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Sample records for gamma-hydroxybutyrate ghb precursors

  1. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water Scoop Soap Somatomax PM Somsanit Vita-G Water Wolfies Zonked Should I be worried about GHB? Yes. Because GHB has no color or smell, it can easily be slipped into drinks and food. Even a very small amount of GHB may cause a person to "black out" (become unconscious). This is why GHB is ...

  2. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Liukkonen, Raija; Ariniemi, Kari

    2007-08-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that causes stimulation, euphoria, anxiolysis or hypnosis, depending on the dose used. Low doses of the drug are used recreationally, and also implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Because of the unusually steep dose-response curves, accidental GHB overdosing, leading to coma, seizures or death can occur. Being a controlled substance, GHB is often substituted with its non-scheduled precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are rapidly metabolized into GHB in the body. Here we describe an assay for GHB, GBL and BD in blood and/or urine samples. GHB and BD were extracted from diluted 200 microL aliquots of samples with t-butylmethylether (plus internal standard benzyl alcohol) in test tubes preloaded with NaCl. After acidification and centrifugation the solvent phase was transferred to a test tube preloaded with Na(2)SO(4), incubated for 30 min, centrifuged again, and evaporated in vacuum. The residue was mixed with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) in acetonitrile, and injected into a GC-MS. When analyzing GBL, the salting-out step was omitted, and analysis was performed with a GC-FID apparatus. As revealed by the validation data this procedure is suitable for quantitative determination of GHB and its precursors in blood and/or urine samples. PMID:17658710

  3. Preference for Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in Current Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Newton, Thomas; Chudzynski, Joy; Cameron, Jennifer M.; McPherson, Sterling; Fong, Tim; Torrington, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug with significant abuse potential. The present study aimed to assess the relative value of escalating doses of GHB to current GHB users via the Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP), and to validate that the dose rated highest with the MCP would be self-administered at a greater rate than placebo. Participants were 5…

  4. Preference for Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in Current Users

    PubMed Central

    Roll, John M; Newton, Thomas; Chudzynski, Joy; Cameron, Jennifer M; McPherson, Sterling; Fong, Timothy; Torrington, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug with significant abuse potential. The present study aimed to assess the relative value of escalating doses of GHB to current GHB users via the Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP), and to validate that the dose rated highest with the MCP would be self-administered at a greater rate than placebo. Participants were 5 current GHB users who were not currently trying to stop using GHB. To examine the value of escalating doses of GHB, the following doses of GHB were used: 0 (placebo), 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 mg/kg. Participants typically assigned higher doses of GHB had higher crossover points on the MCP. During choice sessions, participants made repeated choices between administering GHB, placebo or nothing. All participants selected GHB exclusively (5 out of 5 instances) except for one participant who selected GHB on 4 out of 5 instances, thus 96% (i.e., 24/25) of choices were for active GHB. Based on these data, GHB appears likely to function as a dose-dependent reinforcer for humans based on our sample. PMID:22693361

  5. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  6. Self-administration of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Kaminski, Barbara J.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drugs and drugs of abuse. Objective Given the reports of abuse, and the ease at which GBL and 1,4-BD may be obtained, we investigated the reinforcing of GBL (n=5) and 1,4-BD (n=4) in baboons using IV self-administration procedures. Methods Sessions ran 24 h/day. Each injection was contingent upon completion of a fixed number (120 or 160) of lever responses. A 3-h timeout period followed each injection, limiting the total number of injections to 8/day. Self-administration was first established with cocaine (0.32 mg/kg/injection). GBL (10–130.0 mg/kg/injection), 1,4-BD (10–100 mg/kg/injection) or vehicle were substituted for cocaine at least 15 days. Food pellets were available ad libitum 24 h/day and were contingent upon completion of 10 lever responses. Results GBL (32–100 mg/kg/injection) maintained significantly greater numbers of injections when compared to vehicle in 4 of 5 baboons and mean rates of injection were high (>6 per day) in 3 baboons and moderate in the fourth baboon (4–6 per day). 1,4-BD (78–130 mg/kg/injection) maintained significantly greater numbers of injections when compared to vehicle in only 2 out of 4 baboons and rates were moderate to high in both baboons. Self-injection of these doses of GBL and 1,4-BD generally inhibited food-maintained responding. Conclusions GBL and 1,4-BD have abuse liability. Given that GBL and 1,4-BD are self-administered, are easier to obtain than GHB, and are detected in seized samples, additional legal control measures of these GHB pro-drugs may be needed. PMID:22945514

  7. Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem®): differences in characteristics and misuse

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate. PMID:19493637

  8. A Web-Based Study of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB): Patterns, Experiences, and Functions of Use

    PubMed Central

    Stein, LAR; Lebeau, Rebecca; Clair, Mary; Martin, Rosemarie; Bryant, Monte; Storti, Susan; Monti, Peter

    2011-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) was developed as a general anesthetic. Due to dosing difficulty and side effects, regular use was discontinued. Medical uses include treating sleep and alcohol disorders. In the 1990s, it was promoted as a supplement and taken to improve mood and sex. GHB and its analogs (gamma butyrolactone and butanediol) were widely available until federal regulations were put into effect with mounting evidence of adverse events. This survey (N = 61) study was conducted to assess patterns, experiences, and functions of use. Much of what is understood regarding GHB treatment is based on hospital case studies for overdose and withdrawal. Not enough is known about prevention, reducing use and associated problems, or relapse. We know little about specific drug effect expectancies, triggers, coping skills, and consequences of use (positive/negative). While the drug treatment literature has a wealth of information to draw upon, GHB-specific information may greatly assist relapse prevention. PMID:21175918

  9. Intravenous self-administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Kaminski, Barbara J.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Ator, Nancy A.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) poses a public health concern. In previous studies, intravenous (IV) self-administration of GHB doses up to 10 mg/kg was not maintained in non-human primates under limited-access conditions, which was inconsistent with the usual good correspondence between drugs abused by humans and those self-injected by laboratory animals. Methods Self-administration of GHB was studied in 10 baboons using procedures standard for our laboratory to assess drug abuse liability. Each self-injection depended on completion of 120 or 160 lever responses. Sessions ran continuously; a 3-h timeout limited the number of injections per 24 h to 8. Self-injection was established at 6–8 injections/day with cocaine (0.32 mg/kg/injection) prior to substitution of each GHB dose (3.2–178 mg/kg/injection) or vehicle for 15 days. Food pellets were available 24 h/day. Results GHB maintained significantly greater numbers of injections when compared to vehicle in 6 of the 9 baboons that completed GHB evaluations that included 32 mg/kg/injection or higher. The baboons that self-administered GHB at high rates were ones for which GHB was the first drug each had tested under the 24-hr/day cocaine baseline procedure. Self-injection of the highest doses of GHB decreased food-maintained responding. Conclusions High-dose GHB can function as a reinforcer in non-human primates under 24-h access, but self-administration history may be important. The findings are consistent with the demonstrated abuse liability of GHB in humans, and remove GHB as an exception to the typical good correspondence between those drugs abused by humans and those self-administered by nonhuman primates. PMID:21112162

  10. [Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its lactone (GBL) as psychoactive substances].

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Anna; Kwiecie?-Obara, Ewelina; Szponar, Jaros?aw; Majewska, Magdalena; Ko?odziej, Ma?gorzata

    2012-01-01

    Gammabutyrolactone is included in the solvent such as wheel cleaners, pesticides, cosmetics, drugs. After ingestion GBL is converted to gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Both substances are classified as so called "club drugs" and their action is characterized by euphoria, sedation, and induction of retrograde amnesia of events. These activities were basis for the use of GHB and its lactone as rape pill. Acute poisoning with these compounds causes confusion, agitation, ataxia, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus, dyskinesia, hallucinations, coma, irregular breathing, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, convulsions, respiratory paralysis and thus respiratory arrest. These substances carry a risk of development of physical addiction of the hard proceeding of abstinence syndrome. In the USA there is a ban on the sale and promotion of these compounds. In Poland despite the fact that GHB is a controlled substance, there is no regulation of GBL trading. The aim of this paper is to summarize current knowledge regarding the pharmacology, impact on the human body, toxicity, and the effects of chronic abuse of these substances. PMID:23243924

  11. [Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB): more than a date rape drug, a potentially addictive drug].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Novarin, Johanne; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Dally, Sylvain; Lowenstein, William; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-10-01

    According to available information, GHB and its precursors--gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD)--are used especially in a nightlife scene characterized by the search for amplified sensations through the combination of electronic music, marathon dancing, and substance abuse. Evidence indicates that GHB/GHL is used particularly in some subpopulations and in places, such as in gay nightclubs. Commonly known as Gorliquid ecstasy, it was misused in the 1980s for its bodybuilding effects and in the 1990s as a recreational drug at music venues. In the same period, media coverage of the use of GHB in sexual assault (often referred to as date rape) brought the drug into the spotlight. GHB/GHL addiction is a recognized clinical entity evidenced by severe withdrawal symptoms when the drug is abruptly discontinued after regular or chronic use. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may occur in recreational and chronic users. Nonfatal overdoses and deaths related to GHB have been reported. These undesirable effects and especially the deaths appear to have prompted campaigns to limit the use of GHB. Clinicians must also be aware of GBL, which is being sold and used as a substitute for GHB. PMID:19762202

  12. Monitoring of the interconversion of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) to gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Tasnim; Brewster, Victoria L; Edwards, Howell G M; Hargreaves, Michael D; Jilani, Shelina K; Scowen, Ian J

    2013-08-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug-of-abuse that has recently become associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault, known as date rape. For this reason the drug is commonly found 'spiked' in alcoholic beverages. When GHB is in solution it may undergo conversion into the corresponding lactone, Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). Studies have been carried out to determine the detection limits of GHB and GBL in various solutions by Raman spectroscopy and to monitor the interconversion of GHB and GBL in solution with different pH conditions and temperature. In this study, a portable Raman spectrometer was used to study the interconversion of GHB and GBL in water and ethanol solutions as a function of pH, time, and temperature. The aim of this was to determine the optimum pH range for conversion in order to relate this to the pH ranges that the drug is likely to be subjected to, first in spiked beverages and secondly after ingestion in the digestive system. The aim was also to identify a timescale for this conversion in relation to possible scenarios, for example if GHB takes a number of hours to convert to GBL, it is likely for the beverage to be ingested before esterification can take place. GHB and GBL were then spiked into a selection of beverages of known pH in order to study the stability of GHB and GBL in real systems. PMID:23225646

  13. The Impact of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Legal Restrictions on Patterns of Use: Results from an International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, IB; Kim-Katz, SY; Dyer, JE; Blanc, PD

    2009-01-01

    Aims To conduct an Internet-based survey of GHB use, identifying differences by respondent residence. Methods We recruited GHB-knowledgeable persons via “social networking Internet sites.” Individuals (n=314) or groups (n=66) were approached based on GHB-use testimonials. Data collected location, use, reason for cessation (if applicable). Findings We recruited 155 GHB users. U.S. respondents (53 of 70; 76%) compared to non-U.S. respondents (38 of 85; 45%) were older and more highly educated (p<0.05) but manifest a 3-fold greater adjusted odds of GHB cessation (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% CI 1.4–6.9; p < 0.05). Of the 80 respondents stating reason for cessation, 36 (45%) cited legal risk, price, or access; 44 (55%) cited health or related concerns. U.S. compared to non-U.S. respondents more frequently invoked legal and related concerns (OR 2.5; 95% CI 0.99–6.3; p=0.05). In a nested analysis, narrowly stated legal (n=4/5 U.S.) versus health (n=6/18 U.S.) reasons differed by location (p=0.048, one-tailed). Conclusions In the U.S., where GHB has stricter legal penalties, GHB cessation is more likely, with legal and related reasons more commonly invoked for cessation. These findings support a link between declining U.S. GHB abuse and more stringent restrictions; although other un-assessed factors may also explain this association. The Impact of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Legal Restrictions on Patterns of Use: Results from an International Survey PMID:20953310

  14. [Current knowledge on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1 ,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)].

    PubMed

    Dematteis, Maurice; Pennel, Lucie; Mallaret, Michel

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an old anaesthetic drug which was misused in the 80-90's as an anabolic agent (bodybuilding), recreational drug (drunkenness, euphoric, disinhibiting and aphrodisiac effects) and as a date rape drug (disinhibiting, hypnotic and amnesic effects). Its use in the general population is low, and mainly concerns gay population in nightclubs and young people in parties. The intoxications, above all with alcohol combination, can be severe, with coma and breathing depression, or even fatal. Chronic use leads to psychic and physical dependence; withdrawal syndrome can be severe, with agitation and delirium. In 1999, GHB classification as a narcotic resulted in the increased use of GHB prodrugs gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which were easily commercially available as solvent and cleaning products. Like GHB, they have a narrow window of use, and share similar toxicity. Their increased cases of recreational use and of severe drug intoxication, abuse and dependence, led the French Ministry of Health in 2011 to prohibit their sale and transfer to the public. PMID:22730800

  15. Endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens and further recommendation for interpretative cut-offs.

    PubMed

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Jensen, P; Kietzerow, J; Schrot, M; Wilke, N; Vettorazzi, E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2015-01-01

    When interpreting gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens, a possible increase in GHB concentrations because of post-mortem generation must be considered. In this study, endogenous GHB concentrations in post-mortem biological fluids were investigated. Additionally, we review post-mortem GHB concentrations already published in the literature. Heart and peripheral blood samples, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and vitreous humor were collected from 64 autopsies in subjects where the cause of death excluded GHB exposure. Sample analysis was carried out either on the day of autopsy or later after immediate freezing and storage at -20 °C. GHB concentrations in venous blood samples (n?=?61) were <0.6-28.7 mg/L (mean 11.9 mg/L; median 10.6 mg/L), <0.6-65.3 mg/L (mean 15.2 mg/L; median 12.8 mg/L) in heart blood (n?=?56), <0.6-25.1 mg/L (mean 6.0 mg/L; median 3.8 mg/L) in urine (n?=?50), <0.6-39.0 mg/L (mean 9.6 mg/L; median 7.5 mg/L), in vitreous humor (n?=?54), and <0.6-24.0 mg/L (mean 4.2 mg/L; median 3.2 mg/L) in cerebrospinal fluid (n?=?52). There was no significant difference between GHB concentrations in cases where there were signs of beginning putrefaction at the time of autopsy (n?=?9) and cases without obvious signs of putrefaction. In one case with advanced putrefaction, the GHB concentration in venous blood was 32.7 mg/L. In conclusion, for post-mortem venous blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, an interpretative cut-off of 30 mg/L for GHB concentrations is suggested in cases where GHB analysis is conducted on the day of sample collection at autopsy or if samples have been stored at -20 °C immediately after collection. PMID:25084768

  16. A Critical Evaluation of the Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Model of Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Venzi, Marcello; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Typical absence seizures (ASs) are nonconvulsive epileptic events which are commonly observed in pediatric and juvenile epilepsies and may be present in adults suffering from other idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of ASs has been greatly advanced by the availability of genetic and pharmacological models, in particular the ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) model which, in recent years, has been extensively used in studies in transgenic mice. GHB is an endogenous brain molecule that upon administration to various species, including humans, induces not only ASs but also a state of sedation/hypnosis. Analysis of the available data clearly indicates that only in the rat does there exist a set of GHB-elicited behavioral and EEG events that can be confidently classified as ASs. Other GHB activities, particularly in mice, appear to be mostly of a sedative/hypnotic nature: thus, their relevance to ASs requires further investigation. At the molecular level, GHB acts as a weak GABA-B agonist, while the existence of a GHB receptor remains elusive. The pre- and postsynaptic actions underlying GHB-elicited ASs have been thoroughly elucidated in thalamus, but little is known about the cellular/network effects of GHB in neocortex, the other brain region involved in the generation of ASs. PMID:25403866

  17. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

  18. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, acting through an anti-apoptotic mechanism, protects native and amyloid-precursor-protein-transfected neuroblastoma cells against oxidative stress-induced death.

    PubMed

    Wendt, G; Kemmel, V; Patte-Mensah, C; Uring-Lambert, B; Eckert, A; Schmitt, M J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G

    2014-03-28

    Clinical observations suggested that gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) protects nerve cells against death but the direct proofs are missing. Here, we combined several approaches to investigate GHB capacity to protect human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced death. To increase the patho-physiological relevancy of our study, we used native SH-SY5Y cells and SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the wild-type amyloid-precursor-protein (APPwt) or control-vector-pCEP4. Trypan Blue exclusion and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide) assays combined with pharmacological analyses showed that H2O2 reduced native and genetically modified cell viability and APPwt-transfected cells were the most vulnerable. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and activated caspase-3 staining assessed by flow cytometry revealed a basally elevated apoptotic signal in APPwt-transfected cells. Reverse-transcription, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting showed that mRNA and protein basal ratios of apoptotic modulators Bax/Bcl-2 were also high in APPwt-transfected cells. GHB efficiently and dose-dependently rescued native and genetically modified cells from H2O2-induced death. Interestingly, GHB, which strongly decreased elevated basal levels of TUNEL-staining, activated caspase 3-labeling and Bax/Bcl-2 in APPwt-transfected cells, also counteracted H2O2-evoked increased apoptotic markers in native and genetically modified SH-SY5Y cells. Since GHB did not promote cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic action through the down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios and/or caspase 3 activity appears as a critical mechanism involved in GHB-induced protection of SH-SY5Y cells against APPwt-overexpression- or H2O2-evoked death. Altogether, these results, providing multi-parametric evidence for the existence of neuroprotective action of GHB, also open interesting perspectives for the development of GHB analog-based strategies against neurodegeneration or nerve cell death. PMID:24456637

  19. GHB - Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facts and Fiction What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil Consequences How Drugs Alter Brain Development and Affect ... Marijuana Featured Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil A marijuana concentrate is a powerful substance that ...

  20. Central and Peripheral Metabolic Changes Induced by Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Gianina; Vienne, Julie; Vaucher, Angélique; Jimenez, Sonia; Tafti, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was originally introduced as an anesthetic but was first abused by bodybuilders and then became a recreational or club drug.1 Sodium salt of GHB is currently used for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. The mode of action and metabolism of GHB is not well understood. GHB stimulates growth hormone release in humans and induces weight loss in treated patients, suggesting an unexplored metabolic effect. In different experiments the effect of GHB administration on central (cerebral cortex) and peripheral (liver) biochemical processes involved in the metabolism of the drug, as well as the effects of the drug on metabolism, were evaluated in mice. Design: C57BL/6J, gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) knockout and obese (ob/ob) mice were acutely or chronically treated with GHB at 300 mg/kg. Measurements and Results: Respiratory ratio decreased under GHB treatment, independent of food intake, suggesting a shift in energy substrate from carbohydrates to lipids. GHB-treated C57BL/6J and GABAB null mice but not ob/ob mice gained less weight than matched controls. GHB dramatically increased the corticosterone level but did not affect growth hormone or prolactin. Metabolome profiling showed that an acute high dose of GHB did not increase the brain GABA level. In the brain and the liver, GHB was metabolized into succinic semialdehyde by hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase. Chronic administration decreased glutamate, s-adenosylhomocysteine, and oxidized gluthathione, and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusions: Our findings indicate large central and peripheral metabolic changes induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) with important relevance to its therapeutic use. Citation: Luca G, Vienne J, Vaucher A, Jimenez S, Tafti M. Central and peripheral metabolic changes induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate. SLEEP 2015;38(2):305–313. PMID:25515097

  1. GHB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tremors, and sweating. Many of GHB's long-term effects are still unknown, but some that are known are: problems sleeping breathing problems depression and other mental health issues memory problems Continue Other Possible Problems Taking ...

  2. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate enhances mood and prosocial behavior without affecting plasma oxytocin and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Oliver G; Eisenegger, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg; von Rotz, Robin; Dornbierer, Dario; Gachet, M Salomé; Heinrichs, Markus; Wetter, Thomas C; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was examined by the Charity Donation Task, the Social Value Orientation test, and the Reciprocity Task. Reaction time, memory, empathy, and theory-of-mind were also tested. Blood plasma levels of GHB, oxytocin, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) were determined. GHB showed stimulating and sedating effects, and elicited euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. In participants with low prosociality, the drug increased donations and prosocial money distributions. In contrast, social cognitive abilities such as emotion recognition, empathy, and theory-of-mind, and basal cognitive functions were not affected. GHB increased plasma progesterone, while oxytocin and testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, DHEA, and ACTH levels remained unaffected. GHB has mood-enhancing and prosocial effects without affecting social hormones such as oxytocin and testosterone. These data suggest a potential involvement of GHB-/GABAB-receptors and progesterone in mood and prosocial behavior. PMID:26209926

  3. Acute poisoning from gamma-hydroxybutyrate in California.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, M. Y.; Kreutzer, R. A.; Dyer, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    We report a series of 5 representative patients in California who experienced adverse reactions from the illicitly marketed substance gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). The drug is a putative neurotransmitter marketed as a growth hormone releaser for bodybuilders. The most commonly reported symptoms included abrupt drowsiness, dizziness, and a "high". Other effects were headache, nausea, vomiting, myoclonic jerking, and short-term coma. There have been no reported deaths. If product use is discontinued, full recovery with no long-term side effects is universal. No clear dose-response effect was observed; this may be attributable to differences in susceptibility, wide variations in doses taken by the same person, or the coingestion of other substances. Case interviews confirm that, despite being banned by the US Food and Drug Administration, GHB is still widely available in the underground drug market. Athletes and bodybuilders may take drugs for which there are claims of improved performance or body image. Physicians should be alert for signs of GHB poisoning in emergency department and clinic patients. PMID:1574880

  4. GHB: Forensic examination of a dangerous recreational drug by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindig, J. P.; Ellis, L. E.; Brueggemeyer, T. W.; Satzger, R. D.

    1998-06-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an illegal drug that has been abused for its intoxicating effects. However, GHB can also produce harmful physiological effects ranging from mild (nausea, drowsiness) to severe (coma, death). Because GHB is often produced by clandestine manufacture, its concentration, purity, and final form can be variable. Therefore, the analysis of suspected GHB samples using FTIR spectroscopy requires a variety of sample preparations and accessories, based on the sample matrix.

  5. GABAB receptor-mediated activation of astrocytes by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Timothy; Chen, Lixin; Emri, Zsuzsa; Pirttimaki, Tiina; Errington, Adam C.; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Parri, H. Rheinallt

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolite gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) shows a variety of behavioural effects when administered to animals and humans, including reward/addiction properties and absence seizures. At the cellular level, these actions of GHB are mediated by activation of neuronal GABAB receptors (GABABRs) where it acts as a weak agonist. Because astrocytes respond to endogenous and exogenously applied GABA by activation of both GABAA and GABABRs, here we investigated the action of GHB on astrocytes on the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventrobasal (VB) thalamic nucleus, two brain areas involved in the reward and proepileptic action of GHB, respectively, and compared it with that of the potent GABABR agonist baclofen. We found that GHB and baclofen elicited dose-dependent (ED50: 1.6 mM and 1.3 µM, respectively) transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ in VTA and VB astrocytes of young mice and rats, which were accounted for by activation of their GABABRs and mediated by Ca2+ release from intracellular store release. In contrast, prolonged GHB and baclofen exposure caused a reduction in spontaneous astrocyte activity and glutamate release from VTA astrocytes. These findings have key (patho)physiological implications for our understanding of the addictive and proepileptic actions of GHB. PMID:25225100

  6. A fast and reliable method for GHB quantitation in whole blood by GC-MS/MS (TQD) for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use since the 1960s. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market. A fully validated, sensitive and reproducible method for the quantification of GHB by methanolic precipitation and GC-MS/MS (TQD) in whole blood is presented. Using 100?L of whole blood, obtained results included a LOD and LLOQ of 0.1mg/L and a recovery of 86% in a working range between 0.1 and 100mg/L. This method is sensitive and specific to detect the presence of GHB in small amounts of whole blood (both ante-mortem or post-mortem), and is, to the authors' knowledge, the first GC-MS-MS TQD method that uses different precursor ions and product ions for the identification of GHB and GHB-D6 (internal standard). Hence, this method may be especially useful for the study of endogenous values in this biological sample. PMID:26678181

  7. gamma-hydroxybutyrate increases a potassium current and decreases the H-current in hippocampal neurons via GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Paul; Roberto, Marisa; Madamba, Samuel G; Siggins, George Robert

    2004-10-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used for the treatment of alcoholism and to induce absence seizures in animals, but it has also recently emerged as a drug of abuse. In hippocampal neurons, GHB may activate its own putative receptor as well as GABA(B) receptors to affect synaptic transmission. We used voltage-clamp recordings of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons to characterize the postsynaptic conductances affected by GHB and to further clarify the site of GHB action. Low concentrations of GHB (0.1-1 mM) did not affect postsynaptic properties, but 10 mM GHB elicited an outward current at resting potential by augmenting an inwardly rectifying potassium current and concomitantly decreased the hyperpolarization-activated H-current (I(h)). Like GHB, the selective GABA(B)-receptor agonist baclofen (20 microM) increased a potassium current and decreased I(h). In the presence of 10 mM GHB, the baclofen effects were largely occluded. The selective GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845 [3-N[1-(S)-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-(S)-hydroxypropyl-p-benzyl-phosphinic acid] blocked the effects of both GHB and baclofen, whereas the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 [(2E)-(5-hydroxy-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[a][7]annulen-6-ylidene ethanoic acid] was ineffective. The GHB and baclofen effects were prevented in the presence of 200 microM barium, indicating that GHB augments a K(+) conductance, probably a G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) current. The decrease of I(h) by GHB and baclofen was also prevented by barium, suggesting that the diminution of I(h) is secondary to GIRK augmentation. Our results indicate that high GHB levels, which can be reached during abuse or intoxication, activate only GABA(B) receptors and not GHB receptors at the postsynaptic level to augment an inwardly rectifying K(+) current and decrease I(h). PMID:15152029

  8. Do capillary dried blood spot concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid mirror those in venous blood? A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sadones, Nele; Archer, John R H; Ingels, Ann-Sofie M E; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M; Wood, Michelle; Neels, Hugo; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a well-known illicit club and date-rape drug. Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is a promising alternative for classical venous sampling in cases of (suspected) GHB intoxication since it allows rapid sampling, which is of interest for the extensively metabolized GHB. However, there is limited data if -and how- capillary DBS concentrations correlate with venous concentrations. We conducted a comparative study in 50 patients with suspected GHB intoxication, to determine and to correlate GHB concentrations in venous DBS (vDBS) and capillary DBS (cDBS). This is the first study that evaluates in a large cohort the correlation between capillary and venous concentrations of an illicit drug in real-life samples. Of the 50 paired samples, 7 were excluded: the vDBS concentration was below the LLOQ of 2?µg/mL in 3 cases and 4 samples were excluded after visual inspection of the DBS. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean % difference of -2.8% between cDBS and vDBS concentrations, with the zero value included in the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference in GHB concentration. A paired sample t-test confirmed this observation (p?=?0.17). Also the requirement for incurred sample reproducibility was fulfilled: for more than two-thirds of the samples the concentrations obtained in cDBS and those in vDBS were within 20% of their mean. Since equivalent concentrations were observed in cDBS and vDBS, blood obtained by fingerprick can be considered a valid alternative for venous blood for GHB determination. PMID:25565078

  9. Effect of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A; Miller, M L; Levine, B

    2001-06-15

    Because gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous substance present in the body and is rapidly eliminated after ingestion, toxicologists investigating drug-facilitated sexual assault cases are often asked to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous levels of GHB in urine samples. This study was designed to determine the effects of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine. Specifically, it was designed to ascertain whether endogenous levels can be elevated to a range considered indicative of GHB ingestion. Urine specimens from two subjects that had not been administered exogenous GHB were collected during a 24h period and individually pooled. The pooled specimens were separated into standard sample cups and divided into three storage groups: room temperature ( approximately 25 degrees C), refrigerated (5 degrees C), and frozen (-10 degrees C). Additionally, some specimens were put through numerous freeze/thaw cycles to mimic situations that may occur if multiple laboratories analyze the same specimen. Periodic analysis of the samples revealed increases in the levels of endogenous GHB over a 6-month period. The greatest increase (up to 404%) was observed in the samples maintained at room temperature. The refrigerated specimens showed increases of 140-208%, while the frozen specimens showed smaller changes (88-116%). The specimens subjected to multiple freeze/thaw cycles mirrored specimens that had been thawed only once. None of the stored urine specimens demonstrated increases in GHB concentrations that would be consistent with exogenous GHB ingestion. PMID:11376982

  10. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of alpha-substituted N-benzylamides of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid with potential GABA-ergic activity. Part 6. Search for new anticonvulsant compounds.

    PubMed

    Malawska, Barbara; Kulig, Katarzyna; Gajda, Justyna; Szczeblewski, Dominik; Musia?, Anna; Wieckowski, Krzysztof; Maciag, Dorota; Stables, James P

    2007-01-01

    In the recent study we have extended our investigations to the new anticonvulsant derivatives of alpha-substituted N-benzylamides of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Among the obtained compounds N-benzylamide of alpha-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline)-GHB (9) has demonstrated activity against maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures in mice (at 100 mg/kg ip) and in rats (at 30 mg/kg, po dose). Lactone 8 and amide 9 have possessed a weak effect on [3H]-muscimol binding. Molecular modeling studies have revealed that anticonvulsant activity of the alpha-substituted amides of GHB might partially be explained by the orientation of the terminal benzylamide fragment. PMID:17665862

  11. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid induced spike and wave discharges in rats: relation to high-affinity [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites in the thalamus and cortex.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P K; Hirsch, E; Snead, O C

    1993-09-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is a naturally occurring compound which induces bilaterally synchronous spike and wave discharges in rats. The gamma-hydroxybutyric acid model of absence seizures simulates clinical absence seizures behaviorally as well as electrographically. The present study was undertaken in order to establish the role of the high-affinity gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites in the generation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid-induced spike and wave discharges. Spike and wave discharges induced by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid were recorded with the aid of bipolar depth electrodes implanted in discrete regions of thalamus, cortex and hippocampus. In the present study we found that ventroposterolateral, ventroposteromedial, medial and the reticular nuclei of the thalamus discharged synchronously with the cortical generation of spike and wave discharges. In the cortex, the superficial layers (I-IV) of frontoparietal cortex generated spike and wave discharges, whereas no spike and wave discharges were recorded from deeper layers (V-VI) of frontoparietal cortex. At the onset of spike and wave discharges induced by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, a rapid but reversible upregulation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites was observed. This increased [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding was characterized by an increase in the number of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid sites with no significant change in their affinity for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Moreover, the change in [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding was observed only in those thalamic structures and cortical layers which were found to be involved in the generation of spike and wave discharges induced by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. The CA3 field or dorsal hippocampus possesses the highest density of [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites of all brain regions. However, no significant change in [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding was observed in this region nor was the CA3 field involved in the generation of spike and wave discharges during gamma-hydroxybutyric acid-induced absence-like seizures. These findings confirm that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid-induced absence-like seizures originate from thalamocortical pathways and that the onset of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid-induced spike and wave discharges is directly related to the regulation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites in those regions which constitute the involved thalamocortical loop. PMID:8232911

  12. An improved method for the analysis of GHB in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jagerdeo, Eshwar; Montgomery, Madeline A; LeBeau, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    The abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its suspicion in cases of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault is of keen interest to forensic toxicology laboratories. This paper reports an extraction, separation and detection procedure for GHB in hair utilizing a combination of liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction using ethyl acetate and Oasis Max(®) cartridge, respectively, after the hair sample was digested. Analysis was by LC-MS-MS using a gradient separation on an Acclaim(®) Trinity(TM) P1 column performing three multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions each for GHB and its internal standard. The procedure was validated over a range from 0.4 to 50 ng/mg with estimated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.33 and an administratively set limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.2 ng/mg. Twenty hair specimens collected from individuals with no known exposure to GHB were analyzed for matrix interferences and to establish initial background levels of GHB. A wide range of endogenous GHB levels were observed in these samples (from less than the LOQ to 4.4 ng/mg). The results suggest the need for additional studies to better establish the full range of endogenous GHB levels in hair and that extreme caution is required in interpreting GHB findings in hair samples. PMID:25433016

  13. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25287794

  14. GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

    2007-01-01

    An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

  15. 21 CFR 1304.26 - Additional recordkeeping requirements applicable to drug products containing gamma-hydroxybutyric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional recordkeeping requirements applicable to drug products containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. 1304.26 Section 1304.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF REGISTRANTS Continuing Records § 1304.26 Additional recordkeeping...

  16. Identification of GHB and morphine in hair in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Riccardo; Lancia, Massimo; Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Oliva, Antonio; Fucci, Nadia

    2009-04-15

    The authors present the case of a 24-year-old girl who was sexually assaulted after administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and morphine. She had been living in an international college for foreign students for about 1 year and often complained of a general unhealthy feeling in the morning. At the end of the college period she returned to Italy and received at home some video clips shot by a mobile phone camera. In these videos she was having sex with a boy she met when she was studying abroad. Toxicological analysis of her hair was done: the hair was 20-cm long. A 2/3-cm segmentation of all the length of the hair was performed. Morphine and GHB were detected in hair segments related to the period of time she was abroad. The analyses of hair segments were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and the concentration of morphine and GHB were calculated. A higher value of GHB was found in the period associated with the possible criminal activity and was also associated with the presence of morphine in the same period. PMID:19261401

  17. Preliminary Web-Based Measures Development for GHB: Expectancies, Functions, and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L.A.R.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Clair, Mary; Martin, Rosemarie; Bryant, Monte; Storti, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Much of what is understood regarding gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment is based on hospital case studies for overdose and withdrawal, and there are currently no measures developed specifically for GHB or its analogs (e.g., gamma butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol) to assess drug effect expectancies, reasons for starting use, withdrawal effects, and knowledge and opinions about use. Objectives This pilot study (N = 61) was conducted to begin measures development to assess experiences, functions of use, and opinions regarding use as indicated by respondents taking a Web-based survey. Methods Minimum average partial correlation and parallel analysis procedures are employed to create scales. Results Scales were developed to assess expectancies, reasons for use, withdrawal, and knowledge/opinions of use with median ? = .79 and that account for 8.69–24.17% of the variance. Conclusion Scales have relatively good psychometric properties and replication is needed. Scientific Significance GHB-specific measures may greatly assist in furthering our understanding of protective and risk factors for use, and withdrawal phenomena. PMID:22175869

  18. New "lethal highs": a case of a deadly cocktail of GHB and Mephedrone.

    PubMed

    Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Santoni, Mariangela; Ciallella, Costantino

    2012-11-30

    Drug scenes within several countries have changed in recent years to incorporate a range of licit psychoactive products collectively known as "legal highs": these in combination with substances already in use can cause major health problems and even death. Consumption of Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) spread from 1980s to 2000s, when several nations have enacted laws that have made it illegal. Cases of GHB-caused or related deaths are often described in association with alcohol or traditional drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine); few cases of acute lethal toxicity due to Mephedrone have been recently reported; we describe the first case of fatality due to concomitant consumption of GHB and Mephedrone. A 43 years old man died during a drugs-based party: the two substances were not detected at toxicological screening, but were identified by further analysis on the basis of circumstantial data reported by a survivor. Through our work we aim to bring to the attention in the emerging role of new drugs of abuse, and highlight problems in identifying these drugs with immunoassay screening test commonly used. PMID:23088826

  19. [The knowledge about gamma-hydroxybutyric acid as by students of Physical Education Academy].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Pawe?; Chwaluk, Agnieszka; Parnicki, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a substance stealthily used by criminals to facilitate sexual assaults. It is also known as doping agent in sports. Physical Education Academies should prepare their graduates to be educators for young people, their trainers, organizers of sports and recreational events. Second year students of two majors: physical education and tourism and recreation were surveyed by means of questionnaire on "date-rape drug". As much as 320 among 327 students surveyed had heard about "date-rape drug". However their knowledge on it was shallow and unsystematic. None of the surveyed knew that the substance of "date-rape drug" could also be used as a doping agent. Only 31% of respondents were aware of existence of the test to detect "date-rape drug" in drinks. Physical Education Academy students should be thoroughly and relevantly educated on the matter of pharmacologic doping agents and drugs endangerment. PMID:19788135

  20. Regional Fos-expression induced by ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): comparison with ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and effects of co-administration of the GABAB antagonist SCH 50911 and putative GHB antagonist NCS-382.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, P S; McGregor, I S; Chebib, M; Hunt, G E

    2014-09-26

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has a complex array of neural actions that include effects on its own high-affinity GHB receptor, the release of neuroactive steroids, and agonist actions at GABAA and GABAB receptors. We previously reported partial overlap in the c-Fos expression patterns produced by GHB and the GABAB agonist, baclofen in rats. The present study extends these earlier findings by examining the extent to which GHB Fos expression and behavioral sedation are prevented by (2S)-(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911), a GABAB antagonist, and NCS-382, a putative antagonist at the high-affinity GHB receptor. We also compare Fos expression caused by GHB and its precursor ?-butyrolactone (GBL), which is a pro-drug for GHB but lacks the high sodium content of the parent GHB molecule. Both GHB (1,000 mg/kg) and GBL (600 mg/kg) induced rapid sedation in rats that lasted over 90 min and caused similar Fos expression patterns, albeit with GBL causing greater activation of the nucleus accumbens (core and shell) and dentate gyrus (granular layer). Pretreatment with SCH 50911 (100mg/kg) partly reversed the sedative effects of GHB and significantly reduced GHB-induced Fos expression in only four regions: the tenia tecta, lateral habenula, dorsal raphe and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. NCS-382 (50mg/kg) had no effect on GHB-induced sedation or Fos expression. When given alone, both NCS-382 and SCH 50911 increased Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, parasubthalamic nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract. SCH 50911 alone affected the Islands of Calleja and the medial, central and paraventricular thalamic nuclei. Overall, this study shows a surprising lack of reversal of GHB-induced Fos expression by two relevant antagonists, both of which have marked intrinsic actions. This may reflect the limited doses tested but also suggests that GHB Fos expression reflects mechanisms independent of GHB and GABAB receptors. PMID:25088910

  1. Behavioral Analyses of GHB: Receptor Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    GHB is used therapeutically and recreationally, although the precise mechanism of action responsible for its different behavioral effects is not entirely clear. The purpose of this review is to summarize how behavioral procedures, especially drug discrimination procedures, have been used to study the mechanism of action of GHB. More specifically, we will review several different drug discrimination procedures and discuss how they have been used to qualitatively and quantitatively study different components of the complex mechanism of action of GHB. A growing number of studies have provided evidence that the behavioral effects of GHB are mediated predominantly by GABAB receptors. However, there is also evidence that the mechanisms mediating the effects of GHB and the prototypical GABAB receptor agonist baclofen are not identical, and that other mechanisms such as GHB receptors and subtypes of GABAA and GABAB receptors might contribute to the effects of GHB. These findings are consistent with the different behavioral profile, abuse liability, and therapeutic indications of GHB and baclofen. A better understanding of the similarities and differences between GHB and baclofen, as well as the pharmacological mechanisms of action underlying the recreational and therapeutic effects of GHB, could lead to more effective medications with fewer adverse effects. PMID:19010351

  2. Determination of GHB in human hair by HPLC-MS/MS: Development and validation of a method and application to a study group and three possible single exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Mari, Francesco; Vaiano, Fabio; Romano, Guido; Zaami, Simona; Baglìo, Giovanni; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) over the last two decades has generated increased notoriety as a euphoric and disinhibiting drug of abuse in cases of drug-related sexual assault and for this reason it is considered a 'date rape' drug. The first aim of this paper was to develop and fully validate a method for the detection of GHB in human hair by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The second aim was the application of the method to hair samples of 30 GHB-free users in order to determine the basal level. The results obtained showed no significant differences in endogenous concentrations (p?=?0.556) between hair samples of the three groups (black, blonde, and dyed hair) and the age and sex of the subjects did not affect the endogenous levels. Another 12 healthy volunteers, with no previous history of GHB use, were selected and a single dose (25?mg/Kg) was orally administered to all of them and hair samples were collected before the administration of the single dose and other two samples were collected one month and two months later, respectively. The segmental analysis of the latter two samples allowed us to calculate two ratios: 4.45:1 (95% C.I. 3.52-5.63) and 3.35:1 (95% C.I. 2.14-5.18), respectively, which can be recommended as reasonable values for a positive identification of GHB intake. Finally the method was applied to three real cases where a GHB single exposure probably occurred. PMID:24947196

  3. Physical dependence on gamma-hydroxybutrate (GHB) prodrug 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD): Time course and severity of withdrawal in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Gibson, K. Michael; Weerts, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24 h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100 mg/kg and increased by 100 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600 mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600 mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600 mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290- 2300 ?mol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 -37.9 ?mol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. PMID:23538206

  4. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  5. 3'-5' cyclic-guanosine monophosphate increase in rat brain hippocampus after gamma-hydroxybutyrate administration. Prevention by valproate and naloxone

    SciTech Connect

    Vayer, P.; Gobaille, S.; Mandel, P.; Maitre, M.

    1987-08-03

    An increase (123%) of cyclic GMP (cGMP) was observed in the hippocampus of the rat killed by microwave irradiation 45 min after administration of 500 mg/kg el-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) IP. This increase is time and dose dependent. No modification in cyclic nucleotide content was observed in striatum and in cerebellum. As the role of GHB has been implicated in neurotransmission, the fact that this compound increases cyclic GMP accumulation in hippocampus in vivo may represent a mechanism by which the actions of GHB are mediated at the cellular level. Valproate (400 mg/kg) or naloxone (10 mg/kg) pretreatment completely abolish the cGMP increase due to GHB. A GABAergic and/or opiate phenomenon may be involved in the mechanism of GHB induced increase of cGMP. 34 references, 4 figures.

  6. Reactivity of lactones and GHB formation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Prior, M Teresa; Manso, José A; del Pilar García-Santos, M; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2005-01-21

    The behavior of lactones in their hydrolysis reactions is a good indicator of their reactivity as electrophilic molecules. The hydrolysis of four- to six-membered lactones was investigated in neutral (water) and slightly acid media and in water/dioxane media. The following conclusions were drawn: (i) The reactivity of beta-propiolactone in neutral water is more than four times greater than that of beta-butyrolactone, due to the flow of charge caused by the latter's methyl substituent. Reactivity is enthalpy-controlled. (ii) The reactivity of beta-lactones diminishes in water/dioxane media when the percentage of dioxane increases. The increase in the dioxane percentage relaxing the intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the ordered structure of the water reduces DeltaH# and simultaneously increases the -DeltaS# value. (iii) An inverse solvent kinetic isotope effect in the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of gamma-butyrolactone and delta-valerolactone was observed, this being indicative of acyl cleavage. (iv) The DeltaH# and DeltaS# values permit discrimination between alkyl and acyl cleavage. (v) A correlation was found between the chemical reactivity of lactones and their carcinogenic activity. (vi) The results suggest that orally ingested gamma-butyrolactone remains largely in its nonhydrolyzed form in the stomach before passing into the blood. (vii) The concentration equilibrium constant of GHB formation at human body temperature is Keq (37 degrees C)=0.40. (viii) Study of GHB formation shows that, contrary to earlier results, this is an endothermic process, with DeltarH=3.6 kJ mol(-1). PMID:15651781

  7. Comparative genomics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) and accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate associated with its deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5A1 [ALDH5A1]; locus 6p22) occupies a central position in central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter metabolism as one of two enzymes necessary for ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) recycling from the synaptic cleft. Its importance is highlighted by the neurometabolic disease associated with its inherited deficiency in humans, as well as the severe epileptic phenotype observed in Aldh5a1-/- knockout mice. Expanding evidence now suggests, however, that even subtle decreases in human SSADH activity, associated with rare and common single nucleotide polymorphisms, may produce subclinical pathological effects. SSADH, in conjunction with aldo-keto reductase 7A2 (AKR7A2), represent two neural enzymes responsible for further catabolism of succinic semialdehyde, producing either succinate (SSADH) or ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; AKR7A2). A GABA analogue, GHB is a short-chain fatty alcohol with unusual properties in the CNS and a long pharmacological history. Moreover, SSADH occupies a further role in the CNS as the enzyme responsible for further metabolism of the lipid peroxidation aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an intermediate known to induce oxidant stress. Accordingly, subtle decreases in SSADH activity may have the capacity to lead to regional accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates (GHB, 4-HNE). Polymorphisms in SSADH gene structure may also associate with quantitative traits, including intelligence quotient and life expectancy. Further population-based studies of human SSADH activity promise to reveal additional properties of its function and additional roles in CNS tissue. PMID:19164088

  8. An Interactive Lesson in Acid/Base and Pro-Drug Chemistry Using Sodium Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate and Commercial Test Coasters

    PubMed Central

    Page, Nathaniel A.; Paganelli, Meaghan; Boje, Kathleen M.K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a classroom activity that applied pertinent pharmaceutical concepts to examine the use and limitations of a commercially available test drink coaster in detecting the presence of a date-rape drug, sodium ?-hydroxybutyrate (NaGHB), in beverages. Design An activity exercise involving a combination of self-study, hands on participation, and classroom discussion was developed. Topics incorporated into the activity were drug-assisted rape, the concepts of false positives and negatives, and prodrug and pH chemistry. Assessment Based on questionnaires completed by the students, the intended concepts were reinforced and students demonstrated an increased awareness of the potential shortcomings of the commercial test devices. The activity was well received by the majority of students. Conclusion The developed activity stimulated student awareness and interest in several principles relevant in pharamceutical education, including drug-assisted rape, consumer-based drug testing of NaGHB, and the chemical basis for its limitations. The activity requires no special equipment other than the drink coasters and can be easily completed in one 2-hour classroom session. PMID:17619654

  9. GHB and synthetic cathinones: clinical effects and potential consequences.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Reynaud, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Designer drugs belong to a group of legally or illegally produced substances that are structurally and pharmacologically very similar to illicit drugs. In the past, designer drugs were often used during all-night dance parties, but they are now consumed in multiple settings from college bars to parks to private house parties. Most of these club drugs can be bought on legal websites and home-delivered for private parties. Recently, legal highs have once again become a burning media issue across the world. Our review will focus on GHB and synthetic cathinones. Literature searches were conducted for the period from 1975 to July 2010 using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Internet underground and governmental websites using the following keywords alone or in combination: designer drugs, club drugs, party drugs, GHB, synthetic cathinones, mephedrone, methylone, flephedrone, MDAI, and MDVP. Available epidemiological, neurobiological, and clinical data for each compound are described. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may occur in recreational and chronic users. The addictive potential of designer drugs is not weak. Non-fatal overdoses and deaths related to GHB/GBL or synthetic cathinones have been reported. Clinicians must be careful with GBL or synthetic cathinones, which are being sold and used as substitutes for GHB and MDMA, respectively. Interventions for drug prevention and harm reduction in response to the use of these drugs should be implemented on the Internet and in recreational settings. Prevention, Information, Action, and Treatment are the main goals that must be addressed for this new potentially addictive problem. PMID:21960540

  10. Pharmacokinetic properties of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in whole blood, serum, and urine.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, Alan D; Cowan, David A; Kicman, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and ?-butyrolactone have become increasingly popular "club drugs", but they have also gained attention as potential agents of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Several studies have attempted to characterize GHB's pharmacokinetic properties in humans, and the aim of this paper is to build on this research with an emphasis on DFSA cases. A 25 mg/kg dose of GHB was given to 12 GHB-naïve volunteers (6 men and 6 women). Urine and blood samples (serum and whole blood) were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. The urinary T(max) was 1 h in 11 volunteers with a mean C(max) of 67.6 mg/L (32.6-161.3 mg/L). Urinary concentrations rapidly decreased to < 10 mg/L (interpretive limit) for 11 volunteers after just 4 h. Data derived from whole blood (mean C(max) = 48.0 mg/L, T(max) = 24.6 min) closely matched that from serum (mean C(max) = 59.4 mg/L, T(max) = 23.3 min), suggesting GHB is distributed into erythrocytes. All 12 volunteers had GHB concentrations of less than 5 mg/L in both whole blood and serum after 3 h. Results verify the rapid elimination of GHB and the limited retrospective power of a concentration-based approach to prove GHB administration in blood and urine and confirm that, in DFSA cases, samples should be collected as soon as possible. PMID:22337777

  11. Trends in ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Related Drug Intoxication: 1999 to 2003

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ilene B.; Kim, Susan Y.; Dyer, Jo Ellen; Burkhardt, Cindy B.; Iknoian, Jayme C.; Walsh, Michael J.; Blanc, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    Study objective To analyze changes in ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) case reporting, we review GHB or congener drug cases reported to the California Poison Control System, comparing these to other data sets. Methods We identified cases from the California Poison Control System computerized database using standardized codes and key terms for GHB and congener drugs (“gamma butyrolactone,” “1,4-butanediol,” “gamma valerolactone”). We noted California Poison Control System date, caller and exposure site, patient age and sex, reported coingestions, and outcomes. We compared California Poison Control System data to case incidence from American Association of Poison Control Centers and Drug Abuse Warning Network data and drug use prevalence from National Institute for Drug Abuse survey data. Results A total of 1,331 patients were included over the 5-year period (1999-2003). California Poison Control System–reported GHB exposures decreased by 76% from baseline (n=426) to the final study year (n=101). The absolute decrease was present across all case types, although there was a significant proportional decrease in routine drug abuse cases and an increase in malicious events, including GHB-facilitated sexual assault (P=.002). American Association of Poison Control Centers data showed a similar decrease from 2001 to 2003. Drug Abuse Warning Network incidence flattened from 2001 to 2002 and decreased sharply in 2003. National Institute for Drug Abuse survey time trends were inconsistent across age groups. Conclusion Based on the precipitous decrease in California Poison Control System case incidence for GHB during 5 years, the parallel trend in American Association of Poison Control Centers data, and a more recent decrease in Drug Abuse Warning Network cases, a true decrease in case incidence is likely. This could be due to decreased abuse rates or because fewer abusers seek emergency medical care. Case reporting may account for part of the decrease in the incidence of poison center contacts involving GHB. PMID:16431231

  12. Near-fatal persistent anion- and osmolal-gap acidosis due to massive gamma-butyrolactone/ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Heytens, Luc; Neels, Hugo; Van Regenmortel, Niels; van den Brink, Wim; Henckes, Manu; Schouwers, Sofie; Dockx, Greet; Crunelle, Cleo L

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of an ethanol and massive gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) intoxication, the precursor of the recreational drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), resulting in life-threatening metabolic acidosis (pH 6.5) with a highly increased anion- and osmolal gap. Rapid analysis using gas chromatography revealed a GHB plasma concentration of 4400?mg/L, far above the upper limit concentration of 1000?mg/L found in adult fatalities attributed to GBL. Full recovery was established following supportive treatment including haemodialysis. This is the first report of a combined ethanol/GBL intoxication as a cause of high serum anion- and osmolal-gap metabolic acidosis. PMID:25205856

  13. A novel quadruplex real-time PCR method for simultaneous detection of Cry2Ae and two genetically modified cotton events (GHB119 and T304-40)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, over 150 genetically modified (GM) crops are widely cultivated. To comply with regulations developed for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including labeling policies, many detection methods for GMO identification and quantification have been developed. Results To detect the entrance and exit of unauthorized GM crop events in China, we developed a novel quadruplex real-time PCR method for simultaneous detection and quantification of GM cotton events GHB119 and T304-40 in cotton-derived products (based on the 5?-flanking sequence) and the insect-resistance gene Cry2Ae. The limit of detection was 10 copies for GHB119 and Cry2Ae and 25 copies for T304-40. The limit of quantification was 25 copies for GHB119 and Cry2Ae and 50 copies for T304-40. Moreover, low bias and acceptable standard deviation and relative standard deviation values were obtained in quantification analysis of six blind samples containing different GHB119 and T304-40 ingredients. Conclusions The developed quadruplex quantitative method could be used for quantitative detection of two GM cotton events (GHB119 and T304-40) and Cry2Ae gene ingredient in cotton derived products. PMID:24884946

  14. Club Drug Use

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How can I start a conversation with my child about club drugs? Source Club Drugs: MDMA, Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, and Ketamine by PM Gahlinger, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H. (American Family Physician June 01, 2004, http:// ...

  15. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. Vol. 40. No 3 (2007) pp. 131141 ABILITY OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE "DATE-RAPE"

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    2007-01-01

    "DATE-RAPE" DRUG TEST KITS TO DETECT GAMMA- HYDROXYBUTYRATE IN POPULAR DRINKS1 ANNE MARIE CHILD2- teration in "date-rape" cases. Several test kits have been introduced to detect GHB in drinks and their apparent reliability sug- gest that they would be a useful screening tool for officials investigating rape

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence for Active Brain Uptake of the GHB Analog HOCPCA by the Monocarboxylate Transporter Subtype 1.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, Louise; Kehler, Jan; Clausen, Rasmus P; Frølund, Bente; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2015-08-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a recreational drug, a clinically prescribed drug in narcolepsy and alcohol dependence, and an endogenous substance that binds to both high- and low-affinity sites in the brain. For studying the molecular mechanisms and the biologic role of the GHB high-affinity binding sites, ligands with high and specific affinity are essential. The conformationally restricted GHB analog HOCPCA (3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid) is one such compound. The objective of this study was to investigate the transport of HOCPCA across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo and to investigate the hypothesis that HOCPCA, like GHB, is a substrate for the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). For in vitro uptake studies, MCT1, -2, and -4 were recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the previously reported radioligand [(3)H]HOCPCA was used as substrate. HOCPCA inhibited the uptake of the endogenous MCT substrate l-[(14)C]lactate, and [(3)H]HOCPCA was shown to act as substrate for MCT1 and 2 (Km values in the low- to mid-millimolar range). Introducing single-point amino acid mutations into positions essential for MCT function supported that HOCPCA binds to the endogenous substrate pocket of MCTs. MCT1-mediated brain entry of HOCPCA (10 mg/kg s.c.) was further confirmed in vivo in mice by coadministration of increasing doses of the MCT inhibitor AR-C141990 [(R)-5-(3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-1-isobutyl-3-methyl-6-(quinolin-4-ylmethyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione], which inhibited brain penetration of HOCPCA in a dose-dependent manner (ID50 = 4.6 mg/kg). Overall, our study provides evidence that MCT1 is an important brain entry site for HOCPCA and qualifies for future in vivo studies with HOCPCA. PMID:25986445

  17. Determination of endogenous concentration of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in hair through an ad hoc GC-MS analysis: A study on a wide population and influence of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Vaiano, Fabio; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Furlanetto, Sandra; Palumbo, Diego; Mari, Francesco; Fioravanti, Alessia; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-01-25

    ?-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) spread for recreational purposes or as "rape drug" represents a hard issue for forensic toxicologists due to its endogenous nature. It is clear that an actual and reliable discrimination between basal and exogenous levels is mandatory to achieve a correct evaluation of conscious/unconscious administration. This research aimed to study the GHB baseline in hair samples, collected from 150 volunteers, non-consumers of any drugs of abuse, in order to evaluate if a generic cut-off value could be accepted, also focusing on potential influences of gender and age. The analysis consisted of an overnight incubation with NaOH at 56°C, liquid-liquid extraction with ethylacetate and trimethylsylil derivatization. Detection was carried out through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring (m/z 233, 234, 147 for GHB; m/z 239, 240 and 147 for GHB-d6). The endogenous amount in "blank" hair was estimated by the standard addition method. Concentration range was 0.279-2.839ng/mg. In males, the average GHB levels were higher than in females (0.829 vs 0.596ng/mg, respectively), especially in the first age category (<30 years, 1.008 vs 0.606ng/mg, respectively). Age influences on GHB levels seemed to be different among the two sexes: in male population concentrations were higher <30 (1.008ng/mg) and similar in the other age ranges (0.762ng/mg, 30-50; 0.763ng/mg, >50); in female, quite similar levels were registered throughout all the age categories (0.606ng/mg, <30; 0.536ng/mg, 30-50; 0.691ng/mg, >50). Further study should be performed on GHB physiology in order to better understand these differences among ages and genders. Moreover, we demonstrated that for hair analysis a cut-off reference value is not strictly mandatory, underlining the great interpretative valence of segmental analysis. PMID:26551534

  18. Polyimide Precursor Solid Residuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A polyimide precursor solid residuum is an admixture of an aromatic dianhydride or derivative thereof and an aromatic diamine or derivative thereof plus a complexing agent, which is complexed with the admixture by hydrogen bonding. The polyimide precursor solid residuum is effectively employed in the preparation of polyimide foam and the fabrication of polyimide foam structures.

  19. Precursors to Pancreatic Cancer+

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Kern, Scott E.; Goggins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is believed to arise from morphologically distinct non-invasive precursor lesions. These precursors include the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, the mucinous cystic neoplasm, and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are grossly visible mucin-producing epithelial neoplasms that arise in the main pancreatic duct or one of its branches. The cysts of mucinous cystic neoplasms do not communicate with the major pancreatic ducts and these neoplasms are characterized by a distinct ovarian-type stroma. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a microscopic lesion. This review focuses on the clinical significance of these three remarkable precursor lesions with emphasis on their clinical manifestations, detection, and treatment. PMID:17996793

  20. [Gamma-hydroxy butyric acid: neurotransmitter, sedative and party drug].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sascha; Kleinschmidt, Stefan; Gottschling, Sven; Gortner, Ludwig; Strittmatter, Matthias

    2005-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) as a natural component of the mammalian brain was first introduced in clinical anaesthesic practice more than 40 years ago. The drug was nearly forced from clinical practice because of its prolonged and variable duration of action. The results of recent clinical studies indicate a re-evaluation of GHB in various clinical fields. In the intensive care unit, GHB may be a favourable alternative to established drugs. The results of various clinical studies also suggest that GHB is efficacious in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and narcolepsy. GHB has been used successfully for short-term sedation in children. In addition, GHB has emerged as a street drug ("liquid ecstasy"). Overdose may lead to respiratory depression, coma, and even death. Chronic abuse itself may lead to severe withdrawal syndrome. The purpose of this article is to outline the neurophysiological, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of GHB, and to summarize the potential fields of use and misuse of GHB in clinical medicine and toxicology. PMID:16092038

  1. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  2. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  3. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    SciTech Connect

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L.; Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Provencal, J.; Santangelo, M. M. M.; Salo, H.; Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  4. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  5. Baclofen for narcolepsy with cataplexy: two cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elliott Kyung; Douglass, Alan Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by daytime hypersomnolence. Those with cataplexy have spells of muscle weakness precipitated by strong emotions, especially laughter or surprise. Cataplexy treatments include antidepressants or a GABA-B agonist, gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). GHB is the most effective treatment for cataplexy, but is expensive and can have significant side effects. A recent report of a murine model of narcolepsy-cataplexy suggests R-baclofen has potential efficacy against cataplexy. We report on two narcolepsy patients with multiple daily cataplexy episodes, one of whom had been effectively treated with GHB, but had to discontinue it for unrelated medical reasons. Both subsequently tried baclofen and experienced almost complete resolution of cataplexy. This report suggests baclofen can be an effective treatment for cataplexy in humans and warrants further study. PMID:26251634

  6. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  7. Brillouin precursors in Debye media

    E-print Network

    Macke, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the formation of Brillouin precursors in Debye media. We point out that the precursors are only visible at propagation distances such that the impulse response of the medium is essentially determined by the frequency-dependence of its absorption and is practically Gaussian. By simple convolution, we then obtain explicit analytical expressions of the transmitted waves generated by reference incident waves, distinguishing precursor and main signal by physical arguments. These expressions are in good agreement with the signals obtained in numerical or real experiments performed on water and explain some features of these signals that remained mysterious or unnoticed. In addition, we show quite generally that the shape of the Brillouin precursor appearing alone at large enough propagation distance and the law giving its amplitude as a function of this distance do not depend on the precise form of the incident wave but only on its integral properties. The incidence of a static conductivity o...

  8. Brillouin precursors in Debye media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically study the formation of Brillouin precursors in Debye media. We point out that the precursors are visible only at propagation distances such that the impulse response of the medium is essentially determined by the frequency dependence of its absorption and is practically Gaussian. By simple convolution, we then obtain explicit analytical expressions of the transmitted waves generated by reference incident waves, distinguishing precursor and main signal by a simple examination of the long-time behavior of the overall signal. These expressions are in good agreement with the signals obtained in numerical or real experiments performed on water in the radio-frequency domain and explain in particular some observed shapes of the precursor. Results are obtained for other remarkable incident waves. In addition, we show quite generally that the shape of the Brillouin precursor appearing alone at sufficiently large propagation distance and the law giving its amplitude as a function of this distance do not depend on the precise form of the incident wave but only on its integral properties. The incidence of a static conductivity of the medium is also examined and explicit analytical results are again given in the limit of weak and strong conductivities.

  9. Expression profiling of human glial precursors

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, James T; Sandrock, Robert W; Wheatley, Will; Xue, Haipeng; Zheng, Jianhua; Liang, Feng; Chesnut, Jonathan D; Zhan, Ming; Rao, Mahendra S; Liu, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Background We have generated gene expression databases for human glial precursors, neuronal precursors, astrocyte precursors and neural stem cells and focused on comparing the profile of glial precursors with that of other populations. Results A total of 14 samples were analyzed. Each population, previously distinguished from each other by immunocytochemical analysis of cell surface markers, expressed genes related to their key differentiation pathways. For the glial precursor cell population, we identified 458 genes that were uniquely expressed. Expression of a subset of these individual genes was validated by RT-PCR. We also report genes encoding cell surface markers that may be useful for identification and purification of human glial precursor populations. Conclusion We provide gene expression profile for human glial precursors. Our data suggest several signaling pathways that are important for proliferation and differentiation of human glial precursors. Such information may be utilized to further purify glial precursor populations, optimize media formulation, or study the effects of glial differentiation. PMID:18947415

  10. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  11. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  12. Transfection of osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Julie C; Mellis, David J; Taylor, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts and their precursors have traditionally been considered difficult cells to transfect using standard approaches. Here, we describe several methods for transfection of mature osteoclasts and their precursors using the Amaxa™ Nucleofector system, lentiviruses, and adenoviruses. PMID:22130931

  13. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  14. Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troja, E.; Rosswog, S.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a systematic search of precursors on the sample of short GRBs observed by Swift. We found that approx. 8-10% of short GRBs display such early episode of emission. One burst (GRB 090510) shows two precursor events, the former approx.13 s and the latter approx. 0.5 s before the GRB. We did not find any substantial difference between the precursor and the main GRB emission, and between short GRBs with and without precursors. We discuss possible mechanisms to reproduce the observed precursor emission within the scenario of compact object mergers. The implications of our results on quantum gravity constraints are also discussed.

  15. Polymer precursors for ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1986-01-01

    The fiber composite approach to reinforced ceramics provides the possibility of achieving ceramics with high fracture toughness relative to monolithics. Fabrication of ceramic composites, however, demands low processing temperatures to avoid fiber degradation. Formation of complex shapes further requires small diameter fibers as well as techniques for infiltrating the matrix between fibers. Polymers offer low temperature processability, control of rheology not available with ceramic powders, and should serve as precursors to matrix fibers. In recent years, a number of polysilanes and polysilezanes were investigated as potential presursors. A review of candidate polymers is presented, including recent studies of silsesquioxanes.

  16. Annealing of aromatic polyimide precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of the thermal behavior of polyimide precursors: an isomeric pair of crystals of the complex formed by p-phenylenediamine with the separated isomers of the di-isopropyl ester of pyromellitic acid. Specimens of this material were isothermally annealed in the temperature range 120 C to 170 C for periods of time up to 1 week. Although this temperature range is well below that customarily used for imidizations, the working hypothesis was that it would be more likely that a polymer embodying at least part of the precursor structure could be formed if the molecular motion was minimized to that actually required for the formation of the imide linkage. The progress of the annealing was followed by: infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Single crystal X-ray analysis of the meta monomer yields a structure of chains of alternating acid and base and suggests that this monomer is amenable to polymerization with a minimum of geometrical disruption.

  17. Fullerene polymers from solid precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.E. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD )

    1994-06-10

    One of the many speculations that quickly followed on the heels of the Kraetschmer-Huffman process for producing large quantities of C[sub 60] buckminsterfullerene was the possibility of stitching the molecules together to create a linear chain polymer, a [open quotes]pearl necklace[close quotes] of buckyballs. In addition to being chemically elegant and intrinsically beautiful, such a material might be expected to exhibit interesting electronic and nonlinear optical properties. Traditional solution-phase routes to fullerene polymerization have thus far resulted only in mixtures of incompletely characterized species with a high degree of cross-linking. This article reviews experiments that show that this goal might be achieved by starting from a fullerene solid precursor.

  18. Method of texturing a superconductive oxide precursor

    DOEpatents

    DeMoranville, Kenneth L. (Jefferson, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Antaya, Peter D. (Sutton, MA); Christopherson, Craig J. (Worcester, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Seuntjens, Jeffrey M. (Bangau, SG)

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a textured superconductor wire includes constraining an elongated superconductor precursor between two constraining elongated members placed in contact therewith on opposite sides of the superconductor precursor, and passing the superconductor precursor with the two constraining members through flat rolls to form the textured superconductor wire. The method includes selecting desired cross-sectional shape and size constraining members to control the width of the formed superconductor wire. A textured superconductor wire formed by the method of the invention has regular-shaped, curved sides and is free of flashing. A rolling assembly for single-pass rolling of the elongated precursor superconductor includes two rolls, two constraining members, and a fixture for feeding the precursor superconductor and the constraining members between the rolls. In alternate embodiments of the invention, the rolls can have machined regions which will contact only the elongated constraining members and affect the lateral deformation and movement of those members during the rolling process.

  19. PKP precursors: Implications for global scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waszek, Lauren; Thomas, Christine; Deuss, Arwen

    2015-05-01

    Precursors to the core phase PKP are generated by scattering of seismic energy from heterogeneities in the mantle. Here we examine a large global data set of PKP precursors in individual seismograms and array data, to better understand scattering locations. The precursor amplitudes from individual seismograms are analyzed with respect to the inner core phase PKIKP and mantle phase PP. We find and correct for a hemispherical asymmetry in the precursor/PKIKP amplitudes, resulting from inner core structure. Using ray tracing, we locate scatterers in our array data and use these to infer scattering locations in the individual data. The scattering strength displays regional variation; however, we find no relationship with long-scale core-mantle boundary velocity structure. Scattering is observed in all regions of data coverage, as are paths with no precursors. This indicates that scattering occurs from various small-scale heterogeneities, including but not limited to ultralow velocity zones or partial melt, and slabs.

  20. Leading time domain seismic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucouvalas, A. C.; Gkasios, M.; Keskebes, A.; Tselikas, N. T.

    2014-08-01

    The problem of predicting the occurrence of earthquakes is threefold. On one hand it is necessary to predict the date and magnitude of an earthquake, and on the other hand the location of the epicenter. In this work after a brief review of the state of earthquake prediction research, we report on a new leading time precursor for determining time onset of earthquake occurrence. We report the linking between earthquakes of the past with those which happen in the future via Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers (FDL) numbers. We demonstrate it here with two example seed earthquakes at least 100 years old. Using this leading indicator method we can predict significant earthquake events >6.5R, with good accuracy approximately +- 1 day somewhere in the world. From a single seed we produce at least 100 trials simultaneously of which 50% are correct to +- 1day. The indicator is based on Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers (FDL). This result hints that the log periodic FDL numbers are at the root of the understanding of the earthquake mechanism. The theory is based on the assumption that each occurred earthquake discontinuity can be thought of as a generating source of FDL time series. (The mechanism could well be linked to planetary orbits). When future dates are derived from clustering and convergence from previous strong earthquake dates at an FDL time distance, then we have a high probability for an earthquake to occur on that date. We set up a real time system which generates FDL time series from each previous significant earthquake (>7R) and we produce a year to year calendar of high probability earthquake dates. We have tested this over a number of years with considerable success. We have applied this technique for strong (>7R) earthquakes across the globe as well as on a restricted region such as the Greek geographic region where the magnitude is small (>4R-6.5R). In both cases the success of the method is impressive. It is our belief that supplementing this method with other precursors will enhance significantly the prediction of significant earthquakes.

  1. Anorectic activity of prostaglandin precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, N S; Jawaharlal, K

    1977-01-01

    1 Intraperitoneal and intragastric (i.g.) administration of prostaglandin precursors arachidonic (2 mg, 15 mg/kg, i.p; 30 mg/kg i.g.), linolenic (100 mg/kg i.p.; 200 mg/kg, i.g.) and linoleic (15, 100 mg/kg, i.p.; 100 mg/kg, i.g.) acids to 22 h food-deprived rats inhibits food intake. 2 This anorexia is similar to that induced by prostaglandin F2alpha (1 mg/kg, i.p.). 3 At anorectic doses these fatty acids do not cause pyrexia, in fact arachidonic acid causes hypothermia. 4 Prior treatment with indomethacin (15 mg/kg) and paracetamol (50 mg/kg) specifically reverses the anorexia and the behavioural satiety induced by the three fatty acids, while not affecting prostaglandin F2alpha-induced suppression of food intake. 5 Results of the present experiments suggest that both physiological and pharmacological modification of appetite could be brought about through an effect on prostaglandin generating systems. PMID:890209

  2. The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches

    E-print Network

    Belles, Xavier

    The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches XAVIER BELLE´Sa , LAURIE A that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition from Dissolved Precursors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanlin; Döhler, Dirk; Barr, Maïssa; Oks, Elina; Wolf, Marc; Santinacci, Lionel; Bachmann, Julien

    2015-10-14

    We establish a novel thin film deposition technique by transferring the principles of atomic layer deposition (ALD) known with gaseous precursors toward precursors dissolved in a liquid. An established ALD reaction behaves similarly when performed from solutions. "Solution ALD" (sALD) can coat deep pores in a conformal manner. sALD offers novel opportunities by overcoming the need for volatile and thermally robust precursors. We establish a MgO sALD procedure based on the hydrolysis of a Grignard reagent. PMID:26418724

  4. On the difficulties of detecting PP precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Saki, Morvarid; Schmerr, Nicholas; Vanacore, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The PP precursors are seismic waves that form from underside reflections of P waves off discontinuities in the upper mantle transition zone (MTZ). These seismic phases are used to map discontinuity topography, sharpness, and impedance contrasts; the resulting structural variations are then often interpreted as evidence for temperature and/or mineralogy variations within the mantle. The PP precursors as well as other seismic phases have been used to establish the global presence of seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth. Intriguingly, in more than 80 per cent of PP precursor observations the seismic wave amplitudes are significantly weaker than the amplitudes predicted by seismic reference models. Even more perplexing is the observation that 1-5 per cent of all earthquakes (which are 20-25 per cent of earthquakes with clear PP waveforms) do not show any evidence for the PP precursors from the discontinuities even in the presence of well-developed PP waveforms. Non-detections are found in six different data sets consisting of tens to hundreds of events. We use synthetic modelling to examine a suite of factors that could be responsible for the absence of the PP precursors. The take-off angles for PP and the precursors differ by only 1.2-1.5°; thus source-related complexity would affect PP and the precursors. A PP wave attenuated in the upper mantle would increase the relative amplitude of the PP precursors. Attenuation within the transition zone could reduce precursor amplitudes, but this would be a regional phenomenon restricted to particular source receiver geometries. We also find little evidence for deviations from the theoretical travel path of seismic rays expected for scattered arrivals. Factors that have a strong influence include the stacking procedures used in seismic array techniques in the presence of large, interfering phases, the presence of topography on the discontinuities on the order of tens of kilometres, and 3-D lateral heterogeneity in the velocity and density changes with depth across the transition zone. We also compare the observed precursors' amplitudes with seismic models from calculations of phase equilibria and find that a seismic velocity model derived from a pyrolite composition reproduces the data better than the currently available 1-D earth models. This largely owes to the pyrolite models producing a stronger minimum in the reflection coefficient across the epicentral distances where the reduction in amplitudes of the PP precursors is observed. To suppress the precursors entirely in a small subset of earthquakes, other effects, such as localized discontinuity topography and seismic signal processing effects are required in addition to the changed velocity model.

  5. Synthesis and structures of metal chalcogenide precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj, Stan A.; Eckles, William E.; Andras, Maria T.

    1990-01-01

    The reactivity of early transition metal sandwich complexes with sulfur-rich molecules such as dithiocarboxylic acids was studied. Researchers recently initiated work on precursors to CuInSe2 and related chalcopyrite semiconductors. Th every high radiation tolerance and the high absorption coefficient of CuInSe2 makes this material extremely attractive for lightweight space solar cells. Their general approach in early transition metal chemistry, the reaction of low-valent metal complexes or metal powders with sulfur and selenium rich compounds, was extended to the synthesis of chalcopyrite precursors. Here, the researchers describe synthesis, structures, and and routes to single molecule precursors to metal chalcogenides.

  6. Neural precursors of delayed insight.

    PubMed

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Wagner, Ullrich; Balteau, Evelyne; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Albouy, Geneviève; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Collette, Fabienne; Boly, Melanie; Schabus, Manuel; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, Andre; Maquet, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    The solution of a problem left unresolved in the evening can sometimes pop into mind as a sudden insight after a night of sleep in the following morning. Although favorable effects of sleep on insightful behavior have been experimentally confirmed, the neural mechanisms determining this delayed insight remain unknown. Here, using fMRI, we characterize the neural precursors of delayed insight in the number reduction task (NRT), in which a hidden task structure can be learned implicitly, but can also be recognized explicitly in an insightful process, allowing immediate qualitative improvement in task performance. Normal volunteers practiced the NRT during two fMRI sessions (training and retest), taking place 12 hours apart after a night of sleep. After this delay, half of the subjects gained insight into the hidden task structure ("solvers," S), whereas the other half did not ("nonsolvers," NS). Already at training, solvers and nonsolvers differed in their cerebral responses associated with implicit learning. In future solvers, responses were observed in the superior frontal sulcus, posterior parietal cortex, and the insula, three areas mediating controlled processes and supporting early learning and novice performance. In contrast, implicit learning was related to significant responses in the hippocampus in nonsolvers. Moreover, the hippocampus was functionally coupled with the basal ganglia in nonsolvers and with the superior frontal sulcus in solvers, thus potentially biasing participants' strategy towards implicit or controlled processes of memory encoding, respectively. Furthermore, in solvers but not in nonsolvers, response patterns were further transformed overnight, with enhanced responses in ventral medial prefrontal cortex, an area previously implicated in the consolidation of declarative memory. During retest in solvers, before they gain insight into the hidden rule, significant responses were observed in the same medial prefrontal area. After insight, a distributed set of parietal and frontal areas is recruited among which information concerning the hidden rule can be shared in a so-called global workspace. PMID:20666600

  7. Long range transport of acid rain precursors

    E-print Network

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of the long range transport of primary and secondary pollutants derived by Fay and Rosenzweig (1) is applied to the problem of the transport of acid rain precursors. The model describes the long term average (annual ...

  8. Isolation and Study of Adipocyte Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Church, Christopher; Berry, Ryan; Rodeheffer, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a heterogeneous tissue composed of lipid-filled adipocytes and several non-adipocyte cell populations, including endothelial, blood, uncharacterized stromal, and adipocyte precursor cells. Although lipid-filled adipocytes account for the majority of WAT volume and mass, non-adipocyte cell populations have critical roles in WAT maintenance, growth and function. As mature adipocytes are terminally-differentiated post-mitotic cells, differentiation of adipocyte precursors is required for hyperplastic WAT growth during development and in obesity. In this chapter, we present methods to separate adipocyte precursor cells from other non-adipocyte cell populations within WAT for analysis by flow cytometry or purification by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Additionally, we provide methods to study the adipogenic capacity of purified adipocyte precursor cells ex vivo. PMID:24480340

  9. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  10. Precursors and prediction of catastrophic avalanches

    E-print Network

    Srutarshi Pradhan; Bikas K. Chakrabarti

    2006-03-23

    In this work we review the precursors of catastrophic avalanches (global failures) in several failure models, namely (a) Fiber Bundle Model (FBM), (b) Random Fuse Model (RFM), (c) Sandpile Models and (d) Fractal Overlap Model. The precursor parameters identified here essentially reflect the growing correlations within such systems as they approach their respective failure points. As we show, often they help us to predict the global failure points in advance.

  11. Hydridosiloxanes as precursors to ceramic products

    DOEpatents

    Blum, Yigal D. (San Jose, CA); Johnson, Sylvia M. (Piedmont, CA); Gusman, Michael I. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing ceramic precursors from hydridosiloxane starting materials and then pyrolyzing these precursors to give rise to silicious ceramic materials. Si--H bonds present in the hydridosiloxane starting materials are catalytically activated, and the activated hydrogen atoms may then be replaced with nonhydrogen substituents. These preceramic materials are pyrolyzed in a selected atmosphere to give the desired ceramic product. Ceramic products which may be prepared by this technique include silica, silicon oxynitride, silicon carbide, metal silicates, and mullite.

  12. Hydridosiloxanes as precursors to ceramic products

    DOEpatents

    Blum, Y.D.; Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.

    1997-06-03

    A method is provided for preparing ceramic precursors from hydridosiloxane starting materials and then pyrolyzing these precursors to give rise to silicious ceramic materials. Si-H bonds present in the hydridosiloxane starting materials are catalytically activated, and the activated hydrogen atoms may then be replaced with nonhydrogen substituents. These preceramic materials are pyrolyzed in a selected atmosphere to give the desired ceramic product. Ceramic products which may be prepared by this technique include silica, silicon oxynitride, silicon carbide, metal silicates, and mullite.

  13. Astrocyte precursor response to embryonic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Domowicz, Miriam S; Henry, Judith G; Wadlington, Natasha; Navarro, Antonia; Kraig, Richard P; Schwartz, Nancy B

    2011-05-10

    Penetrating traumatic insult during pregnancy is a leading cause of human fetal demise; in particular, trauma to the brain may lead to devastating long-term cognitive sequelae. Perinatal brain injury involves glial precursors, but the neural mechanisms controlling astrocyte ontogeny after injury remain incompletely understood, partly due to a lack of appropriate markers and animal models. We analyzed astrocyte precursor response to injury at the beginning (E11) and peak (E15) of gliogenesis in an avian tectal model of penetrating embryonic brain trauma, without confounding maternal and sibling effects. At both ages, lateral ventricular dilatation, necrotic foci, periventricular cysts and intraventricular hemorrhages were observed distal to stab wounds two days after a unilateral stab injury to optic tecta. Neuronal (TUBB3) and oligodendrocyte precursor (PLP) markers were down-regulated, even far-removed from the wound site. In contrast, the mature astrocyte marker, GFAP, was up-regulated at the wound site, around necrotic areas and cysts, plus in usual areas of GFAP expression. Increased inflammatory response and apoptotic cell death were also confirmed in the injured tecta. Increased expression of NFIA, SOX9 and GLAST at the wound site and in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the injured tecta indicated an astroglial precursor response. However, cell division increased in the VZ only in early (E11) injury, but not later (E15), indicating that in late injury the astrogliogenesis occurring after acute injury is predominantly due to precursor differentiation rather than precursor proliferation. The inability to replenish the glial precursor pool during the critical period of vulnerability to injury may be an important cause of subsequent developmental abnormalities. PMID:21396923

  14. Precursors prior to type IIn supernova explosions are common: Precursor rates, properties, and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Ofek, Eran O.; Steinbok, Aviram; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tal, David; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Yaron, Ofer; Sullivan, Mark; Shaviv, Nir J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2014-07-10

    There is a growing number of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) which present an outburst prior to their presumably final explosion. These precursors may affect the SN display, and are likely related to poorly charted phenomena in the final stages of stellar evolution. By coadding Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images taken prior to the explosion, here we present a search for precursors in a sample of 16 Type IIn SNe. We find five SNe IIn that likely have at least one possible precursor event (PTF 10bjb, SN 2010mc, PTF 10weh, SN 2011ht, and PTF 12cxj), three of which are reported here for the first time. For each SN we calculate the control time. We find that precursor events among SNe IIn are common: at the one-sided 99% confidence level, >50% of SNe IIn have at least one pre-explosion outburst that is brighter than 3 × 10{sup 7} L{sub ?} taking place up to 1/3 yr prior to the SN explosion. The average rate of such precursor events during the year prior to the SN explosion is likely ? 1 yr{sup –1}, and fainter precursors are possibly even more common. Ignoring the two weakest precursors in our sample, the precursors rate we find is still on the order of one per year. We also find possible correlations between the integrated luminosity of the precursor and the SN total radiated energy, peak luminosity, and rise time. These correlations are expected if the precursors are mass-ejection events, and the early-time light curve of these SNe is powered by interaction of the SN shock and ejecta with optically thick circumstellar material.

  15. Nozzle designs with pitch precursor ablatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, H. R.; Bedard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in carbon phenolic ablatives for solid rocket motor nozzles have yielded a pitch precursor carbon fiber offering significant raw material availability and cost saving advantages as compared to conventional rayon precursor material. This paper discusses the results of an experimental program conducted to assess the thermal performance and characterize the thermal properties of pitch precursor carbon phenolic ablatives. The end result of this program is the complete thermal characterization of pitch fabric, pitch mat, hybrid pitch/rayon fabric and pitch mat molding compound. With these properties determined an analytic capability now exists for predicting the thermal performance of these materials in rocket nozzle liner applications. Further planned efforts to verify material performance and analytical prediction procedures through actual rocket motor firings are also discussed.

  16. Amino acid precursors in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    The use of hot water to extract lunar samples, followed by the hydrolysis of the aqueous extract, appears to be the method of choice for identification and quantitation of amino acid precursors in extraterrestrial sources. The net inferences from the analyses to date are (1) that amino acid precursors are verifiably present in lunar dust, and (2) that they are quite certainly not the consequence of contamination by terrestrial organisms, including man. It is suggested that prebiotic evolutionary pathways such as have been traversed on the earth were terminated on the moon for lack of sufficient water. Although some or all of the amino acid precursors may be indigenous, the low level observed suggests that they may also result from onfall of organic compounds from interstellar matter, comets, tails, solar wind, or meteorites.

  17. Sequestration and Transport of Lignin Monomeric Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.J.; Miao, Y.-C.; Zhang, K.-W.

    2011-01-18

    Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass.

  18. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z. B.; Wang, Lu; Wang, X. G.

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ?{sub pre}?x{sup 1/3}?{sup ^}{sub ?,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ?{sup ^}{sub ?,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  19. Polymeric precursors for fibers and matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1992-01-01

    Candidate polymeric precursors for ceramic fiber and matrix processing are discussed, with a view to the advantages and disadvantages of this approach relative to existing alternatives. The properties of ceramic products thus derived are noted to strongly depend on the molecular weight and structure of the starting polymer; in particular, the ceramic's composition and morphology are dependent on the character and extent of crosslinking, as well as on the path of pyrolysis. While large and complex structural ceramic components may ultimately be obtainable by these means, the polymer-precursor method is still in its developmental infancy.

  20. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Olson

    1997-05-12

    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory?s (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  1. Shock-Precursor Waves in Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, William; Chapman, David; Proud, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock compaction studies of sand, and other brittle granular materials, have produced wave profiles that show an unsteady precursor-wave followed by a steady shock-wave. It is theorised that this wave is a result of the pre-compaction of the particles within the granular bed. This theory has been tested experimentally and the results are discussed.

  2. Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

  3. School Violence: Prevalence, Precursors, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaanna

    2002-01-01

    Reviews types of school violence students confront, including a frequent precursor thereto: bullying. Discusses positive and negative aspects of current approach to school violence prevention such as surveillance, zero-tolerance policies, anti-bullying programs. Describes components of model school violence-prevention program. (Contains 38…

  4. ATLANTA OZONE PRECURSOR MONITORING STUDY DATA REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring was conducted during the summer of 1990 to address the measurement of ozone (0a) and ozone precursors in Atlanta, Georgia. ata was collected using automated gas chromatography. esolved individual species were detected via a flame ionization detector (FID) and an electr...

  5. SUMMER 1990 ATLANTA OZONE PRECURSOR STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a major monitoring study in Atlanta, Georgia, addressing the measurement of ozone and its precursors. The study was undertaken to obtain an information base to support the development and implemen...

  6. Detection of Chemical Precursors of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Certain selected chemicals associated with terrorist activities are too unstable to be prepared in final form. These chemicals are often prepared as precursor components, to be combined at a time immediately preceding the detonation. One example is a liquid explosive, which usually requires an oxidizer, an energy source, and a chemical or physical mechanism to combine the other components. Detection of the oxidizer (e.g. H2O2) or the energy source (e.g., nitromethane) is often possible, but must be performed in a short time interval (e.g., 5 15 seconds) and in an environment with a very small concentration (e.g.,1 100 ppm), because the target chemical(s) is carried in a sealed container. These needs are met by this invention, which provides a system and associated method for detecting one or more chemical precursors (components) of a multi-component explosive compound. Different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are loaded (by doping, impregnation, coating, or other functionalization process) for detecting of different chemical substances that are the chemical precursors, respectively, if these precursors are present in a gas to which the CNTs are exposed. After exposure to the gas, a measured electrical parameter (e.g. voltage or current that correlate to impedance, conductivity, capacitance, inductance, etc.) changes with time and concentration in a predictable manner if a selected chemical precursor is present, and will approach an asymptotic value promptly after exposure to the precursor. The measured voltage or current are compared with one or more sequences of their reference values for one or more known target precursor molecules, and a most probable concentration value is estimated for each one, two, or more target molecules. An error value is computed, based on differences of voltage or current for the measured and reference values, using the most probable concentration values. Where the error value is less than a threshold, the system concludes that the target molecule is likely. Presence of one, two, or more target molecules in the gas can be sensed from a single set of measurements.

  7. Study of the precursor and non-precursor implosion regimes in wire array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, D.; Ivanov, V. V.; Jones, B.; Haboub, A.; Anderson, A. A.; Altemara, S. D.; Talbot, B. R.

    2012-09-01

    Star-like and closely spaced nested wire array configurations were investigated in precursor and non-precursor implosions. Closely spaced nested cylindrical arrays have inner and outer arrays with equal wire numbers, and inner and outer wires aligned to each other. The gap between the outer and inner wires is not more than 1 mm. Calculation of magnetic fields shows that the small gap results in a reversed, outward j × B force on the inner wires. Closely spaced arrays of 6-16 wires with outer diameter of 16 mm and with gaps of ?R = 0.25-1 mm were tested. 6-8-wire arrays with a gap of ?R = 0.4-1 mm imploded without precursor, but precursor was present in loads with 12-16 wires and ?R = 0.25-1 mm. Implosion dynamics of closely spaced arrays was similar to that of star-like arrays. Implosion time was found to decrease with decreased wire numbers. Star array configurations were designed with a numerical scheme to implode with or without precursor. The lack of precursor resulted in a marginal improvement in total x-ray yield and power, and up to 20% increase in Al K-shell yield. The Al K-shell radiated energy was found to increase with decreasing the number of arrays in closely spaced and star-like wire arrays.

  8. Precursors and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, D; Oliva, E

    2013-04-01

    The ultimate goal of defining cancer specific precursors is to facilitate early detection and intervention before the development of invasive malignancy. Unlike other malignancies involving the female genital tract such as cervical or endometrial carcinomas, precursor lesions of ovarian carcinomas have not been well characterised, resulting in a failure to develop effective screening programs. Recent clinicopathological and molecular studies have provided new insight into the origin and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas. It has been shown that ovarian cancer is comprised of different tumour types differing not only in morphology, but also in pathogenesis, molecular alterations and clinical progression. A dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis has been proposed. Type I tumours which include low grade serous, low grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous carcinomas and Brenner tumours, are generally indolent and tend to be genetically stable, although clear cell carcinoma would probably belong to an intermediate category. They demonstrate a step-wise progression from a benign precursor such as a benign to borderline tumour or endometriosis and are characterised by genetic aberrations targeting specific cell signalling pathways. Type II tumours comprise high grade serous, high grade endometrioid, and undifferentiated carcinomas as well as malignant mixed mesodermal tumours. They are clinically aggressive and exhibit high genetic instability with frequent p53 mutations. Mounting evidence suggests that many high grade serous carcinomas originate from the epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, and that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) represents the putative precursor of these neoplasms. Low grade serous carcinomas arise via transformation of benign and borderline serous tumours, thought to be derived from inclusion cysts originating from the ovarian surface or tubal epithelium. Recently it has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia may be a putative precursor lesion for serous borderline tumours. Both endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas develop from endometriosis, via alterations affecting different genetic pathways. The origin of mucinous and transitional cell neoplasms is not well characterised, although new data suggest a possible origin from transitional cell nests present at the tubal-mesothelial junction. Likewise, the pathogenesis of carcinosarcomas is also not well established because of their rarity but there is accumulating evidence that the carcinomatous component determines the course of the disease and gives rise to the malignant mesenchymal component. This review discusses recent developments in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma, with particular emphasis on the putative precursor lesions that give rise to the major histological subtypes. Recognition of these lesions is not only important in improving the understanding of ovarian carcinogenesis, but it will also influence our approach to prevent, detect and treat these tumours. PMID:23478230

  9. Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical interplanetary shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local magnetic field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the magnetic field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves.

  10. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  11. Are there credible earthquake electromagnetic precursors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftaxias, Konstantinos; Balasis, Georgios; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Kalimeri, Maria; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Kopanas, John; Antonopoulos, George

    2010-05-01

    Ultra low frequency-ULF (1 Hz or lower), kHz and MHz electromagnetic (EM) anomalies were recorded prior to the L'Aquila catastrophic earthquake (EQ) that occurred on April 6, 2009. The detected anomalies followed this temporal scheme. (i) The MHZ EM anomalies were detected on March 26, 2009 and April 2, 2009. The kHz EM anomalies were emerged on April 4, 2009. The ULF EM anomaly was continuously recorded from March 29, 2009 up to April 2, 2009. Are EQs predictable is a question hotly debated in the science community. Its answer begs for another question: Are there credible EQ precursors? Despite fairly abundant circumstantial evidence pre-seismic EM signals have not been adequately accepted as real physical quantities. Therefore, the question effortlessly arises as to whether the observed anomalies before the L'Aquila EQ were seismogenic or not. The main goal of this work is to provide some insight into this issue. More precisely, the main aims of this contribution are threefold: (i) How can we recognize an EM observation as pre-seismic one? We wonder whether necessary and sufficient criteria have been established that permit the characterization of an EM observation as a precursor. (ii) How can we link an individual EM precursor with a distinctive stage of the EQ preparation process? (iii) How can we identify precursory symptoms in an individual EM precursor that indicate that the occurrence of the EQ is unavoidable? We emphasize that we attempt to specify not only whether or not a single EM anomaly is pre-seismic in itself, but mainly whether a combination of emergent ULF, MHz and kHz EM anomalies could be characterized as pre-earthquake.

  12. Precursors to radiopharmaceutical agents for tissue imaging

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Prem C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A class of radiolabeled compounds to be used in tissue imaging that exhibits rapid brain uptake, good brain:blood radioactivity ratios, and long retention times. The imaging agents are more specifically radioiodinated aromatic amines attached to dihydropyridine carriers, that exhibit heart as well as brain specificity. In addition to the radiolabeled compounds, classes of compounds are also described that are used as precursors and intermediates in the preparation of the imaging agents.

  13. Current understanding of precursors to pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Takaori, Kyoichi

    2007-01-01

    Precursors to pancreatic cancer have been investigated for a century. Previous studies have revealed three distinct precursors, i.e. mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), harboring identical or similar genetic alterations as does invasive pancreatic carcinoma. The current understanding of precursors to pancreatic cancer can be illustrated by progressive pathways from noninvasive MCN, IPMN, and PanIN toward invasive carcinoma. MCNs consist of ovarian-type stroma and epithelial lining with varying grades of atypia, and are occasionally associated with invasive adenocarcinoma. The epithelium of noninvasive IPMNs shows a variety of different directions of differentiation, including gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary (PB), and oncocytic types. IPMNs can also harbor varying grades of architectural and cytologic atypia. IPMNs confined to branch ducts are mostly the gastric type, and IPMNs involving the main ducts are often intestinal type, while PB and oncocytic types are rare. Small (<1 cm) IPMNs of the gastric type are not always morphologically distinguishable from low-grade PanINs. Mucin expression profiles suggest intestinal-type IPMNs progress to mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinoma, while PB-type IPMNs progress toward ductal adenocarcinoma. It is a well-described paradigm that PanIN lesions progress toward ductal adenocarcinoma through step-wise genetic alterations. The activation of Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways in PanIN lesions as well as in pancreatic adenocarcinoma suggest that developmental pathways may be disregulated during carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Further study is needed to elucidate the pathways from precursors toward invasive carcinoma of the pancreas. PMID:17520195

  14. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting on precursor chemical... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.38 Reporting on precursor chemical substances. (a) Identification of precursor chemical...

  15. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting on precursor chemical... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.38 Reporting on precursor chemical substances. (a) Identification of precursor chemical...

  16. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting on precursor chemical... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.38 Reporting on precursor chemical substances. (a) Identification of precursor chemical...

  17. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting on precursor chemical... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.38 Reporting on precursor chemical substances. (a) Identification of precursor chemical...

  18. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting on precursor chemical... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.38 Reporting on precursor chemical substances. (a) Identification of precursor chemical...

  19. Scalar model for frictional precursors dynamics.

    PubMed

    Taloni, Alessandro; Benassi, Andrea; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that frictional sliding occurs by nucleation of detachment fronts at the contact interface that may appear well before the onset of global sliding. This intriguing precursory activity is not accounted for by traditional friction theories but is extremely important for friction dominated geophysical phenomena as earthquakes, landslides or avalanches. Here we simulate the onset of slip of a three dimensional elastic body resting on a surface and show that experimentally observed frictional precursors depend in a complex non-universal way on the sample geometry and loading conditions. Our model satisfies Archard's law and Amontons' first and second laws, reproducing with remarkable precision the real contact area dynamics, the precursors' envelope dynamics prior to sliding, and the normal and shear internal stress distributions close to the interfacial surface. Moreover, it allows to assess which features can be attributed to the elastic equilibrium, and which are attributed to the out-of-equilibrium dynamics, suggesting that precursory activity is an intrinsically quasi-static physical process. A direct calculation of the evolution of the Coulomb stress before and during precursors nucleation shows large variations across the sample, explaining why earthquake forecasting methods based only on accumulated slip and Coulomb stress monitoring are often ineffective. PMID:25640079

  20. Optical Synchrotron Precursors of Radio Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Nagakura, Hiroki; Suwa, Yudai; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    We examine the bright radio synchrotron counterparts of low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts and relativistic supernovae (SNe) and find that they can be powered by spherical hypernova (HN) explosions. Our results imply that radio-bright HNe are driven by relativistic jets that are choked deep inside the progenitor stars or quasi-spherical magnetized winds from fast-rotating magnetars. We also consider the optical synchrotron counterparts of radio-bright HNe and show that they can be observed as precursors several days before the SN peak with an r-band absolute magnitude of {{M}r}? -14 mag. While previous studies suggested that additional trans-relativistic components are required to power the bright radio emission, we find that they overestimated the energy budget of the trans-relativistic component by overlooking some factors related to the minimum energy of non-thermal electrons. If an additional trans-relativistic component exists, then a much brighter optical precursor with {{M}r}? -20 mag can be expected. Thus, the scenarios of radio-bright HNe can be distinguished by using optical precursors, which can be detectable from ? 100 Mpc by current SN surveys like the Kiso SN Survey, Palomar Transient Factory, and Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System.

  1. Formulating Precursors for Coating Metals and Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Gatica, Jorge E.; Reye, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A protocol has been devised for formulating low-vapor-pressure precursors for protective and conversion coatings on metallic and ceramic substrates. The ingredients of a precursor to which the protocol applies include additives with phosphate esters, or aryl phosphate esters in solution. Additives can include iron, chromium, and/or other transition metals. Alternative or additional additives can include magnesium compounds to facilitate growth of films on substrates that do not contain magnesium. Formulation of a precursor begins with mixing of the ingredients into a high-vapor-pressure solvent to form a homogeneous solution. Then the solvent is extracted from the solution by evaporation - aided, if necessary, by vacuum and/or slight heating. The solvent is deemed to be completely extracted when the viscosity of the remaining solution closely resembles the viscosity of the phosphate ester or aryl phosphate ester. In addition, satisfactory removal of the solvent can be verified by means of a differential scanning calorimetry essay: the absence of endothermic processes for temperatures below 150 C would indicate that the residual solvent has been eliminated from the solution beyond a detectable dilution level.

  2. Scalar model for frictional precursors dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Taloni, Alessandro; Benassi, Andrea; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that frictional sliding occurs by nucleation of detachment fronts at the contact interface that may appear well before the onset of global sliding. This intriguing precursory activity is not accounted for by traditional friction theories but is extremely important for friction dominated geophysical phenomena as earthquakes, landslides or avalanches. Here we simulate the onset of slip of a three dimensional elastic body resting on a surface and show that experimentally observed frictional precursors depend in a complex non-universal way on the sample geometry and loading conditions. Our model satisfies Archard's law and Amontons' first and second laws, reproducing with remarkable precision the real contact area dynamics, the precursors' envelope dynamics prior to sliding, and the normal and shear internal stress distributions close to the interfacial surface. Moreover, it allows to assess which features can be attributed to the elastic equilibrium, and which are attributed to the out-of-equilibrium dynamics, suggesting that precursory activity is an intrinsically quasi-static physical process. A direct calculation of the evolution of the Coulomb stress before and during precursors nucleation shows large variations across the sample, explaining why earthquake forecasting methods based only on accumulated slip and Coulomb stress monitoring are often ineffective. PMID:25640079

  3. Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors

    DOEpatents

    Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

    2006-08-15

    The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

  4. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors-A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. PMID:26319308

  5. Osteogenic precursor cells in reparative osteogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, L.N.; Pal'tsyn, A.A.

    1986-11-01

    The authors aim to discover osteogenic precursor cells in chinchilla rabbits appearing in the medullary cavity after removal of bone marrow. For this purpose the authors modified a model of medullary curettage. Pieces of tissue for electron-microscope autoradiography were incubated in medium with /sup 3/H-thymidine. To discover the proliferative properties of cells of the regenerating bone marrow tissue, an electron-microscopic autoradiographic investigation was carried out. It was found that DNA synthesis took place mainly in undifferentiated cells, endothelial cells, and differentiated cells.

  6. Amyloid precursor protein and neural development.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Maya; Hassan, Bassem A

    2014-07-01

    Interest in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) has increased in recent years due to its involvement in Alzheimer's disease. Since its molecular cloning, significant genetic and biochemical work has focused on the role of APP in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thus far, however, these studies have failed to deliver successful therapies. This suggests that understanding the basic biology of APP and its physiological role during development might be a crucial missing link for a better comprehension of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we present an overview of some of the key studies performed in various model organisms that have revealed roles for APP at different stages of neuronal development. PMID:24961795

  7. Wenchuan Earthquake Ionospheric Precursors: Modeling and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, Maxim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Zhao, Biqiang; Pulinets, Sergej; Zakharenkova, Irina; Bryukhanov, Valerij

    Early it was shown, that for strong middle-latitude earthquakes the effects in Total Electron Content (TEC) and in critical frequency of F2-layer (foF2) look like local changes in electron concentration which maxima are located in immediate proximity from epicenter area. Pre-cursory effects of strong near-equatorial earthquakes might be in the form of deepening and widening of electron concentration minimum over the magnetic equator and displacement of equatorial ionization anomaly crests. The problems of physical explanation of possible forma-tion mechanisms of the seismo-ionospheric effects are under discussion now. In Namgaladze et al., 2009 it has been come out with the assumption, that the most probable formation mech-anism of TEC disturbed areas, observable prior strong earthquakes, is the vertical transport of the F2-region ionospheric plasma under the zonal electric field action. The geomagnetic conjugacy of the earthquake ionospheric precursors and effects in equatorial anomaly which development is controlled by zonal electric field are strong arguments in favor of this hypoth-esis. Besides, the analysis of model calculation results with use of the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Protonosphere (GSM TIP) in Namgaladze et al., 2009 testifies in favor of this hypothesis. There is a question how such electric fields can arise in the ionosphere prior to earthquakes? Now it is not answer to this question. Therefore, for understanding of formation mechanisms of earthquake ionospheric precursors it is necessary to understand the physics of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling prior to earthquake. Many researchers tried to solve this problem. However, until now there is not common opinion concerning to the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling prior to earthquake. Some ba-sic hypotheses for the explanation of this mechanism have been offered: the Internal Gravity Waves (IGWs) of seismogenic origin with the period 1-3 hours, the IGWs with the period from several minutes up to tens minutes, the seismogenic electric field with amplitude from units up to tens mV/m, the abnormal electromagnetic fields and emissions. However, the appearance of local large-scale seismo-ionospheric anomalies in TEC and foF2 it is possible to explain only by two of the mentioned mechanisms: an atmospheric electric field and/or small-scale IGWs. In this study, we present the numerical calculation results for reproduction of observed changes in the ionosphere prior to strong Wenchuan earthquake. This earthquake has been fixed on 12 May 2008. The geomagnetic activity indices for the period on 1-13 May were low. The calcu-lations of Wenchuan earthquake ionospheric precursors were carried out with use of the GSM TIP model. In calculations, the small-scale IGWs and/or the penetration of vertical electric field are considered as the formation mechanisms of earthquake ionospheric precursors. It was carried out the comparison of calculation results with experimental data of TEC and foF2 at various stations, located in China and nearby areas. The obtained results confirm the proposed mechanisms of seismo-ionospheric effect formation by small-scale IGWs and the penetration of the seismogenic vertical electric field from the atmosphere into the ionosphere. References Namgaladze A.A., Klimenko M.V., Klimenko V.V. and Zakharenkova I.E. Physical Mechanism and Mathematical Simulation of Ionosphere Earthquake Precursors Observed in Total Electron Content. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 2009, Vol. 49, 252-262.

  8. Shock-precursor waves in brittle granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, William; Chapman, David James; Proud, William

    2012-03-01

    Shock compaction studies of sand, and other brittle granular materials, have produced wave profiles that show an unsteady precursor-wave followed by a steady shock-wave. Two theories exist regarding the meso-mechanical deformation that occurs within this precursor wave: inter-particle rearrangement and particle fracture. Plate impact experiments were conducted on beds of quasi-mono-disperse soda-lime glass microspheres. The thickness of the granular bed was varied to measure evolution of the precursor waves. Granular beds comprising smaller particles produce higher magnitude precursor waves which indicates a higher bulk material strength. This theory of increasing strength with decreasing scale agrees with other studies. The precursor waves within beds of 63 ?m microspheres appear to reach a steady state within the run distance of the beds used in this investigation but thicker beds of 200 and 500 ?m particles are potentially required to observe a steady state precursor wave.

  9. Study of tectonic earthquake precursors by geodetic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sigalov, V.M.

    1985-02-01

    Deformations of the Earth's surface which can be revealed by geodetic methods are among the most reliable earthquake precursors. A brief list is presented of geodetic leveling methods which have revealed the precursors of several earthquakes. To confirm the accuracy of determination of precursors of earthquakes based on the results of repeated leveling in epicenter zones and observations at Alma-Ata, the magnitudes of 7 earthquakes which occurred in northern Tien Shan during measurement of tectonic precursors were calculated and compared to valves based on seismologic measurements. The agreement found is satisfactory. A scientifically well-founded program of tectonic movements by geodetic methods in the northern Tien Shan has thus established the presence of tectonic precursors of earthquakes, determined the distances over which they are manifested and shown the possiblity of using the results of geodetic measurements in combiantion with geophysical and seismologic data to estimate the possible time of appearance of earthquake precursors.

  10. Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels: Kinetics of Forming Deposit Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, David W.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this study was on the autoxidation kinetics of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels. The objectives were: (1) to demonstrate that laser-induced fluorescence is a viable kinetic tool for measuring rates of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels; (2) to determine global rate expressions for the formation of thermal deposit precursors in jet fuels; and (3) to better understand the chemical mechanism of thermal stability. The fuels were isothermally stressed in small glass ampules in the 120 to 180 C range. Concentrations of deposit precursor, hydroperoxide and oxygen consumption were measured over time in the thermally stressed fuels. Deposit precursors were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), hydroperoxides using a spectrophotometric technique, and oxygen consumption by the pressure loss in the ampule. The expressions, I.P. = 1.278 x 10(exp -11)exp(28,517.9/RT) and R(sub dp) = 2.382 x 10(exp 17)exp(-34,369.2/RT) for the induction period, I.P. and rate of deposit precursor formation R(sub dp), were determined for Jet A fuel. The results of the study support a new theory of deposit formation in jet fuels, which suggest that acid catalyzed ionic reactions compete with free radical reactions to form deposit precursors. The results indicate that deposit precursors form only when aromatics are present in the fuel. Traces of sulfur reduce the rate of autoxidation but increase the yield of deposit precursor. Free radical chemistry is responsible for hydroperoxide formation and the oxidation of sulfur compounds to sulfonic acids. Phenols are then formed by the acid catalyzed decomposition of benzylic hydroperoxides, and deposit precursors are produced by the reaction of phenols with aldehydes, which forms a polymer similar to Bakelite. Deposit precursors appear to have a phenolic resin-like structure because the LIF spectra of the deposit precursors were similar to that of phenolic resin dissolved in TAM.

  11. Design of Aerosol Coating Reactors: Precursor Injection

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Particles are coated with thin shells to facilitate their processing and incorporation into liquid or solid matrixes without altering core particle properties (coloristic, magnetic, etc.). Here, computational fluid and particle dynamics are combined to investigate the geometry of an aerosol reactor for continuous coating of freshly-made titanium dioxide core nanoparticles with nanothin silica shells by injection of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapor downstream of TiO2 particle formation. The focus is on the influence of HMDSO vapor jet number and direction in terms of azimuth and inclination jet angles on process temperature and coated particle characteristics (shell thickness and fraction of uncoated particles). Rapid and homogeneous mixing of core particle aerosol and coating precursor vapor facilitates synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles with uniform shell thickness and high coating efficiency (minimal uncoated core and free coating particles). PMID:23658471

  12. Silsesquioxanes as precursors to ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Hyatt, Lizbeth H.; Gorecki, Joy; Damore, Lisa

    1987-01-01

    Silsesquioxanes having the general structure RSiO sub 1.5, where R = methyl, propyl, or phenyl, melt flow at 70 to 100 C. Above 100 C, free -OH groups condense. At 225 C further crosslinking occurs, and the materials form thermosets. Pyrolysis, with accompanying loss of volatiles, takes place at nominally 525 C. At higher temperatures, the R group serves as an internal carbon soruce for carbo-thermal reduction to SiC accompanied by the evolution of CO. By blending silsesquioxanes with varying R groups, both the melt rheology and composition of the fired ceramic can be controlled. Fibers can be spun from the melt which are stable in argon in 1400 C. The silsesquioxanes also were used as matrix precursors for Nicalon and alpha-SiC platelet reinforced composites.

  13. Precursors to glycogen in ovine fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Levitsky, L.L.; Paton, J.B.; Fisher, D.E. )

    1988-11-01

    Postprandial hepatic glycogenesis in the adult animal is now felt to proceed largely through gluconeogenic pathways rather than directly from glucose. The ovine fetus, like the mature sheep, lacks specific hepatic glucokinase. Therefore, the authors examined the role of lactate as a fetal glycogenic precursor in seven chronically catheterized 125-day sheep fetuses. Fetuses were infused with L-(U-{sup 14}C)lactate and D-(3-{sup 3}H)glucose, while maternal glucose was maintained at 50 mg/dl. Mean fetal hepatic glycogen specific activity ({mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}) was 0.82 {plus minus} 0.08 for {sup 14}C and 2.6 {plus minus} 0.4 for {sup 3}H, whereas fetal renal glycogen specific activity was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.22 for {sup 14}C and 0.78 {plus minus} 0.16 for {sup 3}H. In contrast, ({sup 14}C)glucose specific activity was undetectable in blood and mean ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was 8.9 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}. The least detectable specific activity of ({sup 14}C)glucose did not differ significantly from the ({sup 14}C)glycogen enrichment in liver, whereas ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was significantly greater than ({sup 3}H)glycogen enrichment. The authors conclude that glycogenesis from glucose is partly through the indirect gluconeogenic route and that lactate may be a glycogenic precursor in the ovine fetus.

  14. BEHAVIORAL RISK DISPARITIES IN A RANDOM SAMPLE OF SELF-IDENTIFYING GAY AND NON-GAY MALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This internet-based study was designed to compare health risk behaviors of gay and non-gay university students from stratified random cross-sectional samples of undergraduate students. Mean age of the 4,167 male participants was 20.5 (±2.7) years. Of these, 206 (4.9%) self-identified as gay and 3,961 (95.1%) self-identified as heterosexual. After adjusting for selected characteristics and clustering within university, gay men had higher odds of reporting: multiple sexual partners; cigarette smoking; methamphetamine use; gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) use; other illicit drug use within the past 30 days and during lifetime; and intimate partner violence (IPV). Understanding the health risk behaviors of gay and heterosexual men is crucial to identifying associated factors and intervening upon them using appropriate and tailored strategies to reduce behavioral risk disparities and improve health outcomes. PMID:19882428

  15. Raves: a review of the culture, the drugs and the prevention of harm

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E

    2000-01-01

    Raves are all-night dance parties attended by large numbers of youth, sometimes in excess of 20,000. The rave scene, which is international in scope, is distinguished by clandestine venues, hypnotic electronic music and the liberal use of drugs such as ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and ketamine. Several rave-related deaths in Canada in 1999 alerted health authorities, parents and police to the health risks of rave attendance. Family physicians, emergency physicians and pediatricians should have some understanding of raves, the drugs and the health risks so they can effectively counsel and treat patients. The rave culture in Canada and the drugs commonly used at raves are reviewed, and strategies and initiatives for harm reduction are discussed. PMID:10906922

  16. Association between narcotic use and anabolic-androgenic steroid use among American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Denham, Bryan E

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the data gathered in the 2006 Monitoring the Future study of American youth, the present research examines associations between use of narcotics and use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) among high-school seniors (n = 2,489). With independent measures and controls including sex, race, media exposure, socializing with friends, participation in recreational and school-sponsored sports, perceptions of drug use among professional athletes, and perceptions of steroid use among close friends, binary logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between AAS use and the use of alcohol, crack cocaine, Vicodin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Ketamine, and Rohypnol. While use of both AASs and the narcotic drugs generally did not eclipse 5% of the sample, the numbers extend to many thousands in larger populations. Implications for health practitioners and recommendations for future research are offered. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20001694

  17. Review: Drug concentrations in hair and their relevance in drug facilitated crimes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-11-01

    Segmental hair analysis can provide valuable retrospective information on the history of drug exposure in victims of drug facilitated crimes (DFC). This is now possible with availability of sensitive tandem MS techniques such as GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS allowing drugs to be detected at pg/mg concentrations after a single dose. In this review hair concentrations of 35 psychoactive drugs given in 20 controlled dose studies are reviewed and compared to the 25 different drugs detected in reported case work. The most common drugs were the benzodiazepines and related hypnotics, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine and methamphetamine. Those concentrations reported in DFC were mostly similar or higher than that seen in controlled dose studies. The factors that affecting interpretation of segmental hair results including hair color, growth rates, sample preparation and surface contamination are discussed. PMID:26454219

  18. Precursors of chicken flavor. II. Identification of key flavor precursors using sensory methods.

    PubMed

    Aliani, Michel; Farmer, Linda J

    2005-08-10

    Sensory evaluation was used to identify flavor precursors that are critical for flavor development in cooked chicken. Among the potential flavor precursors studied (thiamin, inosine 5'-monophosphate, ribose, ribose-5-phosphate, glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate), ribose appears most important for chicken aroma. An elevated concentration (added or natural) of only 2-4-fold the natural concentration gives an increase in the selected aroma and flavor attributes of cooked chicken meat. Assessment of the volatile odor compounds by gas chromatography-odor assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that ribose increased odors described as "roasted" and "chicken" and that the changes in odor due to additional ribose are probably caused by elevated concentrations of compounds such as 2-furanmethanethiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and 3-methylthiopropanal. PMID:16076134

  19. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  20. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  1. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised. PMID:26479746

  2. Neural Precursor Lineages Specify Distinct Neocortical Pyramidal Neuron Types

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, William A.; Medalla, Maria; Guillamon-Vivancos, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Several neural precursor populations contemporaneously generate neurons in the developing neocortex. Specifically, radial glial stem cells of the dorsal telencephalon divide asymmetrically to produce excitatory neurons, but also indirectly to produce neurons via three types of intermediate progenitor cells. Why so many precursor types are needed to produce neurons has not been established; whether different intermediate progenitor cells merely expand the output of radial glia or instead generate distinct types of neurons is unknown. Here we use a novel genetic fate mapping technique to simultaneously track multiple precursor streams in the developing mouse brain and show that layer 2 and 3 pyramidal neurons exhibit distinctive electrophysiological and structural properties depending upon their precursor cell type of origin. These data indicate that individual precursor subclasses synchronously produce functionally different neurons, even within the same lamina, and identify a primary mechanism leading to cortical neuronal diversity. PMID:25878286

  3. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel A; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of "frog swarms" from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported "frog swarms" are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised. PMID:26479746

  4. Hydrodeoxygenation of coal using organometallic catalyst precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Stephen R.

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to determine the desirability of organometallic compounds for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of coal during liquefaction. The primary focus of this study was the removal of phenol-like compounds from coal liquids for the production of a thermally stable jet fuel. Investigation of the HDO ability of an organometallic compound containing both cobalt and molybdenum (CoMo-T2) was achieved using a combination of model compound and coal experiments. Model compounds were chosen representing four oxygen functional groups present in a range of coals. Electron density and bond order calculations were performed for anthrone, dinaphthyl ether, xanthene, di-t-butylmethylphenol, and some of their derivatives to ascertain a potential order of hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation reactivity for these compounds. The four model compounds were then reacted with CoMo-T2, as well as ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM). Products of reaction were grouped as compounds that had undergone deoxygenation, those that had aromatic rings reduced, those that were products of both reaction pathways, and those produced through other routes. ATTM had an affinity for both reaction types. Its reaction order for the four model compounds with respect to deoxygenated compounds was the same as that estimated from electron density calculations for hydrogenolysis reactivity. CoMo-T2 appeared to show a preference toward hydrogenation, although deoxygenated products were still achieved in similar, or greater, yields, for almost all the model compounds. The reactivity order achieved for the four compounds with CoMo-T2 was similar to that estimated from bond order calculations for hydrogenation reactivity. Three coals were selected representing a range of coal ranks and oxygen contents. DECS-26 (Wyodak), DECS-24 (Illinois #6), and DECS-23 (Pittsburgh #8) were analyzed by CPMAS 13C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS to determine the functional groups comprising the oxygen content of these coals. Trends within the data were similar to those reported by other authors. Based on the conclusions from both the model compound studies and the coal analysis, predictions were made of the catalyst precursors' performance in the HDO of the three selected coals. It was concluded that CoMo-T2 is a desirable catalyst precursor for the HDO of coals (particularly low-rank coals), but that an optimum set of conditions must be determined to take full advantage of its HDO ability. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. A Fission-Powered Interstellar Precursor Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; West, J.L.; Wright, S.A.

    1998-10-28

    An 'interstellar precursor mission' lays the groundwork for eventual interstellar exploration by studying the interstellar medium and by stretching technologies that have potential application for eventual interstellar exploration. The numerous scientific goals for such a mission include generating a 3-D stellar map of our galaxy, studying Kuiper-belt and Oort cloud objects, and observing distant objects using the sun's gravitational lens as the primary of an enormous telescope. System equations are developed for a space tug which propels a 2500-kg scientific payload to 550 astronomical units in about 20 years. The tug to transport this payload uses electric propulsion with an Isp of 15,000 seconds and a fission reactor with a closed Brayton cycle to genemte the electricity. The optimal configuration may be to thrust for only about 6 years and then coast for the remaining 14 pars. This spacecraft does not require any physics breakthroughs or major advances in technology. The fission power syslem can be engineered and built by drawing upon known technologies developed for relatgd systems over the past 40 years. The tug system would eventually reach 1000 a.u in 33 years, and would have adequate power to relay large amounts of data throughout its journey.

  6. Bacterial Cellular Materials as Precursors of Chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Ng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Chow, A. T.; Wong, P.

    2011-12-01

    The environmental sources of chloroform and other halocarbons have been intensively investigated because their effects of stratospheric ozone destruction and environmental toxicity. It has been demonstrated that microorganisms could facilitate the biotic generation of chloroform from natural organic matters in soil, but whether the cellular materials itself also serves as an important precursor due to photo-disinfection is poorly known. Herein, seven common pure bacterial cultures (Acinetobacter junii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus sciuri) were chlorinated to evaluate the yields of chloroform, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane, and bromoform. The effects of bromide on these chemical productions and speciations were also investigated. Results showed that, on average, 5.64-36.42 ?g-chloroform /mg-C were generated during the bacterial chlorination, in similar order of magnitude to that generated by humic acid (previously reported as 78 ?g-chloroform/mg-C). However, unlike humic acid in water chlorination, chloroform concentration did not simply increase with the total organic carbon in water mixture. In the presence of bromide, the yield of brominated species responded linearly to the bromide concentration. This study provides useful information to understand the contributions of chloroform from photodisinfection processes in coastal environments.

  7. Identification, selection, and enrichment of cardiomyocyte precursors.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Bianca Ferrarini; Gomes, Walter José; Han, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    The large-scale production of cardiomyocytes is a key step in the development of cell therapy and tissue engineering to treat cardiovascular diseases, particularly those caused by ischemia. The main objective of this study was to establish a procedure for the efficient production of cardiomyocytes by reprogramming mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. First, lentiviral vectors expressing neoR and GFP under the control of promoters expressed specifically during cardiomyogenesis were constructed to monitor cell reprogramming into precardiomyocytes and to select cells for amplification and characterization. Cellular reprogramming was performed using 5'-azacytidine followed by electroporation with plasmid pOKS2a, which expressed Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4. Under these conditions, GFP expression began only after transfection with pOKS2a, and less than 0.015% of cells were GFP(+). These GFP(+) cells were selected for G418 resistance to find molecular markers of cardiomyocytes by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both genetic and protein markers of cardiomyocytes were present in the selected cells, with some variations among them. Cell doubling time did not change after selection. Together, these results indicate that enrichment with vectors expressing GFP and neoR under cardiomyocyte-specific promoters can produce large numbers of cardiomyocyte precursors (CMPs), which can then be differentiated terminally for cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:23853770

  8. Robotic Precursor Missions for Mars Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Pirjanian, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Das, Hari; Joshi, Sajay

    2000-01-01

    Infrastructure support for robotic colonies, manned Mars habitat, and/or robotic exploration of planetary surfaces will need to rely on the field deployment of multiple robust robots. This support includes such tasks as the deployment and servicing of power systems and ISRU generators, construction of beaconed roadways, and the site preparation and deployment of manned habitat modules. The current level of autonomy of planetary rovers such as Sojourner will need to be greatly enhanced for these types of operations. In addition, single robotic platforms will not be capable of complicated construction scenarios. Precursor robotic missions to Mars that involve teams of multiple cooperating robots to accomplish some of these tasks is a cost effective solution to the possible long timeline necessary for the deployment of a manned habitat. Ongoing work at JPL under the Mars Outpost Program in the area of robot colonies is investigating many of the technology developments necessary for such an ambitious undertaking. Some of the issues that are being addressed include behavior-based control systems for multiple cooperating robots (CAMPOUT), development of autonomous robotic systems for the rescue/repair of trapped or disabled robots, and the design and development of robotic platforms for construction tasks such as material transport and surface clearing.

  9. A fission-powered interstellar precursor mission

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Lenard, Roger X.; Wright, Steven A. West, John L.

    1999-01-01

    An {open_quotes}interstellar precursor mission{close_quotes} lays the groundwork for eventual interstellar exploration by studying the interstellar medium and by stretching technologies that have potential application for eventual interstellar exploration. The numerous scientific goals for such a mission include generating a 3-D stellar map of our galaxy, studying Kuiper-belt and Oort cloud objects, and observing distant objects using the sun{close_quote}s gravitational lens as the primary of an enormous telescope. System equations are developed for a space tug which propels a 2500-kg scientific payload to 550 astronomical units in about 20 years. The tug to transport this payload uses electric propulsion with an lsp of 15,000 seconds and a fission reactor with a closed Brayton cycle to generate the electricity. The optimal configuration may be to thrust for only about 6 years and then coast for the remaining 14 years. This spacecraft does not require any physics breakthroughs or major advances in technology. The fission power system can be engineered and built by drawing upon known technologies developed for related systems over the past 40 years. The tug system would eventually reach 1000 a.u in 33 years, and would have adequate power to relay large amounts of data throughout its journey. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. The Amyloid Precursor Protein Controls PIKfyve Function

    PubMed Central

    Balklava, Zita; Niehage, Christian; Currinn, Heather; Mellor, Laura; Guscott, Benjamin; Poulin, Gino; Hoflack, Bernard; Wassmer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease, its cellular function still remains largely unclear. It was our goal to establish APP function which will provide insights into APP's implication in Alzheimer's disease. Using our recently developed proteo-liposome assay we established the interactome of APP's intracellular domain (known as AICD), thereby identifying novel APP interactors that provide mechanistic insights into APP function. By combining biochemical, cell biological and genetic approaches we validated the functional significance of one of these novel interactors. Here we show that APP binds the PIKfyve complex, an essential kinase for the synthesis of the endosomal phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate. This signalling lipid plays a crucial role in endosomal homeostasis and receptor sorting. Loss of PIKfyve function by mutation causes profound neurodegeneration in mammals. Using C. elegans genetics we demonstrate that APP functionally cooperates with PIKfyve in vivo. This regulation is required for maintaining endosomal and neuronal function. Our findings establish an unexpected role for APP in the regulation of endosomal phosphoinositide metabolism with dramatic consequences for endosomal biology and important implications for our understanding of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26125944

  11. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection. PMID:17725566

  12. Search for precursor eruptions among Type IIb supernovae

    E-print Network

    Strotjohann, Nora L; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Sullivan, Mark; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Shaviv, Nir J; Fremling, Christoffer; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Nugent, Peter E; Cao, Yi; Arcavi, Iair; Sollerman, Jesper; Filippenko, Alexei V; Yaron, Ofer; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The progenitor stars of several Type IIb supernovae (SNe) show indications for extended hydrogen envelopes. These envelopes might be the outcome of luminous energetic pre-explosion events, so-called precursor eruptions. We use the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) pre-explosion observations of a sample of 27 nearby Type IIb SNe to look for such precursors during the final years prior to the SN explosion. No precursors are found when combining the observations in 15-day bins, and we calculate the absolute-magnitude-dependent upper limit on the precursor rate. At the 90% confidence level, Type IIb SNe have on average $<0.86$ precursors as bright as absolute $R$-band magnitude $-14$ in the final 3.5 years before the explosion and $<0.56$ events over the final year. In contrast, precursors among SNe IIn have a $\\gtrsim 5$ times higher rate. The kinetic energy required to unbind a low-mass stellar envelope is comparable to the radiated energy of a few-weeks-long precursor which would be detectable for the clos...

  13. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  14. Methods for forming particles from single source precursors

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rodriguez, Rene G. (Pocatello, ID); Pak, Joshua (Pocatello, ID)

    2011-08-23

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  15. Precursor Science for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R. (Editor); Unwin, S. C. (Editor); Beichman, C. A. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This document outlines a path for the development of the field of extrasolar planet research, with a particular emphasis on the goals of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). Over the past decade, a new field of research has developed, the study of extrasolar planetary systems, driven by the discovery of massive planets around nearby stars. The planet count now stands at over 130. Are there Earth-like planets around nearby stars? Might any of those planets be conducive to the formation and maintenance of life? These arc the questions that TPF seeks to answer. TPF will be implemented as a suite of two space observatories, a 6-m class optical coronagraph, to be launched around 20 14, and a formation flying mid-infrared interferometer, to be launched sometime prior to 2020. These facilities will survey up to 165 or more nearby stars and detect planets like Earth should they be present in the 'habitable zone' around each star. With observations over a broad wavelength range, TPF will provide a robust determination of the atmospheric composition of planets to assess habitability and the presence of life. At this early stage of TPF's development, precursor observational and theoretical programs are essential to help define the mission, to aid our understanding of the planets that TPF could discover, and to characterize the stars that TPF will eventually study. This document is necessarily broad in scope because the significance of individual discoveries is greatly enhanced when viewed in thc context of the field as a whole. This document has the ambitious goal of taking us from our limited knowledge today, in 2004, to the era of TPF observations in the middle of the next decade. We must use the intervening years wisely. This document will be reviewed annually and updated as needed. The most recent edition is available online at http://tpf.jpl.nasa.gov/ or by email request to lawson@hucy.jpl.nasa.gov

  16. Metal Precursors and Reduction in Renazzo Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.; Bourot-Denise, M.

    1993-07-01

    The positive Co-Ni correlation and Cr, P contents of metal in CR chondrites have generally been taken to indicate their primitive nature, probably inherited from condensation [1,2]. Si in the metal of primitive chondrites has also been reported and interpreted as a condensation heritage [3,4]. However, Cr, P, and Si (dissolved or in the form of inclusions) in metal of any CR chondrule generally fall within a +-10% range, though large interchondrule variations exist [5]. We have shown that Cr and Si in metal are in equilibrium with Fo and En in silicates, due to the reducing conditions that prevailed during chondrule formation [6]. In the present paper, we show that the Co-Ni trend was also established during chondrule formation out of heterogeneous precursor material with a variable Co/Ni ratio. Chondrules in Renazzo are classified as highly molten (HM), in which metal has been expelled to form a mantle outside the chondrule, medium molten (MM), with metal inside and at the periphery, and with evidence for grain coalescence, and little melted (LM), in which metal is only present in the form of small blebs dispersed among the silicates. In HM chondrules, Ni and Co concentrations are extremely homogeneous, comparatively low and in the cosmic ratio. In LM chondrules, quite the opposite: Ni and Co spread over a large range and the amount of scatter increases with decreasing degree of melting of the chondrule. In addition, they do not correlate along the cosmic ratio, but show a negative correlation if any. This heterogeneity is present not only from grain to grain in these chondrules, but also in individual metal grains. Such a heterogeneity is also exhibited in Cr and P abundances that span a much larger range than the +-10% found in the other chondrules. These results indicate that chondrule formation is responsible for the homogenization of Co and Ni contents of metal grains through coalescence and mixing. The less melted objects give an idea of the nature of metal in chondrule precursors, extremely heterogeneous and fine grained (each small heterogeneous metal bleb might be the result of partial melting of one or of coalescence and imperfect mixing of a few such grains). Co and Ni in these individual grains were not in the cosmic ratio, but wide sampling of dust in each chondrule precursor insured that this ratio was attained after mixing and homogenization, as seen in HM chondrule metal grains and from mean values of Co and Ni in LM chondrules. In MM chondrules, scatter of Ni and Co data are, as expected, intermediate between those of HM and LM chondrules, but Co and Ni are close to the cosmic ratio. The scatter is mostly due to addition of variable quantities of iron in the reduction during chondrule formation, which is responsible for Cr and Si integration into metal. Further evidence of such a process can be found in the less molten of these objects, in which metal grain coalescence is limited and peripheral grains are still different from inside grains. In these cases, Co and Ni distributions are clearly bimodal, high in inside grains, low in peripheral grains. Co/Ni in these two populations are somewhat scattered around the cosmic ratio, but their means (Ni: 7.75 = +- 0.24, Co: 0.36 +- 0.04, and Ni: 4.39 +- 0.34, Co: 0.23 +- 0.02, e.g., in the case of chondrule AL1) are very close to the cosmic ratio. This is in good agreement with the low values found in the homogeneous mantle grains of HM chondrules and, as noted by Lee et al. [7], indicates that the reducing agent was external to the chondrule. Cr abundances of these peripheral metal grains, however, match Cr abundances of the interior ones in these chondrules. This indicates that the redox state of all these grains was attained simultaneously and controlled by equilibrium with chondrule silicates. Slightly more extensive reduction of the latter close to the chondrule surface that added more Fe to peripheral metal grains resulted in only a minor variation of the Cr partition coefficient: it consequently also induced Cr addition, the Cr/Fe ratio varying only marg

  17. The Xyrem risk management program.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David E; Hornfeldt, Carl S; Kelloway, Judy S; Stahl, Pamela J; Anderson, Todd F

    2004-01-01

    Sodium oxybate, also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), was discovered in 1960 and has been described both as a therapeutic agent with high medical value and, more recently, a substance of abuse. The naturally occurring form of this drug is found in various body tissues but has been studied most extensively in the CNS where its possible function as a neurotransmitter continues to be studied. Sodium oxybate has been approved in different countries for such varied uses as general anaesthesia, the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and addiction, and, most recently, cataplexy associated with narcolepsy. During the 1980s, easy access to GHB-containing products led to various unapproved uses, including weight loss, bodybuilding and the treatment of sleeplessness, sometimes with serious long-term effects. The availability of these unapproved and unregulated forms of the drug led to GHB and its analogues being popularised as substances of abuse and subsequent notoriety as agents used in drug-facilitated sexual assault, or 'date rape', eventually leading to the prohibition of GHB sales in the US. Legal efforts to control the sale and distribution of GHB and its analogues nearly prevented the clinical development of sodium oxybate for narcolepsy in the US. However, following extensive discussions with a variety of interested parties, a satisfactory solution was devised, including legislative action and the development of the Xyrem Risk Management Program. Amendments to the US Controlled Substances Act made GHB a schedule I drug, but also contained provisions that allow US FDA-approved products to be placed under schedule III. This unique, bifurcated schedule for sodium oxybate/GHB allowed the clinical development of sodium oxybate to proceed and, in July 2002, it was approved by the FDA as an orphan drug for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy as Xyrem(sodium oxybate) oral solution. To promote the safe use of sodium oxybate, as well as alleviate concerns over possible diversion and abuse following product approval, a proprietary restricted drug distribution system was created, called the Xyrem Success Program. Components of the programme include a centralised distribution and dispensing system, a physician and patient registry, compulsory educational materials for patients and physicians, a specially trained pharmacy staff, a method for tracking prescription shipments, and an initial post-marketing surveillance programme. The system has created a unique opportunity to provide both physician and patient education and ongoing patient counselling, promoting greater drug safety and enhanced patient compliance. PMID:15061684

  18. MULTIPOLLUTANT METHODS - METHODS FOR OZONE AND OZONE PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task involves the development and testing of methods for monitoring ozone and compounds associated with the atmospheric chemistry of ozone production both as precursors and reaction products. Although atmospheric gases are the primary interest, separation of gas and particl...

  19. Synthesis of a Precursor to Sacubitril Using Enabling Technologies

    E-print Network

    Lau, Shing-Hing; Bourne, Samuel L.; Martin, Benjamin; Schenkel, Berthold; Penn, Gerhard; Ley, Steven V.

    2015-10-28

    An efficient preparation of a precursor to the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril is described. The convergent synthesis features a diastereoselective Reformatsky-type carbethoxyallylation and a rhodium-catalysed stereoselective hydrogenation...

  20. Precursor composites for oxygen dispersion hardened silver sheathed superconductor composites

    DOEpatents

    Podtburg, E.R.

    1999-06-22

    An oxide superconductor composite having improved texture and durability is disclosed. The oxide superconductor composite includes an oxide superconductor phase substantially surrounded with/by a noble metal matrix, the noble metal matrix comprising a metal oxide in an amount effective to form metal oxide domains that increase hardness of the composite. The composite is characterized by a degree of texture at least 10% greater than a comparable oxide superconductor composite lacking metal oxide domains. An oxide superconducting composite may be prepared by oxidizing the precursor composite under conditions effective to form solute metal oxide domains within the silver matrix and to form a precursor oxide in the precursor alloy phase; subjecting the oxidized composite to a softening anneal under conditions effective to relieve stress within the noble metal phase; and converting the oxide precursor into an oxide superconductor. 1 fig.

  1. Development of Supersonic Retropropulsion for a Mars Precursor Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edquist, K. T.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Korzun, A. M.; Cianciolo, A. D.; Zarchi, K. A.; Lemke, L. G.; Bakhtian, N. M.

    2012-06-01

    Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP) is a promising EDL technology for future Mars missions. This paper summarizes the current state of SRP and recommends tasks to prepare for a Mars robotic precursor mission in the 2018-2024 timeframe.

  2. Precursor composites for oxygen dispersion hardened silver sheathed superconductor composites

    DOEpatents

    Podtburg, Eric R. (Natick, MA)

    1999-01-01

    An oxide superconductor composite having improved texture and durability. The oxide superconductor composite includes an oxide superconductor phase substantially surrounded with/by a noble metal matrix, the noble metal matrix comprising a metal oxide in an amount effective to form metal oxide domains that increase hardness of the composite. The composite is characterized by a degree of texture at least 10% greater than a comparable oxide superconductor composite lacking metal oxide domains. An oxide superconducting composite may be prepared by oxidizing the precursor composite under conditions effective to form solute metal oxide domains within the silver matrix and to form a precursor oxide in the precursor alloy phase; subjecting the oxidized composite to a softening anneal under conditions effective to relieve stress within the noble metal phase; and converting the oxide precursor into an oxide superconductor.

  3. Quarternary Amines as Nitrosamine Precursors: A Role for Consumer Products?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrosamine formation is associated with wastewater-impacted water supplies, but the specific precursors within municipal wastewater effluents have not been identified. Quaternary amines are significant constituents of consumer products, including shampoos, detergents and fabric softeners. Experimen...

  4. Explorations Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM) - Duration: 44 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Jay Jenkins delivers a presentation from the Exploration Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose...

  5. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  6. Search for Precursor Eruptions among Type IIb Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strotjohann, Nora L.; Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Sullivan, Mark; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Shaviv, Nir J.; Fremling, Christoffer; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Cao, Yi; Arcavi, Iair; Sollerman, Jesper; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Yaron, Ofer; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2015-10-01

    The progenitor stars of several Type IIb supernovae (SNe) show indications of extended hydrogen envelopes. These envelopes might be the outcome of luminous energetic pre-explosion events, so-called precursor eruptions. We use the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) pre-explosion observations of a sample of 27 nearby SNe IIb to look for such precursors during the final years prior to the SN explosion. No precursors are found when combining the observations in 15-day bins, and we calculate the absolute-magnitude-dependent upper limit on the precursor rate. At the 90% confidence level, SNe IIb have on average <0.86 precursors as bright as an absolute R-band magnitude of -14 in the final 3.5 years before the explosion and <0.56 events over the final year. In contrast, precursors among SNe IIn have a ?5 times higher rate. The kinetic energy required to unbind a low-mass stellar envelope is comparable to the radiated energy of a few-weeks-long precursor that would be detectable for the closest SNe in our sample. Therefore, mass ejections, if they are common in such SNe, are radiatively inefficient or have durations longer than months. Indeed, when using 60-day bins, a faint precursor candidate is detected prior to SN 2012cs (˜2% false-alarm probability). We also report the detection of the progenitor of SN 2011dh that does not show detectable variability over the final two years before the explosion. The suggested progenitor of SN 2012P is still present, and hence is likely a compact star cluster or an unrelated object.

  7. Improved Single-Source Precursors for Solar-Cell Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry; Hepp, Aloysius

    2007-01-01

    Improved single-source precursor compounds have been invented for use in spray chemical vapor deposition (spray CVD) of chalcopyrite semiconductor absorber layers of thin-film cells. A "single-source precursor compound" is a single molecular compound that contains all the required elements, which when used under the spray CVD conditions, thermally decomposes to form CuIn(x)Ga(1-x)S(y)Se(2-y).

  8. [Felice Fontana precursor of neurosciences (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Piazza, M

    1981-01-01

    The A.A. insert the life and work of the naturalist and chemist Felice Fontana, born in Pomarolo (Trentino), in the frame of 18th century sciences, beside other great names of that century like Carolus Linnaeus, Réaumur, von Haller, Spallanzani, Morgagni, Priestley and Lavoisier. In the field of general biology, the discovery of nucleus and nucleolus and consequently the discovery of the eukaryotic cell, as we say in our days, in his, as well as the one of anabiosis. The A.A. enucleate and analyse the contributions of Fontana to the neurosciences; he has discovered the axon and the myelinic sheath half century before Remak and Purknije; he found out that the white matter of the brain is made of fibres alike those of nerves and the grey matter is made of globules (i.e. cells) mixed up with fibres; he discovered in the retina a part of coming out from the brain; he described the transversal bands of fibres of the skeletal muscles; he was the first to introduce into physiology the law of "all and nothing"; he attributed the irritability to the whole animal life; he identified the pupillar reflexes to the light, the reflex of accommodation, the consensual reflex, the psycho-emotive mydriasis and at last the myosis of sleep. He made experimental searches about nerves and recognised their regeneration, he enumerated various pathological intracranial masses, he made an important anatomopathological research about hydatid cyst in the brain of the sheep affected by "capostorno" and madness, he demonstrated their parasitical nature (he said that the hydated cysts were covered inside by small animals), he come out to formulate the hypothesis that some neuropsychiatric diseases of man can depend from similar aetiology. He declared that passions may have pathological effects (psyco-somatic aetiology), but he has also drawned the attention against the danager of aprioristical generalisation of neurogenical causes in all diseases. The A.A. give to Fontana the palm of precursor of modern neurosciences and of neurology intended as synthesis and unified corpus of these sciences. PMID:7041765

  9. Biological Indicators in Studies of Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, A. Ya.; Deshcherevskii, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    Time series of data on variations in the electric activity (EA) of four species of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and moving activity (MA) of two cat-fishes Hoplosternum thoracatum and two groups of Columbian cockroaches Blaberus craniifer were analyzed. The observations were carried out in the Garm region of Tajikistan within the frameworks of the experiments aimed at searching for earthquake precursors. An automatic recording system continuously recorded EA and DA over a period of several years. Hourly means EA and MA values were processed. Approximately 100 different parameters were calculated on the basis of six initial EA and MA time series, which characterize different variations in the EA and DA structure: amplitude of the signal and fluctuations of activity, parameters of diurnal rhythms, correlated changes in the activity of various biological indicators, and others. A detailed analysis of the statistical structure of the total array of parametric time series obtained in the experiment showed that the behavior of all animals shows a strong temporal variability. All calculated parameters are unstable and subject to frequent changes. A comparison of the data obtained with seismicity allow us to make the following conclusions: (1) The structure of variations in the studied parameters is represented by flicker noise or even a more complex process with permanent changes in its characteristics. Significant statistics are required to prove the cause-and-effect relationship of the specific features of such time series with seismicity. (2) The calculation of the reconstruction statistics in the EA and MA series structure demonstrated an increase in their frequency in the last hours or a few days before the earthquake if the hypocenter distance is comparable to the source size. Sufficiently dramatic anomalies in the behavior of catfishes and cockroaches (changes in the amplitude of activity variation, distortions of diurnal rhythms, increase in the mismatch of coordination between the activity dynamics of one type of biological indicators) were observed in one case before the November 12, 1987, event at a hypocenter distance of 8 km from the observation point (i.e., the animals were located within the source zone). (3) Changes observed before the earthquakes do not have any specific features and correspond quite well to the variations permanently observed without any relation to the earthquakes. (4) The activity of individual specimens has specific features. This hampers the implication of the biological monitoring. (5) The conclusions made here should not be considered absolute or extrapolated over all cases of observation of the behavior of animals, because the animals were kept under experimental (laboratory) conditions and could be screened from the influence of the stimuli of some modalities.

  10. Predicting Solar Cycle 24 Using a Geomagnetic Precursor Pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2014-01-01

    We describe using Ap and F(10.7) as a geomagnetic-precursor pair to predict the amplitude of Solar Cycle 24. The precursor is created by using F(10.7) to remove the direct solar-activity component of Ap. Four peaks are seen in the precursor function during the decline of Solar Cycle 23. A recurrence index that is generated by a local correlation of Ap is then used to determine which peak is the correct precursor. The earliest peak is the most prominent but coincides with high levels of non-recurrent solar activity associated with the intense solar activity of October and November 2003. The second and third peaks coincide with some recurrent activity on the Sun and show that a weak cycle precursor closely following a period of strong solar activity may be difficult to resolve. A fourth peak, which appears in early 2008 and has recurrent activity similar to precursors of earlier solar cycles, appears to be the "true" precursor peak for Solar Cycle 24 and predicts the smallest amplitude for Solar Cycle 24. To determine the timing of peak activity it is noted that the average time between the precursor peak and the following maximum is approximately equal to 6.4 years. Hence, Solar Cycle 24 would peak during 2014. Several effects contribute to the smaller prediction when compared with other geomagnetic-precursor predictions. During Solar Cycle 23 the correlation between sunspot number and F(10.7) shows that F(10.7) is higher than the equivalent sunspot number over most of the cycle, implying that the sunspot number underestimates the solar-activity component described by F(10.7). During 2003 the correlation between aa and Ap shows that aa is 10 % higher than the value predicted from Ap, leading to an overestimate of the aa precursor for that year. However, the most important difference is the lack of recurrent activity in the first three peaks and the presence of significant recurrent activity in the fourth. While the prediction is for an amplitude of Solar Cycle 24 of 65 +/- 20 in smoothed sunspot number, a below-average amplitude for Solar Cycle 24, with maximum at 2014.5+/-0.5, we conclude that Solar Cycle 24 will be no stronger than average and could be much weaker than average.

  11. Characterizing precursors to stellar clusters with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, C.; Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Brunt, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Martin, P.; Molinari, S.; Mottram, J.; Peretto, N.; Testi, L.; Thompson, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Despite their profound effect on the universe, the formation of massive stars and stellar clusters remains elusive. Recent advances in observing facilities and computing power have brought us closer to understanding this formation process. In the past decade, compelling evidence has emerged that suggests infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) may be precursors to stellar clusters. However, the usual method for identifying IRDCs is biased by the requirement that they are seen in absorption against background mid-IR emission, whereas dust continuum observations allow cold, dense pre-stellar-clusters to be identified anywhere. Aims: We aim to understand what dust temperatures and column densities characterize and distinguish IRDCs, to explore the population of dust continuum sources that are not IRDCs, and to roughly characterize the level of star formation activity in these dust continuum sources. Methods: We use Hi-GAL 70 to 500 ?m data to identify dust continuum sources in the ? = 30° and ? = 59° Hi-GAL science demonstration phase (SDP) fields, to characterize and subtract the Galactic cirrus emission, and perform pixel-by-pixel modified blackbody fits on cirrus-subtracted Hi-GAL sources. We utilize archival Spitzer data to indicate the level of star-forming activity in each pixel, from mid-IR-dark to mid-IR-bright. Results: We present temperature and column density maps in the Hi-GAL ? = 30° and ? = 59° SDP fields, as well as a robust algorithm for cirrus subtraction and source identification using Hi-GAL data. We report on the fraction of Hi-GAL source pixels which are mid-IR-dark, mid-IR-neutral, or mid-IR-bright in both fields. We find significant trends in column density and temperature between mid-IR-dark and mid-IR-bright pixels; mid-IR-dark pixels are about 10 K colder and have a factor of 2 higher column density on average than mid-IR-bright pixels. We find that Hi-GAL dust continuum sources span a range of evolutionary states from pre- to star-forming, and that warmer sources are associated with more star formation tracers. Additionally, there is a trend of increasing temperature with tracer type from mid-IR-dark at the coldest, to outflow/maser sources in the middle, and finally to 8 and 24 ?m bright sources at the warmest. Finally, we identify five candidate IRDC-like sources on the far-side of the Galaxy. These are cold (~20 K), high column density (N(H2) > 1022 cm-2) clouds identified with Hi-GAL which, despite bright surrounding mid-IR emission, show little to no absorption at 8 ?m. These are the first inner Galaxy far-side candidate IRDCs of which the authors are aware. Herschel in an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation by NASA.The FITS files discussed in the paper would be released publicly WITH the Hi-GAL data (on the Hi-GAL website) when the Hi-GAL data is released publicly.

  12. Elements of the tsunami precursors' detection physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor

    In accordance with the main physical principles and geophysical data, we formulated a nonlinear mathematical model of seismo-hydro-electromagnetic (EM) geophysical field interaction and calculated generation and propagation of elastic, EM, temperature and hydrodynamic seismically generated disturbances (i.e. signals) in the basin of a marginal sea. We show transferring of seismic and electromagnetic (EM) energy from the upper mantle beneath the sea into its depths and EM emission from the sea surface into the atmosphere. Basing on the calculated characteristics of the signals of different physical nature (computations correspond to measurements of other authors) we develop the project of a Lithosphere-Ocean-Atmosphere Monitoring System (LOAMS) including: a bottom complex, a moored ocean surface buoy complex, an observational balloon complex, and satellite complex. The underwater stations of the bottom complex of the LOAMS will record the earlier signals of seismic activation beneath a seafloor (the ULF EM signals outrun seismic ones, according to the above calculations) and localize the seafloor epicenter of an expected seaquake. These stations will be equipped, in particular, with: magnetometers, the lines for the electric field measurements, and magneto-telluric blocks to discover dynamics of physical parameters beneath a sea floor as signs of a seaquake and/or tsunami preparation process. The buoy and balloon complexes of the LOAMS will record the meteorological and oceanographic parameters' variations including changes of reflection from a sea surface (tsunami ‘shadows’) caused by a tsunami wave propagation. Cables of the balloon and moored buoy will be used as receiving antennas and for multidisciplinary measurements including gradients of the fields (we show the cases are possible when the first seismic EM signal will be registered by an antenna above a sea). Also, the project includes radio-tomography with satellite instrumentation and sounding of the ionosphere from the buoy, balloon and satellite complexes. The balloon and buoy complexes will transmit data to a shore station over satellite link. The frequency ranges and sensitivity thresholds of all of the sensors of the LOAMS will be adapted to the characteristics of expected seismic signals according to the numerical research above. Computational methods and statistical analysis (e.g. seismic changes of coherence of spatially distributed sensors of different nature) of the recorded multidimensional time series will be used for prognostic interpretation. The multilevel recordings will provide a stable noise (e.g. ionosphere Pc pulsations, hard sea, industry) and seismic event detection. An intensive heat flow typical for tectonically active lithosphere zones may be considered as an energy source for advanced modifications of the LOAMS. The latter may be used as a warning system for continental and marine technologies, e.g. a sea bottom geothermal energy production. Indeed, seismic distraction of the nuclear power station Fukushima I demonstrates that similar technology hardly is able to solve the energy problems in seismically active regions. On the other hand, the LOAMS may be considered as a scientific observatory for development of the seaquake/tsunami precursor physics, i.e. seismo-hydro-electromagnetics.

  13. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    DOEpatents

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  14. Polymer precursors to silicate ceramics: Studies of ceramic formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.K.; Martin, M.H.E.; Beecroft, L.

    1993-12-31

    A route to silicate ceramics based on the pyrolysis of polymer precursors was investigated using high temperature X-ray diffraction. The methacrylate precursors under study have been optimized to produce forsterite, a ceramic which when doped with chromium has been shown to lase in the near infrared at wavelengths suitable for optical communication. Greatest yields occur when monomers capable of producing silicate crosslinks are introduced into the precursor compositions. The formation of forsterite occurs at those temperatures (600-800{degrees}C) producing the greatest rate of mass loss. A transient crystalline phase prior to forsterite formation was revealed by the X-ray studies. The concentration of carbon present in the sample was also observed to delay forsterite formation until higher temperatures. The effect of chromium dopant on ceramic formation will be described.

  15. Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Growth via Close Proximity Precursor Supply

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Hallam, Toby; Kim, Hye-Young; Berner, Nina C.; Hanlon, Damien; Lee, Kangho; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is currently a highly pressing research field, as numerous potential applications rely on the production of high quality films on a macroscopic scale. Here, we show the use of liquid phase exfoliated nanosheets and patterned sputter deposited layers as solid precursors for chemical vapour deposition. TMD monolayers were realized using a close proximity precursor supply in a CVD microreactor setup. A model describing the growth mechanism, which is capable of producing TMD monolayers on arbitrary substrates, is presented. Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrical transport measurements reveal the high quality of the TMD samples produced. Furthermore, through patterning of the precursor supply, we achieve patterned growth of monolayer TMDs in defined locations, which could be adapted for the facile production of electronic device components. PMID:25487822

  16. METABOLISM OF RIBOSOMAL PRECURSOR RIBONUCLEIC ACID IN KIDNEY

    PubMed Central

    Ab, Geert; Malt, Ronald A.

    1970-01-01

    The labile precursors of ribosomal RNA in mouse kidney are preserved when nuclei rapidly isolated after sieving through multiple screens are swollen and cleansed in the presence of an RNase inhibitor before digestion with DNase and phenol extraction. The kinetics of nucleolar labeling analyzed on polyacrylamide gels show that 36S RNA is the major intermediate product in the catabolism of the original 45S RNA precursor to 32S RNA, from which 28S RNA is derived. Each kidney nucleus contains about 200–600 molecules of 45S RNA; the turnover time of the 45S pool is about 3 ± 2 min. Compared with HeLa cells, kidney nuclei have a different major intermediate product and a much smaller and more rapidly turning-over pool of ribosomal precursor RNA. PMID:5449181

  17. Precursor Exploration Missions in Kelly Lake, British Columbia- MARSLIFE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Gutsche, J.; Nebel, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    Precursor missions are an integral step in coordinated exploration between unmanned and manned systems both for terrestrial and astrobiology applications. Testing and developing the protocols for efficient, safe, and meaningful precursor missions is a key step in readiness for space exploration and is integral to the new MARSLIFE analogue research project. Here we present first-year field results from the use of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to conduct high-resolution (<1 m/pixel) geoacoustic mapping (bathymetry and backscatter) of the MARSLIFE field site. Rapid operations and quick-turn-around data-processing (within 1 - 2 days) allowed us to provide our precursor mission data in the form of digital maps to the MARSLIFE operating team for site assessment and mission planning. Precursor mapping helped identify target areas for specific operations, including ROV and Deepworker missions during the field campaign. Mission critical results from the AUV survey included morphology (micro-bathymetry), target localization, and suitability of terrain types based on slope and rugosity for different mission activities (e.g. SCUBA slope transects and water samples). The rapid acquisition and data processing turn around allowed us to provide mission critical measurements such as depth, slope, composition, and roughness to the entire exploration team. In total during the July 2010 field campaign, over 3 days of intensive AUV and ROV missions were run in Kelly Lake resulting in nearly 50 km of trackline data (side-scan sonar, swath bathymetry, color video, and water quality measurements) of the lake at sub-meter resolution in side-scan sonar and interferometric swath bathymetry resulting in precursor derived geoacoustic maps that will facilitate the safe and expedient follow-on exploration from subsequent manned missions in the next field season. During the course of the precursor AUV missions distinct patches of shallow and deep microbialites were mapped at a spatial resolution of 0.5 m/pixel providing the first detailed bathymetric charts for this alpine lake.

  18. Research of Hydro-Geological Precursors of Earthquakes in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2007-12-01

    The observations of hydro-geological regime of underground waters in observed boreholes began in Armenia in 1986. Now these work is concentrated in National Seismic Service. For a long time observations are carried out studying several parameters (debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition) in several deposits of carbon mineral waters of Armenia. The interpretation of materials shows that that a number of strong and medium-strength earthquakes are accompanied by anomal changes in the level of underground waters. Regarding mineral waters, in connection with earthquakes some parameters are immediately changed: debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition. The study of hydrogeodynamic characteristics of precursors specify that the quantity of registered hydrogeodynamic precursors decreases with the increase of epicentrical distance. The majority of precursors is registered at the distance of 200 km from epicenter. There is a tendency of gradual increase of time and amplitude of a precursor of an earthquake depending on the rise of magnitude and epicentral distance. The behaviour of hydrogeodynamic precursors depends on the angle between the faults, to which this or that borehole reaches; with increase of this angle the deformation in the zone of the fault during the preparation of earthquakes is stronger, than in terms of small angles. 1. S1 2. Earthquake processes, Precursors and Forecasts 3. Garni Geophysical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, 375019, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, email: hakhleon@sci.am 4. O 5. 10808801 6. Artavazd Payment Type: select 'Purchase Order' PO Number: AGU WAIVER Billing Address: Enter Your Institution City: Enter Your City Country Code: Enter Your Country Name: Enter Your Name Phone: Enter Your Telephone Number

  19. Searching for seismic precursors in southern California with phase coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Jessica; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    We search for tremor-like seismic precursors to M3-6 earthquakes in southern California. We examine the seconds to minutes before each earthquake with a frequency-domain phase coherence approach. We look for precursory signals that have high phase coherence with the earthquake seismograms---after cross-correlating between two stations. This inter-station correlation eliminates much of the complexity of the source-time functions. It allows the phase coherence technique to identify signals that originate in the same location as the earthquake, even if those signals have extended source-time functions. To demonstrate this approach, we use it to analyze an emergent precursor detected by Tape et. al., 2013, prior to a M3.9 earthquake in central Alaska. In southern California, we have thus far examined 1000 earthquakes. The method successfully detects many of the previously identified foreshocks, as well as several foreshocks that are not in the catalog. However, it reveals no tremor-like seismic precursors. For most of the earthquakes, error estimates indicate that any precursors still hidden in the data should be smaller than a signal with a duration of 5 seconds and energy equivalent to a M1 earthquake. We could reduce this upper bound further by averaging the phase coherence over multiple potential precursors. However, that reduced noise floor reveals a bias that results from temporal variations in noise sources. The phase coherence of two seismograms including only noise is usually higher if the seismograms are more closely spaced in time. This causes a bias because the template earthquake seismogram includes some noise. In order to avoid this problem, we also consider an alternative template: the seismogram of an earthquake that occurs nearby but at a different time. However, this analysis is more complicated because the new template earthquake may not be entirely coherent with the earthquake with the potential precursor.

  20. TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSOR REMOVAL BY THE MAGNESIUM CARBONATE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project was conducted to determine and improve the ability of the magnesium carbonate process to remove trihalomethane (THM) precursors in treated drinking water. The project was conducted at a drinking water treatment plant in Melbourne, FL, which had been developed and instal...

  1. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  2. Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2014-11-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  3. RESPONSE OF INORGANIC PM TO PRECURSOR CONCENTRATIONS (R824793)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inorganic aerosol equilibrium model is used to investigate the response of inorganic particulate matter (PM) concentrations with respect to the precursor concentrations of sulfuric acid, ammonia, and nitric acid over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. Diagrams...

  4. Physiological benefits as precursors of sociality: why banded geckos band

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Paul

    Physiological benefits as precursors of sociality: why banded geckos band JENNIFER R. LANCASTER. Several species of nocturnal geckos form diurnal aggregations; however, little is known about the benefits-dwelling western banded gecko, Coleonyx variegatus. We found that banded geckos benefit from aggregation

  5. Process for producing ceramic nitrides anc carbonitrides and their precursors

    DOEpatents

    Brown, G.M.; Maya, L.

    1987-02-25

    A process for preparing ceramic nitrides and carbon nitrides in the form of very pure, fine particulate powder. Appropriate precursors is prepared by reaching a transition metal alkylamide with ammonia to produce a mixture of metal amide and metal imide in the form of an easily pyrolyzable precipitate.

  6. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  7. Tropospheric ozone and its precursors over the United States

    E-print Network

    Hudman, Rynda

    to dust: X10 dilution as plume entrained to boundary layer 20 ppbv ozone enhancement 2 ppbv enhancement7/19/2010 1 Tropospheric ozone and its precursors over the United States: Sources Protection Agency July 19, 2010 CONTINENT 2OCEANCONTINENT 1 INTERCONTINENTAL INFLUENCE OF OZONE (1) primary

  8. Manganite perovskite ceramics, their precursors and methods for forming

    DOEpatents

    Payne, David Alan; Clothier, Brent Allen

    2015-03-10

    Disclosed are a variety of ceramics having the formula Ln.sub.1-xM.sub.xMnO.sub.3, where 0.Itoreq.x.Itoreq.1 and where Ln is La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu or Y; M is Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, or Pb; manganite precursors for preparing the ceramics; a method for preparing the precursors; and a method for transforming the precursors into uniform, defect-free ceramics having magnetoresistance properties. The manganite precursors contain a sol and are derived from the metal alkoxides: Ln(OR).sub.3, M(OR).sub.2 and Mn(OR).sub.2, where R is C.sub.2 to C.sub.6 alkyl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 alkoxyalkyl, or C.sub.6 to C.sub.9 aryl. The preferred ceramics are films prepared by a spin coating method and are particularly suited for incorporation into a device such as an integrated circuit device.

  9. Methionine as a Precursor of Ethylene—Commentary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lieberman et al. showed in a 1966 publication of Plant Physiology that methionine is a precursor of ethylene. It was the first paper that showed ethylene carbons are derived from carbons 3 and 4 of methionine. This paper catalyzed remarkable interest among plant biologists to elucidate the biosynth...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL AND REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION PRECURSOR EMISSION TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of national and regional acid deposition precursor emission trends, involving SOx, NOx, and VOCs. While the focus is on emissions during 1980-1985, comparisons are made (for perspective) with emission trends for 1940-1980. Study methods int...

  11. Environment Conscious, Biomorphic Ceramics from Pine and Jelutong Wood Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Yee, Bo-Moon; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Environment conscious, biomorphic ceramics have been fabricated from pine and jelutong wood precursors. A carbonaceous preform is produced through wood pyrolysis and subsequent infiltration with oxides (ZrO2 sols) and liquid silicon to form ceramics. These biomorphic ceramics show a wide variety of microstructures, densities, and hardness behavior that are determined by the type of wood and infiltrants selected.

  12. Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings…

  13. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...formation under favorable reaction conditions when they are used to produce other chemicals or products. The following...made from precursor chemical substances identified...must report process and reaction condition data on Part...Form 7710-51 for each chemical product. A...

  14. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...formation under favorable reaction conditions when they are used to produce other chemicals or products. The following...made from precursor chemical substances identified...must report process and reaction condition data on Part...Form 7710-51 for each chemical product. A...

  15. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...formation under favorable reaction conditions when they are used to produce other chemicals or products. The following...made from precursor chemical substances identified...must report process and reaction condition data on Part...Form 7710-51 for each chemical product. A...

  16. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...formation under favorable reaction conditions when they are used to produce other chemicals or products. The following...made from precursor chemical substances identified...must report process and reaction condition data on Part...Form 7710-51 for each chemical product. A...

  17. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...formation under favorable reaction conditions when they are used to produce other chemicals or products. The following...made from precursor chemical substances identified...must report process and reaction condition data on Part...Form 7710-51 for each chemical product. A...

  18. Precursors for ornithine and citrulline synthesis in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrulline (CIT) is an amino acid synthesized by gut and utilized for the synthesis of the conditionally essential amino acid arginine (ARG). In turn, the immediate precursor for CIT synthesis, ornithine (ORN), can originate from proline (PRO) and glutamine (GLN) via ornithine aminotransferase (OAT,...

  19. Glutamine: precursor or nitrogen donor for citrulline synthesis?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutamine (Gln) is considered the main precursor for citrulline (Cit) synthesis, but no attempts have been made to differentiate the contribution of Gln carbon (Gln-C) skeleton vs. the nonspecific contribution through NH3 and CO2. To study the contribution of dietary Gln-N to the synthesis of Cit, t...

  20. PILOT SCALE EVALUATION OF PHOTOLYTIC OZONATION FOR TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSOR REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation has been studied at the pilot-scale for removing trihalomethane (THM) precursors from potable water. The effects of variations in ozone dose rate, UV intensity and other parameters were first studied using a synthetic feedwater...

  1. RIVERBANK FILTRATION: FATE OF DBP PRECURSORS AND SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and selected microorganisms during riverbank filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking water utilities. At all three sites, filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking wa...

  2. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  3. Tropospheric Precursors of Anomalous Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Polar Vortices

    E-print Network

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.

    Tropospheric Precursors of Anomalous Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Polar Vortices CHAIM I wintertime stratospheric polar vortex in both the ECMWF reanalysis record and in the Whole Atmosphere phase of ENSO (WENSO) leads to a signifi- cantly warmer polar stratosphere. The effect was more

  4. Glutamine: Precursor or nitrogen donor for citrulline synthesis?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although glutamine is considered the main precursor for citrulline synthesis, the current literature does not differentiate between the contribution of glutamine carbon skeleton, versus nonspecific nitrogen (i.e., ammonia) and carbon derived from glutamine oxidation. To elucidate the role of glutami...

  5. Descriptive and Experimental Analyses of Potential Precursors to Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Borrero, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted descriptive observations of severe problem behavior for 2 individuals with autism to identify precursors to problem behavior. Several comparative probability analyses were conducted in addition to lag-sequential analyses using the descriptive data. Results of the descriptive analyses showed that the probability of the potential…

  6. PRIMITIVE ADULT HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS CAN FUNCTION AS OSTEOBLAST PRECURSORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoblasts are continually recruited from stem cell pools to maintain bone. Although their immediate precursor is a plastic-adherent mesenchymal stem cell able to generate tissues other than bone, increasing evidence suggests the existence of a more primitive cell that can differentiate to both hem...

  7. Apoptotic Osteocytes Regulate Osteoclast Precursor Recruitment and Differentiation In Vitro

    E-print Network

    You, Lidan

    Apoptotic Osteocytes Regulate Osteoclast Precursor Recruitment and Differentiation In Vitro Saja A, Toronto, ON, Canada ABSTRACT Fatigue loading causes a spatial distribution of osteocyte apoptosis co-localized with bone resorption spaces peaking around microdamage sites. Since osteocytes have been shown to regulate

  8. Boron nitride ceramics from molecular precursors: synthesis, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Samuel; Salameh, Chrystelle; Miele, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) attracts considerable interest because its structure is similar to that of carbon graphite while it displays different properties which are of interest for environmental and green technologies. The polar nature of the B-N bond in sp(2)-bonded BN makes it a wide band gap insulator with different chemistry on its surface and particular physical and chemical properties such as a high thermal conductivity, a high temperature stability, a high resistance to corrosion and oxidation and a strong UV emission. It is chemically inert and nontoxic and has good environmental compatibility. h-BN also has enhanced physisorption properties due to the dipolar fields near its surface. Such properties are closely dependent on the processing method. Bottom-up approaches consist of transforming molecular precursors into non-oxide ceramics with retention of the structural units inherent to the precursor molecule. The purpose of the present review is to give an up-to-date overview on the most recent achievements in the preparation of h-BN from borazine-based molecular single-source precursors including borazine and 2,4,6-trichloroborazine through both vapor phase syntheses and methods in the liquid/solid state involving polymeric intermediates, called the Polymer-Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route. In particular, the effect of the chemistry, composition and architecture of the borazine-based precursors and derived polymers on the shaping ability as well as the properties of h-BN is particularly highlighted. PMID:26646607

  9. Lunar precursor effects in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosphere

    E-print Network

    Bonnell, John W.

    ] The interaction of solar wind and magnetospheric plasma with the Moon and its exosphere, surface, and crustalLunar precursor effects in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosphere J. S. Halekas,1,2 A. R activity upstream from the Moon, when magnetically connected to the dayside lunar surface. The most common

  10. Making Single-Source Precursors of Ternary Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius; Banger, Kulbindre K.

    2007-01-01

    A synthesis route has been developed for the commercial manufacture of single- source precursors of chalcopyrite semiconductor absorber layers of thin-film solar photovoltaic cells. A closely related class of single-source precursors of these semiconductors, and their synthesis routes, were reported in "Improved Single-Source Precursors for Solar-Cell Absorbers" (LEW-17445-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 56. The present synthesis route is better suited to commercialization because it is simpler and involves the use of commercially available agents, yet offers the flexibility needed for synthesis of a variety of precursors. A single-source precursor of the type of interest here is denoted by the general formula L2M'(mu-ER)2M(ER)2, where L signifies a Lewis base; M signifies Al, In, or Ga; M' signifies Ag or Cu; R signifies an alkyl, aryl, silyl, or perfluorocarbon group; E signifies O, S, Se, or Te; and mu signifies a bridging ligand. This compound can be synthesized in a "one-pot" procedure from ingredients that are readily available from almost any chemical supplier. In a demonstration, the following synthesis was performed: Under anaerobic conditions, InCl3 was reacted with sodium ethanethiolate in methanol in a 1:4 molar ratio to afford the ionic stable intermediate compound Na+[In(SEt)4]- (where Et signifies ethyl group). After approximately 15 minutes, a heterogeneous solution of CuCl and the Lewis base PPh3 (where Ph signifies phenyl) in a 1:2 ratio in a mixture of CH3CN and CH2Cl2 was added directly to the freshly prepared Na+[In(SEt)4]-. After 24 hours, the reaction was essentially complete. The methanolic solution was concentrated, then the product was extracted with CH2Cl2, then the product was washed with dry ether and pentane. The product in its final form was a creamy white solid. Spectroscopic and elemental analysis confirmed that the product was (PPh3)2Cu(mu-SEt)2In(mu-SEt)2, which is known to be a precursor of the ternary semiconductor CuInS2.

  11. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important products. The use of immobilized fungal biomass limits free migration of cells and facilitates their reuse in a continuous system for precursor transformation. PMID:20598166

  12. Formation of refractory inclusions by evaporation of condensate precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Lawrence; Ebel, Denton S.; Simon, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Berman's (1983) activity-composition model for CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 liquids is used to calculate the change in bulk chemical and isotopic composition during simultaneous cooling, evaporation, and crystallization of droplets having the compositions of reasonable condensate precursors of Types A and B refractory inclusions in CV3 chondrites. The degree of evaporation of MgO and SiO 2, calculated to be faithfully recorded in chemical and isotopic zoning of individual melilite crystals, is directly proportional to evaporation rate, which is a sensitive function of PH 2, and inversely proportional to the droplet radius and cooling rate. When the precursors are partially melted in pure hydrogen at peak temperatures in the vicinity of the initial crystallization temperature of melilite, their bulk chemical compositions evolve into the composition fields of refractory inclusions, mass-fractionated isotopic compositions of Mg, Si, and O are produced that are in the range of the isotopic compositions of natural inclusions, and melilite zoning profiles result that are similar to those observed in real inclusions. For droplets of radius 0.25 cm evaporating at PH 2 = 10 -6 bar, precursors containing 8 to 13 wt.% MgO and 20 to 23% SiO 2 evolve into objects similar to compact Type A inclusions at cooling rates of 2 to 12 K/h, depending on the precise starting composition. Precursors containing 13 to 14 wt.% MgO and 23 to 26% SiO 2 evolve into objects with the characteristics of Type B1 inclusions at cooling rates of 1.5 to 3 K/h. The relatively SiO 2-poor members of the Type B2 group can be produced from precursors containing 14 to 16 wt.% MgO and 27 to 33% SiO 2 at cooling rates of <1 K/h. Type B2's containing 27 to 35 wt.% SiO 2 and <12% MgO require precursors with higher SiO 2/MgO ratios at MgO > 15% than are found on any condensation curve. The characteristics of fluffy Type A inclusions, including their reversely zoned melilite, can only be understood in the context of this model if they contain relict melilite.

  13. Precursor Analysis for Flight- and Ground-Based Anomaly Risk Significance Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the precursor analysis for flight and ground based anomaly risk significance. It includes information on accident precursor analysis, real models vs. models, and probabilistic analysis.

  14. Precursors in the preparation of transition metal nitrides and transition metal carbonitrides and their reaction intermediates

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A process for making ammonolytic precursors to nitride and carbonitride ceramics. Extreme reaction conditions are not required and the precursor is a powder-like substance that produces ceramics of improved purity and morphology upon pyrolysis.

  15. Precursors and metabolic pathway for guaiacol production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Cai, Rui; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Zhouli; Guo, Chunfeng; Liu, Bin; Liu, Laping; Wang, Yutang; Yue, Tianli

    2015-12-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris has recently received much attention due to its implication in the spoilage of pasteurized fruit juices, which was manifested by the production of guaiacol. Vanillic acid and vanillin have been accepted as the biochemical precursors of guaiacol in fruit juices. The purpose of this study was to try to find other precursors and elucidate details about the conversion of vanillic acid and vanillin to guaiacol by A. acidoterrestris. Four potential substrates including ferulic acid, catechol, phenylalanine and tyrosine were analyzed, but they could not be metabolized to guaiacol by all the thirty A. acidoterrestris strains tested. Resting cell studies and enzyme assays demonstrated that vanillin was reduced to vanillyl alcohol by NADPH-dependent vanillin reductase and oxidized to vanillic acid by NAD(P)(+)-dependent vanillin dehydrogenases in A. acidoterrestris DSM 3923. Vanillic acid underwent a nonoxidative decarboxylation to guaiacol. The reversible vanillic acid decarboxylase involved was oxygen insensitive and pyridine nucleotide-independent. PMID:26241489

  16. Controlling properties of DLC: Effects of pressure and precursor dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Grill, A.; Patel, V.

    1995-12-31

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been deposited by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition using a RF excited plasma of cyclohexane. The films have been deposited at different pressures and constant RF power density. For specific combinations of plasma parameters the precursor has been diluted with argon. It has been found that the physical properties and the wear resistance of the DLC films are strongly dependent on the pressure in the reactor and corresponding substrate bias. Films deposited at a pressure above a threshold value had polymer-like characteristics. It was further found that it is possible to enhance diamond-like properties of films deposited above the threshold pressure by diluting the precursor with argon.

  17. The role of catalyst precursor anions in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the proposed project are to enrich our understanding of the roles of various aqueous soluble catalyst precursor anions on the surface electrical properties of coal and to ascertain the influence of the surface charge on the adsorption, dispersion, and activities of calcium and potassium. These goals will be achieved by impregnating a lignite and its demineralized derivative with calcium or potassium catalyst precursors containing acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{minus}), chloride (Cl{minus}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{minus}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), and carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) anions. Catalyst loading will be conducted under well-controlled conditions of solution pH and ionic strength.

  18. Detection of hydrothermal precursors to large northern california earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Silver, P G; Valette-Silver, N J

    1992-09-01

    During the period 1973 to 1991 the interval between eruptions from a periodic geyser in Northern California exhibited precursory variations 1 to 3 days before the three largest earthquakes within a 250-kilometer radius of the geyser. These include the magnitude 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 18 October 1989 for which a similar preseismic signal was recorded by a strainmeter located halfway between the geyser and the earthquake. These data show that at least some earthquakes possess observable precursors, one of the prerequisites for successful earthquake prediction. All three earthquakes were further than 130 kilometers from the geyser, suggesting that precursors might be more easily found around rather than within the ultimate rupture zone of large California earthquakes. PMID:17738277

  19. Fission-Based Electric Propulsion for Interstellar Precursor Missions

    SciTech Connect

    HOUTS,MICHAEL G.; LENARD,ROGER X.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; PATTON,BRUCE; POSTON,DAVID; WRIGHT,STEVEN A.

    1999-11-03

    This paper reviews the technology options for a fission-based electric propulsion system for interstellar precursor missions. To achieve a total {Delta}V of more than 100 km/s in less than a decade of thrusting with an electric propulsion system of 10,000s Isp requires a specific mass for the power system of less than 35 kg/kWe. Three possible configurations are described: (1) a UZrH-fueled,NaK-cooled reactor with a steam Rankine conversion system,(2) a UN-fueled gas-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system, and (3) a UN-fueled heat pipe-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system. All three of these systems have the potential to meet the specific mass requirements for interstellar precursor missions in the near term. Advanced versions of a fission-based electric propulsion system might travel as much as several light years in 200 years.

  20. Secondary organic aerosols from anthropogenic and biogenic precursors.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, U; Kalberer, M; Dommen, J; Paulsen, D; Alfarra, M R; Coe, H; Fisseha, R; Gascho, A; Gysel, M; Nyeki, S; Sax, M; Steinbacher, M; Prevot, A S H; Sjögren, S; Weingartner, E; Zenobi, R

    2005-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the photooxidation of an anthropogenic (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and a biogenic (alpha-pinene) precursor was investigated at the new PSI smog chamber. The chemistry of the gas phase was followed by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, while the aerosol chemistry was investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy, along with volatility and hygroscopicity studies. Evidence for oligomer formation for SOA from both precursors was given by an increasing abundance of compounds with a high molecular weight (up to 1000 Da) and by an increasing thermal stability with increasing aging time. The results were compared to data obtained from ambient aerosol samples, revealing a number of similar features. PMID:16161788

  1. Intraspinal transplantation of mouse and human neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Jason G.; Chen, Lu; Coleman, Ronald; Leang, Ronika; Plaisted, Warren C.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Lane, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the preparation and transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and mouse neural precursor cells (mNPCs) into the thoracic region of the mouse spinal cord. The techniques in this unit also describe how to prepare the mouse for surgery by performing a laminectomy to expose the spinal cord for transplantation. Here we show NPCs genetically labeled with eGFP transplanted into the spinal cord of a mouse following viralmediated demyelination can efficiently be detected via eGFP expression. Transplantation of these cells into the spinal cord is an efficacious way to determine their effects in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and spinal cord injury. PMID:24510791

  2. La profesionalización del teatro nacional argentino. Un precursor: Nemesio Trejo

    E-print Network

    Pellarolo, Silvia

    1997-10-01

    ansias de legalizar su trabajo como profesionales de teatro. Entre los precursores, me interesa destacar la participación activa del sainetista criollo Nemesio Trejo en la creación de este tipo de asociaciones. El caso particularísimo de Trejo (nacido..., en el peor de los casos. El pago que recibían los autores por piezas teatrales que estaban enriqueciendo a los empresarios eran efectivamente muy bajos. Sin embargo, si se compara este pago con el casi nulo que percibían los poetas o narradores de...

  3. Synthesis of a Precursor to Sacubitril Using Enabling Technologies.

    PubMed

    Lau, Shing-Hing; Bourne, Samuel L; Martin, Benjamin; Schenkel, Berthold; Penn, Gerhard; Ley, Steven V

    2015-11-01

    An efficient preparation of a precursor to the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril is described. The convergent synthesis features a diastereoselective Reformatsky-type carbethoxyallylation and a rhodium-catalyzed stereoselective hydrogenation for installation of the two key stereocenters. Moreover, by integrating machine-assisted methods with batch processes, this procedure allows a safe and rapid production of the key intermediates which are promptly transformed to the target molecule (3·HCl) over 7 steps in 54% overall yield. PMID:26509957

  4. Boron/Carbon/Silicon/Nitrogen Ceramics And Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore; Hsu, Ming TA; Chen, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramics containing various amounts of boron, carbon, silicon, and nitrogen made from variety of polymeric precursors. Synthesized in high yield from readily available and relatively inexpensive starting materials. Stable at room temperature; when polymerized, converted to ceramics in high yield. Ceramics resist oxidation and other forms of degradation at high temperatures; used in bulk to form objects or to infiltrate other ceramics to obtain composites having greater resistance to oxidation and high temperatures.

  5. COS in the stratosphere. [sulfuric acid aerosol precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Tyson, B. J.; Ohara, D.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been detected in the stratosphere, and mixing ratio measurements are reported for altitudes of 15.2 to 31.2 km. A large volume, cryogenic sampling system mounted on board a U-2 aircraft has been used for lower stratosphere measurements and a balloon platform for measurement at 31.2 km. These observations and measurements strongly support the concept that stratospheric COS is an important precursor in the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  6. Organic phase synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals using iron chloride as precursor

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    Organic phase synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals using iron chloride as precursor Monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals were synthesized by a simplified method using iron chloride as precursor synthesis of mono- disperse spinel iron oxide nanocrystals using iron chloride as precursor. It was found

  7. Functional Analysis of Precursors for Serious Problem Behavior and Related Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Nancy A.; Carr, Edward G.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2008-01-01

    Precursor behaviors are innocuous behaviors that reliably precede the occurrence of problem behavior. Intervention efforts applied to precursors might prevent the occurrence of severe problem behavior. We examined the relationship between precursor behavior and problem behavior in three individuals with developmental disabilities. First, a…

  8. Progressing from Identification and Functional Analysis of Precursor Behavior to Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dracobly, Joseph D.; Smith, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    This multiple-study experiment evaluated the utility of assessing and treating severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on the outcomes of a functional analysis of precursor behavior. In Study 1, a precursor to SIB was identified using descriptive assessment and conditional probability analyses. In Study 2, a functional analysis of precursor

  9. Liquid precursor for deposition of indium selenide and method of preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-22

    Liquid precursors containing indium and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and method of depositing a liquid precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  10. Polymeric precursor derived nanocrystalline ZnO thin films using EDTA as chelating agent

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    1 Polymeric precursor derived nanocrystalline ZnO thin films using EDTA as chelating agent Uma polymeric precursor route using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent for Zn cations precursor, EDTA #12;3 1. Introduction Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an n-type direct wide band-gap semiconductor (3.3e

  11. Preparation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from oxide-glass precursors

    DOEpatents

    Hinks, David G. (Lemont, IL); Capone, II, Donald W. (Northbridge, MA)

    1992-01-01

    A superconductor and precursor therefor from oxide mixtures of Ca, Sr, Bi and Cu. Glass precursors quenched to elevated temperatures result in glass free of crystalline precipitates having enhanced mechanical properties. Superconductors are formed from the glass precursors by heating in the presence of oxygen to a temperature below the melting point of the glass.

  12. Laser synthesis of nanostructured ceramics from liquid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilden, Johannes; Fischer, Georg

    2007-12-01

    The free-form net shape laser synthesis of nanostructured ceramics from liquid precursors enables a residual stress-free production of high temperature resistant ceramic units and components for the use in microsystem engineering. Due to the use of molecular compounded liquid, ceramic precursors the resulting ceramic components show outstanding properties, for example high purity and a nanostructured material design. The use of pulsed lasers enables a defined input of energy required to pyrolyse the precursor material into a crystalline ceramic, so the active volume can be reduced significantly compared to other processes, for example pyrolysis by furnace. In this paper several methods for a further minimization of the active volume are presented. The investigations determined different factors affecting the process. Realizing selective experiments allows a determination of their influencing level and the definition of a working area to produce three-dimensional components with high aspect ratio. By several studies, e.g., scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis, the atomic structure and composition of the created components were analyzed and valued, so the different reaction processes can be described extensively.

  13. Observations of Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Koval, A.; Szabo, Adam; Breneman, A.; Cattell, C. A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Kersten, K.; Kasper, J. C.; Maruca, B. A.; Pulupa, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical interplanetary shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local magnetic field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the magnetic field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. They have rest frame frequencies f(sub ci) < f much < f(sub ce) and wave numbers 0.02 approx < k rho (sub ce) approx <. 5.0. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves. Al though the precursors can have delta B/B(sub o) as large as 2, fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar shock transitions in three of the four events.

  14. Putative Precursor Cancer Cells in Human Colorectal Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Goranova, Teodora E.; Ohue, Masayuki; Kato, Kikuya

    2009-01-01

    Multistage carcinogenesis is an important concept in cancer biology. Each new stage is triggered by the acquisition of an additional genetic aberration, leading to clonal expansion of the cancer cell. The resulting tumor mass consists of cancer cells with all genetic aberrations, but may include precursor cells at some point of carcinogenesis. We analyzed six colorectal cancer tissues with APC, K-ras, and p53 mutations. From each sample, 40–50 areas (100×100×40?m) consisting only of cancer cells were microdissected, and genomic DNA was purified. Ratios of mutated and normal alleles were quantitated by the SNaPshot assay, a primer extension assay. In five tumor tissues, we identified cancer cell subpopulations corresponding to putative precursors, i.e., cells with mutations in one or two of the three genes. All samples were likely to be of monoclonal origin, and temporal sequences of the mutations could be deduced from the mutation patterns of putative precursors. The orders of mutation events were variable. However, the two carcinoma tissues accompanying adenoma regions started with the APC mutation, not contradicting the previous studies. The analysis also revealed considerable heterogeneity in allele ratios of one or two of the chromosomes. The current findings are promising to uncover the process of carcinogenesis directly from the tumor tissue of the patient. PMID:19079650

  15. Precursor transformation method for damage detection in structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Armin B.; Tabatabai, Habib; Lotfi, Hamid R.

    1998-06-01

    In this paper, a new concept for damage detection and long- term health monitoring of structures is presented. The Precursor Transformation Method (PTM) is based on determining the causes (precursors) of change in the measured state of the structure under non-variable loading conditions (e.g. dead loads in bridges). The PTM concept addresses the inability of the current structural monitoring methods to discriminate, in structural behavior terms, the meaning of voluminous measured sensor data on a timely and cost effective basis. This method offers advantages in sensitivity and cost efficiency when compared to conventional vibration-based or parameter estimation methods. PTM was developed as part of a research project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration on bridge stay cable condition assessment. Measured changes in the state of a structure (displacements, strains, internal forces) can be related to precursors through a transformation matrix. This matrix is formed by determining the patterns of change in the state of structure associated with externally imposed strains (temperatures) or displacements representing possible damage scenarios. A finite element model of the undamaged structure is used to calculate these patterns. The use of an undamaged model of the structure in determining damage patterns simplifies the calculation process significantly, while introducing some approximation in results. Theoretical derivations and special case studies indicate that these approximations are limited to second order effects, and in many cases well within measurement and calculation accuracies. Examples using simulated damages on two truss structures and a cable-stayed bridge are also presented.

  16. Enhancement of polycarbonate membrane permeability due to plasma polymerization precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çökeliler, Dilek

    2013-03-01

    The diffusivity of different species through a membrane depends on several factors to illustrate the structure of the matrix, molecular size and concentration of the species and temperature. This study concerns the use of the low-pressure plasma process with different monomers to confer surface chemical character to polycarbonate membranes without altering their bulk properties for change membrane permeability. Track-etched polycarbonate membranes with 0.03 ?m pore sizes were modified by plasma polymerization technique with two precursors; acrylic acid and allylamine in radio frequency discharge at certain plasma process conditions (discharge power: 20 W, exposure time: 10 min, frequency: 13.56 MHz). The transport properties of model organic acid (citric acid) was studied through unmodified and modified polycarbonate membranes by using diffusion cell system. Such plasma treated membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface energy changes were studied by static contact angle measurements. These results showed that the change of surface properties could be used to improve the transport properties of the target substrates. The diffusion of citric acid through plasma treated polycarbonate membrane was increased about 54.1 ± 3.5% with precursor: allylamine while it was decreased 48.7 ± 2.5% with precursor acrylic acid. It was observed that the presences of proper functional group (like amino) in surfaces of pores can raise the affinity to citric acid and improve its transport rate.

  17. Development of techniques for tagging precursor and essential chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, W.A.; Shepodd, T.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to identify the manufacturers and distributors of chemicals seized in raids of illicit drug labs would be of great value in controlling the diversion of these chemicals. We developed a tagging scheme based on the addition of sub-ppM concentrations of various combinations of rare-earth elements to the target chemicals and evaluated a number of techniques for detecting the tags. We developed soluble tags for tagging liquids and selected Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the preferred detection technique. We developed insoluble tags for tagging solids and developed methods to analyze them and mix them into solid precursors. We have successfully demonstrated the tagging of several solvents and two of the precursor chemicals used in one of the most popular clandestine methamphetamine syntheses (ephedrine reacting with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus). The tagging scheme is capable of yielding tens of thousands of signatures (using holmium as an internal standard and up to 9 rare-earths at up to 3 concentrations yields 3{sup 9} {minus} 1 = 19,682 signatures) and is applicable to most of the chemicals on the precursor and essential chemicals list. In the concentrations employed, the tags are safe enough to be added to pharmaceuticals and cheap enough to tag tanker loads of chemicals.

  18. Serrated and non-serrated precursor lesions of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Langner, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Although often viewed as a single disease, colorectal cancer more accurately represents a family of diseases with different precursor lesions. Conventional (tubular, tubulovillous and villous) adenomas are the most common neoplastic lesions occurring in the large intestine. They have adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations and arise from dysplastic aberrant crypt foci, initially as polyclonal lesions. In sporadic tumours, neoplastic progression follows the traditional pathway (chromosomal instability pathway), resulting in CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-negative, microsatellite-stable (MSS), BRAF and KRAS wild-type cancers. Germline mutations in the APC gene lead to familial adenomatous polyposis. Conventional adenomas are also the precursors of Lynch syndrome-associated microsatellite-instable (MSI-high) cancers. Sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is the principal precursor lesion of the serrated pathway, in which BRAF mutation can lead to colorectal cancer with MSI-high CIMP-high or MSS CIMP-high phenotype. SSA/Ps have been associated with synchronous and metachronous invasive adenocarcinomas as well as so-called interval carcinomas. Serrated polyposis is rare but most likely underdiagnosed. Affected individuals bear an increased but unspecified risk for the development of colorectal cancer; close endoscopic surveillance is warranted. Traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) are much less common than the other serrated lesions. Cancers originating from TSAs may show KRAS mutation with a CIMP-high MSS phenotype. PMID:25531494

  19. High divergence of the precursor peptides in combinatorial lanthipeptide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Huan; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2014-11-21

    Lanthionine-containing peptides (lanthipeptides) are a rapidly growing family of polycyclic peptide natural products belonging to the large class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). These compounds are widely distributed in taxonomically distant species, and their biosynthetic systems and biological activities are diverse. A unique example of lanthipeptide biosynthesis is the prochlorosin synthetase ProcM from the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MIT9313, which transforms up to 29 different precursor peptides (ProcAs) into a library of lanthipeptides called prochlorosins (Pcns) with highly diverse sequences and ring topologies. Here, we show that many ProcM-like enzymes from a variety of bacteria have the capacity to carry out post-translational modifications on highly diverse precursor peptides, providing new examples of natural combinatorial biosynthesis. We also demonstrate that the leader peptides come from different evolutionary origins, suggesting that the combinatorial biosynthesis is tied to the enzyme and not a specific type of leader peptide. For some precursor peptides encoded in the genomes, the leader peptides apparently have been truncated at the N-termini, and we show that these N-terminally truncated peptides are still substrates of the enzymes. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that about two-thirds of the ProcA N-terminal sequence is not essential for ProcM activity. Our results also highlight the potential of exploring this class of natural products by genome mining and bioengineering. PMID:25244001

  20. Accident sequence precursor events with age-related contributors

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.A.; Kohn, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program at ORNL analyzed about 14.000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) filed by US nuclear power plants 1987--1993. There were 193 events identified as precursors to potential severe core accident sequences. These are reported in G/CR-4674. Volumes 7 through 20. Under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, the authors evaluated these events to determine the extent to which component aging played a role. Events were selected that involved age-related equipment degradation that initiated an event or contributed to an event sequence. For the 7-year period, ORNL identified 36 events that involved aging degradation as a contributor to an ASP event. Except for 1992, the percentage of age-related events within the total number of ASP events over the 7-year period ({approximately}19%) appears fairly consistent up to 1991. No correlation between plant ape and number of precursor events was found. A summary list of the age-related events is presented in the report.

  1. DROGUES ET SOCIT L'usage du GHB

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    leurs craintes quant à leur poids, leur image cor- porelle, l'alimentation ainsi que leurs diffi- cultés Yves Beau- champ, nommé vice-recteur au nouveau campus et au développement, que ce Le trouble de l'alimentation

  2. Possibility to study ionospheric earthquakes precursors using CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Lappas, Vaios

    It is generally accepted that the earthquakes (EQ) are the most dangerous natural phenomena leading to the multiple losses in human lives and economics. The space observations must be included into the global chain of the EQ precursors monitoring at least as the initial warning to pay greater attention to the ground segment data. As the common opinion agrees, only in combination of multiple observation sites and set of monitored parameters the further progress at the way to raise EQ precursors detection probability may be obtained. There is necessary to answer two important questions before to plan any experiment to study ionospheric precursors of EQ. First one - whether the variations in the ionosphere definitely connected with the EQ preparation process do exist, and the second one - if they do, whether using these signals the precursors of EQ can be reliably identified and used for, if not prediction, then for the warning that the EQ in the given area approaches. The first successful mission dedicated to this problem solution was DEMETER (in orbit during more than 6 years from June 2004 until December 2010). The statistics of this study is impressive: altogether, about 9000 EQs with magnitude larger than M = 5.0 and depth lower than 40 km occurred all over the world during the analyzed period. In the result, the conclusion made there suggests that, obviously, there are real perturbations in the ionosphere connected with the seismic activity, but they are rather weak and at the present stage of data processing may be revealed only with the help of statistical analysis. To realize the study of ionospheric precursors, first it is imperative to clarify the mechanism of energy transfer along the chain “lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere”. Many hypotheses of such a mechanism exist, from which the mostly supported are fair weather currents (FWC) and atmospheric gravity waves (AGW), both of which have their pros and contras. The following minimal set of physical values may be advisable to measure to study them: if for FWC - electrons density and temperature and electric field variations, if for AGW - neutral particles concentration and magnetic fields variations, and TEC variations and thermal anomalies at the Earth’s surface and in the atmosphere for both. Also it became clear that the monitoring has to be made minimum in two, better in three points, preferably with the possibility to control the distance between them. This will increase the possibility to extract the seismogenic variations, being mostly local, at the background of the variations of other nature, being mostly enough spacious or even global. Taking into account the present and predictable reduction of the expenses for space scientific research, it would be extremely important to realize such a multi-point mission using the cheapest carriers - nanosatellites, especially cubesats. The analysis of both aspects of this problem - FWC and AGW mechanisms validation and the availability of miniaturized but enough sensitive scientific instrumentation, able to operate onboard cubesats, is made in the report. It shows that the scientific payload creation to realize the given task with the cubesats swarm is possible, including mini-thrusters able realizing the cubesats maneuvers on the orbit to control the distance between satellites. This allows us to come to conclusion that the realization of the cubesat project dedicated to the further study of important problem - detection of EQ precursors from space - may be put into practice at the present step of space science and technology development. Both necessary conditions - existence of scientific and experimental substantiation and of corresponding nanosatellite technology - are fulfilled. These works were partially supported by SSAU Contract No 1-16/12 and EC Framework 7 funded project 312993.

  3. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Leisch, Jennifer; Taylor, Matthew; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  4. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  5. Gelcasting polymeric precursors for producing net-shaped graphites

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.; Janney, Mark A.

    2005-02-15

    The present invention discloses a method for molding complex and intricately shaped high density monolithic carbon, carbon-carbon, graphite, and thermoplastic composites using gelcasting technology. The method comprising a polymeric carbon precursor, a solvent, a dispersant, an anti-foaming agent, a monomer system, and an initiator system. The components are combined to form a suspension which is poured into a mold and heat-treated to form a thermoplastic part. The thermoplastic part can then be further densified and heat-treated to produce a high density carbon or graphite composite. The present invention also discloses the products derived from this method.

  6. Gelcasting polymeric precursors for producing net-shaped graphites

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method for molding complex and intricately shaped high density monolithic carbon, carbon-carbon, graphite, and thermoplastic composites using gelcasting technology. The method comprising a polymeric carbon precursor, a solvent, a dispersant, an anti-foaming agent, a monomer system, and an initiator system. The components are combined to form a suspension which is poured into a mold and heat-treated to form a thermoplastic part. The thermoplastic part can then be further densified and heat-treated to produce a high density carbon or graphite composite. The present invention also discloses the products derived from this method.

  7. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, D.K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R.K.; Kruse, T.H.; Herzog, G.F.

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10/sup 8/ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10/sup 6/ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  8. Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event. PMID:17771035

  9. Optical Precursors in Rubidium Vapor and Their Relation to Superradiance 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Wenlong

    2012-10-19

    stream_source_info YANG-THESIS.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 46026 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name YANG-THESIS.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 OPTICAL PRECURSORS... IN RUBIDIUM VAPOR AND THEIR RELATION TO SUPERRADIANCE A Thesis by WENLONG YANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2011...

  10. Structural comparison of nickel electrodes and precursor phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Shan, Xiaoyin; Loyselle, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    Researchers summarize previous Raman spectroscopic results and discuss important structural differences in the various phases of active mass and active mass precursors. Raman spectra provide unique signatures for these phases, and allow one to distinguish each phase, even when the compound is amorphous to x rays (i.e., does not scatter x rays because of a lack of order and/or small particle size). The structural changes incurred during formation, charge and discharge, cobalt addition, and aging are discussed. The oxidation states and dopant contents are explained in terms of the nonstoichiometric structures.

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of chiral organophosphothioates from prochiral precursors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Shan; Li, Yingchun; Hill, Craig M; Lum, Karin T; Raushel, Frank M

    2002-04-10

    The phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta has been shown to selectively cleave the pro-R p-nitrophenolate substituent from bis-p-nitrophenyl alkyl phosphothioate esters. When the alkyl substituent is methyl, ethyl, or isopropyl the enantiomeric excess of the product is >/=99%. Manipulation of the active site through mutagenesis has enabled the preparation of protein variants that preferentially hydrolyze the pro-S substituent of the target substrates. This methodology thus permits the preparation of chiral products from prochiral precursors. PMID:11929226

  12. Study of Ni-Zn Ferrite Prepared From Citrate Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheesh, V. D.; Vinesh, A.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.

    2011-07-01

    Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 prepared using citrate precursor method and calcined at different temperatures is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and DC magnetization. Magnetization study shows that critical size of the sample is around 50 nm. Mössbauer studies confirm that there is no change in the cation distribution with calcining and also that a particle size distribution exists in samples calcined at higher temperatures. Thus the change in magnetic properties can be entirely attributed to structural parameters due to variation in size leading to different core-spin ratio, grain boundary effects etc.

  13. Structural comparison of nickel electrodes and precursor phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Shan, Xiaoyin; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the previous Raman spectroscopic results are summarized and important structural differences in the various phases of active mass and active mass precursors are discussed. Raman spectra provide unique signatures for these phases, and allow one to distinguish each phase, even when the compound is amorphous to X-rays (i.e., does not scatter X-rays because of a lack of order and/or small particle size). The structural changes incurred during formation, charge and discharge, cobalt addition, and aging wil be discussed. The oxidation states and dopant contents are explained in terms of the nonstoichiometric structures.

  14. Ozone precursors have regionally variable effect on radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-02-01

    When released near the surface, carbon monoxide, assorted nitrogen oxides (NOx ), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) contribute to the production of ozone, a key component of photochemical smog, which is known to have serious deleterious effects on human health. However, when ozone gets lifted into the troposphere, it is a greenhouse gas. That these ozone precursors have such a dual-pronged effect—affecting both human health and the global radiation budget—suggests that mitigating their emissions could be a potential method to both improve air quality and dampen the rate of anthropogenic climate change.

  15. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  16. An Accident Precursor Analysis Process Tailored for NASA Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system and which may differ in frequency or type from those in the various models. These discrepancies between the models (perceived risk) and the system (actual risk) provide the leading indication of an underappreciated risk. This paper presents an APA process developed specifically for NASA Earth-to-Orbit space systems. The purpose of the process is to identify and characterize potential sources of system risk as evidenced by anomalous events which, although not necessarily presenting an immediate safety impact, may indicate that an unknown or insufficiently understood risk-significant condition exists in the system. Such anomalous events are considered accident precursors because they signal the potential for severe consequences that may occur in the future, due to causes that are discernible from their occurrence today. Their early identification allows them to be integrated into the overall system risk model used to intbrm decisions relating to safety.

  17. Soot precursor measurements in benzene and hexane diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Furuhata, T.; Amagai, K.; Arai, M.

    2008-08-15

    To clarify the mechanism of soot formation in diffusion flames of liquid fuels, measurements of soot and its precursors were carried out. Sooting diffusion flames formed by a small pool combustion equipment system were used for this purpose. Benzene and hexane were used as typical aromatic and paraffin fuels. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method was used to obtain spatial distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are considered as soot particles. Spatial distributions of soot in test flames were measured by a laser-induced incandescence (LII) method. Soot diameter was estimated from the temporal change of LII intensity. A region of transition from PAHs to soot was defined from the results of LIF and LII. Flame temperatures, PAH species, and soot diameters in this transition region were investigated for both benzene and hexane flames. The results show that though the flame structures of benzene and hexane were different, the temperature in the PAHs-soot transition region of the benzene flame was similar to that of the hexane flame. Furthermore, the relationship between the PAH concentrations measured by gas chromatography in both flames and the PAH distributions obtained from LIF are discussed. It was found that PAHs with smaller molecular mass, such as benzene and toluene, remained in both the PAHs-soot transition and sooting regions, and it is thought that molecules heavier than pyrene are the leading candidates for soot precursor formation. (author)

  18. Regenerative Translation of Human Blood-Vessel-Derived MSC Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C. W.; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising adult progenitor cell source for tissue repair and regeneration. Their mysterious identity in situ has gradually been unveiled by the accumulating evidence indicating an association between adult multipotent stem/progenitor cells and vascular/perivascular niches. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we and other groups have prospectively identified and purified subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the blood vessels within multiple human organs. The three precursor subsets, myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are located, respectively, in the three structural tiers of typical blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. MECs, PCs, and ACs have been extensively characterized in prior studies and are currently under investigation for their therapeutic potentials in preclinical animal models. In this review, we will briefly discuss the identification, isolation, and characterization of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cells (hBVSCs) and summarize the current status of regenerative applications of hBVSC subsets. PMID:26273304

  19. Over-the-Horizon Anomalous VHF Propagation and Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Ruzhin, Ya. Yu.; Hayakawa, M.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current activities for the identification of earthquake (EQ) precursors and their epicentres. Starting with a brief description on the background to approaches using ultra-low (ULF), extremely low (ELF), very low/low (VLF/LF), medium (MF), high (HF), very high frequency (VHF) etc. radio waves for short-term EQ prediction, the paper concentrates on those characteristics of anomalous VHF reception from frequency-modulation (FM) radio transmissions and broadcast television (TV) signals in relation to EQ precursors. The possible ways to identify an impending EQ and its epicentre position as defined and observed by workers from a variety of studies fall within the purview of the paper. In attempts to find pre-EQ energy exchange and coupling processes between the lithosphere and atmosphere, the paper highlights some relevant observations of surface latent heat flux, sonic detection and ranging (SODAR) echograms and LF propagation. Explanations on possible causes leading to such anomalous reception are reviewed with reported results in association with pre-seismic induced modifications to tropospheric and ionospheric parameters.

  20. Study of bismuth alkoxides as possible precursors for ALD.

    PubMed

    Hatanpää, Timo; Vehkamäki, Marko; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2010-04-01

    While searching for bismuth precursors for thin film preparation by atomic layer deposition (ALD) three bismuth alkoxides Bi(O(t)Bu)(3) (1), Bi(OCMe(2)(i)Pr)(3) (2), Bi(OC(i)Pr(3))(3) (3), bismuth beta-diketonate, Bi(thd)(3) (4), and bismuth carboxylate, Bi(O(2)C(t)Bu)(3) (5), were synthesized and evaluated. The compounds were characterized by CHN, NMR, MS, and TGA/SDTA. Earlier unknown crystal structures of compounds 1 and 3 were solved. Compound 1 forms dimeric and loose polymeric structures in the solid state while 3 is strictly monomeric. For compound 2 crystals suitable for complete structure solution could not be grown. Crystallization trials of 2 from hexane and toluene resulted in oxygen bridged tetramer [Bi(2)O(OCMe(2)(i)Pr)(4)](2) (6). Compound 4 has dimeric structure and compound 5 forms loose tetramers as reported earlier. The structure of toluene solvated crystal [Bi(O(2)C(t)Bu)(3)](4).2MeC(6)H(5) (7) was solved. All compounds studied showed relatively good volatility and thermal stability. They were all tested in ALD deposition experiments, in which compound 2 was found to be the most suitable for ALD growth of Bi(2)O(3). It exhibited a clear improvement over Bi precursors studied earlier. PMID:20449450

  1. Engineering the Microstructure of Solution Precursor Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolissi, G.; Chazelas, C.; Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the fundamental reactions that occur in-flight during the solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) of solutions containing Zr- and Y-based salts in water or ethanol solvent. The effect of plasma jet composition (pure Ar, Ar-H2 and Ar-He-H2 mixtures) on the mechanical break-up and thermal treatment of the solution, mechanically injected in the form of a liquid stream, was investigated. Observation of the size evolution of the solution droplets in the plasma flow by means of a laser shadowgraphy technique, showed that droplet break-up was more effective and solvent evaporation was faster when the ethanol-based solution was injected into binary or ternary plasma gas mixtures. In contrast with water-based solutions, residual liquid droplets were always detected at the substrate location. The morphology and structure of the material deposited onto stainless steel substrates during single-scan experiments were characterised by SEM, XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy and were shown to be closely related to in-flight droplet behaviour. In-flight pyrolysis and melting of the precursor led to well-flattened splats, whereas residual liquid droplets at the substrate location turned into non pyrolysed inclusions. The latter, although subsequently pyrolysed by the plasma heat during the deposition of entire coatings, resulted in porous "sponge-like" structures in the deposit.

  2. Senile plaque neurites in Alzheimer disease accumulate amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Cras, P; Kawai, M; Lowery, D; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P; Greenberg, B; Perry, G

    1991-01-01

    Senile plaques are polymorphous beta-amyloid protein deposits found in the brain in Alzheimer disease and normal aging. This beta-amyloid protein is derived from a larger precursor molecule of which neurons are the principal producers in brain. We found that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-immunoreactive neurites were involved in senile plaques and that only a subset of these neurites showed markers for the abnormal filaments characteristic of neurofibrillary pathology. In the neocortex of nondemented individuals with senile plaques but spared of neurofibrillary pathology, dystrophic neurites in senile plaques showed only APP accumulation. In contrast, in the brains of Alzheimer patients, virtually all APP-immunoreactive neurites also showed immunoreactivity with ubiquitin, tau, and phosphorylated neurofilaments. The presence of tau and neurofilament epitopes in dystrophic neurites in senile plaques was correlated with the extent of neurofibrillary pathology in the surrounding brain tissue. Accumulation of APP and the formation of neurofibrillary pathology in senile plaque neurites are therefore distinct phenomena. Our findings suggest that APP accumulation in senile plaque neurites occurs prior to tau accumulation and is therefore more closely related to appearance of neuritic dystrophy. Images PMID:1652752

  3. Comparative examination of titania nanocrystals synthesized by peroxo titanic acid approach from different precursors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jun; Aizawa, Mami; Wang, Zheng-Ming; Hatori, Hiroaki; Uekawa, Naofumi; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2008-06-15

    Titanium dioxide nanocrystalline particles were synthesized by peroxo titanium acid (PTA) approach from titanium alkoxide and inorganic salt precursors, and their structural and surface properties, porosities, and photocatalytic activities were comparatively examined by XRD, TG/DTA, DRIFT, UV-vis, low temperature N(2) adsorption, and methyl orange (MO) degradation. It was found that nanoparticles with single anatase phase can be obtained from alkoxide precursor even near room temperature if synthesis conditions are appropriately controlled. PTA-derived anatase nanoparticles from titanium alkoxide precursor have smaller crystalline sizes and better porosities, and contain less amount of peroxo group and no organic impurities as compared to those from TiCl(4) precursor. The advantages in structural property, porosity, and surface properties (few deficiencies) lead to a much better photocatalytic activity for TiO(2) nanoparticles from titanium alkoxide precursor in comparison with those from TiCl(4) precursor. PMID:18406418

  4. Single-source precursors for ternary chalcopyrite materials, and methods of making and using the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Harris, Jerry D. (Inventor); Jin, Michael Hyun-Chul (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A single source precursor for depositing ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite materials useful as semiconductors. The single source precursor has the I-III-VI.sub.2 stoichiometry built into a single precursor molecular structure which degrades on heating or pyrolysis to yield the desired I-III-VI.sub.2 ternary chalcopyrite. The single source precursors effectively degrade to yield the ternary chalcopyrite at low temperature, e.g. below 500.degree. C., and are useful to deposit thin film ternary chalcopyrite layers via a spray CVD technique. The ternary single source precursors according to the invention can be used to provide nanocrystallite structures useful as quantum dots. A method of making the ternary single source precursors is also provided.

  5. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  6. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2014-09-09

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  7. Consideration of formation process for the nuclei on precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, J.; Okamoto, M.

    2003-12-01

    The very isotropic microwave background and the Hubble expansion indicate that the universe has evolved from an earlier state of high temperature and density that can be reasonably well described by Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological models. The nuclear evolution of non-degenerate matter expanding from very high temperature was studied in detail for various values of the expansion rate and of the proton-neutron abundance difference and baryon density[1,2,3]. In this calculation, many nuclear reactions were included, and its results suggested important reaction process for the evolution of nuclear abundances. 3He and 4He are very important elements in these nuclear reactions as the primordial nucleosynthesis. Microscopic study for few body system is one main topic in nuclear theoretical physics. In this field, very accurate calculations are available by using the Faddeev equations[4]. Recently, many data for pd, p-3He and d-3He have been obtained including polarized observables. Model calculations for systems including 3He and 4He (for example, d + 3He -> p + 4He) are carried out using the Faddeev equations based on the meson exchange models[4]. This model reproduces well the empirical phase shifts which are determined by so-called phase-shift analyses using all of available scattering data measured at various laboratories around the world[5,6,7]. Constructions of models for the nuclear reactions including 3He and 4He will give important information for calculations of the primordial nucleosynthesis after big-ban. The calculations are carried out until the sum of the abundances at each mass number ceases to change. Various different set of initial conditions for the baryon mass density, the expansion rate and the neutron-proton ratio are used. Dusts kept in precursor asteroid nebular form precursor asteroid, then, formations of planet start [8]. Possible values of parameters in the initial conditions for theoretical calculations will be searched considering an information from precursor asteroid References: {[1]} R. V. Wagoner, W. A. Fowler and F. Hoyle (1967), Astrophys. J. 148, 3. {[2]} R. V. Wagoner. (1969), Astrophys. J. 162, 247. [3] R. V. Wagoner (1973), Astrophys. J. 179, 343. [4] For example, S. Gojyuki and S. Oryu (2003), Mod. Phys. Lett. A18, 302. [5] Y. Yoshino, V. Limkaisang, J. Nagata, H. Yoshino and M. Matsuda (2000), Prog. Theor. Phys. 103, 107. [6] H. Yoshino, J. Nagata, V. Limkaisang, Y. Yoshino, M. Matsuda (2001), Nucl. Phys. A684, 615c. [7] H. Yoshino, H. Kazuo, M. Matsuda, J. Nagata, (2003), Mod. Phys. Lett. A18, 444. [8] Hayashi, C. et. al., 1985, Protostars and Planets, Univ. of Arizona Press, pp. 1100.

  8. Instellar Exploration: Propulsion Options for Precursors and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles Les; Leifer, Stephanie

    1999-01-01

    NASA is considering a mission to explore near-interstellar space early in the next decade as the first step toward a vigorous interstellar exploration program. A key enabling technology for such an ambitious science and exploration effort is the development of propulsion systems capable of providing fast trip times; mission duration should not exceed the professional lifetime of the investigative team. Advanced propulsion technologies that might support an interstellar precursor mission early in the next century include some combination of solar sails, nuclear electric propulsion systems, and aerogravity assists. Follow-on missions to far beyond the heliopause will require the development of propulsion technologies that are only at the conceptual stage today. These include 1) matter-antimatter annihilation, 2) beamed-energy sails, and 3) fusion systems. For years, the scientific community has been interested in the development of solar sail technology to support exploration of the inner and outer planets. Progress in thin-film technology and the development of technologies that may enable the remote assembly of large sails in space are only now maturing to the point where ambitious interstellar precursor missions can be considered. Electric propulsion is now being demonstrated for planetary exploration by the Deep Space 1 mission. The primary issues for it's adaptation to interstellar precursor applications include the nuclear reactor that would be required and the engine lifetime. For further term interstellar missions, matter-antimatter annihilation propulsion system concepts have the highest energy density of any propulsion systems using onboard propellants. However, there are numerous challenges to production and storage of antimatter that must be overcome before it can be seriously considered for interstellar flight. Off-board energy systems (laser sails) are candidates for long-distance interstellar flight but development of component technologies and necessary infrastructure have not begun.. Fusion propulsion has been studied extensively. However, fusion technology is still considered immature, even after many decades of well-funded research. Furthermore, fusion alone does not offer high enough energy density to make it a viable candidate for interstellar propulsion unless propellant can be collected in situ, as was considered by R. Bussard for his interstellar ramjet concept. The current research in investigating these propulsion systems will be described, and the range of application of each technology will be explored.

  9. Optical precursor with four-wave mixing and storage based on a cold-atom ensemble.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yun Kun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-03-01

    We observed optical precursors in four-wave mixing based on a cold-atom gas. Optical precursors appear at the edges of pulses of the generated optical field, and propagate through the atomic medium without absorption. Theoretical analysis suggests that these precursors correspond to high-frequency components of the signal pulse, which means the atoms cannot respond quickly to rapid changes in the electromagnetic field. In contrast, the low-frequency signal components are absorbed by the atoms during transmission. We also showed experimentally that the backward precursor can be stored using a Raman transition of the atomic ensemble and retrieved later. PMID:25793813

  10. Formation of perfluorinated surfactants from precursors by indigenous microorganisms in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Nishikoori, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiroshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    The formation of perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) from their precursors in waters is of concern. In this study, the formation of PFSs through biodegradation of precursors was measured in incubation tests. Indigenous microorganisms in groundwater were able to biodegrade perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) to yield perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The addition of nutrients and soil promoted the formation. A 42-d incubation test using sources of groundwater recharge showed that PFOS, perfluorooctanoate, and perfluorononanoate were significantly and remarkably (?1.5×) formed from precursors in street runoff through biodegradation, but not in rainwater or wastewater effluent. Significant formation of PFSs from precursors in street runoff was observed. PMID:23746363

  11. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ?99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ?69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water. PMID:26496512

  12. Novel applications of ceramic precursors -- TiN coating on alumina and functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    Seyferth, D.; Narula, C.K.; Czubarow, P.

    1996-12-31

    There are very few demonstrated applications of ceramic precursor technology. Here, the authors describe two new applications of known ceramic precursors, thin film deposition and the fabrication of functionally gradient materials (FGM). To demonstrate the thin film deposition, the authors prepared titanium nitride film on an alumina substrate using (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}SiNHTiCl{sub 3} precursor by a single dipcoat-fire cycle. The fabrication of copper and aluminum based FGMs was demonstrated using Nicalon{reg_sign} fiber polycarbosilane and poly(methylsilane) precursors as binders and in situ sources of ceramics.

  13. Enantiomeric Excesses of Acid Labile Amino Acid Precursors of the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Amino acids present in carbonaceous chondrite are extracted in water in part as free compounds and in approximately equal part as acid labile precursors. On the assumption that they would be free of contamination, the precursors of two Murchison amino acids that have terrestrial occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, have been targeted for analysis of their enantiomeric ratios. Pyroglutamic acid, the precursor of glutamic acid, was found with an L-enantiomeric excess comparable to that of the free acid, while alanine's precursor, N-acetyl alanine, appears approximately racemic. Also alpha-imino propioacetic acid, a proposed end product of alanine synthesis in the meteorite, was analyzed and found racemic.

  14. Temporal and spatial precursors in the ionospheric global positioning system (GPS) total electron content observed

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    ] Large earthquakes are often preceded or accompanied by signals of different nature: electric, magnetic been reported, scientists still raise the question if there are any seismo ionospheric precursors

  15. Selecting membranes for removing NOM and DBP precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, P.; Ruiz, H. ); Thompson, K.; Spangenberg, C. )

    1994-12-01

    A membrane filtration pilot plant was operated for one year to evaluate the removal of natural organic matter and disinfection by-product precursors from a highly colored groundwater in Orange County, California. Two nanofiltration (NF) membranes--a traditional softening membrane and a high-permeability, charged membrane--were selected for pilot-scale testing based on bench-scale tests of eight NF and ultrafiltration membranes. The high-permeability NF membrane demonstrated superior organics removal at very high recovery and flux. It also allowed most inorganic constituents to pass through. The concentrate of low total dissolved solids reduced inorganic fouling and made concentrate reuse possible. The article also presents preliminary design criteria and a cost opinion for full-scale treatment facilities.

  16. Functional activity of mitochondria in cultured neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, E Yu; Marei, M V; Podgornyi, O V; Aleksandrova, M A; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2006-01-01

    We studied mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neural precursor cells forming neurospheres in culture. Uneven energization of mitochondria in neurosphere cells was detected. Heterogeneity of cells by the mitochondrial potential increased with neurosphere enlargement during culturing. Decrease in the mitochondrial potential in the central cells in large spheres, presumably caused by insufficient diffusion of oxygen and nutrients, can provoke their damage and death. Population of cells with high mitochondrial potential responded to addition of the nuclear dye by a decrease in mitochondrial potential, which can indicate functioning of ABCG2 complex in these cells, characteristic of undifferentiated stem cells. These data will help to create optimum conditions for culturing of neural stem cells for the maintenance of their maximum functional and proliferative activity. PMID:16929986

  17. FE65: Roles beyond amyloid precursor protein processing.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wan Ning Vanessa; Cheung, Hei Nga Maggie; Li, Wen; Lau, Kwok-Fai

    2015-03-01

    FE65 is a brain-enriched, developmentally regulated adaptor protein that was first identified as a binding partner of amyloid precursor protein (APP), an important molecule in Alzheimer's disease. FE65 possesses three protein interaction domains, including an N-terminal WW domain and two C-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains. It is capable of mediating the assembly of multimolecular complexes. Although initial work reveals its roles in APP processing and gene transactivation, increasing evidence suggests that FE65 participates in more diverse biological processes than originally anticipated. This article discusses the role of FE65 in signal transduction during cell stress and protein turnover through the ubiquitin-proteasome system and in various neuronal processes, including neurogenesis, neuronal migration and positioning, neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:26204394

  18. Effects of Roughness and Inertia on Precursors to Frictional Sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark O.; Salerno, K. Michael

    2012-02-01

    Experiments show that when a PMMA block on a surface is normally loaded and driven by an external shear force, contact at the interface is modified in discrete precursor slips prior to steady state sliding.[1] Our simulations use an atomistic model of a rough two-dimensional block in contact with a flat surface to investigate the evolution of stress and displacement along the contact between surfaces. The talk will show how local and global stress conditions govern the initiation of interfacial cracks as well as the spatial extension of the cracked region. Inertia also plays an important role in determining the number and size of slips before sliding and influences the distribution of stresses at the interface. Finally, the geometry of surface asperities also influences the interfacial evolution and the total friction force. The relationship between the interfacial stress state and rupture velocity will also be discussed. [1] S.M. Rubinstein, G. Cohen and J. Fineberg, PRL 98, 226103 (2007)

  19. Clinical and biological significance of precursor lesions of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ettel, Mark; Eze, Ogechukwu; Xu, Ruliang

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is primarily a malignant tumor of older adults most prevalent in Southeast Asia, where liver fluke infestation is high. However the etiology in western countries is unknown. Although the incidence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has remained constant, incidence of intrahepatic CC (ICC) which differs in morphology, pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment and prognosis is increasing. While this increase is associated with hepatitis C virus infection, chronic nonalcoholic liver disease, obesity, and smoking, the pathogenesis of ICC and molecular alterations underlying the carcinogenesis are not completely elucidated. Benign biliary lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, von Meyenburg complex or bile duct hamartoma, and bile duct adenoma have been associated with ICC. For each of these entities, evidence suggests or supports a role as premalignant lesions. This article summarized the important biological significance of the precursor lesions of ICC and the molecular mechanisms that may be involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:26557948

  20. Erythropoietin induced erythroid precursor pool depletion causes erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Summary Erythropoietin (EPO) hyporesponsiveness is demonstrated by a persistence of anemia despite high dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) or requirement of large doses to maintain the target hemoglobin concentration. Tolerance to rHuEPO is defined by a diminished erythropoietic response while rHuEPO concentrations are maintained at a high level. We observed a tolerance phenomenon in rats receiving multiple doses of rHuEPO. We further studied the dynamics of erythroid cells in bone marrow, spleen and blood as well as the neocytolysis of reticulocytes after a single intravenous injection of rHuEPO. The results suggest that the tolerance phenomenon observed in the peripheral blood might be due to depletion of the bone marrow precursor cells induced by rHuEPO treatment. This mechanism may be a contributing factor to the EPO hyporesponsiveness. Our findings support the dose reduction of erythropoiesis stimulating agents for patients demonstrating hyporesponsiveness. PMID:23187865

  1. Damage precursor measurements on UV-optical coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ettrich, K.; Blaschke, H.; Welsch, E.

    1995-12-31

    For application in UV thin film optics the thermal contribution to the laser-induced optical breakdown was investigated utilizing time-resolved photothermal probe beam deflection (MIRAGE) technique. The potentiality of this method for the determination of both the subdamage range and the onset of single-shot-damage of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} and LaF{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2} high-reflective coatings by using the thermal branch of the MIRAGE technique could be demonstrated. Examining the dielectric mirrors by 248 nm KrF laser irradiation, distinct damage precursor features were found. Thus, the physical origin of the UV pulsed radiation breakdown in HR coatings can be elucidated.

  2. Single Source Precursors for Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The use of a polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer for thin film solar cells is considered as the next generation photovoltaic devices. At NASA GRC we have focused on the development of new single source precursors (SSP) and their utility to deposit the chalcopyrite semi-conducting layer (CIS) onto flexible substrates for solar cell fabrication. The syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering is described. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate the SSPs can be used in a spray CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process, for depositing CIS at reduced temperatures, which display good electrical properties, suitable for PV (photovoltaic) devices.

  3. Clinical and biological significance of precursor lesions of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ettel, Mark; Eze, Ogechukwu; Xu, Ruliang

    2015-11-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is primarily a malignant tumor of older adults most prevalent in Southeast Asia, where liver fluke infestation is high. However the etiology in western countries is unknown. Although the incidence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has remained constant, incidence of intrahepatic CC (ICC) which differs in morphology, pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment and prognosis is increasing. While this increase is associated with hepatitis C virus infection, chronic nonalcoholic liver disease, obesity, and smoking, the pathogenesis of ICC and molecular alterations underlying the carcinogenesis are not completely elucidated. Benign biliary lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, von Meyenburg complex or bile duct hamartoma, and bile duct adenoma have been associated with ICC. For each of these entities, evidence suggests or supports a role as premalignant lesions. This article summarized the important biological significance of the precursor lesions of ICC and the molecular mechanisms that may be involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:26557948

  4. Hybrid Biosynthesis of Roseobacticides from Algal and Bacterial Precursor Molecules

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Roseobacticides regulate the symbiotic relationship between a marine bacterium (Phaeobacter inhibens) and a marine microalga (Emiliania huxleyi). This relationship can be mutualistic, when the algal host provides food for the bacteria and the bacteria produce growth hormones and antibiotics for the algae, or parasitic, when the algae senesce and release p-coumaric acid. The released p-coumaric acid causes the bacteria to synthesize roseobacticides, which are nM??M toxins for the algae. We examined the biosynthesis of roseobacticides and report that all roseobacticide precursors play critical roles during the mutualist phase of the symbiosis. Roseobacticides are biosynthesized from the algal growth promoter, the major food molecule provided by the algal cells, and the algal senescence signal that initiates the mutualist-to-parasite switch. Thus, molecules that are beneficial during mutualism are diverted to the synthesis of toxins during parasitism. A plausible mechanism for assembling roseobacticides from these molecules is proposed. PMID:25295497

  5. Auditory hair cell precursors immortalized from the mammalian inner ear.

    PubMed Central

    Rivolta, M N; Grix, N; Lawlor, P; Ashmore, J F; Jagger, D J; Holley, M C

    1998-01-01

    Mammalian auditory hair cells are few in number, experimentally inaccessible, and do not proliferate postnatally or in vitro. Immortal cell lines with the potential to differentiate into auditory hair cells would substantially facilitate auditory research, drug development, and the isolation of critical molecules involved in hair cell biology. We have established two conditionally immortal cell lines that express at least five characteristic hair cell markers. These markers are the transcription factor Brn3.1, the alpha 9 subunit of the acetylcholine receptor, the stereociliary protein fimbrin and the myosins VI and VIIA. These hair cell precursors permit functional studies of cochlear genes and in the longer term they will provide the means to explore therapeutic methods of stimulating auditory hair cell regeneration. PMID:9753783

  6. Hybrid biosynthesis of roseobacticides from algal and bacterial precursor molecules.

    PubMed

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R; Wang, Rurun; Kolter, Roberto; Clardy, Jon

    2014-10-29

    Roseobacticides regulate the symbiotic relationship between a marine bacterium (Phaeobacter inhibens) and a marine microalga (Emiliania huxleyi). This relationship can be mutualistic, when the algal host provides food for the bacteria and the bacteria produce growth hormones and antibiotics for the algae, or parasitic, when the algae senesce and release p-coumaric acid. The released p-coumaric acid causes the bacteria to synthesize roseobacticides, which are nM-?M toxins for the algae. We examined the biosynthesis of roseobacticides and report that all roseobacticide precursors play critical roles during the mutualist phase of the symbiosis. Roseobacticides are biosynthesized from the algal growth promoter, the major food molecule provided by the algal cells, and the algal senescence signal that initiates the mutualist-to-parasite switch. Thus, molecules that are beneficial during mutualism are diverted to the synthesis of toxins during parasitism. A plausible mechanism for assembling roseobacticides from these molecules is proposed. PMID:25295497

  7. Bioexcimers as Precursors of Charge Transfer and Reactivity in Photobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano-Andres, Luis; Merchan, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuan, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Rubio, Mercedes

    2007-11-29

    Accurate CASPT2//CASSCF calculations show that {pi}-stacked interactions in different biochromophores such as DNA nucleobases or porphyrin-quinone pairs yield excimer-like situations which behave as precursors of processes like charge transfer or photoreactivity. Examples are the transfer of charge between a reduced pheophytin and an accepting quinone molecule, process that trigger the sequence of electron transfer phenomena in photosynthetic photosystem II, the electron transfer between adjacent DNA nucleobases in a strand of oligonucleotides, and the photodimerization taking place in cytosine pairs leading to cyclobutanecytosine mutants. These processes take place through nonadiabatic photochemical mechanisms whose evolution is determined by the presence and accessibility of conical intersections and other surface crossings between different electronic states.

  8. Ceria Nanotube Formed by Sacrificed Precursors Template through Oswald Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Laixue; Wang, Xiaoying; Tang, Xinde

    2015-01-01

    Controllable preparation of ceria nanotube was realized by hydrothermal treatment of Ce(OH)CO3 precursors. The gradually changing morphologies and microstructures of cerium oxide were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A top-down path is illuminated to have an insight to the morphological transformation from nanorod to nanotube by adjusting the reaction time. The growth process is investigated by preparing a series of intermediate morphologies during the shape evolution of CeO2nanostructure based on the scanning electron microscopy image observation. On the basis of the time-dependent experimental observation, the possible formation mechanism related to oriented attachment and Oswald ripening was proposed, which might afford some guidance for the synthesis of other inorganic nanotubes. PMID:26151866

  9. Precursor activity in bright long BATSE gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Davide Lazzati

    2004-12-21

    We study a sample of bright long BATSE GRB light curves in the 200 s before the detection of the GRB prompt emission. We find that in a sizable fraction of cases (20 %) there is evidence of emission above the background coming from the same direction of the GRB. This emission is characterised by a softer spectrum with respect to the main one and contains a small fraction (0.1-1 %) of the total event counts. The precursors have typical delays of several tens of seconds extending (in few cases) up to 200 seconds (the limit of the investigated period). Their spectra are typically non-thermal power-law but for a few cases. Such long delays and the non-thermal origin of their spectra are hard to reconcile with any model for the progenitor.

  10. Current Development in Isoprenoid Precursor Biosynthesis and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-chen; Song, Heng; Liu, Hung-wen; Liu, Pinghua

    2013-01-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest classes of natural products and all of them are constructed from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). For decades, the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway was proposed to be the only IPP and DMAPP biosynthetic pathway. This review summarizes the newly discovered IPP and DMAPP production pathways since late 1990s, their distribution among different kingdoms, and their roles in secondary metabolite production. These new IPP and DMAPP production pathways include the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, a modified MVA pathway, and the 5-Methylthioadenosine shunt pathway. Relative to the studies on the MVA pathway, information on the MEP pathway regulation is limited and the mechanistic details of several of its novel transformations remain to be addressed. Current status on both MEP pathway regulation and mechanistic issues are also presented. PMID:23891475

  11. Is there a field-theoretic explanation for precursor biopolymers?

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gerald

    2002-08-01

    A Hu-Barkana-Gruzinov cold dark matter scalar field phi may enter a weak isospin invariant derivative interaction that causes the flow of right-handed electrons to align parallel to (inverted delta phi). Hence, in the outer regions of galaxies where (inverted delta phi) is large, as in galactic halos, the derivative interaction may induce a chirality-imbued quantum chemistry. Such a chirality-imbued chemistry would in turn be conducive to the formation of abundant precursor biopolymers on interstellar dust grains, comets and meteors in galactic halo regions, with subsequent delivery to planets in the inner galactic regions where phi and (inverted delta phi) are concomitantly near zero and left-right symmetric terrestrial quantum chemistry prevails. PMID:12458734

  12. Amyloid Precursor Protein Is Trafficked and Secreted via Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Dietmar; Hua, Yunfeng; Hüve, Jana; Wilhelm, Benjamin G.; Klingauf, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    A large body of evidence has implicated amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its proteolytic derivatives as key players in the physiological context of neuronal synaptogenesis and synapse maintenance, as well as in the pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Although APP processing and release are known to occur in response to neuronal stimulation, the exact mechanism by which APP reaches the neuronal surface is unclear. We now demonstrate that a small but relevant number of synaptic vesicles contain APP, which can be released during neuronal activity, and most likely represent the major exocytic pathway of APP. This novel finding leads us to propose a revised model of presynaptic APP trafficking that reconciles existing knowledge on APP with our present understanding of vesicular release and recycling. PMID:21556148

  13. Glutathione peroxidase 4 prevents necroptosis in mouse erythroid precursors.

    PubMed

    Canli, Özge; Alanku?, Yasemin B; Grootjans, Sasker; Vegi, Naidu; Hültner, Lothar; Hoppe, Philipp S; Schroeder, Timm; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bornkamm, Georg W; Greten, Florian R

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining cellular redox balance is vital for cell survival and tissue homoeostasis because imbalanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to oxidative stress and cell death. The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a key regulator of oxidative stress-induced cell death. We show that mice with deletion of Gpx4 in hematopoietic cells develop anemia and that Gpx4 is essential for preventing receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis in erythroid precursor cells. Absence of Gpx4 leads to functional inactivation of caspase 8 by glutathionylation, resulting in necroptosis, which occurs independently of tumor necrosis factor ? activation. Although genetic ablation of Rip3 normalizes reticulocyte maturation and prevents anemia, ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation in Gpx4-deficient cells remain high. Our results demonstrate that ROS and lipid hydroperoxides function as not-yet-recognized unconventional upstream signaling activators of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. PMID:26463424

  14. Aluminum borate nanowires from the pyrolysis of polyaminoborane precursors.

    PubMed

    Du, Van An; Jurca, Titel; Whittell, George R; Manners, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Polyaminoboranes [N(R)H-BH2]n (: R = H, : R = Me) were pyrolyzed on a range of substrates: silicon, metal foils (stainless steel, nickel, and rhodium), and sapphire wafers, as well as on Al2O3 and AlN powders. The pyrolysis of on a Si-wafer resulted in porous nanostructures containing hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN). In the case of or H3N·BH3 as precursor, using rhodium foil as substrate afforded amorphous B and N-containing nanostructures, and polydisperse spherical nanoparticles, respectively. Switching the substrate to sapphire wafers, as well as to Al2O3 or AlN powders, resulted in formation of crystalline Al5BO9 nanostructures (nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoribbons). For sapphire wafers, the size of the resulting nanowires was influenced by modifying the surface defect density. PMID:26649782

  15. Immunophenotype of mouse cerebral hemispheres-derived neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Poulatsidou, Kyriaki-Nefeli; Lagoudaki, Roza; Touloumi, Olga; Kesidou, Evangelia; Boziki, Marina; Ravanidis, Stylianos; Chlichlia, Katerina; Grigoriou, Maria; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-12

    Postnatally isolated neural precursor cells (piNPCs) from mouse cerebral tissue have been studied in cell-based therapeutic approaches for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Transplantation experiments in EAE rodents revealed that piNPCs manage to integrate into the host tissue and ameliorate clinical symptoms. When cultured in vitro, mouse cerebral piNPCs form neurospheres consisting of immature cells positive for polysialylated neural adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) that differentiate mainly towards glial cells, but also neurons. Herein, we have characterized piNPCs immunophenotype, with flow cytometry. NPCs were positive for CD24, CD44, and CD133 though negative for CD15, CD184 and CD49d. This immunophenotype, determined for the first time, among cells isolated from neonates might be useful for the identification of NPC population aiming at the development of transplantation protocols. PMID:26590329

  16. SEMEP: Search for Electro-Magnetic Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrot, M.; Walker, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    SEMEP, the Search for Electro-Magnetic Earthquake Precursors, is an EU FP7 funded project in response to the FP7-SPACE-2010-1 call for collaborative projects between the EU and Russia. The aim is to bring together satellite and ground-based data to search for possible electromagnetic perturbation effects due to seismic activity. The use of satellite observations enables the possibility of performing global surveys of the ionosphere. However, ground-based measurements are also necessary when investigating the relationship between ionospheric perturbations and seismic activity because this is the only way to connect the physical processes in the crust with the signals recorded by satellites. In this paper, first results of this project will be shown.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of carbon aerogels derived from different precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Nielson, J.K.; Tran, T.D.; Reynolds, G.M.; Dresshaus, M.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ability to tailor the structure and properties of porous carbons has led to their increased use as electrodes in energy storage devices. Our research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels for use in electrochemical double layer capacitors. Carbon aerogels are formed from the sol-gel polymerization of (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde or (2) phenolic-furfural, followed by supercritical drying from carbon dioxide, and subsequent pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere. These materials can be produced as monoliths, composites, thin films, powders, or microspheres. In all cases, the areogels have an open-cell structure with an ultrafine pore size (<100 nm), high surface area (400-1 100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10 nm. This paper examines the effects of the carbon precursor and processing conditions on electrochemical performance in aqueous and organic electrolytes.

  18. NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign: Mars Moons Robotic Precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Abell, Paul A.; Love, Stanley G.; Lee, David E.; Chappell, Steven P.; Howe, A. Scott; Friedensen, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration missions to the moons of Mars are being considered within NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as an intermediate step for eventual human exploration and pioneering of the surface of Mars. A range of mission architectures is being evaluated in which human crews would explore one or both moons for as little as 14 days or for as long as 500 days with a variety of orbital and surface habitation and mobility options being considered. Relatively little is known about the orbital, surface, or subsurface characteristics of either moon. This makes them interesting but challenging destinations for human exploration missions during which crewmembers must be able to effectively conduct scientific exploration without being exposed to undue risks due to radiation, dust, micrometeoroids, or other hazards. A robotic precursor mission to one or both moons will be required to provide data necessary for the design and operation of subsequent human systems and for the identification and prioritization of scientific exploration objectives. This paper identifies and discusses considerations for the design of such a precursor mission based on current human mission architectures. Objectives of a Mars' moon precursor in support of human missions are expected to include: 1) identifying hazards on the surface and the orbital environment at up to 50-km distant retrograde orbits; 2) collecting data on physical characteristics for planning of detailed human proximity and surface operations; 3) performing remote sensing and in situ science investigations to refine and focus future human scientific activities; and 4) prospecting for in situ resource utilization. These precursor objectives can be met through a combination or remote sensing (orbital) and in-situ (surface) measurements. Analysis of spacecraft downlink signals using radio science techniques would measure the moon's mass, mass distribution, and gravity field, which will be necessary to enable trajectory planning. Laser altimetry would precisely measure the moon's shape and improve the accuracy of radio science measurements. A telescopic imaging camera would map the moon at submeter resolution and photograph selected areas of interest at subcentimeter resolution and a visible and near-infrared (0.4-3.0 mm) imaging spectrograph would produce a global map of mineral composition variations at a resolution of tens of meters and maps of selected areas of interest at meter resolution. Additional remote sensing capabilities could include a thermal infrared imager (heat flow, thermal inertia, and grain size distributions), a gamma-ray and neutron detector (atomic composition), a ground-penetrating radar (internal structure), and a magnetometer and Langmuir probe (magnetic properties and plasma field). Once on the surface of Phobos or Deimos, necessary instrumentation would include a penetrometer (regolith compressive strength), a motion-imagery camera (to observe the penetrometer tests before, during, and after contact), a dust-adhesion witness plate and camera (dust levitation), a microimager (dust particle sizes and shapes), and an alpha-proton-X-ray, X-ray fluorescence, Mossbauer, or Raman spectrometer (atomic and mineral composition of surface materials) and an optional temperature probe (regolith thermal properties). A variety of robotic mission design options to enable both orbital and surface measurements are being considered that include fully integrated and modular approaches. In-situ measurements from at least one surface location would be required, with additional measurement locations possible through use of multiple landers, through propulsive relocation of a single lander, or through electromechanical surface translation by a walking or hopping lander vehicle, which could also serve to evaluate such mobility capabilities for subsequent human missions. Preliminary orbital analysis suggests that remote sensing would likely be performed while in a distant retrograde orbit around the target moon. Mission design options to enable characterization of both Mars’ moons in

  19. Hydrogeological and hydrometeorological precursors of Ashkhabad catastrophic earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkis, M. R.

    1984-05-01

    Retrospective analysis of variations of ground water table, ground water temperature, soil temperature, air temperature, precipitation, air humidity, and discharge of springs reveals that the Ashkhabad earthquake of 1948 occurred against a background of considerable deviations of a number of hydrometeorological and hydrogeological characteristics in the Ashkhabad region. It is difficult to judge whether meteorological factors exerted an influence on the development of the strong earthquake or whether their anomalous regime was a result of heating of the medium over the focus of the future earthquake. Considerable changes in temperature, ground water level and some hydrometeorological elements in the short period of time providing the strong earthquake merit particular attention. Even the relatively rough measurements of ground water parameters used in the analysis indicate a considerable variation during the period of earthquake preparation and the possibility of their use for detecting the precursors of strong seismic processes.

  20. The role of catalyst precursor anions in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.

    1992-08-28

    The aims of the proposed project are to enrich our understanding of the roles of various aqueous soluble catalyst precursor anions on the surface electrical properties of coal and to ascertain the influence of the surface charge on the adsorption, dispersion, and activities of calcium and potassium. These goals will be achieved by impregnating a North Dakota lignite (PSOC 1482) and its demineralized derivative with calcium or potassium catalyst precursors containing acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), and carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) anions. Catalyst loading will be conducted under well-controlled conditions of solution pH and ionic strength. In the last quarter, the surface charge properties of the coal was determined as a function of acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sup 3}{sup {minus}}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) or sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}})concentration using the respective potassium salts of these anions. In general, low anion concentrations (10{sup {minus}3} or 10{sup {minus}2} mol/L) had little effect on the zeta potentials of the coals. However, the surface charge densities of the coal become less negative at 10-1 mol/L of the nitrate, carbonate or sulfate anions. These trends suggest that the surface charge density of the coal is controlled by the adsorption of potassium ions (K{sup +}) onto the coal particles. The net negative charge on the coal panicles creates a repulsive force between the anions and the coal surface and prevents the anions from exerting any significant effect on the coal's electrokinetic properties.

  1. Structural comparison of nickel electrodes and precursor phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Shan, Xiaoyin; Loyselle, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    A summary of previous Raman spectroscopic results and a discussion of important structural differences in the various phases of active mass and active mass precurors are presented. Raman spectra provide unique signatures for these phases, and allow one to distinguish each phase, even when the compound is amorphous to X-rays (i.e., does not scatter X-rays because of a lack of order and/or small particle size). The structural changes incurred during formation, charge and discharge, cobalt addition, and aging will be discussed and related to electrode properties. Important structural differences include NiO2 layer stacking, nonstoichiometry (especially cation-deficit nonstoichiometry), disorder, dopant content, and water content. The results indicate that optimal nickel active mass is non-close packed and nonstoichiometric. The formation process transforms precursor phases into this structure. Therefore, the precursor disorder, or lack thereof, influences this final active mass structure and the rate of formation. Aging processes induce structural change which is believed to be detrimental. The role of cobalt addition can be appreciated in terms of structures favored or stabilized by the dopant. In recent work, the in situ Raman technique to characterize the critical structural parameters was developed. An in situ method relates structure, electrochemistry, and preparation. In situ Raman spectra of cells during charge and discharge, either during cyclic voltammetry or under constant current conditions were collected. With the structure-preparation knowledge and the in situ Raman tool, it will be possible to define the structure-property-preparation relations in more detail. This instrumentation has application to a variety of electrode systems.

  2. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  3. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-03-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  4. Dietary lignins are precursors of mammalian lignans in rats.

    PubMed

    Begum, Aynun Nahar; Nicolle, Catherine; Mila, Isabelle; Lapierre, Catherine; Nagano, Kazutane; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Heinonen, Satu-Maarit; Adlercreutz, Herman; Rémésy, Christian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2004-01-01

    The mammalian lignans enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol, commonly found in human plasma and urine, are phytoestrogens that may contribute to the prevention of breast cancer and coronary heart disease. They are formed by the conversion of dietary precursors such as secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol lignans by the colonic microflora. The identification of lignins, cell-wall polymers structurally related to lignans, as precursors of mammalian lignans is reported here for the first time. In study 1, rats were fed rye or wheat bran (15% diet) for 5 d. Untreated brans and brans extracted with solvents to remove lignans were compared. ENL was estimated in urine samples collected for 24 h by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. ENL urinary excretion was reduced from 18.6 to 5.3 nmol/d (n=8; P<0.001) when lignans were removed from rye bran and from 30.5 to 6.2 nmol/d (P<0.001) when they were removed from wheat bran. These results suggest that lignins, embedded in the cell wall and retained in the bran during solvent extraction, account for 26-32% of the ENL formed from cereal brans. In study 2, rats were fed a deuterated synthetic lignin (0.2% diet) together with wheat bran (15%) for 3 d. The detection of deuterated ENL by LC-tandem MS in urine (20 nmol/d) clearly confirms the conversion of lignin into mammalian lignans. More research is warranted to determine the bioavailability of lignins in the human diet. PMID:14704303

  5. Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Keuter, Thomas Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaßen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

  6. Identification of adult midgut precursors in Drosophila Craig A. Micchelli a,,1

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    : Drosophila Adult midgut precursors Intestinal stem cell Ecdysone a b s t r a c t The adult Drosophila midgut that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) can be identified in the adult midgut that function to maintain tissue reported the presence of individual cells termed adult midgut precursors (AMPs) as well as ``midgut islands

  7. Solution Synthesis of Germanium Nanowires Using a Ge2+ Alkoxide Precursor

    E-print Network

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Solution Synthesis of Germanium Nanowires Using a Ge2+ Alkoxide Precursor Henry Gerung,*, Timothy J: A simple solution synthesis of germanium (Ge0 ) nanowires under mild conditions () was demonstrated using germanium 2,6-dibutylphenoxide, Ge(DBP)2 (1), as the precursor where DBP ) 2,6-OC6H3(C(CH3

  8. Adult Subependymal Neural Precursors, but Not Differentiated Cells, Undergo Rapid Cathodal Migration

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Milos R.

    of neural stem and progenitor cells (together termed neural precursor cells) in the adult mammalian brainAdult Subependymal Neural Precursors, but Not Differentiated Cells, Undergo Rapid Cathodal in their proliferation and migration toward lesion sites where they differentiate into neural cells. The administration

  9. Influence of calcium precursors on the morphology and crystallinity of sol gel-derived hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi Natarajan, U.; Rajeswari, S.

    2008-10-01

    Nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles were prepared by sol-gel method from the water-based solution of calcium and phosphorus precursor. In this study, two calcium precursors such as calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and calcium acetate were chosen as calcium precursors. The influence of aging period, pH, viscosity and sintering temperature on crystallinity and morphology of the HAP particles were investigated for the two calcium precursors with triethyl phosphate precursor. The morphology of nano-HAP towards phosphorous precursor was dependent on the type of calcium precursor used. The HAP prepared from calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphate was spherically shaped whereas the one from calcium acetate was found to be fibrous in structure. Both HAPs were stable up to 1200 °C and their crystallinity increased with respect to the sintering temperature. The obtained sample was characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), P 31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and TEM analysis. The sol derived from the optimized aging period for the two different calcium precursors was coated on 316L stainless-steel (SS) implant and its corrosion resistivity during long-term implantation was studied by cyclic polarization in Ringer's solution. Both HAPs have their own desirable qualities and were found to be corrosion resistive.

  10. A practical, convergent route to the key precursor to the tetracycline antibiotics

    E-print Network

    A practical, convergent route to the key precursor to the tetracycline antibiotics David A. Kummer) and the isoxazole ester 3. This advance defines an 8-step linear sequence to 6-deoxytetracycline antibiotics from for the construction of diverse tetracycline antibiotics.1,2 This key precursor can be transformed into fully

  11. Precursors for the synthesis of citrulline in mice fed arginine free diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary arginine (Arg) is the main dietary precursor for citrulline (Cit) synthesis. To test the hypothesis that the contribution of dietary proline (Pro) and glutamine (Gln) increases during the feeding of an Arg free diet, rates of appearance (Ra) and precursor-intermediate-product relationships w...

  12. Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions

    E-print Network

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions and oxidizing agents are delivered in liquid and supercritical CO2. A cyclic deposition process is presented properties of supercritical CO2 can aid in the delivery of precursors and in the removal of byproducts

  13. Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a

    E-print Network

    Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G Atomic layer deposition ALD and pulsed chemical vapor deposition CVD were used to make ruthenium Ru thin films from a volatile Ru amidinate precursor, bis N,N -di-tert-butylacetamidinato ruthenium II

  14. Identication of a novel alternative splicing isoform of human amyloid precursor protein gene, APP639

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    Identi®cation of a novel alternative splicing isoform of human amyloid precursor protein gene, APP, Meibergdreef 33, 1105 AZ Amsterdam ZO, the Netherlands Keywords: alternative splicing, Alzheimer's disease, APP derived from a large amyloid precursor protein (APP). To date, several alternatively spliced human APP

  15. ALD and CVD Ni using Ni Amidinate Precursor , Deo V. Shenai1

    E-print Network

    ALD and CVD Ni using Ni Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li1 , Deo V. Shenai1 , Zhefeng Li2 and Roy G to cause problems. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) are identified the effectiveness of novel nickel amidinate (Ni AMD) as a good precursor in both ALD and CVD Ni thin films due

  16. Vaporization of a mixed precursors in chemical vapor deposition for YBCO films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Guangyao; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises

    1995-01-01

    Single phase YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with T(c) values around 90 K are readily obtained by using a single source chemical vapor deposition technique with a normal precursor mass transport. The quality of the films is controlled by adjusting the carrier gas flow rate and the precursor feed rate.

  17. Effects of Peer Mediation on Preschoolers' Compliance and Compliance Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lauren; Hanley, Gregory P.; Roberson, Aleasha A.

    2013-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate the effects of teaching 4 typically developing preschoolers to attend to their names and to a group call (referred to as "precursors") on their compliance with typical classroom instructions. We then measured the extent to which the effects on both precursors and…

  18. Bound Volatile Precursors in Genotypes in the Pedigree of 'Marion' Blackberry (Rubus Sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosidically bound volatiles and precursors in genotypes representing the pedigree for 'Marion' blackberry were investigated over two growing seasons. The volatile precursors were isolated using a C18 solid-phase extraction column. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the released volatiles were analyzed u...

  19. Validation of Measures of Biosocial Precursors to Borderline Personality Disorder: Childhood Emotional Vulnerability and Environmental Invalidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Shannon E.; Baer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) results from a transaction of two childhood precursors: emotional vulnerability and an invalidating environment. Until recently, few empirical studies have explored relationships between these theoretical precursors and symptoms of the disorder. Psychometrically sound…

  20. A methodology for analyzing precursors to earthquake-initiated and fire-initiated accident sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, R.J.; Lambert, H.E.; Apostolakis, G. and others

    1998-04-01

    This report covers work to develop a methodology for analyzing precursors to both earthquake-initiated and fire-initiated accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsors a large ongoing project, the Accident Sequence Precursor project, to analyze the safety significance of other types of accident precursors, such as those arising from internally-initiated transients and pipe breaks, but earthquakes and fires are not within the current scope. The results of this project are that: (1) an overall step-by-step methodology has been developed for precursors to both fire-initiated and seismic-initiated potential accidents; (2) some stylized case-study examples are provided to demonstrate how the fully-developed methodology works in practice, and (3) a generic seismic-fragility date base for equipment is provided for use in seismic-precursors analyses. 44 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. FGF-2 controls the differentiation of resident cardiac precursors into functional cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt-Velin, Nathalie; Lepore, Mario G.; Cartoni, Cristina; Beermann, Friedrich; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the heart possesses a greater regeneration capacity than previously thought. In the present study, we isolated undifferentiated precursors from the cardiac nonmyocyte cell population of neonatal hearts, expanded them in culture, and induced them to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes. These cardiac precursors appear to express stem cell antigen–1 and demonstrate characteristics of multipotent precursors of mesodermal origin. Following infusion into normal recipients, these cells home to the heart and participate in physiological and pathophysiological cardiac remodeling. Cardiogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo depends on FGF-2. Interestingly, this factor does not control the number of precursors but regulates the differentiation process. These findings suggest that, besides its angiogenic actions, FGF-2 could be used in vivo to facilitate the mobilization and differentiation of resident cardiac precursors in the treatment of cardiac diseases. PMID:15951838

  2. Effect of Microstructural Anisotropy of PM Precursors on the Characteristic Expansion of Aluminum Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, Jaime; Laguna-Gutiérrez, Ester; Solórzano, Eusebio; Rodríguez-Pérez, Miguel Angel

    2013-08-01

    This work investigates the causes of the anisotropic early expansion (below the melting point) of powder metallurgical (PM) aluminum foam precursors by evaluating the crystallographic anisotropy induced during the production of the precursor materials. A varied group of precursors prepared using different parameters and techniques (direct powder extrusion and hot uniaxial compression) has been investigated. Multidirectional foaming expansion has been registered in situ by means of the optical expandometry technique, while X-ray diffraction has been used to characterize the preferred crystallographic orientation (texture) of the pressed powders. The results point to a clear correlation between the expansion anisotropy and the microstructural crystallographic anisotropy of the precursors. Although this correlation is not a direct cause-effect phenomenon, it is a good indicator of intrinsic precursor characteristics, such as densification and powder interparticle bonding, which govern the expansion behavior during the early stages when the material is still in a solid or semisolid state.

  3. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamin; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological context) as relevant to these areas and ensure the maturation of key technologies. In this paper we discuss the objectives for the lunar lander mission and describe the model payload and the approach to selection and implementation of a final payload for the mission.

  4. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamine; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological context) as relevant to these areas and ensure the maturation of key technologies. In this paper we discuss the objectives for the lunar lander mission and describe the model payload and the approach to selection and implementation of a final payload for the mission.

  5. From iron(III) precursor to magnetite and vice versa

    SciTech Connect

    Gotic, M.; Jurkin, T.; Music, S.

    2009-10-15

    The syntheses of nanosize magnetite particles by wet-chemical oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} have been extensively investigated. In the present investigation the nanosize magnetite particles were synthesised without using the Fe(II) precursor. This was achieved by {gamma}-irradiation of water-in-oil microemulsion containing only the Fe(III) precursor. The corresponding phase transformations were monitored. Microemulsions (pH {approx} 12.5) were {gamma}-irradiated at a relatively high dose rate of {approx}22 kGy/h. Upon 1 h of {gamma}-irradiation the XRD pattern of the precipitate showed goethite and unidentified low-intensity peaks. Upon 6 h of {gamma}-irradiation, reductive conditions were achieved and substoichiometric magnetite ({approx}Fe{sub 2.71}O{sub 4}) particles with insignificant amount of goethite particles found in the precipitate. Hydrated electrons (e{sub aq}{sup -}), organic radicals and hydrogen gas as radiolytic products were responsible for the reductive dissolution of iron oxide in the microemulsion and the reduction Fe{sup 3+} {yields} Fe{sup 2+}. Upon 18 h of {gamma}-irradiation the precipitate exhibited dual behaviour, it was a more oxidised product than the precipitate obtained after 6 h of {gamma}-irradiation, but it contained magnetite particles in a more reduced form ({approx}Fe{sub 2.93}O{sub 4}). It was presumed that the reduction and oxidation processes existed as concurrent competitive processes in the microemulsion. After 18 h of {gamma}-irradiation the pH of the medium shifted from the alkaline to the acidic range. The high dose rate of {approx}22 kGy/h was directly responsible for this shift to the acidic range. At a slightly acidic pH a further reduction of Fe{sup 3+} {yields} Fe{sup 2+} resulted in the formation of more stoichiometric magnetite particles, whereas the oxidation conditions in the acidic medium permitted the oxidation Fe{sup 2+} {yields} Fe{sup 3+}. The Fe{sup 3+} was much less soluble in the acidic medium and it hydrolysed and recrystallised as goethite. The {gamma}-irradiation of the microemulsion for 25 h at a lower dose rate of 16 kGy/h produced pure substoichiometric nanosize magnetite particles of about 25 nm in size and with the stoichiometry of Fe{sub 2.83}O{sub 4}.

  6. Synthesis of functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and their masked precursors.

    PubMed

    Percec, V; Bera, T K; De, B B; Sanai, Y; Smith, J; Holerca, M N; Barboiu, B; Grubbs, R B; Fréchet, J M

    2001-03-23

    The synthesis of functional aromatic bis(sulfonyl chlorides) containing an acetophenone and two sulfonyl chloride groups, i.e., 3,5-bis[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyl]-1-acetophenone (16), 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl)-1-acetophenone (17), and 3,5-bis(4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyloxy)-1-acetophenone (18) via a sequence of reactions, involving in the last step the quantitative oxidative chlorination of S-(aryl)- N,N'-diethylthiocarbamate, alkyl- or benzyl thiophenyl groups as masked nonreactive precursors to sulfonyl chlorides is described. A related sequence of reactions was used for the synthesis of the aromatic trisulfonyl chloride 1,1,1-tris(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethane (24). 4-(Chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetic acid, 2,2-bis[[[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetyl]oxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediyl ester (27), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (38), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(chlorosulfonyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[6]arene (39), 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(chlorosulfonyl)-49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[8]arene (40), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(tert-butyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl phenoxyacetoxy)calix[4]arene (44), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(tert-butyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[6]arene (45), and 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(tert-butyl)-49,40,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[8]arene (46) were synthesized by two different multistep reaction procedures, the last step of both methods consisting of the chlorosulfonation of compounds containing suitable activated aromatic positions. 2,4,6-Tris(chlorosulfonyl)aniline (47) was obtained by the chlorosulfonation of aniline. The conformation of two series of multisulfonyl chlorides i.e., 38, 39, 40 and 44, 45, 46, was investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The masked nonreactive precursor states of the functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and the aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides reported here represent the main starting building blocks required in a new synthetic strategy elaborated for the preparation of dendritic and other complex organic molecules. PMID:11300908

  7. NASA Accident Precursor Analysis Handbook, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Everett, Chris; Hall, Anthony; Insley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic accidents are usually preceded by precursory events that, although observable, are not recognized as harbingers of a tragedy until after the fact. In the nuclear industry, the Three Mile Island accident was preceded by at least two events portending the potential for severe consequences from an underappreciated causal mechanism. Anomalies whose failure mechanisms were integral to the losses of Space Transportation Systems (STS) Challenger and Columbia had been occurring within the STS fleet prior to those accidents. Both the Rogers Commission Report and the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report found that processes in place at the time did not respond to the prior anomalies in a way that shed light on their true risk implications. This includes the concern that, in the words of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), "no process addresses the need to update a hazard analysis when anomalies occur" At a broader level, the ASAP noted in 2007 that NASA "could better gauge the likelihood of losses by developing leading indicators, rather than continue to depend on lagging indicators". These observations suggest a need to revalidate prior assumptions and conclusions of existing safety (and reliability) analyses, as well as to consider the potential for previously unrecognized accident scenarios, when unexpected or otherwise undesired behaviors of the system are observed. This need is also discussed in NASA's system safety handbook, which advocates a view of safety assurance as driving a program to take steps that are necessary to establish and maintain a valid and credible argument for the safety of its missions. It is the premise of this handbook that making cases for safety more experience-based allows NASA to be better informed about the safety performance of its systems, and will ultimately help it to manage safety in a more effective manner. The APA process described in this handbook provides a systematic means of analyzing candidate accident precursors by evaluating anomaly occurrences for their system safety implications and, through both analytical and deliberative methods used to project to other circumstances, identifying those that portend more serious consequences to come if effective corrective action is not taken. APA builds upon existing safety analysis processes currently in practice within NASA, leveraging their results to provide an improved understanding of overall system risk. As such, APA represents an important dimension of safety evaluation; as operational experience is acquired, precursor information is generated such that it can be fed back into system safety analyses to risk-inform safety improvements. Importantly, APA utilizes anomaly data to predict risk whereas standard reliability and PRA approaches utilize failure data which often is limited and rare.

  8. Formation of Golgi-derived active zone precursor vesicles.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Torres, Viviana I; Altrock, Wilko D; Leal-Ortiz, Sergio; Wagh, Dhananjay; Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan T; Fejtova, Anna; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Ziv, Noam E; Garner, Craig C

    2012-08-01

    Vesicular trafficking of presynaptic and postsynaptic components is emerging as a general cellular mechanism for the delivery of scaffold proteins, ion channels, and receptors to nascent and mature synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the selection of cargos and their differential transport to subneuronal compartments are not well understood, in part because of the mixing of cargos at the plasma membrane and/or within endosomal compartments. In the present study, we have explored the cellular mechanisms of active zone precursor vesicle assembly at the Golgi in dissociated hippocampal neurons of Rattus norvegicus. Our studies show that Piccolo, Bassoon, and ELKS2/CAST exit the trans-Golgi network on a common vesicle that requires Piccolo and Bassoon for its proper assembly. In contrast, Munc13 and synaptic vesicle proteins use distinct sets of Golgi-derived transport vesicles, while RIM1? associates with vesicular membranes in a post-Golgi compartment. Furthermore, Piccolo and Bassoon are necessary for ELKS2/CAST to leave the Golgi in association with vesicles, and a core domain of Bassoon is sufficient to facilitate formation of these vesicles. While these findings support emerging principles regarding active zone differentiation, the cellular and molecular analyses reported here also indicate that the Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicles leaving the Golgi may undergo further changes in protein composition before arriving at synaptic sites. PMID:22875941

  9. Preparation of zinc sulfide nanocrystallites from single-molecule precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palve, Anil M.; Garje, Shivram S.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc sulfide nanocrystallites were prepared using Zinc(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes of the types Zn(L) 2 and ZnCl 2(LH) 2 (where, LH=thiosemicarbazones of cinnamaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, indol-3-carboxaldehyde and thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde) as single source precursors by solvothermal decomposition in ethylene glycol and ethylene diamine in few cases. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Solvothermal decomposition in ethylene glycol resulted in the formation of hexagonal ZnS (JCPDS: 36-1450) as evident from the XRD patterns. However, XRD shows formation of hybrid material, ZnS 0.5EN in case of solvothermal decomposition in ethylenediamine. Infrared spectra authenticate the capping of ethylene glycol and ethylenediamine on ZnS and ZnS 0.5EN, respectively. TEM images showed formation of spherical nanoparticles for the materials obtained from ethylene glycol, whereas plate-like morphology is observed in case of materials obtained from ethylene diamine. The blue shift of absorption bands compared to bands of bulk materials in the UV-vis spectra supports the formation of smaller particles.

  10. Isolation, Characterization, and Aggregation of a Structured Bacterial Matrix Precursor*

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Liraz; Romero, Diego; Kayatekin, Can; Akabayov, Barak; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated groups of microbial cells that are embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is a network of biopolymers, mainly polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. ECM proteins serve a variety of structural roles and often form amyloid-like fibers. Despite the extensive study of the formation of amyloid fibers from their constituent subunits in humans, much less is known about the assembly of bacterial functional amyloid-like precursors into fibers. Using dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, and infrared spectroscopy, we show that our unique purification method of a Bacillus subtilis major matrix protein component results in stable oligomers that retain their native ?-helical structure. The stability of these oligomers enabled us to control the external conditions that triggered their aggregation. In particular, we show that stretched fibers are formed on a hydrophobic surface, whereas plaque-like aggregates are formed in solution under acidic pH conditions. TasA is also shown to change conformation upon aggregation and gain some ?-sheet structure. Our studies of the aggregation of a bacterial matrix protein from its subunits shed new light on assembly processes of the ECM within bacterial biofilms. PMID:23632024

  11. Gold-catalyzed cyclopropanation reactions using a carbenoid precursor toolbox.

    PubMed

    Qian, Deyun; Zhang, Junliang

    2015-02-01

    Homogeneous gold-catalyzed cyclopropanation has emerged as a powerful method in organic synthesis due to its rich chemistry and fascinating reactivity. This thriving strategy is remarkable for its mild conditions, good selectivity, and high efficiency, which provides complementarity and orthogonality to traditional metal-catalyzed cyclopropanation. This review summarizes recent advances in gold-catalyzed cyclopropanation divided by the type of carbenoid precursors. Besides the commonly used diazo compounds, current approaches enable readily available enynes, propargyl esters, cyclopropenes, cycloheptatrienes, alkynes, and sulfonium ylides as safer surrogates in the realm of gold carbenoid chemistry. Meanwhile, these reactions allow for the rapid building of molecular complexity including synthetically useful and intricate cyclic, heterocyclic, and polycyclic skeletons. The combination of the new reactivity of gold complexes with their capability to catalyze cyclopropanations may lead to myriad opportunities for the design of new reactions. Furthermore, the synthetic utilities of such superior methods have also been illustrated by the total syntheses of selected natural and biologically interesting products and the asymmetric formation of challenging target molecules. PMID:25522173

  12. Risk and return: evaluating Reverse Tracing of Precursors earthquake predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechar, J. Douglas; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-09-01

    In 2003, the Reverse Tracing of Precursors (RTP) algorithm attracted the attention of seismologists and international news agencies when researchers claimed two successful predictions of large earthquakes. These researchers had begun applying RTP to seismicity in Japan, California, the eastern Mediterranean and Italy; they have since applied it to seismicity in the northern Pacific, Oregon and Nevada. RTP is a pattern recognition algorithm that uses earthquake catalogue data to declare alarms, and these alarms indicate that RTP expects a moderate to large earthquake in the following months. The spatial extent of alarms is highly variable and each alarm typically lasts 9 months, although the algorithm may extend alarms in time and space. We examined the record of alarms and outcomes since the prospective application of RTP began, and in this paper we report on the performance of RTP to date. To analyse these predictions, we used a recently developed approach based on a gambling score, and we used a simple reference model to estimate the prior probability of target earthquakes for each alarm. Formally, we believe that RTP investigators did not rigorously specify the first two `successful' predictions in advance of the relevant earthquakes; because this issue is contentious, we consider analyses with and without these alarms. When we included contentious alarms, RTP predictions demonstrate statistically significant skill. Under a stricter interpretation, the predictions are marginally unsuccessful.

  13. THE EFFECT OF A COSMIC RAY PRECURSOR IN SN 1006?

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cara E.; Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Hughes, John P.; Ghavamian, Parviz

    2011-07-01

    Like many young supernova remnants, SN 1006 exhibits what appear to be clumps of ejecta close to or protruding beyond the main blast wave. In this Letter, we examine three such protrusions along the east rim. They are semi-aligned with ejecta fingers behind the shock-front and exhibit emission lines from O VII and O VIII. We first interpret them in the context of an upstream medium modified by the saturated non-resonant Bell instability which enhances the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities when advected post-shock. We discuss their apparent periodicity if the spacing is determined by properties of the remnant or by a preferred size scale in the cosmic ray precursor. We also briefly discuss the alternative that these structures have an origin in the ejecta structure of the explosion itself. In this case, the young evolutionary age of SN 1006 would imply density structure within the outermost layers of the explosion with potentially important implications for deflagration and detonation in thermonuclear supernova explosion models.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of homogeneous precursors to atmospheric acids and aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, K.R.; Canagaratna, M.; Phillips, J.A.; Goodfriend, H.

    1996-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the nucleation and growth of atmospheric particulates is benefitted by precise knowledge of the structure and energetics of small molecular aggregates. We present the results of microwave spectroscopic characterization of three binary clusters which are potential precursors in such processes: H{sub 2}O-SO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}N-SO{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O-HNO{sub 3}. In addition to providing detailed structural information, we describe the nature of the bonding in these systems. For the SO{sub 3} complexes, the intermolecular interaction is weaker than a chemical bond, but stronger than a van der Waals bond. We discuss how this feature of these systems renders their structure and energetics unusually sensitive to the presence of additional binding partners, and infer that an accurate molecular-level description of cluster growth will need to account for this effect. The results are compared with published high level ab initio calculations for all three systems.

  15. Pathways to adulthood and their precursors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Skogbrott Birkeland, Marianne; Leversen, Ingrid; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2014-02-01

    Norway has an extensive welfare system which may provide adolescents with many options and high levels of flexibility in terms of pathways to adulthood. This study aimed to describe Norwegian developmental pathways to adulthood, including changes in role statuses (such as living situations, education, work, marriage/cohabitation and parenthood) from 16 to 30 years of age, and their precursors and outcomes. Repeated measures latent class analysis of longitudinal data from 998 Norwegian individuals indicated three main pathways to adulthood among women and men. In both sexes, most individuals undertook a long period of education and postponed family formation. However, some individuals started working early, a group of women established families with partners and children early, and a group of men remained primarily single between 16 and 30 years of age. Furthermore, the results show that pathways to adulthood in Norway are surprisingly similar to pathways in other countries such as the US, UK and Finland. The results indicate that pathways to adulthood are influenced by social reproduction factors in a country with high levels of welfare benefits as well. In addition, the results suggest that pathways involving living with a partner and either higher education or work are associated with high life satisfaction at age 30. PMID:24236443

  16. [Utilization of melanin precursors for experimental chemotherapy of malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Jimbow, K; Miura, S; Ito, Y; Kasuga, T; Ito, S

    1984-10-01

    Melanin synthesis is a metabolic pathway unique and specific to melanocytes. It occurs by conversion of tyrosine to dopa and dopaquinone in the presence of tyrosinase. It is highly accelerated in malignant melanoma with a marked increase of tyrosinase activity. This study summarizes the recent progress in experimental chemotherapeutic approaches to malignant melanoma by utilizing melanin precursors, and presents our current results. Our studies indicated (a) that hydroquinone and 4-isopropylcatechol are selectively toxic to melanocytes and melanoma cells, (b) that their actions are mediated through tyrosinase, and (c) that dopa is selectively and highly incorporated into melanoma cells and melanocytes depending on the tyrosinase activity. In addition, our new compounds, i.e., 4-S-cysteinylphenol and 4-S-cysteaminylphenol were highly toxic to melanoma cells, increasing the life span of B16 melanoma bearing mice and decreasing melanoma growth in C57 BL mice. Other synthetic compounds, e.g., cysteinylcatechols and their devivatives, were, however, not toxic to melanoma cells. 4-S-cysteinylphenol and 4-S-cysteaminylphenol appeared to exert their cytotoxicity through the action of tyrosinase present in melanoma cells, thus providing a kind of "guided missile" approach to melanoma chemotherapy. PMID:6435538

  17. Functional Integration of Human Neural Precursor Cells in Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Fortin, Jeff M.; Chen, Huan-Xin; Martinez-Diaz, Hildabelis; Chang, Lung-Ji; Reynolds, Brent A.; Roper, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the electrophysiological properties and functional integration of different phenotypes of transplanted human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) in immunodeficient NSG mice. Postnatal day 2 mice received unilateral injections of 100,000 GFP+ hNPCs into the right parietal cortex. Eight weeks after transplantation, 1.21% of transplanted hNPCs survived. In these hNPCs, parvalbumin (PV)-, calretinin (CR)-, somatostatin (SS)-positive inhibitory interneurons and excitatory pyramidal neurons were confirmed electrophysiologically and histologically. All GFP+ hNPCs were immunoreactive with anti-human specific nuclear protein. The proportions of PV-, CR-, and SS-positive cells among GFP+ cells were 35.5%, 15.7%, and 17.1%, respectively; around 15% of GFP+ cells were identified as pyramidal neurons. Those electrophysiologically and histological identified GFP+ hNPCs were shown to fire action potentials with the appropriate firing patterns for different classes of neurons and to display spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs). The amplitude, frequency and kinetic properties of sEPSCs and sIPSCs in different types of hNPCs were comparable to host cells of the same type. In conclusion, GFP+ hNPCs produce neurons that are competent to integrate functionally into host neocortical neuronal networks. This provides promising data on the potential for hNPCs to serve as therapeutic agents in neurological diseases with abnormal neuronal circuitry such as epilepsy. PMID:25763840

  18. Glass precursor approach to high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    The available studies on the synthesis of high T sub c superconductors (HTS) via the glass precursor approach were reviewed. Melts of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system as well as those doped with oxides of some other elements (Pb, Al, V, Te, Nb, etc.) could be quenched into glasses which, on further heat treatments under appropriate conditions, crystallized into the superconducting phase(s). The nature of the HTS phase(s) formed depends on the annealing temperature, time, atmosphere, and the cooling rate and also on the glass composition. Long term annealing was needed to obtain a large fraction of the 110 K phase. The high T sub c phase did not crystallize out directly from the glass matrix, but was preceded by the precipitation of other phases. The 110 K HTS was produced at high temperatures by reaction between the phases formed at lower temperatures resulting in multiphase material. The presence of a glass former such as B2O3 was necessary for the Y-Ba-Cu-O melt to form a glass on fast cooling. A discontinuous YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) HTS phase crystallized out on heat treatment of this glass. Attempts to prepare Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O system in the glassy state were not successful.

  19. Neurotrophic effects of amyloid precursor protein peptide 165 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jie; Ma, Lina; Wang, Rong; Sheng, Shuli; Ji, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Our previous findings indicated that animals with diabetic encephalopathy exhibit learning and memory impairment in addition to hippocampal neurodegeneration, both of which are ameliorated with amyloid precursor protein (APP) 17-mer (APP17) peptide treatment. Although APP17 is neuroprotective, it is susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Derived from the active sequence structure of APP17, we have previously structurally transformed and modified several APP5-mer peptides (APP328-332 [RERMS], APP 5). We have developed seven different derivatives of APP5, including several analogs. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in the present study showed that P165 was the most neuroprotective APP5 derivative. Furthermore, we tested the effects of APP5 and P165 on the number of cells and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Western immunoblot analyses were also performed. The digestion rates of P165 and APP5 were determined by the pepsin digestion test. P165 resisted pepsin digestion significantly more than APP5. Therefore, P165 may be optimal for oral administration. Overall, these findings suggest that P165 may be a potential drug for the treatment of diabetic encephalopathy. PMID:26551064

  20. Amyloid precursor protein increases cortical neuron size in transgenic mice?

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Esther S.; Savonenko, Alena V.; King, Julie F.; Fangmark Tucker, Stina M.; Rudow, Gay L.; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is the source of ?-amyloid, a pivotal peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study examines the possible effect of APP transgene expression on neuronal size by measuring the volumes of cortical neurons (?m3) in transgenic mouse models with familial AD Swedish mutation (APPswe), with or without mutated presenilin1 (PS1dE9), as well as in mice carrying wild-type APP (APPwt). Overexpression of APPswe and APPwt protein, but not of PS1dE9 alone, resulted in a greater percentage of medium-sized neurons and a proportionate decrease in the percentage of small-sized neurons. Our observations indicate that the overexpression of mutant (APPswe) or wild-type APP in transgenic mice is necessary and sufficient for hypertrophy of cortical neurons. This is highly suggestive of a neurotrophic effect and also raises the possibility that the lack of neuronal loss in transgenic mouse models of AD may be attributed to overexpression of APP. PMID:18304698

  1. Preparation of cuxinygazsen precursor films and powders by electroless deposition

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Batchelor, Wendi Kay (Lakewood, CO); Wiesner, Holm (Golden, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Golden, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A method for electroless deposition of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) precursor films and powders onto a metallic substrate comprising: preparing an aqueous bath solution of compounds selected from the group consisting of: I) a copper compound, a selenium compound, an indium compound and gallium compound; II) a copper compound, a selenium compound and an indium compound; III) a selenium compound, and indium compound and a gallium compound; IV) a selenium compound and a indium compound; and V) a copper compound and selenium compound; each compound being present in sufficient quantity to react with each other to produce Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3); adjusting the pH of the aqueous bath solution to an acidic value by the addition of a dilute acid; and initiating an electroless reaction with an oxidizing counterelectrode for a sufficient time to cause a deposit of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) from the aqueous bath solution onto a metallic substrate.

  2. Neurotransmitter-precursor-supplement intervention for detoxified heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dingyan; Liu, Yan; He, Wulong; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Zengzhen

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effects of combined administration of tyrosine, lecithin, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on heroin withdrawal syndromes and mental symptoms in detoxified heroin addicts. In the cluster-randomized placebo-controlled trial, 83 detoxified heroin addicts were recruited from a detoxification treatment center in Wuhan, China. Patients in the intervention group (n=41) were given the combined treatment with tyrosine, lecithin, L-glutamine and 5-HTP and those in the control group (n=42) were administered the placebo. The sleep status and the withdrawal symptoms were observed daily throughout the study, and the mood states were monitored pre- and post-intervention. The results showed that the insomnia and withdrawal scores were significantly improved over time in participants in the intervention group as compared with those in the control group. A greater reduction in tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia and total mood disturbance, and a greater increase in their vigor-activity symptoms were found at day 6 in the intervention group than in the control group (all P<0.05). It was concluded that the neurotransmitter-precursor-supplement intervention is effective in alleviating the withdrawal and mood symptoms and it may become a supplementary method for patients' recovery from heroin addiction. PMID:22684569

  3. Seismic event classification and precursor identification at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, K. A.; Waite, G. P.; Rodriguez, K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the nature and origins of seismic signals generated by volcanic activity can greatly aid in hazard mitigation efforts. Systematic identification and detailed cataloging of explosive events provide a first step for this understanding, and can be even more valuable when the events span longer time periods. Beyond simply being a more useful monitoring tool, the detailed classification of events can illuminate the processes behind different conduit flow phenomena such as rheological sealing or piston-style chugging. Fuego volcano, Guatemala, is a basaltic-andesite stratovolcano that has been continually active since 1999. Activity is characterized by small-scale explosive eruptions and intermittent lava flows. In this study, we categorize different events recorded with a 10 station temporary seismic array at Fuego volcano in Guatemala in January 2012 that included infrasound and tilt sensors. Waveform analysis, along with visual and thermal characteristics captured by cameras allow us to identify precursory activity in different bandwidths that precedes some of the event types. We investigate the physical mechanisms behind these precursors to explain why some event types exhibit them while others may not, and how these mechanisms influence our conceptual models of explosion dynamics at Fuego. Finally, we compare events recorded in 2012 with other studies conducted at Fuego volcano in previous years to identify changes in the signal characteristics and their potential influences on activity styles observed during different field campaigns to highlight the importance of longitudinal studies at persistently active volcanic systems.

  4. Alterations in hippocampal myelin and oligodendrocyte precursor cells during epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Hu, Qiao; Zhang, Qian; Hong, Siqi; Tang, Xiaoju; Cheng, Li; Jiang, Li

    2015-11-19

    Recent reports have described damage to myelinated fibers in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and animal models. However, only limited data are available on the dynamic changes that occur in myelinated fibers, oligodendrocytes (which are myelin-forming cells), and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which are a reservoir of new oligodendrocytes, in the hippocampus throughout epileptogenesis. The current study was designed to examine this issue using a rat model of lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Electroencephalography (EEG), immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis showed that the loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes in the rat hippocampus began during the acute stage of epileptogenesis, and the severity of this loss increased throughout epileptogenesis. Accompanying this loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes, OPCs in the rat hippocampus became activated and their populations increased during several phases of epileptogenesis (the acute, latent and chronic phases). The transcription factors olig1 and olig2, which play crucial roles in regulating OPC proliferation, differentiation and remyelination, were up-regulated during the early phases (the acute and latent phases) followed by a sharp decline in their expression during the chronic and late chronic phases. This study is the first to confirm the loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes during lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis accompanied by a transient increase in the number of OPCs. Prevention of the loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes may provide a novel treatment strategy for epilepsy. PMID:26433043

  5. Amyloid precursor protein processing is stimulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R K; Wurtman, R J; Cox, A J; Nitsch, R M

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of muscarinic m1 or m3 receptors can, by generating diacylglycerol and activating protein kinase C, accelerate the breakdown of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form soluble, nonamyloidogenic derivatives (APPs), as previously shown. This relationship has been demonstrated in human glioma and neuroblastoma cells, as well as in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and PC-12 cells. We now provide evidence that stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which also are coupled to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis, similarly accelerates processing of APP into nonamyloidogenic APPs. This process is demonstrated both in hippocampal neurons derived from fetal rats and in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with cDNA expression constructs encoding the mGluR 1 alpha subtype. In hippocampal neurons, both an mGluR antagonist, L-(+)-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid, and an inhibitor of protein kinase C, GF 109203X, blocked the APPs release evoked by glutamate receptor stimulation. Ionotropic glutamate agonists, N-methyl-D-aspartate or S(-)-5-fluorowillardiine, failed to affect APPs release. These data show that selective mGluR agonists that initiate signal-transduction events can regulate APP processing in bona fide primary neurons and transfected cells. As glutamatergic neurons in the cortex and hippocampus are damaged in Alzheimer disease, amyloid production in these regions may be enhanced by deficits in glutamatergic neurotransmission. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7644542

  6. Lu2O3-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings for Environmental Barrier Application by Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying and Influence of Precursor Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darthout, Émilien; Quet, Aurélie; Braidy, Nadi; Gitzhofer, François

    2014-02-01

    As environmental barrier coatings are subjected to thermal stress in gas turbine engines, the introduction of a secondary phase as zircon (ZrSiO4) is likely to increase the stress resistance of Lu2Si2O7 coatings generated by induction plasma spraying using liquid precursors. In a first step, precursor chemistry effect is investigated by the synthesis of ZrO2-SiO2 nanopowders by induction plasma nanopowder synthesis technique. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon precursor and zirconium oxynitrate and zirconium ethoxide as zirconium precursors are mixed in ethanol and produce a mixture of tetragonal zirconia and amorphous silica nanoparticles. The use of zirconium ethoxide precursor results in zirconia particles with diameter below 50 nm because of exothermic thermal decomposition of the ethoxide and its high boiling point with respect to solvent, while larger particles are formed when zirconium oxynitrate is employed. The formation temperature of zircon from zirconia and silica oxides is found at 1425 °C. Second, coatings are synthesized in Lu2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 system. After heat treatment, the doping effect of lutetium on zirconia grains totally inhibits the zircon formation. Dense coatings are obtained with the use of zirconium ethoxide because denser particles with a homogeneous diameter distribution constitute the coating.

  7. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children

    PubMed Central

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production. PMID:26347687

  8. Oligogermanes as molecular precursors for germanium(0) nanoparticles: Size control and size-dependent fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Schrick, Aaron C.; Weinert, Charles S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Catenated germanium compounds are employed as molecular precursors for germanium(0) nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles, and their fluorescence spectra, depend on the number of catenated germanium atoms present in the precursor. - Highlights: • We have used oligogermanes for the size-specific synthesis of germanium(0) nanoparticles. • The size of the nanomaterials obtained depends directly on the degree of catenation present in the oligogermane precursor. • The nanoparticles are shown to exhibit size-dependent fluorescence. • Oligogermanes will function as useful precursors for the synthesis of a variety of nanomaterials. - Abstract: Germanium nanoparticles were synthesized in solution from novel oligogermane molecular precursors. The size of the nanoparticles obtained is directly related to the number of catenated germanium atoms present in the oligogermane precursor and the nanoparticles exhibit size-dependent fluorescence. The germanium nanoparticles were also characterized by TEM, powder XRD, FTIR, EDS and XPS methods. This method appears to be a promising new route for the synthesis of germanium nanoparticles since the size of the materials obtained can be controlled by the choice of the oligogermane used as the precursor.

  9. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 22: Appendix I

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1.

  10. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children.

    PubMed

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production. PMID:26347687

  11. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1997 -- A status report. Volume 26

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Muhlheim, M.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the five operational events in 1997 that affected five commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1997 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those events that could be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1996 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  12. A precursor approach to the synthesis and fabrication of conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jia

    Poly(terthiophene) nanostructures consisting of periodic nanolines were prepared using the precursor polymer approach in conjunction with nanoimprint lithography. Precursor poly(norbornylene)s consisting of terthiophene side chains were prepared from their corresponding norbornylene monomers via ring opening metathesis polymerization. A copolymer consisting of terthiophene norbornylene and acetate norbornylene repeat units with a 50:50 composition exhibited a glass transition temperature of 52°C. Nanolines of percursor polynorbornylene were prepared by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The nanoimprinted precursor polymer was then converted to conjugated conductive polymer via chemical and electrochemical oxidation of the terthiophene side units. Nanoimprinted lines of conductive poly(terthiophene) exhibited high electrochromic contrast at 437 nm. Poly(arylenesilylene)s showed the promising aspects as a precursor polymer to form conducting polymers via oxidative electrochemical or chemical desilylation. Poly(arylenesilylene)s can be prepared in one pot reaction and their physical properties can be tuned by introducing different silane derivatives. Poly[(2,2'-bithienylene)dimethylsilylene] was prepared by coupling reaction between dilithiated 2,2'-bithiophene and dichlorodimethylsilane. Conversion of the precursor polymer to poly(bithiophene) was carried out via solid state electrochemical oxidation and confirmed by optical and electrochemical analyses. As a demonstration, poly[(2,2'-bithienylene)dimethylsilylene] was melt drawn into a fiber and converted to the poly(bithiophene) via solid state oxidative electrochemical conversion. Solution processable poly(arylenesilylene)s were prepared by introducing silanes having longer alkyl groups than methyl groups. Nanofibers of precursor polymers were obtained from precursor polymer solutions via electrospinning. The formation of poly(bithiophene) fibers via the solid-state oxidative conversion of electrospun precursor poly(bithienylenesilylene) nanofibers was confirmed electrochemically. The conductive polymer nanofiber mat obtained from the precursor polymer showed the similar electrochromic functionality to that of poly(bithiophene).

  13. Electron heating, magnetic field amplification, and cosmic-ray precursor length at supernova remnant shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una; Ghavamian, Parviz; Rakowski, Cara E-mail: Una.Hwang-1@nasa.gov

    2014-07-20

    We investigate the observability, by direct and indirect means, of a shock precursor arising from magnetic field amplification by cosmic rays. We estimate the depth of such a precursor under conditions of nonresonant amplification, which can provide magnetic field strengths comparable to those inferred for supernova remnants. Magnetic field generation occurs as the streaming cosmic rays induce a plasma return current, and it may be quenched by either nonresonant or resonant channels. In the case of nonresonant saturation, the cosmic rays become magnetized and amplification saturates at higher magnetic fields. The precursor can extend out to 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} cm and is potentially detectable. If resonant saturation occurs, the cosmic rays are scattered by turbulence and the precursor length will likely be much smaller. The dependence of precursor length on shock velocity has implications for electron heating. In the case of resonant saturation, this dependence is similar to that in the more familiar resonantly generated shock precursor, which when expressed in terms of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient kappav and shock velocity v{sub s} is kappav/v{sub s} . In the nonresonantly saturated case, the precursor length declines less quickly with increasing v{sub s} . Where precursor length proportional to 1/v{sub s} gives constant electron heating, this increased precursor length could be expected to lead to higher electron temperatures for nonresonant amplification. This should be expected at faster supernova remnant shocks than studied by previous works. Existing results and new data analysis of SN 1006 and Cas A suggest some observational support for this idea.

  14. Development of a Model for High Precursor Conversion Efficiency Pulsed-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (PP-CVD) Processing

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    1 Development of a Model for High Precursor Conversion Efficiency Pulsed- Pressure Chemical Vapor. ___________________________________________________________________________ Abstract A model of the movement of precursor particles in the unsteady Pulsed-Pressure Chemical Vapour and moderate reactor peak pressure. Keywords: Pulsed pressure chemical vapour deposition (PP-CVD), Precursor

  15. Precursors with Metal-Nitrogen Bonds for ALD of Metals, Nitrides and Oxides Gordon@chemistry.harvard.edu

    E-print Network

    Precursors with Metal-Nitrogen Bonds for ALD of Metals, Nitrides and Oxides Roy Gordon Gordon@chemistry.harvard.edu Harvard University, Cambridge, MA Abstract To achieve ALD's unique characteristics, ALD precursors must or the substrates. Precursors with metal-nitrogen bonds have been found to be particularly effective for ALD

  16. Effects of different chloride precursors on crystal growth of lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Vigneshwaran; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S.; Toyoda, Taro; Shen, Qing; Hayase, Shuzi

    2015-12-01

    The optimized quantity and nature of a chloride precursor used for the formation of large perovskite crystals with minimal disorder were explored. The effect of the alkyl chain length of an alkyl ammonium chloride precursor on the crystal growth of CH3NH3PbI3 was systematically investigated. It was found that the addition of ethyl ammonium chloride (EACl) increased the crystal size, which is almost twice (88 nm) the size of standard perovskite crystals (47 nm) having a preferential orientation towards the (110) plane. Photoacoustic studies demonstrated that the disorder in the perovskite crystals was highly reduced by the addition of the EACl precursor.

  17. Alteration of synaptic connectivity of oligodendrocyte precursor cells following demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Sahel, Aurélia; Ortiz, Fernando C.; Kerninon, Christophe; Maldonado, Paloma P.; Angulo, María Cecilia; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are a major source of remyelinating oligodendrocytes in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). While OPCs are innervated by unmyelinated axons in the normal brain, the fate of such synaptic contacts after demyelination is still unclear. By combining electrophysiology and immunostainings in different transgenic mice expressing fluorescent reporters, we studied the synaptic innervation of OPCs in the model of lysolecithin (LPC)-induced demyelination of corpus callosum. Synaptic innervation of reactivated OPCs in the lesion was revealed by the presence of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in 3D confocal reconstructions and synaptic junctions observed by electron microscopy. Moreover, 3D confocal reconstructions of VGluT1 and NG2 immunolabeling showed the existence of glutamatergic axon-OPC contacts in post-mortem MS lesions. Interestingly, patch-clamp recordings in LPC-induced lesions demonstrated a drastic decrease in spontaneous synaptic activity of OPCs early after demyelination that was not caused by an impaired conduction of compound action potentials. A reduction in synaptic connectivity was confirmed by the lack of VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in virtually all rapidly proliferating OPCs stained with EdU (50-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine). At the end of the massive proliferation phase in lesions, the proportion of innervated OPCs rapidly recovers, although the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents did not reach control levels. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that newly-generated OPCs do not receive synaptic inputs during their active proliferation after demyelination, but gain synapses during the remyelination process. Hence, glutamatergic synaptic inputs may contribute to inhibit OPC proliferation and might have a physiopathological relevance in demyelinating disorders. PMID:25852473

  18. Isolation of a large cholecystokinin precursor from canine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Eysselein, V E; Reeve, J R; Shively, J E; Miller, C; Walsh, J H

    1984-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) in a pool of 12 dog brains was extracted sequentially into boiling water and cold 2% trifluoroacetic acid. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 revealed three main molecular forms detected by a carboxyl-terminal antibody; one was eluted in the position of CCK-58 (58 amino acid residues long); a second, in the position of CCK-8; and a third, near the radioactive iodide marker. When the CCK-LI was purified by affinity chromatography using carboxyl-terminal CCK antibody followed by three steps of reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, three components were isolated and characterized by sequence microanalysis. The smallest component was the pentapeptide common to gastrin and CCK. The second peak was eluted in the same region as synthetic CCK octapeptide, and sequence analysis showed that the chemical structure of this biologically active region of canine CCK is identical to that found in sheep and pig brains. The 22-residue amino-terminal sequence of brain CCK-58 was: Ala-Val-Gln-Lys-Val-Asp-Gly-Glu-Pro-Arg-Ala-His-Leu-Gly -Ala-Leu-leu-Ala-Arg-Tyr-Ile-Gln-, the same as the sequence found for canine intestinal CCK-58 from this pool of dogs. This is the same sequence others have reported for porcine brain CCK-58 lacking nine amino acid residues (CCK-58 desnonapeptide) except that the porcine peptide had a serine in position 9. The canine CCK amino-terminal sequence differed from the sequence Ala-Gln-Lys-Val-Asn-Ser previously reported for intestinal CCK-58 purified from another pool of dog tissue, but the rest of the residues identified were identical in the two peptides. CCK-58 may be a molecular precursor of the smaller forms of CCK in brain as well as in gut. PMID:6093106

  19. Outer Segment Formation of Transplanted Photoreceptor Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Dominic; Kurth, Thomas; Santos-Ferreira, Tiago; Wilson, John; Corbeil, Denis; Ader, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) into the retina represents a promising treatment for cell replacement in blinding diseases characterized by photoreceptor loss. In preclinical studies, we and others demonstrated that grafted PPCs integrate into the host outer nuclear layer (ONL) and develop into mature photoreceptors. However, a key feature of light detecting photoreceptors, the outer segment (OS) with natively aligned disc membrane staples, has not been studied in detail following transplantation. Therefore, we used as donor cells PPCs isolated from neonatal double transgenic reporter mice in which OSs are selectively labeled by green fluorescent protein while cell bodies are highlighted by red fluorescent protein. PPCs were enriched using CD73-based magnetic associated cell sorting and subsequently transplanted into either adult wild-type or a model of autosomal-dominant retinal degeneration mice. Three weeks post-transplantation, donor photoreceptors were identified based on fluorescent-reporter expression and OS formation was monitored at light and electron microscopy levels. Donor cells that properly integrated into the host wild-type retina developed OSs with the formation of a connecting cilium and well-aligned disc membrane staples similar to the surrounding native cells of the host. Surprisingly, the majority of not-integrated PPCs that remained in the sub-retinal space also generated native-like OSs in wild-type mice and those affected by retinal degeneration. Moreover, they showed an improved photoreceptor maturation and OS formation by comparison to donor cells located on the vitreous side suggesting that environmental cues influence the PPC differentiation and maturation. We conclude that transplanted PPCs, whether integrated or not into the host ONL, are able to generate the cellular structure for effective light detection, a phenomenon observed in wild-type as well as in degenerated retinas. Given that patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa lose almost all photoreceptors, our findings are of utmost importance for the development of cell-based therapies. PMID:23029471

  20. Effects of Sleep and Wake on Oligodendrocytes and Their Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Bellesi, Michele; Pfister-Genskow, Martha; Maret, Stephanie; Keles, Sunduz; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of differential gene expression in sleep and wake pooled transcripts from all brain cells and showed that several genes expressed at higher levels during sleep are involved in the synthesis/maintenance of membranes in general and of myelin in particular, a surprising finding given the reported slow turnover of many myelin components. Other studies showed that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are responsible for the formation of new myelin in both the injured and the normal adult brain, and that glutamate released from neurons, via neuron–OPC synapses, can inhibit OPC proliferation and affect their differentiation into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Because glutamatergic transmission is higher in wake than in sleep, we asked whether sleep and wake can affect oligodendrocytes and OPCs. Using the translating ribosome affinity purification technology combined with microarray analysis in mice, we obtained a genome-wide profiling of oligodendrocytes after sleep, spontaneous wake, and forced wake (acute sleep deprivation). We found that hundreds of transcripts being translated in oligodendrocytes are differentially expressed in sleep and wake: genes involved in phospholipid synthesis and myelination or promoting OPC proliferation are transcribed preferentially during sleep, while genes implicated in apoptosis, cellular stress response, and OPC differentiation are enriched in wake. We then confirmed through BrdU and other experiments that OPC proliferation doubles during sleep and positively correlates with time spent in REM sleep, whereas OPC differentiation is higher during wake. Thus, OPC proliferation and differentiation are not perfectly matched at any given circadian time but preferentially occur during sleep and wake, respectively. PMID:24005282

  1. Is Monoglucosyldiacylglycerol a Precursor to Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in All Cyanobacteria?

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is ubiquitous in the photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. It is synthesized by galactosylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) in the chloroplasts, whereas it is produced by epimerization of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (GlcDG) in at least several cyanobacteria that have been analyzed such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A previous study, however, showed that the mgdE gene encoding the epimerase is absent in some cyanobacteria such as Gloeobacter violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Acaryochloris marina. In addition, the N-terminal 'fatty acid hydroxylase' domain is lacking in the MgdE protein of Prochlorococcus marinus. These problems may cast doubt upon the general (or exclusive) role of MgdE in the epimerization of GlcDG to MGDG in cyanobacteria. In addition, GlcDG is usually present at a very low level, and the structural determination of endogenous GlcDG has not been accomplished with cyanobacterial samples. In this study, I determined the structure of GlcDG from Anabaena variabilis by (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. I then showed that G. violaceus, T. elongatus, A. marina and P. marinus contain GlcDG. In all cases, GlcDG consisted of fewer unsaturated molecular species than MGDG, providing further evidence that GlcDG is a precursor to MGDG. The conversion of GlcDG to MGDG was also demonstrated by radiolabeling and chase experiments in G. violaceus and P. marinus. These results demonstrate that all the analyzed cyanobacteria contain GlcDG, which is converted to MGDG, and suggest that an alternative epimerase is required for MGDG synthesis in these cyanobacteria. PMID:26276824

  2. Precursors of Hypertensive Heart Phenotype Develop in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Marvao, Antonio; Dawes, Timothy J.W.; Shi, Wenzhe; Durighel, Giuliana; Rueckert, Daniel; Cook, Stuart A.; O’Regan, Declan P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study used high-resolution 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance to define the anatomical and functional left ventricular (LV) properties associated with increasing systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a drug-naïve cohort. Background LV hypertrophy and remodeling occur in response to hemodynamic stress but little is known about how these phenotypic changes are initiated in the general population. Methods In this study, 1,258 volunteers (54% women, mean age 40.6 ± 12.8 years) without self-reported cardiovascular disease underwent 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance combined with computational modeling. The relationship between SBP and wall thickness (WT), relative WT, end-systolic wall stress (WS), and fractional wall thickening were analyzed using 3-dimensional regression models adjusted for body surface area, sex, race, age, and multiple testing. Significantly associated points in the LV model (p < 0.05) were identified and the relationship with SBP reported as mean ? coefficients. Results There was a continuous relationship between SBP and asymmetric concentric hypertrophic adaptation of the septum and anterior wall that was associated with normalization of wall stress. In the lateral wall an increase in wall stress with rising SBP was not balanced by a commensurate hypertrophic relationship. In normotensives, SBP was positively associated with WT (? = 0.09) and relative WT (? = 0.07) in the septal and anterior walls, and this regional hypertrophic relationship was progressively stronger among pre-hypertensives (? = 0.10) and hypertensives (? = 0.30). Conclusions These findings show that the precursors of the hypertensive heart phenotype can be traced to healthy normotensive adults and that an independent and continuous relationship exists between adverse LV remodeling and SBP in a low-risk population. These adaptations show distinct regional variations with concentric hypertrophy of the septum and eccentric hypertrophy of the lateral wall, which challenge conventional classifications of LV remodeling. PMID:26476505

  3. Multiple Biopsies and Detection of Cervical Cancer Precursors at Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Walker, Joan L.; Gold, Michael A.; Smith, Katie M.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Mathews, Cara; Dunn, S. Terence; Zhang, Roy; Moxley, Katherine; Bishop, Erin; Tenney, Meaghan; Nugent, Elizabeth; Graubard, Barry I.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results are referred to colposcopy and biopsy for diagnosis of cervical cancer precursors (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSILs]). Colposcopy with a single biopsy can miss identification of HSILs. No systematic study has quantified the improved detection of HSIL by taking multiple lesion-directed biopsies. Methods The Biopsy Study was an observational study of 690 women referred to colposcopy after abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Up to four directed biopsies were taken from distinct acetowhite lesions and ranked by colposcopic impression. A nondirected biopsy of a normal-appearing area was added if fewer than four directed biopsies were taken. HSIL identified by any biopsy was the reference standard of disease used to evaluate the incremental yield and sensitivity of multiple biopsies. Results In the overall population, sensitivities for detecting HSIL increased from 60.6% (95% CI, 54.8% to 66.6%) from a single biopsy to 85.6% (95% CI, 80.3% to 90.2%) after two biopsies and to 95.6% (95% CI, 91.3% to 99.2%) after three biopsies. A significant increase in sensitivity of multiple biopsies was observed in all subgroups. The highest increase in yield of HSIL was observed for women with a high-grade colposcopic impression, HSIL cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 positivity. Only 2% of all HSILs diagnosed in the participants were detected by biopsies of normal-appearing transformation zone. Conclusion Collection of additional lesion-directed biopsies during colposcopy increased detection of histologic HSIL, regardless of patient characteristics. Taking additional biopsies when multiple lesions are present should become the standard practice of colposcopic biopsy. PMID:25422481

  4. Solar cheilosis: an ominous precursor: part I. Diagnostic insights.

    PubMed

    Jadotte, Yuri T; Schwartz, Robert A

    2012-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lower lip is a deadly nonmelanoma skin cancer. Its precursor, a distinctive cutaneous neoplasia analogous to cervical dysplasia, is known by the confusing term actinic cheilitis. Solar cheilosis (SC) is a more appropriate designation. It represents incipient SCC in situ. SC is widely recognized as an ultraviolet light-induced precancer of the lower lip that is typically seen in light-skinned individuals and others with poorly pigmented lower lips. Lip SCC is one of the most common malignancies of the oral cavity. SCC is much more likely to metastasize from the lip than cutaneous surfaces, with a 5-year overall survival rate of less than 75%. SC results from long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The occurrence of SC is dose-dependent and is influenced by the patient's solar exposure, age, genetic predisposition, geographic latitude of residence, occupation, leisure activities, and use of lip protective agents. Molecular abnormalities of SC are similar to those of actinic keratosis and facilitate the evolution to SCC. A high degree of clinical suspicion should be maintained, given the malignant nature of this condition. Ulceration and nodularity often indicate progression to SCC. We performed a Medline and Google Scholar search for all articles related to actinic cheilitis, actinic cheilosis, SC, actinic keratosis, solar keratosis, premalignant oral disease, and lip SCC, and have also evaluated many other articles and book chapters. One hundred forty-two peer-reviewed articles were identified as being of particular value. Pertinent facts were selected and analyzed. PMID:22243721

  5. Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

    2012-03-19

    Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

  6. Actin-dependent dynamics of keratin filament precursors.

    PubMed

    Kölsch, Anne; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf E

    2009-11-01

    Actin filament and microtubule growth characteristics are defined by their different plus and minus ends. In contrast, intermediate filaments lack this type of polarity. Yet, intermediate filament network growth occurs by selective addition of newly formed and polymerizing keratin particles at peripheral network domains thereby allowing polarized network reorganization. To examine this process at high resolution in living cells, mammary epithelium-derived, immortalized EpH4-cells were infected with retroviral cDNA constructs coding for human keratin 18-fluorescent protein hybrids. Several stable cell lines were established presenting characteristic fluorescent keratin filament (KF) networks. These cells contain particularly large and abundant lamellipodia in which nascent keratin particle dynamics are easily detected by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. These keratin particles originate close to the plasma membrane, translocate continuously toward the cell center, and integrate end-on into the peripheral KF network. We show that this inward-directed transport relies on intact actin filaments. After treatment with the actin filament-disrupting drug cytochalasin newly polymerizing keratin assemblies still appear in the peripheral cytoplasm but remain stationary. On the other hand, nocodazole-mediated disruption of microtubules does not affect the centripetal KF precursor transport. From these and other observations a model is deduced which postulates that focal adhesion-dependent keratin polymerization occurs in forming lamellipodia and that transport of newly formed keratin particles is mediated by actin filaments until network integration. This mechanism allows extension of the KF network toward the leading edge in migrating cells and may be of relevance for tissue development and regeneration. PMID:19548319

  7. Subducted lithosphere beneath the Kuriles from migration of PP precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, Nicholas; Thomas, Christine

    2011-11-01

    We seismically image both thermal and chemical heterogeneity of the mantle beneath the Kurile subduction zone using P-wave energy reflected from the underside of discontinuities, arriving as precursors to the seismic phase PP. We take advantage of new broadband seismic data provided by the High Lava Plains Seismic Experiment and EarthScope's USArray, collecting a dataset of 31 high-quality Sumatran earthquakes sampling beneath the Kuriles. We employ high-resolution array analysis techniques, including migration and vespagrams, to identify precursory arrivals and study lateral variations in discontinuity depth, sharpness, and impedance of the mantle transition zone. We find the 410 km boundary is at 395 km near the subducting Kurile slab, though the boundary is 410-425 km deep elsewhere. In regions away from subduction, we do not detect a laterally continuous underside reflection of P-waves from the 660 km discontinuity. However, in the vicinity of the subducting Kurile slab, we detect robust P660P reflections from interfaces near 620-670 km depth, signifying an increase in the impedance contrast at 660 km depth. We also detect deeper reflectors, down to 720 km depth, beneath the Kurile slab in a localized area. Cold, aluminum-depleted harzburgitic lithosphere residing at the base of the transition zone best explains the local enhancement of the 660 km discontinuity P-wave impedance contrast. Our new discontinuity measurements support the hypothesis of cold, depleted lithosphere stagnating at the 660 km discontinuity beneath the Kuriles subduction zone, and imply the 660 km boundary can locally impede mantle flow and produce chemical heterogeneity within the transition zone.

  8. Prevalence of drugs used in cases of alleged sexual assault.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, M A; Salamone, S J

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs, often in conjunction with alcohol, to commit sexual assault. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of drug use in sexual assault cases in which substances are suspected of being involved. Law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers across the U.S. were offered the opportunity to submit urine samples collected from victims of alleged sexual assault, where drug use was suspected, for analysis of alcohol and drugs which may be associated with sexual assault. Each sample was tested by immunoassay for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, methaqualone, opiates, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. The positive screen results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, each sample was tested for flunitrazepam metabolites and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) by GC-MS and for ethanol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Over a 26-month period, 1179 samples were collected and analyzed from 49 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The states sending the most samples were California (183), Texas (119), Florida (61), Pennsylvania (61), New York (61), Minnesota (50), Illinois (47), Indiana (44), Michigan (40), Maryland (37), Virginia (32), and Massachusetts (31). Four-hundred sixty eight of the samples were found negative for all the substances tested; 451 were positive for ethanol, 218 for cannabinoids, 97 for benzoylecgonine, 97 for benzodiazepines, 51 for amphetamines, 48 for GHB, 25 for opiates, 17 for propoxyphene, and 12 for barbiturates. There were no samples identified as positive for phencyclidine or methaqualone. In addition, 35% of the drug-positive samples contained multiple drugs. This study indicates that, with respect to alleged sexual assault cases, the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, and GHB. Although only a couple of substances have been implicated with sexual assault, this study has shown that almost 20 different substances have been associated with this crime. This study also raises the concern of illicit and licit drug use in sexual assault cases and suggests the need to test for a range of drugs in these cases. It also highlights the need to test for GHB, which is not generally tested for in a normal toxicology screen. PMID:10369321

  9. Investigating carbohydrate isomers by IMS-CID-IMS-MS: precursor and fragment ion cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Gaye, M M; Kurulugama, R; Clemmer, D E

    2015-10-21

    Ion mobility spectrometry techniques (IMS and IMS-IMS) combined with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and mass spectrometry (MS) are used to investigate the structures of singly-lithiated carbohydrate isomers. With the exception of some favorable cases, IMS-MS analyses of underivatized carbohydrates reveal that most isobaric precursor ions have similar collision cross sections (ccs). In contrast, ccs values for isomeric fragment ions obtained by IMS-CID-IMS-MS analysis are often different, and thus appear to be useful as a means of distinguishing the isomeric precursors. We report values of ccs (in He) for precursor- and associated-fragment ions for three monosaccharide isomers (glucose, galactose and fructose), ten disaccharide isomers (sucrose, leucrose, palatinose, trehalose, cellobiose, ?-gentiobiose, isomaltose, maltose, lactose and melibiose), and three trisaccharide isomers (raffinose, melezitose and maltotriose). These values are discussed as a means of differentiating precursor carbohydrates. PMID:26306702

  10. On localization and void coalescence as a precursor to ductile fracture

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, John W.

    On localization and void coalescence as a precursor to ductile fracture C. Tekolua , J localization commonly occur in the ductile fracture of structural metals undergoing damage and failure and coalescence occur simultaneously. Keywords: ductile fracture, localization, void coalescence, Lode parameter

  11. Tuning the Synthesis of Ternary Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots by Balancing Precursor Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Danielle K.; Luther, Joseph M; Semonin, Octavi Escala; Nozik, Arthur J; Beard, Matthew C

    2011-01-25

    We report the synthesis and characterization of composition-tunable ternary lead chalcogenide alloys PbSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}, PbS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}, and PbS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}. This work explores the relative reaction rates of chalcogenide precursors to produce alloyed quantum dots (QDs), and we find the highly reactive bis(trimethylsilyl) (TMS{sub 2})-based precursors allow for the homogeneous incorporation of anions. By varying the Pb to oleic acid ratio, we demonstrate size control of similar composition alloys. We find the resulting QDs are Pb-rich but the Pb/anion ratio is size- and composition-dependent in all alloyed QD as well as in PbSe, PbTe, and PbS QDs and is consistent with the reaction rates of the anion precursors. A more reactive anion precursor results in a lower Pb/anion ratio.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of SnO{sub 2} using a tin chemical precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tianqi; Prakash, Abhinav; Jalan, Bharat; Warner, Ellis; Gladfelter, Wayne L.

    2015-03-15

    The authors report on the development of a molecular beam epitaxy approach for atomic layer controlled growth of phase-pure, single-crystalline epitaxial SnO{sub 2} films with scalable growth rates using a highly volatile precursor (tetraethyltin) for tin and rf-oxygen plasma for oxygen. Smooth, epitaxial SnO{sub 2} (101) films on r-sapphire (101{sup ¯}2) substrates were grown as a function of tin precursor flux and substrate temperatures between 300 and 900?°C. Three distinct growth regimes were identified where SnO{sub 2} films grew in a reaction-, flux-, and desorption-limited mode, respectively, with increasing substrate temperature. In particular, with increasing tin flux, the growth rates were found to increase and then saturate indicating any excess tin precursor desorbs above a critical beam equivalent pressure of tin precursor. Important implications of growth kinetic behaviors on the self-regulating stoichiometric growth of perovskite stannates are discussed.

  13. Growth characteristics of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition using carbon tetrabromide precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taejin; Jung, Hanearl; Lee, Chang Wan; Mun, Ki-Yeung; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Park, Jusang; Kim, Hyungjun

    2015-07-01

    A carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) precursor was employed for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene, and the graphene growth characteristics as functions of the following key factors were then investigated: growth time, growth temperature, and the partial pressure of the precursor. The graphene was transferred onto a SiO2/Si substrate and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the electrical properties were measured through the fabrication of field-effect transistors. Our results show that high yield and controllable growth are possible via CVD used with a CBr4 precursor. Thus, CBr4 precursor is a new alternative candidate for use in the mass production of graphene.

  14. Expanding the Repertoire of Amyloid Polymorphs by Co-polymerization of Related Protein Precursors

    E-print Network

    Sarell, Claire J.

    Amyloid fibrils can be generated from proteins with diverse sequences and folds. Although amyloid fibrils assembled in vitro commonly involve a single protein precursor, fibrils formed in vivo can contain more than one ...

  15. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. A status report, 1982--1983

    SciTech Connect

    Forester, J.A.; Mitchell, D.B.; Whitehead, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    This study is a continuation of earlier work that evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events affecting commercial light-water reactors. One-hundred nine operational events that affected 51 reactors during 1982 and 1983 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer screening the 1982-83 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to select events that could be precursors to core damage. Candidates underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. This report discusses the general rationale for the study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  16. Silyl-acetylene polymers for use as precursors to silicon carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.K.

    1991-12-20

    The steps involved in production of silicon carbide fiber using silyl acetylene polymer precursors can be separated into four processing steps: polymer synthesis, fiber spinning, fiber crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Practical experimental considerations in each step are discussed.

  17. The Murchison Widefield Array: solar science with the low frequency SKA Precursor

    E-print Network

    Tingay, S. J.

    The Murchison Widefield Array is a low frequency (80 – 300 MHz) SKA Precursor, comprising 128 aperture array elements (known as tiles) distributed over an area of 3 km diameter. The MWA is located at the extraordinarily ...

  18. The Murchison Widefield Array: The Square Kilometre Array Precursor at Low Radio Frequencies

    E-print Network

    Goeke, Robert F.

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a ...

  19. Strong precursor-pore interactions constrain models for mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Chauwin, J F; Oster, G; Glick, B S

    1998-04-01

    Mitochondrial precursor proteins are imported from the cytosol into the matrix compartment through a proteinaceous translocation pore. Import is driven by mitochondrial Hsp70 (mHsp70), a matrix-localized ATPase. There are currently two postulated mechanisms for this function of mHsp70: 1) The "Brownian ratchet" model proposes that the precursor chain diffuses within the pore, and that binding of mHsp70 to the lumenal portion of the chain biases this diffusion. 2) The "power stroke" model proposes that mHsp70 undergoes a conformational change that actively pulls the precursor chain through the pore. Here we formulate these two models quantitatively, and compare their performance in light of recent experimental evidence that precursor chains interact strongly with the walls of the translocation pore. Under these conditions the simulated Brownian ratchet is inefficient, whereas the power stroke mechanism seems to be a plausible description of the import process. PMID:9545036

  20. Observations of PKKP Precursors Used to Estimate Small-Scale Topography on the

    E-print Network

    Shearer, Peter

    dependence of high-frequency (1-hertz) precursors to the seismic phase PKKP. Synthetic seismogram modeling, energy passing from the solid silicate perovskite mantle to the liquid iron outer core encounters a 78

  1. Computational study of the complexation of metal ion precursors in dendritic polymers 

    E-print Network

    Tarazona Vasquez, Francisco

    2009-05-15

    Metal ions are important for medical, environmental and catalytic applications. They are used as precursor molecules for the manufacture of metal nanocatalysts, which are promising materials for an array of biomedical, ...

  2. Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  3. Optimal pulse penetration in Lorentz-Model dielectrics using the Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors.

    PubMed

    Oughstun, Kurt Edmund

    2015-10-01

    Under proper initial conditions, the interrelated effects of phase and attenuation dispersion in ultrawideband pulse propagation modify the input pulse into precursor fields. Because of their minimal decay in a given dispersive medium, precursor-type pulses possess optimal penetration into that material at the frequency-chirped Lambert-Beer's law limit, making them ideally suited for remote sensing and medical imaging. PMID:26480173

  4. Synthesis of transition metal nitride by nitridation of metastable oxide precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Wu, Zijie; Kong, Jing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, No. 393 Binshui Road, Xiqing Dist., Tianjin 300387 ; Zhang, Minghui

    2012-10-15

    Metastable transition metal oxides were used as precursors to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Amorphous MoO{sub 2} was prepared by reduction of (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24} solution with hydrazine. As-synthesized amorphous MoO{sub 2} was transformed into fcc {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N at 400 Degree-Sign C and then into hexagonal {delta}-MoN by further increasing the temperature to 600 Degree-Sign C under a NH{sub 3} flow. The nitridation temperature employed here is much lower than that employed in nitridation of crystalline materials, and the amorphous materials underwent a unique nitridation process. Besides this, the bimetallic nitride Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N was also synthesized by nitridating amorphous bimetallic precursor. These results suggested that the nitridation of amorphous precursor possessed potential to be a general method for synthesizing many interstitial metallic compounds, such as nitrides and carbides at low temperature. - graphical abstract: Amorphous oxide was used as new precursor to prepare nitride at low temperature. Pure {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN were obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C and at 600 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We bring out a new method to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both mono- and bimetallic molybdenum nitrides were synthesized at a mild condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of two different molybdenum nitrides {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN can be controlled from the same metastable precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nitridation temperature was much lower than that reported from crystalline precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metastable precursor had different reaction process in comparison with crystalline precursor.

  5. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Wiesmann, Harold (Stony Brook, NY); Solovyov, Vyacheslav (Rocky Point, NY)

    2012-07-10

    This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

  6. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Wiesmann, Harold (Stony Brook, NY); Solovyov, Vyacheslav (Rocky Point, NY)

    2008-04-22

    This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

  7. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  8. Effects of precursor heating on chemical and radiation nonequilibrium viscous flow around a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of precursor heating on viscous chemical nonequilibrium radiating flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated. Results obtained for a 45-degree hyperboloid blunt body entering Jupiter's nominal atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicate that the nonequilibrium radiative heating rate is significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursor heating, in general, increases the radiative and convective heating to the body, and this increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.

  9. Effects of precursor heating on chemical and radiative nonequilibrium viscous flow around a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of precursor heating on viscous chemical nonequilibrium radiating flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated. Results obtained for a 45 deg hyperboloid blunt body entering the Jupiter's nominal atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicate that the nonequilibrium radiative heating rate is significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursors heating, in general, increases the radiative and convective heating to the body and this increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.

  10. Adult neurogenesis in the crayfish brain: proliferation, migration and possible origin of precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Allodi, S.; Sandeman, D.C.; Beltz, B.S.

    2015-01-01

    The birth of new neurons and their incorporation into functional circuits in the adult brain is a characteristic of many vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, including decapod crustaceans. Precursor cells maintaining life-long proliferation in the brains of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Cherax destructor) and clawed lobsters (Homarus americanus) reside within a specialized niche on the ventral surface of the brain; their daughters migrate to two proliferation zones along a stream formed by processes of the niche precursors. Here they divide again, finally producing interneurons in the olfactory pathway. The present studies in P. clarkii explore (1) differential proliferative activity among the niche precursor cells with growth and aging, (2) morphological characteristics of cells in the niche and migratory streams, and (3) aspects of the cell cycle in this lineage. Morphologically symmetrical divisions of neuronal precursor cells were observed in the niche near where the migratory streams emerge, as well as in the streams and proliferation zones. The nuclei of migrating cells elongate and undergo shape changes consistent with nucleokinetic movement. LIS1, a highly conserved dynein-binding protein, is expressed in cells in the migratory stream and neurogenic niche, implicating this protein in the translocation of crustacean brain neuronal precursor cells. Symmetrical divisions of the niche precursors and migration of both daughters raised the question of how the niche precursor pool is replenished. We present here preliminary evidence for an association between vascular cells and the niche precursors, which may relate to the life-long growth and maintenance of the crustacean neurogenic niche. PMID:19294644

  11. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Wiesmann, Harold; Solovyov, Vyacheslav

    2014-02-18

    This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

  12. Structural Analysis of Triacylglycerols by Using a MALDI-TOF/TOF System with Monoisotopic Precursor Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Ayumi; Satoh, Takaya; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Tamura, Jun; Cody, Robert B.

    2013-05-01

    A new MALDI-TOF/TOF system with monoisotopic precursor selection was applied to the analysis of triacylglycerols in an olive oil sample. Monoisotopic precursor selection made it possible to obtain product-ion mass spectra without interference from species that differed by a single double bond. Complete structure determination of all triacylglycerols, including structural isomers, was made possible by interpreting the charge-remote fragmentation resulting from high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the sodiated triacylglycerols.

  13. Pyrolysis Pathways of Sulfonated Polyethylene, an Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, Jarod M; Saito, Tomonori; Hunt, Marcus A; Beste, Ariana; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonated polyethylene is an emerging precursor for the production of carbon fibers. Pyrolysis of sulfonated polyethylene was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). n-heptane-4-sulfonic acid (H4S) was selected as a model compound for the study of sulfonated polyethylene. Density functional theory and conventional transition state theory were used to determine the rate constants of pyrolysis for H4S from 300-1000 K. Multiple reaction channels from two different mechanisms were explored: 1) internal five-centered elimination (Ei 5) and 2) radical chain reaction. The pyrolysis of H4S was simulated with kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to obtain TGA plots that compared favorably to experiment. We observed that at tem- peratures < 550 K, the radical mechanism was dominant and yielded the trans-alkene, whereas cis-alkene was formed at higher temperatures from the internal elimination. The maximum rates of % mass loss became independent of initial OH radical concentration at 440-480 K. Experimentally, the maximum % mass loss occurred from 440-460 K (heating rate dependent). Activation energies derived from the kMC-simulated TGAs of H4S (26-29 kcal/mol) agreed with experiment for sulfonated polyethylene ( 31 kcal/mol). The simulations revealed that in this region, decomposition of radical HOSO2 became competitive to H abstraction by HOSO2, making OH the carrying radical for the reaction chain. The maximum rate of % mass loss for internal elimination was observed at temperatures > 600 K. Low-scale carbonization utilizes temperatures < 620 K; thus, internal elimination will not be competitive. Ei5 elimination has been studied for sulfoxides and sulfones, but this represents the first study of internal elimination in sulfonic acids. Nonlinear Arrhenius plots were found for all bimolecular reactions. The most significant nonlinear behavior was observed for reactions where the barrier was small. For reactions with low activation barriers, nonlinearity was traced to conflicting trends between the exponential temperature dependence of the energetic term and the temperature dependence of the vibrational partition function of the transitional modes.

  14. Review on hydroxylamine, a precursor to amino-acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Jean Louis

    2015-08-01

    Does life on earth come from interstellar space (IS)?It has been recently demonstrated that part of the terrestrial water is of IS origin [Cleeves et al. Science 2014]. This raises the question whether materials like amino-acids or their pre-biotic molecular precursors could have been formed and brought to earth in the same way than water. Another question is whether these molecules were formed in the gas phase or through reactions on the surface/volume of ice-covered grains. This may then have occurred in the vicinity of proto-stellar cores or deep into a pristine dense molecular clouds at very low temperatures.As far as bio-related molecules are concerned, chemistry with nitrogen-bearing molecules (like NH3 and NO) is involved. I review recent experimental work showing that hydroxylamine (NH2OH) could be formed either by surface or by volume reactions in conditions close to those prevailing in dense media. They use either electron-UV irradiation of water-ammonia ices [Zheng & Kaiser JCPA 2010] or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide[Congiu, Fedoseev & al. ApJL.2012] or the simple oxidation of ammonia [He, Vidali, Lemaire & Garrod, ApJ, 2015] or the reaction of ammonia with hydroxyl radicals in a rare gas matrix [Zins & Krim, 2014, 69th ISMS]. A step further, the synthesis of the simplest amino-acids, glycine (NH2CH2COOH) and L- or D-alanine (NH2CH3CHCOOH) has already been obtained via reactions in the gas phase involving NH2OH+ [Blagojevic & al. MNRAS 2003].In addition to several earlier models demonstrating that the formation of all these molecules is possible in the gas phase, a new recent three-phase gas-grain chemical kinetics model of hot cores [Garrod ApJ 2013] shows that the results of ammonia oxidation we obtain are plausible by surface/volume reactions.Although none of the aforementioned molecules (except glycine in a sample of cometary origin) has been yet detected in the IS, they all are considered by many observers and modelers as likely targets of detection with ALMA.A review of the present observational status will be presented and suggestions of conditions for future observations will be provided.

  15. Air Quality Modeling of Ozone Radical Precursors in Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglueck, B.; Czader, B.; Li, X.

    2013-05-01

    The Houston-Galveston area has one of the highest ozone concentrations in the U.S., often exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. Photochemical modeling of ozone formation in the Houston area generally underestimates the concentrations of free radical precursors contributing to ozone formation. Here we present modeling results using the Weather Research Forecast - Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) modeling system for the Houston-Galveston area. Meteorological parameters predicted by WRF are well simulated most of the time, including planetary boundary layer heights. Air quality simulations for the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area using the combined WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system showed overall good results for ozone and many other trace gases. HONO morning peaks are no longer underpredicted, on some occasions they are slightly overpredicted, which can be linked to NO2 overprediction. However, CMAQ mispredicts other trace gases like HO2, H2O2 and CH3OOH concentrations. The WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system was also used to elucidate the relative importance of various photolysis processes as radical sources in the Houston atmosphere. Morning HOx formation is dominated by HONO while ozone contributes the most during midday. HONO contribution to HOx formation is more pronounced at the surface layer where most of it is formed. On the other hand, radical production from ozone is more important at elevated levels where higher concentrations of ozone are observed. Formaldehyde contributes up to 40% and also peaks during mid-day, but on days when high morning concentrations of formaldehyde are observed its contribution to HOx in the morning exceeds that of ozone. Photolysis of H2O2 is a minor contributor to radical levels. The process analysis tool available in CMAQ was utilized to analyze photochemical processes leading to ozone production and chemical transformations along trajectories linking a site at the Houston Ship Channel and the University of Houston Moody Tower site. In particular, observations often showed elevated HCHO mixing ratios at the Moody Tower under these conditions during morning hours. UH performed additional simulations focusing on these high HCHO peaks. While additional ethene and OLE 1 emissions were added to match the corresponding observations at the Moody Tower, these additions were only able to produce small additions to the HCHO peak.

  16. HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Akers; Clifford E. Raleigh

    1998-03-16

    CQ Inc. and its project team members--Howard University, PrepTech Inc., Fossil Fuel Sciences, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and industry advisors--are applying mature coal cleaning and scientific principles to the new purpose of removing potentially hazardous air pollutants from coal. The team uniquely combines mineral processing, chemical engineering, and geochemical expertise. This project meets more than 11 goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Energy Strategy, and the 1993 Climate Change Action Plan. During this project: (1) Equations were developed to predict the concentration of trace elements in as-mined and cleaned coals. These equations, which address both conventional and advanced cleaning processes, can be used to increase the removal of hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPs) by existing cleaning plants and to improve the design of new cleaning plants. (2) A promising chemical method of removing mercury and other HAPs was developed. At bench-scale, mercury reductions of over 50 percent were achieved on coal that had already been cleaned by froth flotation. The processing cost of this technology is projected to be less than $3.00 per ton ($3.30 per tonne). (3) Projections were made of the average trace element concentration in cleaning plant solid waste streams from individual states. Average concentrations were found to be highly variable. (4) A significantly improved understanding of how trace elements occur in coal was gained, primarily through work at the USGS during the first systematic development of semiquantitative data for mode of occurrence. In addition, significant improvement was made in the laboratory protocol for mode of occurrence determination. (5) Team members developed a high-quality trace element washability database. For example, the poorest mass balance closure for the uncrushed size and washability data for mercury on all four coals is 8.44 percent and the best is 0.46 percent. This indicates an extremely high level of reproducibility of the data. In addition, a series of ''round-robin'' tests involving various laboratories was performed to assure analytical accuracy. (6) A comparison of the cost of lowering mercury emissions through the use of coal cleaning technologies versus the use of post-combustion control methods such as activated carbon injection indicates that, in many cases, coal cleaning may prove to be the lower-cost option. The most significant disadvantage for using coal cleaning for control of mercury emissions is that a reduction of 90 percent or greater from as-fired coal has not yet been demonstrated, even at laboratory-scale.

  17. Measurements of Ozone Precursors in the Lake Tahoe Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinska, B.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Gertler, A.; McDaniel, M.; Rayne, S.; Burley, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, located at 6,225 ft. (1,897 m) in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, is the largest alpine lake in North America. Known for the clarity of its water and the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides, Lake Tahoe is a prime tourist attraction in the California - Nevada area. However, the Lake Tahoe Basin is facing significant environmental pollution problems, including declining water clarity and air quality issues. During the period of July 21 - 26, 2012, we conducted a field study in the Basin designed to characterize the precursors and pathways of secondary pollutant formation, including ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Four sites were selected; two were located at high elevations (one each on the western and eastern sides of the Basin) and two were positioned near the Lake level. Ozone and NO/NO2 concentrations were continuously measured. With a resolution of several hours over a 6-day sampling period canister samples were collected for detailed speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) impregnated Sep-Pak cartridges for analysis of carbonyl compounds, PM2.5 Teflon and quartz filter samples for determination of mass, organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) concentrations and speciation of organic compounds. Whereas the concentrations of lower molecular weight (mw) C2 - C3 hydrocarbons were generally the highest at all sampling sites, ranging from 25 to 76% of the total measured VOC (over 70 species from C2 to C10), the concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons, isoprene and ?-pinene were significant, ranging from 1.4 to 26% and 1.5 to 30%, respectively, of the total VOC. For comparison, the sum of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) constituted from 2.5 to 37% of the total VOC. All four sites showed maximum ozone concentrations in the range of 60 ppb. However, the lower sites show a pronounced diurnal pattern (i.e. maximum concentrations during the daytime hours, 0900 to 1700, with minimum values at night and in the early morning hours), whereas the upper sites shows much less variability over the 24-hour diurnal period. NO/NO2 concentrations were generally low, in the range of a few ppb. This presentation will discuss VOC and NOx patterns at these four sites in terms of their relevance to local ozone formation and/or regional transport.

  18. Precursor Oxidation by Mia40 and Erv1 Promotes Vectorial Transport of Proteins into the Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Judith M.; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Guiard, Bernard; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrial intermembrane space contains chaperone complexes that guide hydrophobic precursor proteins through this aqueous compartment. The chaperones consist of hetero-oligomeric complexes of small Tim proteins with conserved cysteine residues. The precursors of small Tim proteins are synthesized in the cytosol. Import of the precursors requires the essential intermembrane space proteins Mia40 and Erv1 that were proposed to form a relay for disulfide formation in the precursor proteins. However, experimental evidence for a role of Mia40 and Erv1 in the oxidation of intermembrane space precursors has been lacking. We have established a system to directly monitor the oxidation of precursors during import into mitochondria and dissected distinct steps of the import process. Reduced precursors bind to Mia40 during translocation into mitochondria. Both Mia40 and Erv1 are required for formation of oxidized monomers of the precursors that subsequently assemble into oligomeric complexes. Whereas the reduced precursors can diffuse back into the cytosol, the oxidized precursors are retained in the intermembrane space. Thus, oxidation driven by Mia40 and Erv1 determines vectorial transport of the precursors into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. PMID:17978092

  19. Four residues of propeptide are essential for precursor folding of nattokinase.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Cao, Xinhua; Deng, Yu; Bao, Wei; Tang, Changyan; Ding, Hanjing; Zheng, Zhongliang; Zou, Guolin

    2014-11-01

    Subtilisin propeptide functions as an intramolecular chaperone that guides precursor folding. Nattokinase, a member of subtilisin family, is synthesized as a precursor consisting of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a subtilisin domain, and the mechanism of its folding remains to be understood. In this study, the essential residues of nattokinase propeptide which contribute to precursor folding were determined. Deletion analysis showed that the conserved regions in propeptide were important for precursor folding. Single-site and multi-site mutagenesis studies confirmed the role of Tyr10, Gly13, Gly34, and Gly35. During stage (i) and (ii) of precursor folding, Tyr10 and Gly13 would form the part of interface with subtilisin domain. While Gly34 and Gly35 connected with an ?-helix that would stabilize the structure of propeptide. The quadruple Ala mutation, Y10A/G13A/G34A/G35A, resulted in a loss of the chaperone function for the propeptide. This work showed the essential residues of propeptide for precursor folding via secondary structure and kinetic parameter analyses. PMID:25267722

  20. Dependence of molecular hydrogen formation in water on scavengers of the precursor to the hydrated electron

    SciTech Connect

    Pastina, B.; LaVerne, J.A.; Pimblott, S.M.

    1999-07-22

    Early studies on the radiolysis of water suggested a wide variety of precursors, and mechanisms, for the formation of the observed yield of molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen yields have been measured in the {gamma} radiolysis of aqueous solutions with a wide variety of scavengers of the hydrated electron and its precursors. A decrease in molecular hydrogen yield with increasing scavenging capacity of the hydrated electron is found with all solutes. Scavengers with particularly high rate coefficients for reaction with the precursors to the hydrated electron compared to the hydrated electron, such as selenate and to a lesser extent molybdate, show a more rapid decrease in hydrogen yields with increasing scavenging capacity than is observed with the other solutes. The yield of molecular hydrogen is better parameterized by the scavenging capacity for the precursors to the hydrated electron than by the scavenging capacity for the hydrated electron. Good scavengers of precursors to the hydrated electrons do not exhibit a nonscavengable hydrogen yield in the high scavenging capacity limit. These results suggest that the previously accepted nonscavengable yield of molecular hydrogen is due to precursors of the hydrated electron and it can be lowered with appropriate scavengers.

  1. Cleavage of the Feline Calicivirus Capsid Precursor Is Mediated by a Virus-Encoded Proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Sosnovtseva, Svetlana A.; Green, Kim Y.

    1998-01-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV), a member of the Caliciviridae, produces its major structural protein as a precursor polyprotein from a subgenomic-sized mRNA. In this study, we show that the proteinase responsible for processing this precursor into the mature capsid protein is encoded by the viral genome at the 3?-terminal portion of open reading frame 1 (ORF1). Protein expression studies of either the entire or partial ORF1 indicate that the proteinase is active when expressed either in in vitro translation or in bacterial cells. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to characterize the proteinase Glu-Ala cleavage site in the capsid precursor, utilizing an in vitro cleavage assay in which mutant precursor proteins translated from cDNA clones were used as substrates for trans cleavage by the proteinase. In general, amino acid substitutions in the P1 position (Glu) of the cleavage site were less well tolerated by the proteinase than those in the P1? position (Ala). The precursor cleavage site mutations were introduced into an infectious cDNA clone of the FCV genome, and transfection of RNA derived from these clones into feline kidney cells showed that efficient cleavage of the capsid precursor by the virus-encoded proteinase is a critical determinant in the growth of the virus. PMID:9525628

  2. Afterglows from precursors in gamma-ray bursts. Application to the optical afterglow of GRB 091024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Burlon, D.

    2014-12-01

    About 15 per cent of gamma-ray bursts have precursors, i.e. emission episodes preceding the main event, whose spectral and temporal properties are similar to the main emission. We propose that precursors have their own fireball, producing afterglow emission due to the dissipation of the kinetic energy via external shock. In the time lapse between the precursor and the main event, we assume that the central engine is not completely turned off, but it continues to eject relativistic material at a smaller rate, whose emission is below the background level. The precursor fireball generates a first afterglow by the interaction with the external circumburst medium. Matter injected by the central engine during the `quasi-quiescent' phase replenishes the external medium with material in relativistic motion. The fireball corresponding to the main prompt emission episode rams into this moving material, producing a second afterglow, and finally catches up and merges with the first precursor fireball. We test this scenario over GRB 091024, an event with a precursor in the prompt light curve and two well-defined bumps in the optical afterglow, obtaining an excellent agreement with the existing data.

  3. The de novo synthesis of ubiquitin: identification of deubiquitinases acting on ubiquitin precursors

    PubMed Central

    Grou, Cláudia P.; Pinto, Manuel P.; Mendes, Andreia V.; Domingues, Pedro; Azevedo, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination, a major post-translational modification in eukaryotes, requires an adequate pool of free ubiquitin. Cells maintain this pool by two pathways, both involving deubiquitinases (DUBs): recycling of ubiquitin from ubiquitin conjugates and processing of ubiquitin precursors synthesized de novo. Although many advances have been made in recent years regarding ubiquitin recycling, our knowledge on ubiquitin precursor processing is still limited, and questions such as when are these precursors processed and which DUBs are involved remain largely unanswered. Here we provide data suggesting that two of the four mammalian ubiquitin precursors, UBA52 and UBA80, are processed mostly post-translationally whereas the other two, UBB and UBC, probably undergo a combination of co- and post-translational processing. Using an unbiased biochemical approach we found that UCHL3, USP9X, USP7, USP5 and Otulin/Gumby/FAM105b are by far the most active DUBs acting on these precursors. The identification of these DUBs together with their properties suggests that each ubiquitin precursor can be processed in at least two different manners, explaining the robustness of the ubiquitin de novo synthesis pathway. PMID:26235645

  4. Child maltreatment, attention networks, and potential precursors to borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    ROGOSCH, FRED A.; CICCHETTI, DANTE

    2006-01-01

    Potential precursors to borderline personality disorder (BPD) were investigated in a sample of 185 maltreated and 175 nonmaltreated school-aged children attending a summer camp research program. Self-report, peer-report, and counselor-report measures were utilized to assess developmental constructs conceptualized to constitute vulnerability for later emerging BPD. These areas, including personality features, representational models of self, parent, and peers, interpersonal relationship difficulties with peers and adults, and suicidal/self-harm behavior, were used to develop a BPD precursors composite. Additionally, the efficiency of three attention networks was assessed with a computerized task. Maltreated children had higher mean scores on the BPD precursors composite, and children classified as having high levels of these precursors were more prevalent in the maltreatment group. No maltreatment group differences were found for the efficiency of the three attention networks; however, children with high levels of BPD precursors evinced less efficient processing of the conflict attention network, comparable to findings observed among adult patients with BPD. Child maltreatment and efficiency of the conflict attention network independently predicted scores on the BPD precursors composite. Experiential and biological contributions to risk for BPD and recommendations for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:16613431

  5. Skin-derived neural precursors competitively generate functional myelin in adult demyelinated mice.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Sabah; Laterza, Cecilia; Roussel, Delphine; Bachelin, Corinne; Marteyn, Antoine; Deboux, Cyrille; Martino, Gianvito; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent-derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin-derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS. PMID:26301815

  6. Enhancement of hepatitis C viral RNA abundance by precursor miR-122 molecules.

    PubMed

    Cox, Erica Machlin; Sagan, Selena M; Mortimer, Stefanie A W; Doudna, Jennifer A; Sarnow, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis C viral RNA genome forms a complex with liver-specific microRNA (miR-122) at the extreme 5' end of the viral RNA. This complex is essential to stabilize the viral RNA in infected cultured cells and in the liver of humans. The abundances of primary and precursor forms of miR-122, but not the abundance of mature miR-122, are regulated in a circadian rhythm in the liver of animals, suggesting a possible independent function of precursor molecules of miR-122 in regulating viral gene expression. Modified precursor molecules of miR-122 were synthesized that were refractory to cleavage by Dicer. These molecules were found to enhance the abundance of HCV RNA. Furthermore, they diminished the expression of mRNAs that contained binding sites for miR-122 in their 3' noncoding regions. By use of duplex and precursor miR-122 mimetic molecules that carried mutations in the passenger strand of miR-122, the effects on viral and reporter gene expression could be pinpointed to the action of precursor miR-122 molecules. Targeting the circadian expression of precursor miR-122 by specific compounds likely provides novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24106328

  7. Enhancement of hepatitis C viral RNA abundance by precursor miR-122 molecules

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Erica Machlin; Sagan, Selena M.; Mortimer, Stefanie A.W.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Sarnow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C viral RNA genome forms a complex with liver-specific microRNA (miR-122) at the extreme 5? end of the viral RNA. This complex is essential to stabilize the viral RNA in infected cultured cells and in the liver of humans. The abundances of primary and precursor forms of miR-122, but not the abundance of mature miR-122, are regulated in a circadian rhythm in the liver of animals, suggesting a possible independent function of precursor molecules of miR-122 in regulating viral gene expression. Modified precursor molecules of miR-122 were synthesized that were refractory to cleavage by Dicer. These molecules were found to enhance the abundance of HCV RNA. Furthermore, they diminished the expression of mRNAs that contained binding sites for miR-122 in their 3? noncoding regions. By use of duplex and precursor miR-122 mimetic molecules that carried mutations in the passenger strand of miR-122, the effects on viral and reporter gene expression could be pinpointed to the action of precursor miR-122 molecules. Targeting the circadian expression of precursor miR-122 by specific compounds likely provides novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24106328

  8. Natural variation in epigenetic pathways affects the specification of female gamete precursors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  9. Natural Variation in Epigenetic Pathways Affects the Specification of Female Gamete Precursors in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  10. Skin-derived neural precursors competitively generate functional myelin in adult demyelinated mice

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Sabah; Laterza, Cecilia; Roussel, Delphine; Bachelin, Corinne; Marteyn, Antoine; Deboux, Cyrille; Martino, Gianvito; Evercooren, Anne Baron-Van

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent–derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin–derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS. PMID:26301815

  11. A thermal and chemical degradation approach to decipher pristane and phytane precursors in sedimentary organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Klapwijk, M.M.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that their precursors are predominantly sequestered in high-molecular-weight fractions. However, chemical degradation of the polar fraction and the kerogen of the unheated samples generally does not release large amounts of Pr and Ph. Additional information on the precursors of Pr and Ph is obtained from flash pyrolysis analyses of kerogens and residues after hydrous pyrolysis and after chemical degradation. Multiple precursors for Pr and Ph are recognised in these three samples. The main increase of the Pr/Ph ratio with increasing maturation temperature, which is associated with strongly increasing amounts of Pr and Ph, is probably due to the higher amount of precursors of Pr compared to Ph, and not to the different timing of generation of Pr and Ph.A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that their precursors are predominantly sequestered in high-molecular-weight fractions. However, chemical degradation of the polar fraction and the kerogen of the unheated samples generally does not release large amounts of Pr and Ph. Additional information on the precursors of Pr and Ph is obtained from flash pyrolysis analyses of kerogens and residues after hydrous pyrolysis and after chemical degradation. Multiple precursors for Pr and Ph are recognised in these three samples. The main increase of the Pr/Ph ratio with increasing maturation temperature, which is associated with strongly increasing amounts of Pr and Ph, is probably due to the higher amount of precursors of Pr compared to Ph, and not to the different timing of generation of Pr and Ph.

  12. Club drugs: review of the ‘rave’ with a note of concern for the Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Neogi, Rajarshi; Basu, Debasish

    2011-01-01

    ‘Club drugs’ which include Ecstasy, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) have become popular with participants in ‘raves’, because they are perceived to enhance energy, endurance, sociability and sexual arousal. These drugs vary in their pharmacologic properties, physiological and psychological effects, and potential consequences. The use of club drugs by young people has increased in the last decade, and continue to get modified and evolve, making them very difficult to monitor. Further, these drugs are not picked up by routine drugs screening procedures, thereby making these popular with the criminals. India, which is in a phase of social transition, also faces this rising menace. Despite the nature and extent of this problem, this area has been under-researched. Data from India are sparse barring a few newspaper and police reports. Keeping abreast of current trends in club drug use prepares the clinician to recognize the clinical effects of club drug use, to manage club drug related emergencies, and to generate social awareness. PMID:21727657

  13. Ecstasy (MDMA), methamphetamine, and date rape (drug-facilitated sexual assault): a consideration of the issues.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Karl L R; Theron, Lynn

    2006-03-01

    The term "date rape drug" has traditionally been applied by the media to powerful sedatives, such as gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which can render a person unconscious and hence unable to resist and/or recall an assault. However, some law enforcement agents and others have recently obtained convictions by arguing that the empathy-generating and sensual effects of MDMA, and an occasional increase in disinhibition and sexual desire linked with methamphetamine use, remove a person's ability to give a reasoned consent, turning the person into "a helpless slave" to their own sexual desires and those of the alleged perpetrator. The argument holds that the victim becomes part of the assault because they may appear to be cooperating and colluding with activity which they would not have consented to without taking these drugs. This interpretation of the term "date rape" has been fed by data that sometimes finds MDMA and amphetamines in samples taken from sexual assault victims, and hence these prosecutions sometimes rely on expert testimony from toxicologists, pathologists and police officers rather than psychologists and psychiatrists who are expert in the human effects of these drugs. Some of those in the latter group have dismissed claims that MDMA is an aphrodisiac or a date rape drug as myths propagated by the media. In this article, these arguments and their respective strengths and weaknesses will be examined to assist professionals and others who may become involved in these cases. PMID:16681170

  14. Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: Biochemical–Molecular–Clinical Disease Mechanisms, Redox Regulation, and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Pearl, Phillip L.; Jensen, Kimmo; Snead, O. Carter; Malaspina, Patrizia; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1, ALDH5A1; E.C. 1.2.1.24; OMIM 610045, 271980) deficiency is a rare heritable disorder that disrupts the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Identified in conjunction with increased urinary excretion of the GABA analog gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), numerous patients have been identified worldwide and the autosomal-recessive disorder has been modeled in mice. The phenotype is one of nonprogressive neurological dysfunction in which seizures may be prominently displayed. The murine model is a reasonable phenocopy of the human disorder, yet the severity of the seizure disorder in the mouse exceeds that observed in SSADH-deficient patients. Abnormalities in GABAergic and GHBergic neurotransmission, documented in patients and mice, form a component of disease pathophysiology, although numerous other disturbances (metabolite accumulations, myelin abnormalities, oxidant stress, neurosteroid depletion, altered bioenergetics, etc.) are also likely to be involved in developing the disease phenotype. Most recently, the demonstration of a redox control system in the SSADH protein active site has provided new insights into the regulation of SSADH by the cellular oxidation/reduction potential. The current review summarizes some 30 years of research on this protein and disease, addressing pathological mechanisms in human and mouse at the protein, metabolic, molecular, and whole-animal level. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 691–718. PMID:20973619

  15. Plasmodium vivax: a monoclonal antibody recognizes a circumsporozoite protein precursor on the sporozoite surface.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ceron, L; Rodriguez, M H; Wirtz, R A; Sina, B J; Palomeque, O L; Nettel, J A; Tsutsumi, V

    1998-11-01

    The major surface circumsporozoite (CS) proteins are known to play a role in malaria sporozoite development and invasion of invertebrate and vertebrate host cells. Plasmodium vivax CS protein processing during mosquito midgut oocyst and salivary gland sporozoite development was studied using monoclonal antibodies which recognize different CS protein epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies which react with the CS amino acid repeat sequences by ELISA recognized a 50-kDa precursor protein in immature oocyst and additional 47- and 42-kDa proteins in older oocysts. A 42-kDa CS protein was detected after initial sporozoite invasion of mosquito salivary glands and an additional 50-kDa precursor CS protein observed later in infected salivary glands. These data confirm previous results with other Plasmodium species, in which more CS protein precursors were detected in oocysts than in salivary gland sporozoites. A monoclonal antibody (PvPCS) was characterized which reacts with an epitope found only in the 50-kDa precursor CS protein. PvPCS reacted with all P. vivax sporozoite strains tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay, homogeneously staining the sporozoite periphery with much lower intensity than that produced by anti-CS repeat antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy using PvPCS showed that the CS protein precursor was associated with peripheral cytoplasmic vacuoles and membranes of sporoblast and budding sporozoites in development oocysts. In salivary gland sporozoites, the CS protein precursor was primarily associated with micronemes and sporozoite membranes. Our results suggest that the 50-kDa CS protein precursor is synthesized intracellularly and secreted on the membrane surface, where it is proteolytically processed to form the 42-kDa mature CS protein. These data indicate that differences in CS protein processing in oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites development may occur. PMID:9806864

  16. Structural Evolution of Iron Antimonides from Amorphous Precursors to Crystalline Products Studied by Total Scattering Techniques.

    PubMed

    Bauers, Sage R; Wood, Suzannah R; Jensen, Kirsten M Ø; Blichfeld, Anders B; Iversen, Bo B; Billinge, Simon J L; Johnson, David C

    2015-08-01

    Homogeneous reaction precursors may be used to form several solid-state compounds inaccessible by traditional synthetic routes, but there has been little development of techniques that allow for a priori prediction of what may crystallize in a given material system. Here, the local structures of FeSbx designed precursors are determined and compared with the structural motifs of their crystalline products. X-ray total scattering and atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to show that precursors that first nucleate a metastable FeSb3 compound share similar local structure to the product. Interestingly, precursors that directly crystallize to thermodynamically stable FeSb2 products also contain local structural motifs of the metastable phase, despite their compositional disagreement. While both crystalline phases consist of distorted FeSb6 octahedra with Sb shared between either two or three octahedra as required for stoichiometry, a corner-sharing arrangement indicative of AX3-type structures is the only motif apparent in the PDF of either precursor. Prior speculation was that local composition controlled which compounds nucleate from amorphous intermediates, with different compositions favoring different local arrangements and hence different products. This data suggests that local environments in these amorphous intermediates may not be very sensitive to overall composition. This can provide insight into potential metastable phases which may form in a material system, even with a precursor that does not crystallize to the kinetically stabilized product. Determination of local structure in homogeneous amorphous reaction intermediates from techniques such as PDF can be a valuable asset in the development of systematic methods to prepare targeted solid-state compounds from designed precursors. PMID:26161946

  17. Improved method for measuring transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors in fresh and saline water.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, Loreen O; Ekowati, Yuli; Calix-Ponce, Helga N; Schippers, Jan C; Amy, Gary L; Kennedy, Maria D

    2015-03-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors produced by phyto-/bacterio-planktons in fresh and marine aquatic environments are increasingly considered as a major contributor to organic/particulate and biological fouling in micro-/ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis membrane (RO) systems. However, currently established methods which are based on Alcian blue (AB) staining and spectrophotometric techniques do not measure TEP-precursors and have the tendency to overestimate concentration in brackish/saline water samples due to interference of salinity on AB staining. Here we propose a new semi-quantitative method which allows measurement of both TEP and their colloidal precursors without the interference of salinity. TEP and their precursors are first retained on 10 kDa membrane, rinsed with ultra-pure water, and re-suspended in ultra-pure water by sonication and stained with AB, followed by exclusion of TEP-AB precipitates by filtration and absorbance measurement of residual AB. The concentration is then determined based on the reduction of AB absorbance due to reaction with acidic polysaccharides, blank correction and calibration with Xanthan gum standard. The extraction procedure allows concentration of TEP and their pre-cursors which makes it possible to analyse samples with a wide range of concentrations (down to <0.1 mg Xeq/L). This was demonstrated through application of the method for monitoring these compounds in algal cultures and a full-scale RO plant. The monitoring also revealed that concentrations of the colloidal precursors were substantially higher than the concentration of TEP themselves. In the RO plant, complete TEP removal was observed over the pre-treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration and ultrafiltration) but the TEP precursors were not completely removed, emphasising the importance of measuring this colloidal component to better understand the role of TEP and acidic polysaccharides in RO membrane fouling. PMID:25543240

  18. The protocol for the isolation and cryopreservation of osteoclast precursors from mouse bone marrow and spleen.

    PubMed

    Boraschi-Diaz, Iris; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for physiological bone remodeling as well as pathological bone destruction in osteoporosis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis, and thus represent a pharmacological target for drug development. We aimed to characterize and compare the cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow and spleen precursors. Established protocols used to generate osteoclasts from bone marrow were modified to examine osteoclastogenesis of the spleen cells of healthy mice. Osteoclast formation was successfully induced from spleen precursors using receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (50 ng/ml) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (50 ng/ml). Compared to bone marrow cultures, differentiation from spleen required a longer cultivation time (9 days for spleen, as compared to 5 days for marrow cultures) and a higher plating density of non-adherent cells (75,000/cm(2) for spleen, as compared to 50,000/cm(2) for bone marrow). Osteoclasts generated from spleen precursors expressed osteoclast marker genes calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and were capable of resorbing hydroxyapatite. The differentiation capacity of spleen and bone marrow precursors was comparable for BALB/c, C57BL/6 and FVB mice. We also developed and tested a cryopreservation protocol for the osteoclast precursors. While 70-80 % of cells were lost during the first week of freezing, during the subsequent 5 weeks the losses were within 2-5 % per week. Osteoclastogenesis from the recovered bone marrow precursors was successful up to 5 weeks after freezing. Spleen precursors retained their osteoclastogenic capacity for 1 week after freezing, but not thereafter. The described protocol is useful for the studies of genetically modified animals as well as for screening new osteoclast-targeting therapeutics. PMID:25245056

  19. Were the Laurentide Surges (Heinrich events) Necessarily Preceeded by Precursor Events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jullien, E.; Grousset, F. E.; Billy, I.

    2003-12-01

    It has been shown that precursor events occur right before most of the Heinrich events recognized in the Atlantic Ocean within the so-called Ruddiman IRD belt: they are enriched in both haematite-coated grains and tephras (Bond and Lotti, 1995), revealing Icelandic and Arctic origins. Isotopic (Sr-Nd) and mineralogical fingerprints of these precursors display typical European signatures, in cores from both the European margin (Grousset et al., 2000 ; Scourse et al., 2000) and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Grousset et al., 2001). Were the North Atlantic Heinrich events triggered by the behavior of the European ice sheets is still an open question that has to be documented. Such signatures, however, record Fennoscandian and Icelandic iceberg discharges occurring prior the major Laurentide surges. Recent observations, however, have challenged this interpretation. Farmer et al. (2003) have shown that sediment samples from the Saint Lawrence Gulf display the same Sr-Nd isotopic signature as the typical European ones. Thus, early arrivals of icebergs derived from the southern rim of the Laurentide could characterize some precursors. I order to clarify this problem, we have studied precursor events (in H2 and H4) in a series of seamount cores located in the IRD belt, from 40° to 10° W. A multi-proxy approach (Sr-Nd isotopes ; Fe-Mn-Ti-Ca CORTEX data ; IRD counts, etc) reveal that : 1) precursor events occur only prior H1 and H2. We did not observe any precursor prior H4 and H5 : this peculiarity had been already reported by Vance and Archer (2002) ; 2) typical European precursors occurred on the Eastern side of the North Atlantic, whereas in the western basin, precursors were made of Laurentide-derived IRD. Thus, precursors could be derived simultaneously from all the pan-Atlantic ice-sheets, revealing a global period of iceberg release affecting all ice-sheets. Their study could allow to assess if they respond to D-O cycles (Broecker, 2003), but better model ages have to be produced first. Bond and Lotti (1995), Science 267, 1005-1010. Broecker W.S. (2003), Science 294, 2308-2309. Farmer et al. (2003), Earth & Planet. Sci. Lett. 209, 227-243. Grousset et al. (2000), Geology 28, 123-126 Grousset et al. (2001), Paleoceanography 16, 240-259. Scourse et al. (2000), Earth & Planet. Sci. Lett. 182, 187-195. Vance and Archer (2002), Goldschmidt Conf. Abst., A798.

  20. Optimizing vanadium pentoxide thin films and multilayers from dip-coated nanofluid precursors.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; O'Connell, John; Holmes, Justin D; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2014-02-12

    Using an alkoxide-based precursor, a strategy for producing highly uniform thin films and multilayers of V2O5 is demonstrated using dip coating. Defect-free and smooth films of V2O5 on different surfaces can be deposited from liquid precursors. We show how pinholes are formed due to heterogeneous nucleation during hydrolysis as the precursor forms a nanofluid. Using knowledge of instability formation often found in composite nanofluid films and the influence of cluster formation on the stability of these films, we show how polymer-precursor mixtures provide optimum uniformity and very low surface roughness in amorphous V2O5 and also orthorhombic V2O5 after crystallization by heating. Pinhole and roughness instability formation during the liquid stage of the nanofluid on gold and ITO substrates is suppressed giving a uniform coating. Practically, understanding evolution pathways that involve dewetting processes, nucleation, decomposition, or hydrolysis in complex nanofluids provides a route for improved uniformity of thin films. The method could be extended to improve the consistency in sequential or iterative multilayer deposits of a range of liquid precursors for functional materials and coatings. PMID:24432710

  1. Processing of prosecretin: isolation of a secretin precursor from porcine intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Gafvelin, G; Jörnvall, H; Mutt, V

    1990-01-01

    A precursor to the gastrointestinal hormone secretin has been isolated. The starting material for the purification of the precursor was a peptide fraction purified from pig intestinal extracts, containing peptides with a molecular weight higher than that of secretin. The purification could be followed by measurement of secretin bioactivity (alkali secreted in the pancreatic juice of anesthetized cat). Sequence analysis of the isolated secretin precursor revealed a 71-amino acid residue polypeptide that contained the sequence of secretin N terminally, followed by a Gly-Lys-Arg sequence and a C-terminal extension of 41-amino acid residues. With the exception of an arginine residue, which occurs directly after the Gly-Lys-Arg sequence, the remainder of the C-terminal residues in this precursor are identical to the 40 C-terminal residues predicted by the recently described cDNA sequence for porcine preprosecretin. Compared to the deduced preprosecretin sequence, a stretch of 32 amino acid residues directly following the Gly-Lys-Arg sequence is missing in the now purified secretin precursor. This implies that differential splicing may occur when the secretin gene transcript is processed to mRNA. PMID:2395872

  2. Substrate effects on the electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from a liquid precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donev, Eugenii U.; Schardein, Gregory; Wright, John C.; Hastings, J. Todd

    2011-07-01

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition using bulk liquid precursors (LP-EBID) is a new nanofabrication technique developed in the last two years as an alternative to conventional EBID, which utilizes cumbersome gaseous precursors. Furthermore, LP-EBID using dilute aqueous precursors has been demonstrated to yield platinum (Pt) nanostructures with as-deposited metal content that is substantially higher than the purity achieved by EBID with currently available gaseous precursors. This advantage of LP-EBID--along with the ease of use, low cost, and relative innocuousness of the liquid precursors--holds promise for its practical applicability in areas such as rapid device prototyping and lithographic mask repair. One of the feasibility benchmarks for the LP-EBID method is the ability to deposit high-fidelity nanostructures on various substrate materials. In this study, we report the first observations of performing LP-EBID on bare and metal-coated silicon-nitride membranes, and compare the resulting Pt deposits to those obtained by LP-EBID on polyimide membranes in terms of nucleation, morphology, size dependence on electron dose, and purity.

  3. Vapor Phase Transport Synthesis of Zeolites from Sol-Gel Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    THOMA,STEVEN G.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-07-14

    A study of zeolite crystallization from sol-gel precursors using the vapor phase transport synthesis method has been performed. Zeolites (ZSM-5, ZSM-48, Zeolite P, and Sodalite) were crystallized by contacting vapor phase organic or organic-water mixtures with dried sodium silicate and dried sodium alumino-silicate gels. For each precursor gel, a ternary phase system of vapor phase organic reactant molecules was explored. The vapor phase reactant mixtures ranged from pure ethylene diamene, triethylamine, or water, to an equimolar mixture of each. In addition, a series of gels with varied physical and chemical properties were crystallized using the same vapor phase solvent mixture for each gel. The precursor gels and the crystalline products were analyzed via Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray mapping, X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen surface area, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and thermal analyses. The product phase and purity as a function of the solvent mixture, precursor gel structure, and precursor gel chemistry is discussed.

  4. A mesoderm-derived precursor for mesenchymal stem and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanik, Maxim A.; Yu, Junying; Zhang, Xin; Tian, Shulan; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A.; Slukvin, Igor I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Among the three embryonic germ layers, the mesoderm is a major source of the mesenchymal precursors giving rise to skeletal and connective tissues. These precursors, however, have not been previously identified and characterized. Using human embryonic stem cells directed to mesendodermal differentiation, here we show that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) originate from a population of mesodermal cells identified by expression of the apelin receptor. In semisolid medium, these precursors form FGF2-dependent compact spheroid colonies containing mesenchymal cells with a transcriptional profile representative of mesoderm-derived embryonic mesenchyme. When transferred to the adherent cultures, individual colonies give rise to MSC lines with chondro-, osteo-, and adipogenenic differentiation potentials. Although the MSC lines lacked endothelial potential, endothelial cells could be derived from mesenchymal colonies, suggesting that, similar to hematopoietic cells, MSCs arise from precursors with angiogenic potential. Together, these studies identified a common precursor of mesenchymal and endothelial cells, mesenchymoangioblast, as the source of mesoderm-derived MSCs. PMID:21112566

  5. Targeting neural precursors in the adult brain rescues injured dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas; Rueger, Maria A.; Park, Deric M.; Mkhikian, Haik; Korb, Erica; Poser, Steve W.; Walbridge, Stuart; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Koretsky, Alan P.; Lonser, Russel R.; McKay, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, multiple cell types in many brain regions are afflicted. As a consequence, a therapeutic strategy that activates a general neuroprotective response may be valuable. We have previously shown that Notch ligands support neural precursor cells in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that neural precursors express the angiopoietin receptor Tie2 and that injections of angiopoietin2 activate precursors in the adult brain. Signaling downstream of Tie2 and the Notch receptor regulate blood vessel formation. In the adult brain, angiopoietin2 and the Notch ligand Dll4 activate neural precursors with opposing effects on the density of blood vessels. A model of Parkinson's disease was used to show that angiopoietin2 and Dll4 rescue injured dopamine neurons with motor behavioral improvement. A combination of growth factors with little impact on the vasculature retains the ability to stimulate neural precursors and protect dopamine neurons. The cellular and pharmacological basis of the neuroprotective effects achieved by these single treatments merits further analysis. PMID:19628689

  6. CXCR6 Expression Is Important for Retention and Circulation of ILC Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Chea, Sylvestre; Possot, Cécilie; Perchet, Thibaut; Petit, Maxime; Cumano, Ana; Golub, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are present at mucosal sites and represent the first immune barrier against infections, but what contributes to their circulation and homing is still unclear. Using Rag2?/?Cxcr6Gfp/+ reporter mice, we assessed the expression and role of CXCR6 in the circulation of ILC precursors and their progeny. We identify CXCR6 expressing ILC precursors in the bone marrow and characterize their significant increase in CXCR6-deficient mice at steady state, indicating their partial retention in the bone marrow after CXCR6 ablation. Circulation was also impaired during embryonic life as fetal liver from CXCR6-deficient embryos displayed decreased numbers of ILC3 precursors. When injected, fetal CXCR6-deficient ILC3 precursors also fail to home and reconstitute ILC compartments in vivo. We show that adult intestinal ILC subsets have heterogeneous expression pattern of CXCR6, integrin ?4?7, CD62L, CD69, and CD44, with ILC1 and ILC3 being more likely tissue resident lymphocytes. Intestinal ILC subsets were unchanged in percentages and numbers in both mice. We demonstrate that the ILC frequency is maintained due to a significant increase of ILC peripheral proliferation, as well as an increased proliferation of the in situ ILC precursors to compensate their retention in the bone marrow. PMID:26494947

  7. Preparation and characterization of nano-cellulose with new shape from different precursor.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sonakshi; Jayaramudu, J; Das, Kunal; Reddy, Siva Mohan; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Liu, Dagang

    2013-10-15

    Three different precursor materials - 1. China cotton, 2. South African cotton, 3. Waste tissue papers were used to produce nano-cellulose by acid hydrolysis route. No chemical pretreatment has been done for the production of nano-cellulose from these precursors. Prepared nano-cellulose and their corresponding precursor materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis and Fourier transformed infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy. A comparative study of the characteristics was done with the properties of raw materials and with that of nano-cellulose. Shape and size of the nano cellulose generally depends on nature of the precursor and hydrolysis condition. Morphology study of nano-cellulose from different sources revealed range of length from 50 to 200 nm and diameter from 10 to 90 nm. Higher thermal stability and crystallinity of nano-cellulose were observed compared to that of precursor from TGA/DSC study. PMID:23987382

  8. Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C. A.; Ciardi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  9. Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Chittenden, J.P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C.A.; Ciardi, A.

    2006-01-05

    Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  10. Spinel formation for stabilizing simulated nickel-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kaimin; White, Tim; Leckie, James O

    2006-08-15

    The feasibility of stabilizing nickel-laden sludge from commonly available Al-rich ceramic precursors was investigated and accomplished with high nickel incorporation efficiency. To simulate the process, nickel oxide was mixed alternatively with gamma-alumina, corundum, kaolinite, and mullite and was sintered from 800 to 1480 degrees C. The nickel aluminate spinel (NiAl2O4) was confirmed as the stabilization phase for nickel and crystallized with efficiencies greater than 90% for all precursors above 1250 degrees C and 3-h sintering. The nickel-incorporation reaction pathways with these precursors were identified, and the microstructure and spinel yield were investigated as a function of sintering temperature with fixed sintering time. This study has demonstrated a promising process for forming nickel spinel to stabilize nickel-laden sludge from a wide range of inexpensive ceramic precursors, which may provide an avenue for economically blending waste metal sludges via the building industry processes to reduce the environmental hazards of toxic metals. The correlation of product textures and nickel incorporation efficiencies through selection of different precursors also provides the option of tailoring property-specific products. PMID:16955910

  11. Development of multifilament jelly-roll NbAl precursor for melt-quench processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudziak, M. K.; Wong, T.; Buta, F.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2002-05-01

    Nb3Al superconductors have shown promising performance compared to Nb3Sn conductors when processed by the Melt-Quench/Ordering Heat Treatment (MQ-OHT) process. In this process, a precursor wire containing a fine structure of Nb and Al is ohmically heated to temperatures in the range of 2000 °C to melt the Nb-Al, and is then rapidly quenched to form a supersaturated bcc phase. An ordering heat treatment is then applied to convert the bcc phase to superconducting A15 phase material. Typically, the fine Nb-Al structure in the precursor wire is obtained by the jelly-roll (JR) process. In order to achieve good critical properties by MQ-OHT, the input precursor wire must have a suitable Nb:Al thickness ratio, an Al layer thickness thin enough to allow uniform bcc phase formation, and an outer Nb sheath thickness large enough to prevent bursting during MQ-OHT processing. At present, the primary challenge for industry is to meet these demands in precursor wires of practical piece-length (>100 m). The results of Supercon's efforts in this area will be presented. Results of MQ-OHT trials on Supercon JR precursor wire will also be presented. These results suggest a more complicated relationship between Nb:Al thickness ratio and absolute Al layer thickness than has previously been realized.

  12. Time-Resolved WAXD and FTIR Studies on Imidization-Induced Molecular Ordering in Polyimide Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ree, Moonhor; Shin, Tae Joo; Lee, Byeongdu; Wang, Xiaodong; Youn, Hwa Shik; Lee, Ki-Bong

    2000-03-01

    In general, aromatic polyimides are not melt-processable and not soluble in common solvents so that they are always processed in their soluble precursor forms and followed by imidization. Most poyimide precursors are poorly ordered in the solid state but molecular ordering develops during imidization. In this study, the imidization-induced molecular ordering in precursors of PMDA-ODA polyimide was examined in detail by time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation source at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory while the degree of imidization was monitored by time-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy. The imidization was conducted isothermally and non-isothermally over 20-400 C under nitrogen atmosphere. The imidization behavior was dependent on the precursor types: polyamic acid started to imidize at 120 C while polyamic diethyl ester began to imidize at 190 C. The molecular ordering was strongly dependent on the degree of imidization: the molecular ordering was found to be developed as the imidization began. The molecular ordering behavior will be discussed in detail with considering precursor types and their imidization kinetics. [This study was supported in part by the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Science & Technology (G7 Project Program) and by POSCO].

  13. Precursor soot synthesis of fullerenes and nanotubes without formation of carbonaceous soot

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is a method for the synthesis of fullerenes and/or nanotubes from precursor soot without the formation of carbonaceous soot. The method comprises the pyrolysis of a hydrocarbon fuel source by heating the fuel source at a sufficient temperature to transform the fuel source to a condensed hydrocarbon. The condensed hydrocarbon is a reaction medium comprising precursor soot wherein hydrogen exchange occurs within the reaction medium to form reactive radicals which cause continuous rearrangement of the carbon skeletal structure of the condensed hydrocarbon. Then, inducing dehydrogenation of the precursor soot to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes free from the formation of carbonaceous soot by continued heating at the sufficient temperature and by regulating the carbon to hydrogen ratio within the reaction medium. The dehydrogenation process produces hydrogen gas as a by-product. The method of the present invention in another embodiment is also a continuous synthesis process having a continuous supply of the fuel source. The method of the present invention can also be a continuous cyclic synthesis process wherein the reaction medium is fed back into the system as a fuel source after extraction of the fullerenes and/or nanotube products. The method of the present invention is also a method for producing precursor soot in bulk quantity, then forming fullerenes and/or nanotubes from the precursor bulk.

  14. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Detection and Characterization of Degradation Precursors, Technical Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, P.; Meyer, R.M.; Fricke, J.M.; Prowant, M.S.; Coble, J.B.; Griffin, J.W.; Pitman, S.G.; Dahl, M.E.; Kafentzis, T.A.; Roosendaal, T.J.

    2012-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) technology in detecting material degradation precursors by initiating and growing cracks in selected materials and using NDE methods to measure crack precursors prior to the onset of cracking. Nuclear reactor components are subject to stresses over time that are not precisely known and that make the life expectancy of components difficult to determine. To prevent future issues with the operation of these plants because of unforeseen failure of components, NDE technology is needed that can be used to identify and quantify precursors to macroscopic degradation of materials. Some of the NDE methods being researched as possible solutions to the precursor detection problem are magnetic Barkhausen noise, nonlinear ultrasonics, acoustic emission, eddy current measurements, and guided wave technology. In FY12, the objective was to complete preliminary assessment of advanced NDE techniques for sensitivity to degradation precursors, using prototypical degradation mechanisms in laboratory-scale measurements. This present document reports on the deliverable that meets the following milestone: M3LW-12OR0402143 – Report detailing an initial demonstration on samples from the crack-initiation tests will be provided (demonstrating acceleration of the work).

  15. Relationship between organic precursors and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation in tropical water sources.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wang; Fang Yee, Lim; Jiangyong, Hu

    2014-12-01

    The presence of organic compounds in water sources is one of the concerns in water treatment. They are potential precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and thus induce health problems in humans. Among the emerging DBPs, carcinogenic compound N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been receiving attention during the last decade. This study examined the characteristics of organic components in various water sources and investigated their relationships with NDMA formation. Experiments were carried out on selected water samples from both natural water and wastewater. Results showed similar NDMA formation kinetics for both water sources. However, more contribution of NDMA precursors was found to be from the wastewater due to its higher organic nitrogen content. NDMA formation potential (NDMAFP) of secondary effluent ranged from 264 to 530 ng/L. A correlation study between organic compound characteristics and NDMAFP indicated that the majority of NDMA precursors came from dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compound with small molecular weight (smaller than 500 Da), with correlation R(2) = 0.898. Although secondary treatment removed more than 90% of NDMA precursors, the remaining precursors in secondary effluent would still pose a challenge for water quality. PMID:25473983

  16. A Python Analytical Pipeline to Identify Prohormone Precursors and Predict Prohormone Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Southey, Bruce R.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and hormones are signaling molecules that support cell–cell communication in the central nervous system. Experimentally characterizing neuropeptides requires significant efforts because of the complex and variable processing of prohormone precursor proteins into neuropeptides and hormones. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of the Python language to develop components of an bioinformatic analytical pipeline to identify precursors from genomic data and to predict cleavage as these precursors are en route to the final bioactive peptides. We identified 75 precursors in the rhesus genome, predicted cleavage sites using support vector machines and compared the rhesus predictions to putative assignments based on homology to human sequences. The correct classification rate of cleavage using the support vector machines was over 97% for both human and rhesus data sets. The functionality of Python has been important to develop and maintain NeuroPred (http://neuroproteomics.scs.uiuc.edu/neuropred.html), a user-centered web application for the neuroscience community that provides cleavage site prediction from a wide range of models, precision and accuracy statistics, post-translational modifications, and the molecular mass of potential peptides. The combined results illustrate the suitability of the Python language to implement an all-inclusive bioinformatics approach to predict neuropeptides that encompasses a large number of interdependent steps, from scanning genomes for precursor genes to identification of potential bioactive neuropeptides. PMID:19169350

  17. An Unusual Precursor Burst with Oscillations from SAX J1808.4-3658

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, E.

    2006-01-01

    We report the finding of an unusual, weak precursor to a thermonuclear X-ray burst from the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX 51808.4-3658. The burst in question was observed on Oct. 19, 2002 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) proportional counter array (PCA). The precursor began approx. equal to 1 s prior to the onset of a strong radius expansion burst, lasted for about 0.4 s, and exhibited strong oscillations at the 401 Hz spin frequency. Oscillations are not detected in the approx. equal to 0.5 s interval between the precursor and the main burst. The estimated peak photon flux and energy fluence of the precursor are about 1/25, and 1/500 that of the main burst, respectively. From joint spectral and temporal modeling, we find that an expanding burning region with a relatively low temperature on the spinning neutron star surface can explain the oscillations, as well as the faintness of the precursor with respect to the main part of the burst. We discuss some of the implications of our findings for the ignition and spreading of thermonuclear flames on neutron stars.

  18. La2Zr2O7 (LZ) Coatings by Liquid Feedstock Plasma Spraying: The Role of Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, William; Rossignol, Sylvie; Vardelle, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) is an innovative process for obtaining finely structured coatings from metallic salt solutions. Lanthanum and zirconium precursors were studied to understand their influence on lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) synthesis by SPPS. Thermal analysis revealed that the nature of the precursor and the solvent affected mixture decomposition by changing the decomposition temperature. The surface tensions of precursor solutions in various media were investigated and revealed the influence of the nature of the counter-cation. Different solutions of precursor mixtures were used to obtain La2Zr2O7 splats on metallic substrates. A decrease in solution surface tension led to an increase in splat size. Coating mechanisms by SPPS are governed by the nature of the precursors and solvents.

  19. Preparation of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Daniels, J. G.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Clemons, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers (SiC-Si3N4) by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors is reviewed. Precursor resin, which was prepared by heating tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane or tris(N-methylamino)phenylsilane to about 520 C, was drawn into fibers from the melt and then made unmeltable by humidity conditioning at 100 C and 95 percent relative humidity. The humidity treated precursor fibers were pyrolyzed to ceramic fibers with good mechanical properties and electrical resistivity. For example, SiC-Si3N4 fibers derived from tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane had a tensile rupture modulus of 29 million psi and electrical resistivity of 6.9 x ten to the 8th power omega-cm, which is ten to the twelfth power times greater than that obtained for graphite fibers.

  20. The group II intron ribonucleoprotein precursor is a large, loosely packed structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Shaikh, Tanvir R; Gupta, Kushol; Contreras-Martin, Lydia M; Grassucci, Robert A; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Frank, Joachim; Belfort, Marlene

    2011-04-01

    Group II self-splicing introns are phylogenetically diverse retroelements that are widely held to be the ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retrotransposons that insert into DNA. Folding of group II intron RNA is often guided by an intron-encoded protein to form a catalytically active ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that plays a key role in the activity of the intron. To date, possible structural differences between the intron RNP in its precursor and spliced forms remain unexplored. In this work, we have trapped the native Lactococcus lactis group II intron RNP complex in its precursor form, by deleting the adenosine nucleophile that initiates splicing. Sedimentation velocity, size-exclusion chromatography and cryo-electron microscopy provide the first glimpse of the intron RNP precursor as a large, loosely packed structure. The dimensions contrast with those of compact spliced introns, implying that the RNP undergoes a dramatic conformational change to achieve the catalytically active state. PMID:21131279

  1. Loss of T cell precursors after spaceflight and exposure to vector-averaged gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Chris C.; Banks, Krista E.; Gruener, Raphael; DeLuca, Dominick

    2003-01-01

    Using fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC), we examined the effects of spaceflight and vector-averaged gravity on T cell development. Under both conditions, the development of T cells was significantly attenuated. Exposure to spaceflight for 16 days resulted in a loss of precursors for CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ T cells in a rat/mouse xenogeneic co-culture. A significant decrease in the same precursor cells, as well as a decrease in CD4-CD8- T cell precursors, was also observed in a murine C57BL/6 FTOC after rotation in a clinostat to produce a vector-averaged microgravity-like environment. The block in T cell development appeared to occur between the pre-T cell and CD4+CD8+ T cell stage. These data indicate that gravity plays a decisive role in the development of T cells.

  2. The plasma dynamic synthesis of aluminum nitride in system with gaseous and solid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanenkov, I.; Sivkov, A.; Ivashutenko, A.; Shanenkova, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Aluminum nitride is widely-used material for semiconductor devices and ceramics production. Despite the large number of known ways to obtain AlN powder, the problem of synthesizing high-purity and nanosized product is still urgent. This paper shows results on plasma dynamic synthesis of aluminum nitride using system based coaxial magneto plasma accelerator. The influence of using gaseous or solid precursors on such characteristics of the final product as phase content and particle size distribution was investigated. According to X- Ray diffractometry AlN phase content is increased in the case of use of solid nitrogen- containing precursor (melamine) in comparison with the use of gaseous nitrogen. The particle sizes distribution histograms are built in accordance with the data of bright-field TEM-images and shown in this paper. The most of particles are less than 100 nm in both experiment but there are some differences, depended on the precursor type, that are also described.

  3. Synthesis of Plate-like Zinc Oxide Particles by the Transcription of Precursor's Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, S.; Goto, T.; Gobo, F.; Huang, Y. F.; Zhang, P. L.; Sato, T.

    2011-06-01

    Plate-like zinc contained precursors such as simonkoleite or basic sulphate were successfully synthesized by using equilmolar of Zn2+ / hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) acted as precursors, ethylene glycol(EG) as dispersant and surfactant additive, respectively. The reaction solution was sealed in a glass bottle and heated at 95°C for 3h. The zinc contained precursors possessed layered structure and plate-like morphology were successfully synthesized by controlling the zinc ions concentration, reaction temperature, organic solvent additives, anion additives. It was found that plate-like simonkolleite transformed to plate-like ZnO after calcination in air at 400°C, while it transformed to rod-like ZnO under hydrothermal conditions above 140°C. The additive of ethylene glycol decreased the particle size and affected the particle size distribution. The conductivity of the pressured powders was improved by small amount of Ga and Al doping followed by H2 reduction treatment at 500°C for 1h.

  4. Batch rotary kiln calcination of YBaCuO precursor powders

    SciTech Connect

    Shelukar, S.D.; Sundar, H.G.K.; Semiat, R.; Richardson, J.T.; Luss, D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Texas Center of Superconductivity)

    1993-02-01

    Precursor powders of Y[sub 1]Ba[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6 + x] (123) derived from spray roasting were calcined in a batch rotary kiln. The optimum conditions were 15 min in air at temperatures between 920 and 940C for 1.5 vol% solid loading. Pure 123 was formed in a single calcination step from homogeneous, micrometer-sized precursor material containing Y[sub 2]O[sub 3], CuO, and BaCO[sub 3]. Rotation speed did not affect the product quality, but longer calcination times are needed at higher loadings. Product agglomeration increased with increasing loading and decreasing rotation speed. In nitrogen, 123 decomposed so that a pure product could not be obtained. The BaCO[sub 3] decomposition is the rate-limiting step in the calcination. The presence of Ba(NO[sub 3])[sub 2] in the precursor led to formation of intermediate phases.

  5. Age and stage dependency of estrogen receptor expression by lymphocyte precursors

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Hideya; Kouro, Taku; Yokota, Takafumi; Comp, Phillip C.; Kincade, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Sex steroids negatively regulate B lymphopoiesis in adult mice. Paradoxically, lymphocytes arise during fetal life, when estrogen levels are high and maternal lymphopoiesis is suppressed. Here we demonstrate that embryonic B lymphopoiesis was unaffected by estrogen, but sensitive to glucocorticoids. Both fetal and adult precursors contained glucocorticoid receptor transcripts, but only adult precursors expressed estrogen receptor ? and ? together with the androgen receptor. Fetal hematopoietic cells did not efficiently acquire functional estrogen receptors after transplantation to irradiated adult mice. Sex steroid receptors were also expressed in a stage- and developmental age-dependent fashion in human precursors. A developmental switch in responsiveness of hematopoietic cells to sex steroids may be essential for formation of the immune system. PMID:11752459

  6. Folding Construction of a Pentacyclic Quadruply fused Polymer Topology with Tailored kyklo-Telechelic Precursors.

    PubMed

    Heguri, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tezuka, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-20

    A pentacyclic quadruply fused polymer topology has been constructed for the first time through alkyne-azide addition (click) and olefin metathesis (clip) reactions in conjunction with an electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA-CF) process. Thus, a spiro-type, tandem tetracyclic poly(tetrahydrofuran), poly(THF), precursor having two allyloxy groups at the opposite positions of the four ring units was prepared by the click-linking of one unit of an eight-shaped precursor having alkyne groups at the opposite positions with two units of a single-cyclic counterpart having an azide and an alkene group at the opposite positions. Both are obtainable through ESA-CF. The subsequent metathesis clip-folding of the tetracyclic precursor could afford a pentacyclic quadruply fused polymer product, of "shippo" form, in 19% yield. PMID:26059774

  7. Alkyl thiols as a sulfur precursor for the preparation of monodisperse metal sulfide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Chung, Youngsu

    2006-10-01

    We demonstrate a new method for preparing metal sulfide nanocrystals using alkyl thiols as a sulfur precursor. Alkyl thiols have many advantages for practical synthesis because they are miscible with most organic solvents and very stable under an air atmosphere. CdS nanocrystals were made with CdO and thiols with different alkyl chains such as n-octanethiol and octadecanethiol. They exhibited uniform size, highly crystalline structure and a sharp photoluminescence spectrum. Also, CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals can be prepared by single injection of a mixture consisting of alkyl thiol and Se in trioctylphosphine to a Cd precursor. A reaction scheme is proposed as alkyl thiols react with the metal precursor to form stable metal thiolate intermediates during the initial period of reaction, and the thiolate decomposes slowly to form homogeneous nuclei.

  8. Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( ?) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both ? and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

  9. Early phenotypic choices by neuronal precursors, revealed by clonal analysis of the chick embryo hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, A; Clarke, J D; Keynes, R; Fraser, S

    1994-06-01

    The mechanisms that generate diverse neuronal phenotypes within the central nervous system are thought to involve local cues or cell-cell interactions acting late in neurogenesis, perhaps as late as the last precursor cell division. We describe here a clonal analysis of neuronal development in the chick hindbrain, using an intracellular tracer to mark single precursor cells, that suggests the operation of an alternative strategy. The majority of clones, ranging from 1 to 46 cells, contained neurons of only one of several possible phenotypes. These single-phenotype clones were not positionally restricted within a rhombomere but were interspersed with other clones containing distinct phenotypes. The assignment of neuronal phenotype in this brain region may, therefore, be made in early precursors and remembered through several rounds of mitotic expansion and dispersal. PMID:8050364

  10. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). PMID:26304401

  11. Rapid Electron Beam Writing of Topologically Complex 3D Nanostructures Using Liquid Phase Precursor.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jeffrey S; Kottke, Peter A; Kim, Songkil; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2015-12-01

    Advancement of focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID) as a versatile direct-write additive nanoscale fabrication technique has been inhibited by poor throughput, limited choice of precursors, and restrictions on possible 3D topologies. Here, we demonstrate FEBID using nanoelectrospray liquid precursor injection to grow carbon and pure metal nanostructures via direct decomposition and electrochemical reduction of the relevant precursors, achieving growth rates 10(5) times greater than those observed in standard gas-phase FEBID. Initiating growth at the free surface of a liquid pool enables fabrication of complex 3D carbon nanostructures with strong adhesion to the substrate. Deposition of silver microstructures at similar growth rates is also demonstrated as a promising avenue for future development of the technique. PMID:26561872

  12. Treatment of Lignin Precursors to Improve their Suitability for Carbon Fibers: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Ryan; Naskar, Amit; Gallego, Nidia; Dai, Xuliang; Hausner, Andrew

    2015-04-17

    Lignin has been investigated as a carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although there have been a number of reports of successful lignin-based carbon fiber production at the lab scale, lignin-based carbon fibers are not currently commercially available. This review will highlight some of the known challenges, and also the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Lignin can come from different sources (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction methods (e.g. organosolv, kraft), meaning that lignin can be found with a diversity of purity and structure. The implication of these conditions on lignin as carbon fiber precursor is not comprehensively known, especially as the lignin landscape is evolving. The work presented in this review will help guide the direction of a project between GrafTech and ORNL to develop lignin carbon fiber technology, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office.

  13. Chlorine Incorporation for Enhanced Performance of Planar Perovskite Solar Cell Based on Lead Acetate Precursor.

    PubMed

    Qing, Jian; Chandran, Hrisheekesh-Thachoth; Cheng, Yuan-Hang; Liu, Xiao-Ke; Li, Ho-Wa; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Lo, Ming-Fai; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-21

    We show the effects of chlorine incorporation in the crystallization process of perovskite film based on a lead acetate precursor. We demonstrate a fabrication process for fast grain growth with highly preferred {110} orientation upon only 5 min of annealing at 100 °C. By studying the correlation between precursor composition and morphology, the growth dynamic of perovskite film in the current system is discussed. In particular, we found that both lead acetate precursor and Cl incorporation are beneficial to perovskite growth. While lead acetate allows fast crystallization process, Cl improves perovskite crystallinity. Planar perovskite solar cells with optimized parameters deliver a best power conversion efficiency of 15.0% and average efficiency of 14.0% with remarkable reproducibility and good stability. PMID:26442432

  14. Future consequences of the strengthening of the ENSO-ENSO precursors association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Gillies, R. R.; Hipps, L.; Huang, W. R.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    A series of the previous studies documented that ENSO would change in such a way that extreme ENSO happen more frequently and its association with the various precursors, such as sea surface anomalies over the Western North Pacific (WNP), become more robust. In this presentation, the multi-model and multi-ensemble analysis is performed to identify what are the consequences of these changes. For example, the 2013-2014 California drought was linked to the early phase of the ENSO, i.e., ENSO precursors, through an anomalous high-amplitude ridge system over the North Pacific Ocean. Under the global warming with more frequent extreme ENSO and the tighter ENSO-ENSO precursors association, what is the future of the drought over California and the Western United States? The multi-model archived in the CMIP5 and the multi-ensemble of CESM1 provide a unique opportunity to have more confident projection.

  15. Preparation of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Daniels, J. G.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Clemons, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers (SiC-Si3N4) by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors is reviewed. Precursor resin, which was prepared by heating tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane or tris(N-methylamino)phenylsilane to about 520 C, was drawn into fibers from the melt and then made unmeltable by humidity conditioning at 100 C and 95 percent relative humidity. The humidity treated precursor fibers were pyrolyzed to ceramic fibers with good mechanical properties and electrical resistivity. For example, SiC-Si3N4 fibers derived from tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane had a tensile rupture modulus of 29 million psi and electrical resistivity of 6.9 x ten to the 8th power omega-cm, which is ten to the twelfth power times greater than that obtained for graphite fibers.

  16. Designing high performance precursors for atomic layer deposition of silicon oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mallikarjunan, Anupama Chandra, Haripin; Xiao, Manchao; Lei, Xinjian; Pearlstein, Ronald M.; Bowen, Heather R.; O'Neill, Mark L.; Derecskei-Kovacs, Agnes; Han, Bing

    2015-01-15

    Conformal and continuous silicon oxide films produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are enabling novel processing schemes and integrated device structures. The increasing drive toward lower temperature processing requires new precursors with even higher reactivity. The aminosilane family of precursors has advantages due to their reactive nature and relative ease of use. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results that reveal the uniqueness of the monoaminosilane structure [(R{sub 2}N)SiH{sub 3}] in providing ultralow temperature silicon oxide depositions. Disubstituted aminosilanes with primary amines such as in bis(t-butylamino)silane and with secondary amines such as in bis(diethylamino)silane were compared with a representative monoaminosilane: di-sec-butylaminosilane (DSBAS). DSBAS showed the highest growth per cycle in both thermal and plasma enhanced ALD. These findings show the importance of the arrangement of the precursor's organic groups in an ALD silicon oxide process.

  17. Tangential migration of neuronal precursors of glutamatergic neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gerald J; Zhou, Yi; Stadel, Ryan P; Moss, Jonathan; Yong, Jing Hui A; Ito, Shiori; Kawasaki, Nicholas K; Phan, Alexander T; Oh, Justin H; Modak, Nikhil; Reed, Randall R; Toni, Nicolas; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li

    2015-07-28

    In a classic model of mammalian brain formation, precursors of principal glutamatergic neurons migrate radially along radial glia fibers whereas GABAergic interneuron precursors migrate tangentially. These migration modes have significant implications for brain function. Here we used clonal lineage tracing of active radial glia-like neural stem cells in the adult mouse dentate gyrus and made the surprising discovery that proliferating neuronal precursors of glutamatergic granule neurons exhibit significant tangential migration along blood vessels, followed by limited radial migration. Genetic birthdating and morphological and molecular analyses pinpointed the neuroblast stage as the main developmental window when tangential migration occurs. We also developed a partial "whole-mount" dentate gyrus preparation and observed a dense plexus of capillaries, with which only neuroblasts, among the entire population of progenitors, are directly associated. Together, these results provide insight into neuronal migration in the adult mammalian nervous system. PMID:26170290

  18. X Ray Precursors in GRBs and SGRs: outer X tails around a Precessing Gamma Jet

    E-print Network

    Daniele Fargion

    2000-11-27

    Weak isolated X-ray precursor events before the main Gamma Ray Burst, GRB, and also rare Soft Gamma Repeaters, SGR, events are in disagreement with any Fireball, or Magnetar, scenarios. These models are originated by an unique explosive event leading, by internal-external shock waves, to softer secondary trains following a main gamma signals. Indeed the earliest GRB980519,GRB981226 events as well as the latest and most distant identified one as GRB000131 are showing rare but well identified and distinct X Ray precursor, occurring tens of seconds or even a minute before the main GRB eruption. These weak X precursors bursts correspond to non-negligible energy powers, up to million Supernova ones. They are rare, about (3-6)% of all GRBs, but not unique. Similar huge explosive precursor are in total disagreement with a successive main Fireball GRB outburst. Comparable brief X-ray precursor flashes are found also in rarest and most detailed SGRs events as those observed on 27 and 29 August 1999 from SGR 1900+14. They are inconsistent with a Magnetar Fireball explosion. We interpret them as earlier marginal blazing of outlying X conical Jet tails surrounding a narrower gamma precessing,spinning beamed Jet in blazing mode toward the Earth; later re-crossing and better hitting of the target -the satellite detectors- is source of the main GRB (and SGR) observed structured event. The X Ray precursor existence is an additional remarkable evidence of the Precessing relativistic Jet Nature of both GRBs and SGRs.

  19. Comparison of amorphous iridium water-oxidation electrocatalysts prepared from soluble precursors.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, James D; Schley, Nathan D; Kushner-Lenhoff, Maxwell N; Winter, Andrew M; D'Souza, Francis; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W

    2012-07-16

    Electrodeposition of iridium oxide layers from soluble precursors provides a route to active thin-layer electrocatalysts for use on water-oxidizing anodes. Certain organometallic half-sandwich aqua complexes of iridium form stable and highly active oxide films upon electrochemical oxidation in aqueous solution. The catalyst films appear as blue layers on the anode when sufficiently thick, and most closely resemble hydrous iridium(III,IV) oxide by voltammetry. The deposition rate and cyclic voltammetric response of the electrodeposited material depend on whether the precursor complex contains a pentamethylcyclopentadieneyl (Cp*) or cyclopentadienyl ligand (Cp), and do not match, in either case, iridium oxide anodes prepared from non-organometallic precursors. Here, we survey our organometallic precursors, iridium hydroxide, and pre-formed iridium oxide nanoparticles. From electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN) studies, we find differences in the rate of electrodeposition of catalyst layers from the two half-sandwich precursors; however, the resulting layers operate as water-oxidizing anodes with indistinguishable overpotentials and H/D isotope effects. Furthermore, using the mass data collected by EQCN and not otherwise available, we show that the electrodeposited materials are excellent catalysts for the water-oxidation reaction, showing maximum turnover frequencies greater than 0.5 mol O(2) (mol iridium)(-1) s(-1) and quantitative conversion of current to product dioxygen. Importantly, these anodes maintain their high activity and robustness at very low iridium loadings. Our organometallic precursors contrast with pre-formed iridium oxide nanoparticles, which form an unstable electrodeposited material that is not stably adherent to the anode surface at even moderately oxidizing potentials. PMID:22725667

  20. The elastic precursor behavior of tantalum under dynamic loading, its implications and modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jow-Lian

    2010-03-01

    When elastic-plastic materials, such as metals, are subjected to moderately high strain rates or dynamic loadings, the plastic stress wave trails behind the elastic wave because of its slower wave speed. Due to the inherent time-dependent nature of the plastic deformation, the elastic precursor generally loads the material to a metastable elastic state at a stres level that is higher than the static strength of the material. This metastable state gradually relaxes to the equilibrium state and the relaxation results in the so-called precursor decay. In a recent work by Asay et al. (J. Appl. Phys., 2009), the inelastic response of annealed and cold-rolled pure polycrystalline tantalum at intermediate strain rates ({approx} 106/sec) was experimentally characterized with ramp wave loading. It was found that the precursor of the annealed tantalum showed little decay over a propagation distance of 6 mm even though the peak precursor stress was well above the static strength of the mateiral. The precursor for the cold-rolled sample was more dispersive and did not exhibit the characteristics depicted by the annealed samples. In this study, a constitutive model based on the concept of dislocation motion and generation was developed to gain insights into this somewhat unusual precursor behavior, particularly for the annealed samples, and the possible underlying deformation mechanisms for tantalum. Despite its simplicity, the model worked quite well for both the annealed and cold-rolled materials. The tantalum studied here essentially exhibits strong rate sensitivity and this behavior is modeled through the low dislocation density and the strong stress dependence of the dislocation velocity. Both of these contributions may be related to the low mobility of the screw dislocations in bcc metals. This low mobility may result from its extended, three-dimensional core structure.

  1. The influence of short-lived ozone precursor emissions on radiative climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Naik, V.; West, J. J.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Fiore, A. M.; Task Force On Hemispheric Transport Of Air Pollution Modeling Team

    2010-12-01

    Reductions in short-lived ozone precursor emissions change tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations, influencing global climate through the radiative budget of the atmosphere. Unlike long-lived greenhouse gases, the radiative forcing (RF) due to ozone depends on the location of its precursor emissions. We assess the effects of 20% reductions in anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds), individually and together, on the net global RF for emission reductions from four world regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia). We calculate the multi-model mean changes in ozone distributions and the global average methane abundance across an ensemble of global chemical transport models that contributed to the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) Source-Receptor Experiments. For methane, although the model perturbation simulations all used a uniform mixing ratio of 1760 parts per billion (ppb), we infer the steady-state changes in global methane abundance across the various model simulations using the losses by tropospheric OH. We employ the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) radiative transfer model to estimate the stratospheric-adjusted net RF due to changes in ozone and methane, for emissions reductions of each precursor from each region. We simulate monthly mean net radiation fluxes, and calculate the net RF as the difference in net fluxes between the base and perturbed simulations. Our analysis indicates how changes in emissions of each ozone precursor in each of the four regions affect tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations, the net global RF, and the net global RF per unit change in precursor emissions.

  2. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  3. Photo-lithography of xanthate precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) polymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ross Stefan; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2010-11-01

    Conjugated polymers such as poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their optoelectronic properties. The ability to control the lateral spatial resolution of conjugated polymers will allow for improved integration into electronic devices. Here, we present a method for photo-patterning xanthate precursor polymers leading to micron scale spatial control of conjugated poly(p-phenylenevinylene). Our photolithographic process is simple and direct, and should be amenable to a range of other xanthate or dithiocarbamate precursor PPV polymers.

  4. Multiresolution imaging of mantle reflectivity structure using SS and P'P' precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Gu, Yu J.

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of the mantle reflectivity structure is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract, and properly interpret, small seismic arrivals. Among the various data types and techniques, long-period SS/PP precursors and high-frequency receiver functions are routinely utilized to increase the confidence of the recovered mantle stratifications at distinct spatial scales. However, low resolution and a complex Fresnel zone are glaring weaknesses of SS precursors, while over-reliance on receiver distribution is a formidable challenge for the analysis of converted waves from oceanic regions. A promising high frequency alternative to receiver functions is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of ˜5 and ˜200 km, respectively, owing to their spectral content, shallow angle of incidence and near-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a novel processing method for both SS (or PP) and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, stacking, Radon transform and depth migration. A suite of synthetic tests is performed to quantify the fidelity and stability of this method under different data conditions. Our multiresolution survey of the mantle at targeted areas near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveal both olivine and garnet related transitions at depths below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, and the anomalous amplitudes near the plate boundary zone indicate a sharp (˜10 km thick) transition that likely resonates with the frequency content of P'P' precursors. The migration of SS precursors in this study shows no evidence of split 660 reflections, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite-perovskite transitions (740-750 km) are identified based on similarly processed high-frequency P'P' precursors. Additional findings of severely scattered energy in the lithosphere and distinct lower mantle reflections at ˜800 km could be potentially important but require further verifications. Overall, our improved imaging methods and the strong sensitivity of P'P' precursors to the existence, depth, sharpness and strength of reflective structures offer significant future promise for the understanding of mantle mineralogy and dynamics.

  5. Formation and Human Risk of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines Formed from Natural Precursors in Meat

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    2004-11-22

    A group of heterocyclic amines that are mutagens and rodent carcinogens form when meat is cooked to medium and well-done states. The precursors of these compounds are natural meat components: creatinine, amino acids and sugars. Defined model systems of dry-heated precursors mimic the amounts and proportions of heterocyclic amines found in meat. Results from model systems and cooking experiments suggest ways to reduce their formation and, thus, to reduce human intake. Human cancer epidemiology studies related to consumption of well-done meat products are listed and compared.

  6. Glycolaldehyde Is a Precursor of Pyridoxal Phosphate in Escherichia coli B1

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Yoshiki; Dempsey, Walter B.

    1973-01-01

    Carbon-labeled glycolaldehyde prepared from [14C]serine was used to supply the nutritional requirement of a pyridoxineless auxotroph of Escherichia coli. Pyridoxal phosphate isolated from bacteria so grown was found to have incorporated the radioactive glycolaldehyde with little dilution. The radioactivity which was unincorporated into pyridoxal phosphate was recovered almost entirely in the culture fluid. The results establish for the first time that glycolaldehyde is indeed a natural precursor of pyridoxal phosphate or it is readily converted to such a precursor. PMID:4583219

  7. Electrosynthesis of CZTS films by sulfurization of CZT precursor: Effect of soft annealing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurav, K. V.; Pawar, S. M.; Shin, Seung Wook; suryawanshi, M. P.; Agawane, G. L.; Patil, P. S.; Moon, Jong-Ha; Yun, J. H.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2013-10-01

    In the present work, CZTS thin films have been prepared by sulfurization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn (CZT) precursor. Prior to sulfurization, as-deposited CZT precursors have been soft annealed in Ar atmosphere at different temperatures (250-350 °C). The structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been investigated in detail. It is found that, soft annealing temperature has a significant impact on the properties of CZTS thin films. The systematic study on the improvement in the properties of CZTS films using soft annealing route has been studied and discussed.

  8. Methyl ricinoleate as platform chemical for simultaneous production of fine chemicals and polymer precursors.

    PubMed

    Dupé, Antoine; Achard, Mathieu; Fischmeister, Cédric; Bruneau, Christian

    2012-11-01

    The modification of methyl ricinoleate by etherification of the hydroxyl group was accomplished by using a nonclassical ruthenium-catalyzed allylation reaction and also by esterification. Methyl ricinoleate derivatives were engaged in ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions leading to biosourced 3,6-dihydropyran and ?,?-unsaturated lactone derivatives with concomitant production of polymer precursors. Sequential RCM/hydrogenation and RCM/cross-metathesis were also implemented as a straightforward method for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran and lactone derivatives as well as valuable monomers (i.e., polyamide precursors). PMID:23012229

  9. Physical Property of Magnesium Doped Barium Hexaferrite Particles By Citrate Precursor Route In Presence Of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Paladiya, Snehal; Chauhan, C. C.; Jotania, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    M-type Barium Magnesium hexaferrite with the composition BaMg{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was successfully prepared with and without surfactant by using a citrate precursor route. The obtained precursors were calcined at various temperatures. The crystalline structure, phase analysis and particle size were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. It is observed that the surfactant addition controls the microstructure of the formed Barium Magnesium hexaferrite particles and the type of surfactant plays a crucial role in deciding the morphology of particles.

  10. Thin Film CuInS2 Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis with Single-Source Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael H.; Banger, Kulinder K.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both horizontal hot-wall and vertical cold-wall atmospheric chemical spray pyrolysis processes deposited near single-phase stoichiometric CuInS2 thin films. Single-source precursors developed for ternary chalcopyrite materials were used for this study, and a new liquid phase single-source precursor was tested with a vertical cold-wall reactor. The depositions were carried out under an argon atmosphere, and the substrate temperature was kept at 400 C. Columnar grain structure was obtained with vapor deposition, and the granular structure was obtained with (liquid) droplet deposition. Conductive films were deposited with planar electrical resistivities ranging from 1 to 30 Omega x cm.

  11. Silicon structuring by etching with liquid chlorine and fluorine precursors using femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, C.; Simion, S.; Zamfirescu, M.; Ulmeanu, M.; Enculescu, M.; Radoiu, M.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the micrometer and submicrometer scale structuring of silicon by liquid chlorine and fluorine precursors with 200 fs laser pulses working at both fundamental (775 nm) and frequency doubled (387 nm) wavelengths. The silicon surface was irradiated at normal incidence by immersing the Si (111) substrates in a glass container filled with liquid chlorine (CCl{sub 4}) and fluorine (C{sub 2}Cl{sub 3}F{sub 3}) precursors. We report that silicon surfaces develop an array of spikes with single step irradiation processes at 775 nm and equally at 387 nm. When irradiating the Si surface with 400 pulses at 330 mJ/cm{sup 2} laser fluence and a 775 nm wavelength, the average height of the formed Si spikes in the case of fluorine precursors is 4.2 {mu}m, with a full width at half maximum of 890 nm. At the same irradiation wavelength chlorine precursors develop Si spikes 4 {mu}m in height and with a full width at half maximum of 2.3 {mu}m with irradiation of 700 pulses at 560 mJ/cm{sup 2} laser fluence. Well ordered areas of submicrometer spikes with an average height of about 500 nm and a width of 300 nm have been created by irradiation at 387 nm by chlorine precursors, whereas the fluorine precursors fabricate spikes with an average height of 700 nm and a width of about 200 nm. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the surface show that the formation of the micrometer and sub-micrometer spikes involves a combination of capillary waves on the molten silicon surface and laser-induced etching of silicon, at both 775 nm and 387 nm wavelength irradiation. The energy-dispersive x-ray measurements indicate the presence of chlorine and fluorine precursors on the structured surface. The fluorine precursors create a more ordered area of Si spikes at both micrometer and sub-micrometer scales. The potential use of patterned Si substrates with gradient topography as model scaffolds for the systematic exploration of the role of 3D micro/nano morphology on cell adhesion and growth is envisaged.

  12. Incorporation of labeled ribonucleic acid precursors into maternal and fetal rat tissues during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Dorko, M.E.; Hayashi, T.T.

    1986-04-01

    Tritium-labeled ribonucleic acid precursors, including cytidine, uridine, and orotic acid, were injected into rats with dated pregnancies (14 to 21 days) and virgin rats. The acid-insoluble counts indicating incorporation into fetal and placental tissues showed that the highest incorporation occurred with cytidine, particularly earlier in pregnancy. In contrast, uridine demonstrated a minor degree of incorporation but displayed facile and enhanced transplacental passage with duration of pregnancy as represented by acid-soluble counts. Orotic acid was minimally used by both fetal and placental tissues. The incorporation of labeled precursors into maternal liver, heart, and kidney demonstrated varying responses during the course of pregnancy.

  13. Biomimetic Intrafibrillar Mineralization of Type I Collagen with Intermediate Precursors-loaded Mesoporous Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiao-juan; Niu, Li-na; Yang, Hong-ye; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Wang, Tian-da; Zhou, Li-qun; Mao, Jing; Huang, Cui; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2015-01-01

    Limited continuous replenishment of the mineralization medium is a restriction for in-situ solution-based remineralization of hypomineralized body tissues. Here, we report a process that generated amine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for sustained release of biomimetic analog-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate precursors. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional collagen models can be intrafibrillarly mineralized with these released fluidic intermediate precursors. This represents an important advance in the translation of biomineralization concepts into regimes for in-situ remineralization of bone and teeth. PMID:26053330

  14. Deciphering the Enigma of Lignification: Precursor Transport, Oxidation, and the Topochemistry of Lignin Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Liu C. J.

    2012-03-01

    Plant lignification is a tightly regulated complex cellular process that occurs via three sequential steps: the synthesis of monolignols within the cytosol; the transport of monomeric precursors across plasma membrane; and the oxidative polymerization of monolignols to form lignin macromolecules within the cell wall. Although we have a reasonable understanding of monolignol biosynthesis, many aspects of lignin assembly remain elusive. These include the precursors transport and oxidation, and the initiation of lignin polymerization. This review describes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol transport and oxidation, discusses the intriguing yet least-understood aspects of lignin assembly, and highlights the technologies potentially aiding in clarifying the enigma of plant lignification.

  15. Polymethacrylic acid as a new precursor of CuO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Nasser Mohammed; Zoromba, Mohamed Shafick

    2012-11-01

    Polymethacrylic acid and its copper complexes have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes have been used as precursors to produce CuO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition in air. The stages of decompositions and the calcination temperature of the precursors have been determined from thermal analyses (TGA). The obtained CuO nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD showed a monoclinic structure with particle size 8-20 nm for the synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are catalytically active in decomposing hydrogen peroxide and a mechanism of decomposition has been suggested.

  16. Precursor NK cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma-report of a case with literature review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonal; Kumar, Rajiv; Purohit, Abhishek; Pati, Hara Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Precursor Natural Killer (NK) cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma is a rare entity defined clearly by WHO (2008 WHO classification). However, the pathobiology of this subset of neoplasms is not clearly defined. There is wide disparity in the literature regarding the nomenclature and diagnostic criteria used to diagnose and characterize acute leukemias of presumed NK cell origin. In the present article we report a case of Precursor NK cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and review the cases reported after 2008 WHO classification came into vogue, as acute leukemias of NK cell origin. PMID:25332598

  17. A novel and inexpensive wet chemical route for precursor synthesis of synroc monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Madhavan, R.; Gandhi, A. S.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Synroc waste forms containing a simulated nuclear waste of fast reactor origin were synthesized employing a simple and inexpensive wet chemical method by completely avoiding the use of organic reagents. Peroxytitanic acid prepared by dissolving titanium metal powder in an alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution was used as source for titania; the other constituents were taken as metal nitrates. A nano precursor with high surface area was obtained by co-precipitation, and it gave a dense synroc monolith on sintering. The precursor and final product were characterized by TG-DTA coupled with EG-MS, XRD, SEM and BET.

  18. Unsupervised lineage-based characterization of primate precursors reveals high proliferative and morphological diversity in the OSVZ.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Michael; Betizeau, Marion; Waltispurger, Julie; Pfister, Sabina Sara; Douglas, Rodney J; Kennedy, Henry; Dehay, Colette

    2016-02-15

    Generation of the primate cortex is characterized by the diversity of cortical precursors and the complexity of their lineage relationships. Recent studies have reported miscellaneous precursor types based on observer classification of cell biology features including morphology, stemness, and proliferative behavior. Here we use an unsupervised machine learning method for Hidden Markov Trees (HMTs), which can be applied to large datasets to classify precursors on the basis of morphology, cell-cycle length, and behavior during mitosis. The unbiased lineage analysis automatically identifies cell types by applying a lineage-based clustering and model-learning algorithm to a macaque corticogenesis dataset. The algorithmic results validate previously reported observer classification of precursor types and show numerous advantages: It predicts a higher diversity of progenitors and numerous potential transitions between precursor types. The HMT model can be initialized to learn a user-defined number of distinct classes of precursors. This makes it possible to 1) reveal as yet undetected precursor types in view of exploring the significant features of precursors with respect to specific cellular processes; and 2) explore specific lineage features. For example, most precursors in the experimental dataset exhibit bidirectional transitions. Constraining the directionality in the HMT model leads to a reduction in precursor diversity following multiple divisions, thereby suggesting that one impact of bidirectionality in corticogenesis is to maintain precursor diversity. In this way we show that unsupervised lineage analysis provides a valuable methodology for investigating fundamental features of corticogenesis. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:535-563, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26053631

  19. Extended winter Pacific North America oscillation as a precursor of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    E-print Network

    of the amount of precipitation received during the monsoon season (June to September) can cause severe droughtsExtended winter Pacific North America oscillation as a precursor of the Indian summer monsoon of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is still a challenge for both statistical and dynamical tools. We

  20. Reflective Thinking and Teaching Practices: A Precursor for Incorporating Critical Thinking into the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…

  1. Pressureless nanoimprinting of anatase TiO2 precursor films Dustin A. Richmond

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    imprint equipment. A titanium butoxide-based sol precursor is prepared with a heavy alcohol, methoxy-feedback quantum-dot lasers;10 another proposed use is as dielectric cladding for diffractive back reflectors the patterning of small pillars.16 This previous work, however, had the disad- vantage of requiring pressure

  2. Shaping Reactor Microbiomes to Produce the Fuel Precursor nButyrate from Pretreated Cellulosic Hydrolysates

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Shaping Reactor Microbiomes to Produce the Fuel Precursor nButyrate from Pretreated Cellulosic of the microbiome, and that the microbiome, in turn, affected the performance. Operating conditions are an important factor (tool for operators) to shape reactor microbiomes, but other factors, such as substrate

  3. Engagement: Precursor to Learning for Welfare Recipients in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Mary; Durant, Chas; Mincey, Rosemarie

    2003-01-01

    Six adult basic education programs were examined to understand why they reported higher than average attendance for welfare recipients. Learners saw class not as mandatory, but as a way to achieve goals. Programs focused on engagement, a precursor to learning. Engagement factors included beliefs about teaching/learning, relationships, learning…

  4. Primary structure of the human follistatin precursor and its genomic organization

    SciTech Connect

    Shimasaki, Shunichi; Koga, Makoto; Esch, F.; Cooksey, K.; Mercado, M.; Koba, A.; Ueno, Naoto; Ying, Shaoyao; Ling, N.; Guillemin, R. )

    1988-06-01

    Follistatin is a single-chain gonadal protein that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone release. By use of the recently characterized porcine follistatin cDNA as a probe to screen a human testis cDNA library and a genomic library, the structure of the complete human follistatin precursor as well as its genomic organization have been determined. Three of eight cDNA clones that were sequenced predicted a precursor with 344 amino acids, whereas the remaining five cDNA clones encoded a 317 amino acid precursor, resulting from alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA. Mature follistatins contain four contiguous domains that are encoded by precisely separated exons; three of the domains are highly similar to each other, as well as to human epidermal growth factor and human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor. The genomic organization of the human follistatin is similar to that of the human epidermal growth factor gene and thus supports the notion of exon shuffling during evolution.

  5. Molecular diversity in phenolic and polyphenolic precursors of tannin-inspired nanocoatings

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Devin G.; Sileika, Tadas S.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2014-01-01

    The strong interfacial properties of selected plant polyphenols were recently exploited in forming functionally versatile nanocoatings via dip-coating. Here, we screened a library of ~20 natural and synthetic phenols and polyphenols, identifying eight catechol-, gallol- and resorcinol-rich precursors capable of forming coatings. Several newly identified compounds expand the molecular diversity of tannin-inspired coatings. PMID:24871486

  6. A Review of Single Source Precursors for the Deposition of Ternary Chalcopyrite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, K. K.; Cowen, J.; Harris, J.; McClarnon, R.; Hehemann, D. G.; Duraj, S. A.; Scheiman, D.; Hepp, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified durable substrates (i.e. Kapton) provides an attractive solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The syntheses and thermal modulation of ternary single source precursors, based on the [{LR}2Cu(SR')2In(SR')2] architecture in good yields are described. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and Low temperature Differential Scanning Caloriometry, (DSC) demonstrate that controlled manipulation of the steric and electronic properties of either the group five-donor and/or chalcogenide moiety permits directed adjustment of the thermal stability and physical properties of the precursors. TGA-Evolved Gas Analysis, confirms that single precursors decompose by the initial extrusion of the sulphide moiety, followed by the loss of the neutral donor group, (L) to release the ternary chalcopyrite matrix. X-ray diffraction studies, EDS and SEM on the non-volatile pyrolized material demonstrate that these derivatives afford single-phase CuInS2/CuInSe2 materials at low temperature. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that these single source precursors can be used in a spray chemical vapor deposition process, for depositing CuInS2 onto flexible polymer substrates at temperatures less than 400 C.

  7. Dissociation Channels of the 1-Propenyl Radical and Its Photolytic Precursor cis-1-Bromopropene

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    Dissociation Channels of the 1-Propenyl Radical and Its Photolytic Precursor cis-1-Bromopropene photodissociation dynamics of cis-1-bromopropene upon excitation at 193 nm and the unimolecular dissociation. The lowest-energy dissociation barrier of the 1-propenyl radical is experimentally determined for the first

  8. Adult neurogenesis and repair of the adult CNS with neural progenitors, precursors, and stem cells

    E-print Network

    Adult neurogenesis and repair of the adult CNS with neural progenitors, precursors, and stem cells Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Edwards 410 (EDR 410), 50'', Charite´ University Medicine Berlin, and Research Group ``Neuronal Stem Cells'', Max Delbru¨ck Center

  9. Murine Sca1(+)Lin(-) bone marrow contains an endodermal precursor population that differentiates into hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keunhee; Shon, Suh Youn; Seo, Myung Won; Lee, Hak Mo; Oh, Ju-Eun; Choi, Eun Young; Lee, Dong-Sup; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-01-01

    The direct differentiation of hepatocytes from bone marrow cells remains controversial. Several mechanisms, including transdifferentiation and cell fusion, have been proposed for this phenomenon, although direct visualization of the process and the underlying mechanisms have not been reported. In this study, we established an efficient in vitro culture method for differentiation of functioning hepatocytes from murine lineage-negative bone marrow cells. These cells reduced liver damage and incorporated into hepatic parenchyma in two independent hepatic injury models. Our simple and efficient in vitro protocol for endodermal precursor cell survival and expansion enabled us to identify these cells as existing in Sca1(+) subpopulations of lineage-negative bone marrow cells. The endodermal precursor cells followed a sequential developmental pathway that included endodermal cells and hepatocyte precursor cells, which indicates that lineage-negative bone marrow cells contain more diverse multipotent stem cells than considered previously. The presence of equivalent endodermal precursor populations in human bone marrow would facilitate the development of these cells into an effective treatment modality for chronic liver diseases. PMID:26427852

  10. Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to self-renewing, tripotent neural precursor cells

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    a Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Departments of d Pathology, b Genetics, and c and MafA, efficiently con- verts pancreatic exocrine cells or hepatic cells into functional B cellsDirect conversion of mouse fibroblasts to self-renewing, tripotent neural precursor cells Ernesto

  11. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum and gallium nitride thin films from metalorganic precursors

    E-print Network

    Economou, Demetre J.

    Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum and gallium nitride thin films from metalorganic precursors Nearly stoichiometric aluminum and gallium nitride thin films were prepared from hexakis dimethylamido potential for microelectronic and optoelectronic devices.1 Gallium ni- tride has a direct band gap of 3.4 e

  12. Luteinizing Hormone, a Reproductive Regulator That Modulates the Processing of Amyloid-Precursor Protein and

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Luteinizing Hormone, a Reproductive Regulator That Modulates the Processing of Amyloid- Precursor/castration. Because sex steroids and gonadotropins are both part of the HPG feedback loop, any loss in sex steroids results in a proportionate in- crease in gonadotropins. To assess whether A genera- tion was due

  13. Arginine and ornithine are the main precursors for citrulline synthesis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent isotopic tracer studies in mice, piglets, and humans have produced conflicting results as to the main carbon skeleton precursor for citrulline and arginine synthesis. This may be due in part to the different tracers infused and models utilized to interpret the stable isotope data. Furthermore...

  14. 40 CFR 141.135 - Treatment technique for control of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment technique for control of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors. 141.135 Section 141.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Disinfectant Residuals, Disinfection...

  15. MatureBayes: A Probabilistic Algorithm for Identifying the Mature miRNA within Novel Precursors

    E-print Network

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    MatureBayes: A Probabilistic Algorithm for Identifying the Mature miRNA within Novel Precursors available for identifying miRNA genes, accurate prediction of the mature miRNA remains a challenge. Existing approaches fall short in predicting the location of mature miRNAs but also in finding the functional strand

  16. TRANSIENT BEHAVIOUR OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE PRECURSORS IN A GLOBAL 3-D CTM AND THEIR INDIRECT

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, David

    TRANSIENT BEHAVIOUR OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE PRECURSORS IN A GLOBAL 3-D CTM AND THEIR INDIRECT- ane (CH4), organic compounds, hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Each of these trace gases has Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. #12;464 R. G. DERWENT ET AL. tropospheric distribution of hydroxyl

  17. Enabling Surgical Placement of Hydrogels Through Achieving Paste-Like Rheological Behavior in Hydrogel Precursor Solutions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Emily C; Lohman, Brooke L; Tabakh, Daniel B; Kieweg, Sarah L; Gehrke, Stevin H; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogels are a promising class of materials for tissue regeneration, but they lack the ability to be molded into a defect site by a surgeon because hydrogel precursors are liquid solutions that are prone to leaking during placement. Therefore, although the main focus of hydrogel technology and developments are on hydrogels in their crosslinked form, our primary focus is on improving the fluid behavior of hydrogel precursor solutions. In this work, we introduce a method to achieve paste-like hydrogel precursor solutions by combining hyaluronic acid nanoparticles with traditional crosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels. Prior to crosslinking, the samples underwent rheological testing to assess yield stress and recovery using linear hyaluronic acid as a control. The experimental groups containing nanoparticles were the only solutions that exhibited a yield stress, demonstrating that the nanoparticulate rather than the linear form of hyaluronic acid was necessary to achieve paste-like behavior. The gels were also photocrosslinked and further characterized as solids, where it was demonstrated that the inclusion of nanoparticles did not adversely affect the compressive modulus and that encapsulated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells remained viable. Overall, this nanoparticle-based approach provides a platform hydrogel system that exhibits a yield stress prior to crosslinking, and can then be crosslinked into a hydrogel that is capable of encapsulating cells that remain viable. This behavior may hold significant impact for hydrogel applications where a paste-like behavior is desired in the hydrogel precursor solution. PMID:25691398

  18. Identification of a new N-nitrosodimethylamine precursor in sewage containing industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Ohkubo, Keiko; Iwamoto, Takuji; Tanaka, Yasuo; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Echigo, Shinya; Akiba, Michihiro

    2014-10-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potential human carcinogen, is known to be a disinfection byproduct of chloramination and ozonation. NDMA is formed during ozonation at water purification plants in the Yodo River basin, a major drinking water source in western Japan. An NDMA precursor, 1,1,5,5-tetramethylcarbohydrazide (TMCH) was identified in sewage containing industrial effluents via ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mean of the NDMA molar formation yield of TMCH upon ozonation in four water matrices was 140%. TMCH removal was low during biological treatment processes at a sewage treatment plant. The mean TMCH contribution to total NDMA precursors upon ozonation of the primary, secondary, and final effluents of the sewage treatment plant in January and February of 2014 was 43-72%, 51-72%, and 42-60%, respectively, while the contributions of 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(1,1-dimethylsemicarbazide) and 1,1,1',1'-tetramethyl-4,4'-(methylene-di-p-phenylene)disemicarbazide, two other known NDMA precursors, were limited to 0.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Thus, TMCH was identified as the primary precursor yielding NDMA upon ozonation in the Yodo River basin. PMID:25184404

  19. Engineering Clostridium acetobutylicum for production of kerosene and diesel blendstock precursors

    E-print Network

    Toste, Dean

    Engineering Clostridium acetobutylicum for production of kerosene and diesel blendstock precursors of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA b Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University Biodiesel Solvent tolerance Heterogeneous catalysis Butanol Metabolic engineering a b s t r a c t Processes

  20. Two-dimensional direct numerical simulation of nanoparticle precursor evolution in turbulent flames using detailed chemistry

    E-print Network

    Raman, Venkat

    using detailed chemistry Ravi Singh , Venkat Raman Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering for precursor oxidation and fuel combustion. " Species profiles closely follow laminar diffusion flame structure. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 24 July 2012 Keywords: Flame synthesis