra will be reported weighted over isotopic yeilds. Gamma-ray spectra, however, will be reported for the most abundant isotope. We present product yields versus incident neutron energy, n,p,..cap alpha.. spectra versus incident neutron energy, and calculated ..gamma..-ray spectra

  1. Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-06-14

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

  2. Autophaser: An Algorithm for Automated Generation of Absorption Mode Spectra for FT-ICR MS

    PubMed Central

    Kilgour, David P.A.; Wills, Rebecca; Qi, Yulin; OConnor, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Phase correction of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry data allows the spectra to be presented in absorption mode. Absorption mode spectra offer superior mass resolving power (up to a factor of 2), mass accuracy, and sensitivity over the conventional magnitude mode. Hitherto, the use of absorption mode in FT-ICR mass spectrometry has required either specially adapted instrumentation or a manually intensive process of phase correction or has ignored the potentially significant effects of image charge and the associated frequency shifts. Here we present an algorithm that allows spectra recorded on un-adapted FT-ICR mass spectrometers to be phase corrected, their baseline deviations removed, and then an absorption mode plot presented in an automated manner which requires little user interaction. PMID:23373960

  3. Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Analysis of Intact Proteins from Biological Substrates.

    PubMed

    Sarsby, Joscelyn; Griffiths, Rian L; Race, Alan M; Bunch, Josephine; Randall, Elizabeth C; Creese, Andrew J; Cooper, Helen J

    2015-07-01

    Previously we have shown that liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is suitable for the analysis of intact proteins from a range of biological substrates. Here we show that LESA mass spectrometry may be coupled with high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for top-down protein analysis directly from thin tissue sections (mouse liver, mouse brain) and from bacterial colonies (Escherichia coli) growing on agar. Incorporation of FAIMS results in significant improvements in signal-to-noise and reduced analysis time. Abundant protein signals are observed in single scan mass spectra. In addition, FAIMS enables gas-phase separation of molecular classes, for example, lipids and proteins, enabling improved analysis of both sets of species from a single LESA extraction. PMID:26066713

  4. Gamma-Rays and Neutrinos from Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker

    1996-07-05

    High energy gamma-rays and neutrinos can be produced both by the annihilation and by the possible slow decay of dark matter particles. We discuss the fluxes and spectra of such secondaries produced by dark matter particles in the universe and their observability in competition with other astrophysical gamma-ray signals and with atmospheric neutrinos. To do this, we work within the assumption that the dark matter particles are neutralinos which are the lightest supersymmetric particles (LSPs) predicted by supersymmetry theory.

  5. High resolution room temperature ionization chamber xenon gamma radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Tepper; Jon Losee

    1995-01-01

    A unique thin walled dual-type gridded ionization chamber gamma radiation detector using ultra pure Xe gas as the detection medium is described. The detector was operated at room temperature and the energy spectra of 60Co, 137Cs, 22Na and 133Ba were obtained. An energy resolution of (16 keV) 2.4% FWHM was determined for the 662 keV 137Cs gamma peak which is

  6. Sequencing of Oligourea Foldamers by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathany, Katell; Owens, Neil W.; Guichard, Gilles; Schmitter, Jean-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This study is focused on sequence analysis of peptidomimetic helical oligoureas by means of tandem mass spectrometry, to build a basis for de novo sequencing for future high-throughput combinatorial library screening of oligourea foldamers. After the evaluation of MS/MS spectra obtained for model compounds with either MALDI or ESI sources, we found that the MALDI-TOF-TOF instrument gave more satisfactory results. MS/MS spectra of oligoureas generated by decay of singly charged precursor ions show major ion series corresponding to fragmentation across both CO-NH and N'H-CO urea bonds. Oligourea backbones fragment to produce a pattern of a, x, b, and y type fragment ions. De novo decoding of spectral information is facilitated by the occurrence of low mass reporter ions, representative of constitutive monomers, in an analogous manner to the use of immonium ions for peptide sequencing.

  7. Theoretical Studies of Molecular Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher (Technical Monitor); Freedman, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    This summary describes the research activities of the principal investigator during the reporting period. The research includes spectroscopy, management of molecular databases, and generation of spectral line profiles and opacity data. The spectroscopy research includes oxygen broadening of nitric oxide (NO), analysis of CO2 spectra, analysis of HNO3 spectra, and analysis of CO spectra.

  8. The PTB underground laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry

    PubMed

    Neumaier; Arnold; Bohm; Funck

    2000-07-01

    In 1991, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt established an underground laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) at the Asse salt mine, near Braunschweig. Due to the depth of 925 m below ground (equivalent to about 2100 m of water), the cosmic ray muon intensity in this facility is reduced by more than 5 orders of magnitude. In addition, the low specific activity of the pure rock salt and a low concentration of radon lead to an extremely low ambient dose equivalent rate of less than 1 nSv/h. The UDO facility is therefore well suited for dosimetry at very low dose rates, as well as for Ultra-Low-Background (ULB) gamma-ray spectrometry. In 1998, a coaxial low-background HPGe-detector (88% relative efficiency, FWHM 2.0 keV at 1.33 MeV) with an extended shielding (20 cm low-activity lead, 1 cm electrolytic copper, N2-flushing) was installed at UDO; the count rate per mass of germanium, integrated over the energy range from 40 to 2750 keV, was measured to be 0.012 s(-1) kg(-1). Results from test measurements and first applications are reported. The design of a ULB gamma-detector system, presently under construction, is described. PMID:10879857

  9. Cosmic Ray Spectra in Nambu-Goldstone Dark Matter Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; /SLAC; Murayama, Hitoshi; /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Tokyo U., IPMU; Shirai, Satoshi; /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U., IPMU; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; /Tokyo U., IPMU /Tokyo U.; ,

    2010-06-11

    We discuss the cosmic ray spectra in annihilating/decaying Nambu-Goldstone dark matter models. The recent observed positron/electron excesses at PAMELA and Fermi experiments are well fitted by the dark matter with a mass of 3TeV for the annihilating model, while with a mass of 6TeV for the decaying model. We also show that the Nambu-Goldstone dark matter models predict a distinctive gamma-ray spectrum in a certain parameter space.

  10. Gamma rays interaction with copper doped lithium phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElBatal, Hatem A.; ElMandouh, Zeinab E.; Zayed, Hamdia A.; Marzouk, Samir Y.; Elkomy, Gihan M.; Hosny, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Undoped and copper-doped lithium phosphate glasses were prepared. CuO-doped glasses possess characteristic greenish color which deepens with the increase of CuO content. Experimental optical absorption spectra of the undoped lithium phosphate glasses reveal strong ultraviolet absorption bands and no visible bands are observed. These strong UV bands are assumed to originate from unavoidable trace iron ions contamination within the chemicals used for the preparation of the glass. The optical absorption spectra of the CuO-doped phosphate glasses reveal the same UV absorption as observed in the undoped samples beside an extra broad visible absorption band which splits to some component peaks. Such visible spectra are related to the presence of divalent copper (Cu2+) ions in distorted octahedral coordination. Gamma irradiation of the undoped sample produces induced defects generated through the liberation of pairs of electrons and positive holes. CuO-doped glasses show some shielding behavior towards successive gamma irradiation especially at high CuO contents. FTIR absorption spectra of the studied glasses indicate the appearance of characteristic vibrational bands due to phosphate groups. Gamma irradiation causes minor effects on the FTIR spectra, but the bands due to water molecules are strongly affected by gamma irradiation because of loose bonding within the glass network.

  11. Gamma Ray Astronomy with Magnetized Zevatrons

    E-print Network

    Eric Armengaud; Guenter Sigl; Francesco Miniati

    2005-11-09

    Nearby sources of cosmic rays up to a ZeV(=10^21 eV) could be observed with a multi-messenger approach including secondary gamma-rays and neutrinos. If cosmic rays above ~10^18 eV are produced in magnetized environments such as galaxy clusters, the flux of secondary gamma-rays below ~1 TeV can be enhanced up to several orders of magnitudes compared to unmagnetized sources. A particular source of enhancement are synchrotron and cascade photons from e^+e^- pairs produced by protons from sources with relatively steep injection spectra proportional to E^-2.6. Such sources should be visible at the same time in ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiments and gamma-ray telescopes.

  12. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  13. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  14. Processing of Echell spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyashko, D. A.; Tsymbal, V. V.; Makaganiuk, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    The current software was developed at the Taurida National University, astronomy department of physics faculty by Lyashko D.A., Tsymbal V.V. This programm comlex can be adapted according namely to individual spectrograph. All spectra processing goes automatically, so in this way it becomes possible to minimize user interaction with programm. It is very convinient and does not require special training for using it. In this case we can exclude human element and so then, output data corruption. The algotithm of processing due to differences between spectrographs is described in this paper.

  15. Einstein spectra of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the initial stage of the CfA survey of quasar energy distributions are reviewed. Einstein imaging proportional counter spectra of 33 quasars have been studied by fitting a single power law slope and absorption by an equivalent column density of neutral hydrogen. Comparison with the higher energy HEAO-A2 data leads to a two-component model for the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray column density is systematically lower than the 21-cm measured Galactic column density along the same line of sight.

  16. Observation of entrance channel effects in compound nucleus formation with high energy. gamma. -rays

    SciTech Connect

    Thoennessen, M.; Beene, J.R.; Auble, R.L.; Bertrand, F.E.; Baktash, C.; Halbert, M.L.; Horen, D.J.; Ludemann, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sarantites, D.G.; Stracener, D.W. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Spang, W. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R))

    1990-01-01

    We investigated entrance channel effects in the decay of excited {sup 160}Er and {sup 164}Yb, formed with {sup 16}O and {sup 64}Ni beams by measuring high energy (5--25 MeV) {gamma}-ray spectra. Gamma rays from the decay of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) built on highly excited states provide a good probe to study these effects, since the {gamma} rays are emitted in the early stages of the reaction. The {gamma}-ray spectra measured in the {sup 16}O-induced reactions show the typical GDR bump whereas the {gamma}-ray spectra from the more symmetric entrance channels show dramatically different shape. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. High resolution mass spectrometry for the characterization of complex, fossil organic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Haas, G.W.; Kim, Y.L.; Hunt, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The nature of molecules with heteroatom functionality in the pyridine, extracts of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples is being explored using high resolution mass spectrometry (FIRMS), with desorption chemical ionization (DCI). Structural information is obtained from tandem MS experiments using high resolution to select the ions to fragment. The first DCIHRMS spectra of complex mixtures are shown. Molecular weight distribution determined by DO are similar to those determined by laser desorption and field ionization mass spectrometry with very little ion intensity observed at greater than 1000 Daltons. Results are correlated with other techniques such as NMR, XPS, and XANES.

  18. Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Bamberger, Casimir; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by MALDI directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84\\pm35) \\mu m with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm2. Extended laser spots of ~5 mm2 on structured specimens allowed parallel imaging of s...

  19. Diffuse continuum gamma rays from the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    A. W. Strong; I. V. Moskalenko; O. Reimer

    2000-02-24

    A new study of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray continuum radiation is presented, using a cosmic-ray propagation model which includes nucleons, antiprotons, electrons, positrons, and synchrotron radiation. Our treatment of the inverse Compton (IC) scattering includes the effect of anisotropic scattering in the Galactic interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and a new evaluation of the ISRF itself. Models based on locally measured electron and nucleon spectra and synchrotron constraints are consistent with gamma-ray measurements in the 30-500 MeV range, but outside this range excesses are apparent. A harder nucleon spectrum is considered but fitting to gamma rays causes it to violate limits from positrons and antiprotons. A harder interstellar electron spectrum allows the gamma-ray spectrum to be fitted above 1 GeV as well, and this can be further improved when combined with a modified nucleon spectrum which still respects the limits imposed by antiprotons and positrons. A large electron/IC halo is proposed which reproduces well the high-latitude variation of gamma-ray emission. The halo contribution of Galactic emission to the high-latitude gamma-ray intensity is large, with implications for the study of the diffuse extragalactic component and signatures of dark matter. The constraints provided by the radio synchrotron spectral index do not allow all of the <30 MeV gamma-ray emission to be explained in terms of a steep electron spectrum unless this takes the form of a sharp upturn below 200 MeV. This leads us to prefer a source population as the origin of the excess low-energy gamma rays.

  20. Distinguishing fissions of 232Th, 237Np and 238U with beta-delayed gamma rays

    E-print Network

    A. Iyengar; E. B. Norman; C. Howard; C. Angell; A. Kaplan; J. J. Ressler; P. Chodash; E. Swanberg; A. Czeszumska; B. Wang; R. Yee; H. A. Shugart

    2012-12-29

    Measurements of beta-delayed gamma-ray spectra following 14-MeV neutron-induced fissions of 232Th, 237Np, and 238U were conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Spectra were collected for times ranging from 1 minute to 14 hours after irradiation. Intensity ratios of gamma-ray lines were extracted from the data that allow identification of the fissioning isotope.