Science.gov

Sample records for gamma-thionin-like soybean se60

  1. Antimicrobial activity of {gamma}-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yeonhee Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-10-17

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat {gamma}-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl {beta}-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants.

  2. Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary vulnerability of soybean production to climate change is likely to be from the effects of drought, which may be exacerbated by high temperature events. Technological adaptation can likely take advantage of warming in some production areas and rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon ...

  3. Soybean Overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean is a legume and oilseed as well. Its bushy plants grow annually, adapt to a wide range of soils and climates, and enrich soils with nitrogen. Its seeds are valued for unique composition and versatile end uses as food, feed, and industrial materials. Currently, the soybean is an importa...

  4. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  5. Polyamines in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wang, L C

    1972-07-01

    Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were three main polyamines isolated from soybeans and partially characterized. Occurrence of polyamines in soybeans was established by separating trichloroacetic acid extracts of soybeans by cationic exchange column chromatography, identification with thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, mass spectral analysis, reactions with ninhydrin and Dragendorff reagents, and spectrophotometric characteristics. Soybeans contained a minimum of 29.0 micrograms of polyamines per gram of full-fat flour. The alcohol-soluble fraction of soybeans contained polyamines also. Resting seeds contained spermidine in higher concentration than either putrescine or spermine. Spermine appeared to be present in lowest concentration. Preliminary experiments suggested that some polyamines were possibly in bound forms. PMID:16658112

  6. Inheritance of soybean aphid resistance from soybean PI 71506

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) continually establish populations of economic importance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production areas. Insecticide application costs and yield losses prompt the development of resistant varieties. The soybean germplasm accession PI 71506 has been s...

  7. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  8. Soybean irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important crop and a major component of the agricultural economy in the Missouri Bootheel and throughout Missouri. USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported that in 2012, 960 thousand acres of soybeans were harvested in Southeast Missouri (Butler, Cape Girardeau, ...

  9. Soybean defense responses to the soybean aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcript profiles in resistant (cv. Dowling) and susceptible (cv. Williams 82) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes were compared at 6 and 12 h with and without aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) infestation using cDNA microarrays. One hundred and sixteen genes showed specific responses in r...

  10. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  11. Soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode interactions in the field and effects on soybean yield.

    PubMed

    Hong, S C; MacGuidwin, A; Gratton, C

    2011-10-01

    How above- and belowground plant pests interact with each other and how these interactions affect productivity is a relatively understudied aspect of crop production. Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a root parasite of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is the most threatening pathogen in soybean production and soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an aboveground phloem-feeding insect that appeared in North America in 2000, is the key aboveground herbivore of soybean in the midwestern United States. Now, both soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode co-occur in soybean-growing areas in the Upper Midwest. The objectives of this study were to examine aphid colonization patterns and population growth on soybean across a natural gradient of nematode density (range, approximately 900 and 27,000 eggs per 100 cm3 soil), and to investigate the effect of this pest complex on soybean productivity. Alate (winged) soybean aphid colonization of soybean was negatively correlated to soybean cyst nematode egg density (r = -0.363, P = 0.0095) at the end of July, at the onset of peak alate colonization. However, both a manipulative cage study and openly colonized plants showed that soybean cyst nematode density below ground was unrelated to variation in aphid population growth (r approximately -0.01). Based on regression analyses, soybean aphids and cyst nematodes had independent effects on soybean yield through effects on different yield components. High soybean cyst nematode density was associated with a decline in soybean yield (kg ha(-1)), whereas increasing soybean aphid density (both alate and apterous) significantly decreased seed weight (g 100 seeds(-1)). PMID:22066186

  12. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  13. Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate prediction of the level of yield loss caused by soybean aphid feeding is considered to be the crux of integrated pest management for these pests. Despite the accumulating literature on the soybean aphid, there are currently few published data on the effects of soybean aphid populations on ...

  14. Dissecting the molecular response of soybean to Asian soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) is now a threat to soybean production in all major growing regions in the world. This potentially devastating disease is caused by the obligate fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi and resistance in soybean germplasm is limited. Moreover, this resistance is generally obse...

  15. Relationships between soybean shoot nitrogen components and soybean aphid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining the relationships between soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr.) shoot nitrogen (N) components and soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) populations will increase understanding of the biology of this important insect pest. In this 2-year field study, caged soybean plants were infested with so...

  16. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  17. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2011-04-26

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  18. Antagonistic effects of soybean viruses on soybean aphid performance.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jack R; Gratton, Claudio

    2007-08-01

    Although there is long-standing recognition that pest complexes require different management approaches than individual pests, relatively little research has explored how pests interact. In particular, little is known of how herbivorous insects and plant pathogens interact when sharing the same host plant. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Mastumura, a recently introduced pest of soybean in the upper midwestern United States, and a complex of plant viruses vectored to soybean by insects have become a major concern for growers in the region. Given the abundance of soybean aphid and the increase in virus incidence in recent years, soybean aphids often use soybean infected by plant viral pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that soybean aphid performance is affected by virus infection of soybean plants. We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments that examined how infection of soybeans with the common plant viruses, alfalfa mosaic, soybean mosaic, and bean pod mottle viruses, influenced soybean aphid performance. Soybean plants (in the field and laboratory) were hand inoculated with individual viruses, and aphids were allowed to colonize plants naturally in field experiments or added to the plants in clip-cages or within mesh bags in laboratory assays. In the field, aphid density on uninfected control soybean plants was nearly double that on infected plants. In laboratory assays, aphid population growth rates were on average 20% lower for aphids on virus infected compared with uninfected plants. Life table analyses showed that increased mortality on virus-infected plants likely explain differences in aphid population growth. Although there was some heterogeneity in the significance of treatment effects among different experiments, when independent experiments are taken together, there is on average an overall negative effect of these viruses on soybean aphids. PMID:17716484

  19. Soybean Molecular Genetic Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of the various DNA marker types used in the assessment of molecular genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is followed by a description of a number of studies on the assessment of genetic diversity. These studies include a review of reports on 1) the quantification and comp...

  20. Management Affects Soybean Nodulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation may contribute 40 – 70% of the nitrogen required by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] during the growing season. Therefore, sustaining nitrogen input is critical for profitable grain yield and sustaining long-term soil productivity. We evaluated management practices used...

  1. Sunflowers versus soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.D.C.

    1980-10-01

    While both soybeans and sunflowers provide oil and protein, sunflowers offer the higher potential yield of oil per hectare. Research to modify vegetable oils to improve their fuel properties is suggested, particularly on improving the characteristics of the oil as a fuel for diesel engines.

  2. SOYBEAN APHID ABUNDANCE AMONG CONTEMPORARY SOYBEAN LINES IN A GROWTH-CHAMBER TEST, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance of soybean aphid was compared among eight contemporary soybean lines in a growth chamber test. All soybean lines had >500 soybean aphids per plant 2 wks after infestation. The number of soybean aphids per plant differed among lines, with Surge and 91B91 having more soybean aphids tha...

  3. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  4. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  5. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  6. Inheritance of soybean aphid resistance in 21 soybean plant introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid [Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] is one of the most important insect pests on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] in the northern USA and southern Canada, and four resistance loci (Rag1 to 4) have been discovered since the pest was identified in the USA in 2000. The ob...

  7. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  8. EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS, 'WILLIAMS' ISOGENIC LINES, AND OTHER SELECTED SOYBEAN LINES FOR RESISTANCE TO TWO SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS STRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cultivars grown in the U.S. have a relatively narrow genetic base. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most common soybean viruses worldwide. The resistance/susceptibility of most commercial cultivars to SMV is not known. Commercial and pre-commercial soybean cultivars were screene...

  9. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  10. Food Use of Whole Soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is a chapter for a book entitled “Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing and Utilization”, edited by L.A. Johnson, P.J. White and R. Galloway, to be published by AOCS Press, Champaign, IL. According to the book outline, this book is a monograph on every things about soybeans, ...

  11. DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: CHARCOAL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield losses due to charcoal rot occur regularly. Yield losses of 20-30% due to root and stem infections of soybean caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Macrophomina phaseolina have been reported in some fields in years highly favorable for disease development. This bulletin summarizes the...

  12. SOYBEAN.APHID.LH.2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of soybean aphid (SA) resistance was characterized among 496 soybean lines in a twice-replicated field-plot test at the Eastern South Dakota Soil and Water Research Farm near Brookings, SD, in 2009. Natural infestations of SA occurred but were supplemented by placing individual stems of ...

  13. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  14. THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  10. Soybean aphids making their summer appearance early

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two small, soft-bodied insects have begun showing up in South Dakota soybean. One is the soybean aphid, and the other is a mealybug. Soybean aphids are yellow to yellow/green and are usually found feeding on the underside of leaves. Incidence of soybean aphid has been a bit higher than typical fo...

  11. Airflow resistance in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenghe, R. N.; Nimkar, P. M.; Shirkole, S. S.; Shinde, K. J.

    2012-04-01

    Resistance of material to airflow is an important factor to consider in the design of a dryer or an aeration system. The airflow resistance of soybean was determined with the modified airflow resistance apparatus. It was found that pressure drop increased with increase in airflow rate, bulk density, bed depth and decreased with moisture content. Modified Shedd equation, Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation were examined for pressure drop prediction. Airflow resistance was accurately described by modified Shedd equation followed by Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation. The developed statistical model comprised of airflow rate, moisture content and bulk density could fit pressure drop data reasonably well.

  12. Plastid transformation in soybean.

    PubMed

    Dubald, Manuel; Tissot, Ghislaine; Pelissier, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The biotechnological potential of plastid genetic engineering has been illustrated in a limited number of higher plant species. We have developed a reproducible method to generate plastid transformants in soybean (Glycine max), a crop of major agronomic importance. The transformation vectors are delivered to embryogenic cultures by the particle gun method and selection performed using the aadA antibiotic resistance gene. Homoplasmy is established rapidly in the selected events without the need for further selection or regeneration cycles, and genes of interest can be expressed at a high level in green tissues. This is a significant step toward the commercial application of this technology. PMID:24599865

  13. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. PMID:24128586

  14. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Luth, Diane; Warnberg, Katey; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we describe an Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation method of soybean that utilizes mature half seeds and regeneration from the cotyledonary node region. This method results in fertile transformed soybean plants and transgenic seed in approximately 9 months. Using mature half seeds as starting material has proven to be a reliable method that does not require additional wounding for infection to occur. We have continued to make improvements in the protocol, resulting in an efficient plant regeneration system. PMID:25300848

  15. Quantification of genistein and genistin in soybeans and soybean products.

    PubMed

    Fukutake, M; Takahashi, M; Ishida, K; Kawamura, H; Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K

    1996-05-01

    It has been suggested that the isoflavone, genistein,, may have some role as a chemopreventive agent against cancer in humans. Levels of genistein and its beta-glucoside conjugate, genistin, ingested in soybeans and related bean products by the Japanese were quantified by HPLC, to estimate daily intake of these compounds. Amounts of genistein and genistin in soybeans, soy nuts and soy powder were in the range of 4.6 to 18.2 and 200.6 to 968.1 micrograms/g food, respectively. The values for soy milk and tofu (bean curd) were 1.9 to 13.9 and 94.8 to 137.7 micrograms/g food, respectively. Levels of isoflavones in fermented soybean products, miso (bean paste) and natto (fermented soybeans), were 38.5 to 229.1 micrograms/g food for genistein and 71.7 to 492.8 micrograms/g food for genistin. Thus, the level of genistein in the fermented soybean products was higher than in soy beans and soybean products such as soy milk and tofu. From these observations, it is suggested that the beta-glycosyl bond of genistin is cleaved to produce genistein by microbes during fermentation to yield miso and natto. Soy sauce was also found to contain both isoflavones, but at levels lower than in miso and natto. On the basis of these data for average annual consumption of soybeans and related products, daily intake of genistein and genistin by the Japanese is calculated to be 1.5-4.1 and 6.3-8.3 mg/person, respectively. These levels are much higher than those for Americans or Western Europeans, whose mortality rates for breast, colon and prostate cancers are greater than the Japanese. PMID:8655094

  16. Registration of three soybean germplasm lines resistant to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (soybean rust)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merr.]. Development of rust resistant lines is one objective of many soybean breeding programs. Three soybean germplasm lines esignated as TGx 1987-76F (Reg. No. xxx, PI 6577...

  17. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus and Soybean dwarf virus on soybean in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is the major oilseed crop in North Dakota with production concentrated in the eastern half of the state. Only one virus, Soybean mosaic virus, has been reported from soybean in North Dakota. In 2010, 200 soybean fields from 25 counties that have the majority of soybe...

  18. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  19. QTL Mapping of Whitefly Resistance in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most damaging insects attacking crops in the world. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in addition to causing plant stress and reduced seed size, they also can be vectors of viruses, e.g. soybean crinkle mosaic, and soybean dwarf mosaic. Resistance...

  20. Resistance to Phomopsis Seed Decay in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. This disease causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. Infected soybean seeds can be symptomless, but...

  1. SOYBEAN.APHID.2.SD.2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura) has been an important pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States since 2000. Identification and genetic characterization of SA resistance in early maturing soybean germplasm will facilitate development of aphid-resistant cultivars in no...

  2. Developing Metrics for Managing Soybean Aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stage-specific economic injury levels form the basis of integrated pest management for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in soybean (Glycine max L.). Experimental objectives were to develop a procedure for calculating economic injury levels of the soybean aphid specific to the R2 (full bloom...

  3. Response of Soybean to Halosulfuron Herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, halosulfuron injury in soybean through off-target movement of halosulfuron when applied to rice fields has been reported. Sulfonylurea-tolerant (ST) soybean varieties have enhanced tolerance for sulfonylurea herbicides and might provide an option of mitigating injury to soybean from halosu...

  4. Generation of fertile transplastomic soybean.

    PubMed

    Dufourmantel, Nathalie; Pelissier, Bernard; Garçon, Frederic; Peltier, Gilles; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Tissot, Ghislaine

    2004-07-01

    We describe here the development of a plastid transformation method for soybean, a leguminous plant of major agronomic interest. Chloroplasts from embryogenic tissue of Glycine max have been successfully transformed by bombardment. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin resistance gene (aadA) under the control of tobacco plastid regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent soybean plastome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the trnV gene and the rps12/7 operon. All generated spectinomycin resistant plants were transplastomic and no remaining wild type plastome copies were detected. No spontaneous mutants were obtained. The transformation efficiency is similar to that of tobacco plastids. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and T1 progeny was uniformly spectinomycin resistant, showing the stability of the plastid transgene. This is the first report on the generation of fertile transplastomic soybean. PMID:15604694

  5. Ureide catabolism of soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, R.G.; Blevins, D.G.; Polacco, J.C.; Randall, D.D.

    1987-03-01

    Allantoin catabolism studies have been extended to intact leaf tissue of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Phenyl phosphordiamidate, one of the most potent urease inhibitors known does not inhibit /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ release from (2,7-/sup 14/C)allantoin (urea labeled), but inhibits urea dependent CO/sub 2/release greater than or equal to99.9% under similar conditions. Furthermore, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C) allantoate are the only detectable products of (2,7-/sup 14/C)allantoin catabolism. Neither urea nor any other product were detected by analysis on HPLC organic acid or organic base columns although urea and all commercially available metabolites that have been implicated in allantoin and glyoxylate metabolism can be resolved by a combination of these two columns. In contrast, when allantoin was labeled in the two central, nonureido carbons ((4,5-/sup 14/C)allantoin), its catabolism to (/sup 14/)allantoate, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/,(/sup 14/C)glyoxylate, (/sup 14/C)glycine, and (/sup 14/C)serine in leaf discs could be detected. These data are fully consistent with the metabolism of allantoate by two amidohydrolase reactions (neither of which is urease) that occur at similar rates to release glyoxylate, which in turn is metabolized via the photorespiratory pathway. This is the first evidence that allantoate is metabolized without urease action to NH/sub 4//sup +/ and CO/sub 2/ and that carbons 4 and 5 enter the photorespiratory pathway.

  6. [Transgenic technology and soybean quality improvement].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Jin, Hang-Xia; Gai, Jun-Yi; Yu, De-Yue

    2011-05-01

    Soybean is an important source of edible oil, protein and protein diet. The breeding process of high quality soybean can be accelerated via employment of transgenic technology, by which the key genes for soybean quality traits could be directly manipulated. Thus, various soybean varieties could be bred to fulfill different needs for specific consumers. Here, we reviewed the contribution of transgenic technology to improvement of soybean qualities in recent years. We also introduce some newly developed safe transgenic technologies and hope this information could relieve some concerns on the GM food. PMID:21586389

  7. Effects of selective genetic introgression from wild soybean to soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding in the U.S. currently relies on a narrow genetic base in which more than half of the genetic contribution, calculated by pedigree analysis, comes from only 5 ancestral lines. For decades, but more intensely in recent years, efforts have been made ...

  8. Photosynthetic responses of soybean to soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) injury.

    PubMed

    Macedo, T B; Bastos, C S; Higley, L G; Ostlie, K R; Madhavan, S

    2003-02-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumara, was discovered in the United States in the summer of 2000. Since that initial discovery, the aphid has spread across northern soybean production regions. In 2001, we examined the physiological responses of soybeans to low aphids densities (fewer than 50 aphids/leaf). In this study, we determined photosynthetic rates, leaf fluorescence responses, and photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide and light levels. In addition, analyses for chlorophyll content and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to differentiate potential differences in stomatal versus mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis. We observed rate reductions of up to 50% on infested leaflets, including lealets with no apparent symptoms of aphid injury (such as chlorosis). Differences in fluorescence data indicated that photoelectron transport was not impaired. These results indicate that substantial physiological impact on soybean is possible even at low aphid densities. Also, the conventional view of aphid injury acting through reductions in chlorophyll content and light-harvesting reactions of photosynthesis is not supported by our findings in this system. PMID:12650361

  9. Bioenergy and biofuels from soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils and animal fats provide some of nature’s most concentrated sources of energy. Plants and animals utilize this energy through metabolic process but non-food uses for these materials focus on combustion to produce heat or work. Historically, food uses have kept the price of soybean oi...

  10. Optimizing chlorophyll content in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, leaf chlorophyll content has not been among the target traits for improving crop yield. However, current chlorophyll concentrations may be in excess of the amount that would maximize the season integral of photosynthesis in a crop monoculture, such as soybean, that achieves a high lea...

  11. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  12. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  13. Separation of soybean saponins from soybean meal by a technology of foam fractionation and resin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianxing; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Guo, Shenghao; Kang, Shufang

    2016-05-18

    Foam fractionation and resin adsorption were used to recover soybean saponins from the industrial residue of soybean meal. First, a two-stage foam fractionation technology was studied for concentrating soybean saponins from the leaching liquor. Subsequently, resin adsorption was used to purify soybean saponins from the foamate in foam fractionation. The results showed that the enrichment ratio, the recovery percentage, and the purity of soybean saponins by using the two-stage foam fractionation technology could reach 4.45, 74%, and 67%, respectively. After resin adsorption and desorption, the purity of soybean saponins in the freeze-dried powder from the desorption solution was 88.4%. PMID:26030807

  14. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Amanlou, H.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Bassiri, S.; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A.; Salamatdust, R.; Moosavi, A.; Karimi, V.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05) high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01) and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01). Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively) higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01) higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score) of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans. PMID:26623299

  15. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  16. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  17. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  18. Occurrences of soybean viruses, fungal diseases, and pests in Illinois soybean rust sentinel plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Illinois in 2006, 2007 and 2008, soybean sentinel sites that were established to monitor spread of soybean rust were sampled for additional diseases and pests. Leaf samples were sent to the University of Illinois for analysis for virus, fungal and bacterial diseases, soybean aphid, and whiteflies...

  19. Fine Mapping the Soybean Aphid Resistance Gene Rag1 in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid [Aphis glycines Matsumura] is an important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] pest in North America. The dominant aphid resistance gene Rag1 was previously mapped from the cultivar ‘Dowling’ to a 12 centiMorgan (cM) marker interval on soybean chromosome 7 [formerly linkage group (LG)...

  20. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  1. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host-plant resistance a...

  2. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  3. Identification and molecular mapping of two soybean aphid resistance genes in soybean PI 587732

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] continues to be plagued by the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura: SA) in North America. New soybean resistance sources are needed to combat the four identified SA biotypes. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of SA resistance in PI 58...

  4. Gene expression profiling of resistant and susceptible soybean lines infected with soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Information about the molecular basis of soybean–SCN interactions is needed to assist future development of effective management tools against this pathogen. Toward this end, soybean transcript abundance was measured using th...

  5. First report of soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Ohio soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV), a newly discovered tospovirus that infects soybean, was first described as widespread in a number of southern and midwestern states, but so far has not been reported in Ohio. Here we describe its occurrence in six different soybean leaf samples collect...

  6. First report of Soybean dwarf virus in soybean in Northern Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) is transmitted persistently by colonizing aphids and causes significant yield losses in soybean in Japan. In the United States, SbDV is endemic in red and white clover, but has been detected in soybean only in Virginia and Wisconsin. During August 2006, two surveys for vir...

  7. Soybean transcriptome analysis using the SoyBase soybean metabolic database SoyCyc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SoyBase, the USDA-ARS soybean genetics and genomic database is a resource for soybean breeders and geneticists. It incorporates both genetic maps and genomic sequence for soybean , as well as marker data, gene models, EST mappings from other legumes, and other genome features. Transcriptome analys...

  8. THE SOYBEAN BREEDER'S TOOLBOX: INTEGRATION OF GENETIC AND MOLECULAR DATA FOR SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean genetic data has been compiled and stored in the soybean genetic database SoyBase. This data has been retrieved from an AceDB database and used to compile a new database called the Soybean Breeder’s Toolbox (SBT). The toolbox is a relational database utilizing the MySQL RDMS. The use of a...

  9. Soybean germplasm accession seedling reactions to soybean rust isolates from Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a threat to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production in regions of the world where winters are not cold enough to completely eliminate the many hosts of the fungus, so resistant soybean cultivars would be useful in managing this disease. Res...

  10. Distribution of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Sandall, L. J.; Wysong, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 552 soybean fields in 20 counties in Nebraska in 1986-88 revealed 35 fields infested with the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Identification was confirmed with a greenhouse bioassay, using 'Lee 74' soybean, and by the application of a DNA hybridization probe derived from SCN mitochondrial DNA. Most of the SCN-infested fields were located on the Missouri River floodplain and in the southeastern corner of the state. PMID:19287657

  11. BREEDING SOYBEANS FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Chazy, NY yields of forage soybeans varied from 14.3 Mg ha-1 to 5.6 Mg ha-1 over three years with CP ranging from 169 g kg-1 to 116 g kg-1 and NDF ranging from 513 g kg-1 to 445 g kg-1. At Ames, IA, IVDMD declined from 700 g kg-1 46 days after planting then increased at seasons end as seed incre...

  12. Metabolism of carbon in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; McManus, E.E.; Conboy, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The distribution and metabolism of {sup 14}C-carboxin [5,6 dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxamide] in the food and feed commodities of soybean were determined. Soybeans were grown to maturity indoors from seeds treated with {sup 14}C-carboxin at the normal use rate (1X) and two exaggerated rates (5X and 10X). The level of radioactivity was highest in the foliage, (12.5 ppm, 110 ppm, and 169 ppm for the low to high dose groups, respectively), and lowest in the seeds, (0.51 ppm, 2.077 ppm and 4.63 ppm, respectively). Extractable radioactivity accounted for approx. 75, 80, and 90% in the pods, seed, and foliage, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the post extracted solids released an additional 10, 15, and 5% radioactivity for the sum matrices, respectively. The major routes of metabolism were characterized by the oxidation of sulfur, cleavage of the oxathiim ring, and conjugation with glucose as shown below. These metabolites in soybean represent the most extensive modifications of carboxin observed in any plant system studied.

  13. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  14. Pressurized water extraction of isoflavones by experimental design from soybean flour and Soybean Protein Isolate.

    PubMed

    Moras, Benjamin; Rey, Stéphane; Vilarem, Gérard; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Doehlert experimental design was conducted and surface response methodology was used to determine the effect of temperature, contact time and solid liquid ratio on isoflavone extraction from soybean flour or Soybean Protein Isolate in pressurized water system. The optimal conditions conducted gave an extraction yield of 85% from soybean flour. For Soybean Protein Isolate compared to soybean flour, the isoflavone extraction yield is 61%. This difference could be explained by higher aglycon content, while aglycon appears to be the least extracted isoflavone by pressurized water. The solid liquid ratio in the ASE cell was the overriding factor in obtaining high yields with both soybean products, while temperature has less influence. A high temperature causes conversion of the malonyls-glucosides and glucosides isoflavone derivatives into glucosides or aglycons forms. pressurized water extraction showed a high solubilization of protein material up to 95% of inserted Soybean Protein Isolate. PMID:27507441

  15. Proteomic analysis of soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide causing an estimated $2 billion in losses annually. Proteomic technologies are powerful tools to examine protein expression profiles as well as modification of proteins. W...

  16. Response of soybean pathogens to glyceollin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to recognize pathogens and respond biochemically to prevent or inhibit pathogen invasion and colonization in plant cells is an active disease resistance response in plants. The involvement of soybean phytoalexin glyceollin in defense responses to the soybean pathogens Diaporthe phaseolor...

  17. Soybean-based surfactants and their applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important source of two natural emulsifiers, i.e., soy lecithin and soy proteins. Crude soybean oil (SBO) contains 1 to 3% phospholipids. These phospholipids are extracted during the processing of crude SBO and are used as lecithin. Soy proteins are obtained after extraction of SBO. Ex...

  18. Soybean Rust – A Prime Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are 65 records of invasive and exotic diseases recorded in the U.S. (http://www.invasive.org). Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is one of those records. Soybean rust occurred throughout much of the Eastern Hemisphere for just over 100 years before it was confirmed in Hawaii in 1994. The ...

  19. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean (Glycine max) genome sequencing project began as an interagency project with the DOE’s Joint Genome Institute providing the production sequencing throughput with the NSF and USDA funded groups providing genomic resources and soybean expertise to the project (Jackson et al, 2006). The go...

  20. Elevated Ozone Alters Soybean-Virus Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examine the effects of elevated O3 and elevated CO2, two major components of global change, on the interaction between soybean and Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) by measuring molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, in natural field conditions and in controlled environment. In natural field ...

  1. Recent developments of genomic research in soybean.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ching; Qi, Xinpeng; Li, Man-Wah; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2012-07-20

    Soybean is an important cash crop with unique and important traits such as the high seed protein and oil contents, and the ability to perform symbiotic nitrogen fixation. A reference genome of cultivated soybeans was established in 2010, followed by whole-genome re-sequencing of wild and cultivated soybean accessions. These efforts revealed unique features of the soybean genome and helped to understand its evolution. Mapping of variations between wild and cultivated soybean genomes were performed. These genomic variations may be related to the process of domestication and human selection. Wild soybean germplasms exhibited high genomic diversity and hence may be an important source of novel genes/alleles. Accumulation of genomic data will help to refine genetic maps and expedite the identification of functional genes. In this review, we summarize the major findings from the whole-genome sequencing projects and discuss the possible impacts on soybean researches and breeding programs. Some emerging areas such as transcriptomic and epigenomic studies will be introduced. In addition, we also tabulated some useful bioinformatics tools that will help the mining of the soybean genomic data. PMID:22835978

  2. Analysis of soybean flowering-time genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of soybean flowering time is important for geographic adaptation, and maximizing yield. RT-PCR analysis was performed using primers synthesized for a number of putative flowering-time genes based on homology of soybean EST and genomic sequences to Arabidopsis genes. RNA for cDNA synthesis ...

  3. Managing nematode pests in Midsouth soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean producers must contend with nematode pests, several species of which may inhabit a single field. Significant yield losses caused by soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and other nematodes were estimated at 2.6% (...

  4. SOYBEAN.DEFOLIATION.1.SD.2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chewing insects feed upon soybean plants, and their infestations may be economically significant in some years in the north-central United States. Soybean lines that are resistant to defoliation may be useful for management of chewing insect pests. Levels of defoliation from chewing insec...

  5. SOYBEAN.DEFOLIATION.2.SD.2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several types of chewing insects feed upon soybean plants, and their infestations may be economically significant in some years in the north-central United States. Soybean lines that are resistant to defoliation may be useful in the management of chewing insect pests. Levels of defoliation from c...

  6. Genetics of seed transmission Soybean mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is an aphid- and seed-transmitted member of the Potyviridae that infects soybean plants and, in years when virus infections are widespread, can cause significant reductions in the quantity and quality of seed harvested. Because seed-borne infections are the primary sources...

  7. Efficacy of inorganic compounds against soybean aphid, laboratory tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations by soybean aphids can reduce the yield of soybeans, and the efficacies of various compounds need evaluation for soybean aphid control. Efficacy of various inorganic compounds was compared to that of a water check and conventional insecticides in two growth-chamber tests. Soybean test ...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  9. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  14. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  16. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  18. Inheritance of Resistance to Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a common economic pest in a great number of crops throughout the world. In soybean, they can be vectors of viruses, e.g. soybean crinkle mosaic and soybean dwarf mosaic. Resistance to whitefly has been identified in soybean, however, whitefly resistance genes h...

  19. Genome-wide association mapping of soybean aphid resistance traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid is the most damaging insect pest of soybean in the Upper Midwest and is primarily controlled by insecticides. Soybean aphid resistance (i.e., Rag genes) has been documented in some soybean lines at chromosomes 6, 7, 13, and 16, but more sources of resistance are needed. Genome-wide ass...

  20. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  1. Evaluation of Selected Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Phomopsis longicolla, the Fungus That Causes Soybean Seed Decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality soybean seed in the United States, especially in the mid-southern USA. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla. To identify soybean lines resistant to this pathogen, 16 soybean plant introductions w...

  2. First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...

  3. A Standard Greenhouse Method for Assessing Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance in Soybean: SCE08 (Standardized Cyst Evaluation 2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is distributed throughout the soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production areas of the United States and Canada. SCN remains the most economically important pathogen of soybean in North America; the most recent estimate of soybean yield...

  4. Nutritional evaluation of lectin-free soybeans for poultry.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M W; Parsons, C M; Hymowitz, T

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the nutritional value of raw lectin-free soybeans in comparison with raw Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free soybeans, raw conventional soybeans, and commercial heat processed soybean meal (SBM). Analyzed lectin values (milligrams per kilogram) were 7.2, 7.1, and < 0.00015 for the Kunitz-free, conventional, and lectin-free soybeans, respectively. Three experiments were conducted using New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks fed 23% CP dextrose-soybean diets from 8 to 17 d of age. Growth performance of chicks fed lectin-free soybeans was greater (P < 0.05) than that of chicks fed raw conventional soybeans in all three experiments. However, performance of chicks fed lectin-free soybeans was lower than that of chicks fed Kunitz-free soybeans or SBM. The SBM yielded weight gains and feed efficiencies that were much higher than those observed from any of the raw soybeans. True amino acid digestibility and TMEn of the lectin-free and conventional soybeans were determined using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Seven roosters were crop-intubated with 30 g of soybeans and excreta were collected for 48 h. Digestibility coefficients of most amino acids for lectin-free soybeans were 5 to 8 percentage units higher than those for conventional soybeans, but the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Likewise, the TMEn for lectin-free soybeans was 11% higher than that for raw conventional soybeans (3.577 vs 3.227 kcal/g DM) but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the nutritional value of raw lectin-free soybeans is greater than raw conventional soybeans but is less than raw Kunitz-free soybeans and SBM, suggesting that trypsin inhibitor is a greater antinutritional factor than lectins. PMID:10023754

  5. A Chinese fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Han, B Z; Rombouts, F M; Nout, M J

    2001-04-11

    Sufu or furu is a fermented soybean product originating in China. It is a cheese-like product with a spreadable creamy consistency and a pronounced flavour. Sufu is a popular side dish consumed mainly with breakfast rice or steamed bread. It has a long history and written records date back to the Wei Dynasty (220-265 AD). Sufu is made by fungal solid state fermentation of tofu (soybean curd) followed by aging in brine containing salt and alcohol. The present review is based on scientific data published in Chinese and international sources. Several types of sufu can be distinguished, according to processing method or according to colour and flavour. Choice of processing can result in mould fermented sufu, naturally fermented sufu, bacterial fermented sufu, or enzymatically ripened sufu. Depending on the choice of dressing mixture, red, white or grey sufu may be obtained. The stages of the process are discussed and include the preparation of tofu, the preparation of pehtze, salting and ripening. Fungal starters include Actinomucor spp., Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. The chemical composition is discussed with particular reference to the proximate composition, the amino acid content and profile, as well as the volatile flavour components of various types of sufu. PMID:11322691

  6. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  7. Soybean canopy reflectance modeling data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous mathematical models of the interaction of radiation with vegetation canopies have been developed over the last two decades. However, data with which to exercise and validate these models are scarce. During three days in the summer of 1980, experiments are conducted with the objective of gaining insight about the effects of solar illumination and view angles on soybean canopy reflectance. In concert with these experiment, extensive measurements of the soybean canopies are obtained. This document is a compilation of the bidirectional reflectance factors, agronomic, characteristics, canopy geometry, and leaf, stem, and pod optical properties of the soybean canopies. These data sets should be suitable for use with most vegetation canopy reflectance models.

  8. Ozone and water deficit effects on soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Heagle, A.S.; Heck, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine soil mositure effects on soybean yield response to 03 and to determine if treatments affected key enzymes in soybean nitrogen metabolism. This was a two year study conducted in a Norfolk sandy loam soil using standard agronomic practices for tillage, planting and weed control. Soil moisture regimes were well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS). The activities of two enzymes of nitrogen metabolism, nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrogenase (N2ase) were assayed regularly throughout the study. Seed yield was determined by hand harvesting two 1-meter row lengths in each plot. Seed weights were adjusted to 13% moisture. Both 03 and water stress reduced the actvities of NR and N2ase, two key cnzymes in soybean nitrogen metabolism. The reductions are correlated with lower yield in soybean but do not necessarily constitute a cause and effect relationship.

  9. INTERACTION OF OZONE AND HERBICIDES IN SOYBEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify potentially damaging herbicide-ozone interactions on soybean so that injury could be reduced by judicious selection of herbicides and tolerant cultivars. The involvement of herbicide influence on stomatal aperture affecting ozone ...

  10. Analysis of soybean seed proteins using proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial elaborates on investigations consisting of different proteomics technologies and their application to biological sciences. In addition, different classes of soybean seed proteins are discussed. This information will be useful to scientists in obtaining a greater understanding of the...

  11. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production. PMID:25410106

  12. Approaches for Increasing Soybean Use by Low-Income Brazilian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an educational/distributional campaign to increase use of soybeans by low-income Brazilian families. Initially, no families surveyed used soybeans but, after participating in a program on nutrition and soybeans, and free distribution of soybeans for one month, soybean usage by participants increased even when free soybeans were replaced…

  13. Transcriptional responses of tolerant and susceptible soybeans to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was introduced in 2000 to North America and has become one of the most significant pests to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, production. Possible solutions to this problem are the use of resistant plants and the understanding of the genes involved in pl...

  14. Soybean aphid intrabiotype variability based on colonization of specific soybean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera; Aphididae) is the most destructive insect pest on soybeans in the United States. Since its arrival in 2000, four biotypes have been identified. Host resistance is the most sustainable method for managing this pest and researchers continue to su...

  15. Discovery of new soybean and soybean rust genes using next generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the top five agricultural products in the United States and is highly susceptible to soybean rust (SR), an exotic obligate fungus that arrived in the USA in 2004. We used mRNA-Seq by Illumina/Solexa to analyze gene expression patterns of the host and pathogen at different time poin...

  16. Adaptation of Cucumber mosaic virus soybean strains (SSVs) to cultivated and wild soybeans.

    PubMed

    Hong, J S; Masuta, C; Nakano, M; Abe, J; Uyeda, I

    2003-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus soybean strains formerly called soybean stunt virus (SSV) were inoculated onto 23 wild soybeans collected from four Asian countries to investigate their infectivity in order to improve understanding of the co-evolution of SSVs and soybean. SSV inoculation resulted in systemic infection in most of the wild soybeans used. However, an SSV strain (SSV-In), which was isolated in Indonesia, did not result in systemic infection of many of the wild soybeans distributed in southern Japan. This exceptional infectivity of SSV-In may be due to its specific adaptation to the local soybean population(s) of Indonesia, which has rarely been affected by gene flows from wild soybean. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences of the 3a and CP genes of SSV were determined, and the data were used to classify seven SSV isolates among known Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strains. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the seven SSVs formed a distinct cluster separated from the other CMV strains despite their different geographical origins; SSV-In was the most divergent of the seven isolates. Comparison of the rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions revealed that the SSV group had evolved faster than subgroup IA. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the so-called Red Queen hypothesis. PMID:12835932

  17. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of Soybean mosaic virus in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seed-borne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance ...

  18. Resistance to Soybean Aphid Among Soybean Lines, Growth-chamber Tests, 2006 Through 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested for resistance to the soybean aphid (SBA, Aphis glycines) among several soybean lines, and rated lines as resistant or susceptible in seven tests. The ratings of plants with respect to SBA infestation differed among lines in all tests. Kosamame (PI 171451, test II), Bhart (PI 165989, tes...

  19. Identification of a second Asian soybean rust resistance gene in Hyuuga soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) is an economically significant disease caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The soybean genes Rpp3 and Rpp?(Hyuuga) confer resistance to specific isolates of the pathogen. Both genes map to chromosome 6 (Gm06)(linkage group (LG) C2). We recently identified 12 additi...

  20. Dynamics of soybean rust epidemics in sequential plantings of soybean cultivars in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an important foliar disease of soybean. The disease intensity is dependent on environmental factors, although the precise conditions of most of these factors is not known. To help understand what environmental factors favor disease develop...

  1. Role of Soybean mosaic virus-encoded proteins in seed and aphid transmission in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is seed and aphid transmitted and can cause significant reductions in yield and seed quality in soybean, Glycine max. The roles in seed and aphid transmission of selected SMV-encoded proteins were investigated by constructing chimeric recombinants between SMV 413 (efficien...

  2. Protease inhibitor expression in soybean roots exhibiting susceptible and resistance reactions to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protease inhibitors play a role in regulating proteases during cellular development and in plant defense against insects and nematodes. We identified, cloned and sequenced cDNAs encoding six protease inhibitors expressed in soybean roots infected with soybean cyst nematode. Four of these protease in...

  3. THE SOYBEAN BREEDER'S TOOLBOX: A NEW RESOURCE FOR SOYBEAN GENETIC AND GENOMIC INFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to make soybean genetic data more accessible and retrievable, data contained in the current SoyBase AceDB database was converted to a relational database schema. This data is now available through an internet interface titled “The Soybean Breeder’s Toolbox”. The interface was designed to ...

  4. First Report of Soybean Yellow Mottle Mosaic Virus in Soybean in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) is a soybean-infecting virus recently described in Korea that initially induces bright yellow mosaic on leaves followed by stunting and reduced growth of older leaves. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic RNA of the Korean isolate of SYMMV suggested tha...

  5. Interaction of soybean and Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the cause of soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow, is a major disease limiting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production in many areas of the world. Yield losses of up to 80% were reported in experimental plots in Taiwan. Although the disease is not always yield limiting, it has the p...

  6. Evaluations of soybean accessions for resistance to soybean rust in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the arrival of soybean rust in North America in November, 2004, field evaluations of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection have been conducted at multiple locations in the southern USA. Plant Introductions (PIs) from maturity groups 000 to X have been tested, so late summer pla...

  7. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most important constraints to soybean production worldwide. The absence of high levels of host resistance to the pathogen has necessitated the continued search and identification of sources of resistance. In one set of experiments, 178 IIT...

  8. Developing host-plant resistance for hemipteran soybean pests: lessons from soybean aphid and stink bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the world’s leading agricultural crops with multiple uses, including human food, animal feed, edible oil, biofuel, industrial products, cosmetics, etc. In soybean production, United States is the leading country with 33% of world’s total production of 251.5 million Metric tons. How...

  9. Registration of ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean with resistance to soybean aphid and powdery mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with resistance to soybean aphid biotypes 1 and 2 and resistance to powdery mildew was jointly released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) as a late maturity group (MG) II (2.9) foo...

  10. Emerging approaches to broaden the resistance of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycine max (Merr), soybean, is a major agricultural crop under constant siege by a myriad of pathogenic organisms. The most costly of these pathogens is the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. This review focuses in on the recent genomic research, including the sequenced genomes of bo...

  11. A pigeonpea gene confers resistance to Asian soybean rust in soybean.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Cintia G; Guimarães, Gustavo Augusto; Nogueira, Sônia Regina; MacLean, Dan; Cook, Doug R; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Baek, Jongmin; Bouyioukos, Costas; Melo, Bernardo do V A; Tristão, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Jamile Camargos; Rauscher, Gilda; Mittal, Shipra; Panichelli, Lisa; Bacot, Karen; Johnson, Ebony; Iyer, Geeta; Tabor, Girma; Wulff, Brande B H; Ward, Eric; Rairdan, Gregory J; Broglie, Karen E; Wu, Gusui; van Esse, H Peter; Jones, Jonathan D G; Brommonschenkel, Sérgio H

    2016-06-01

    Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most economically important crop diseases, but is only treatable with fungicides, which are becoming less effective owing to the emergence of fungicide resistance. There are no commercial soybean cultivars with durable resistance to P. pachyrhizi, and although soybean resistance loci have been mapped, no resistance genes have been cloned. We report the cloning of a P. pachyrhizi resistance gene CcRpp1 (Cajanus cajan Resistance against Phakopsora pachyrhizi 1) from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and show that CcRpp1 confers full resistance to P. pachyrhizi in soybean. Our findings show that legume species related to soybean such as pigeonpea, cowpea, common bean and others could provide a valuable and diverse pool of resistance traits for crop improvement. PMID:27111723

  12. [Effects of potato/soybean intercropping on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of three soybean varieties].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-rong; Yang, Wen-yu; Zhang, Guo-hong; Wang, Li-ming; Yang, Ru-ping; Yong, Tai-wen; Liu, Wei-guo

    2015-11-01

    The potato/soybean intercropping trials using three soybean varieties including Zhonghuang 30 (early-maturing variety) , Jidou 17 (mid maturing variety) and Qihuang 34 (late maturing variety) with the sole cropping potato as control were carried out to determine the dynamic changes of leaf area index (LAI) of soybean, accumulation of dry matter, photosynthetic characteristics, yield and yield components. The results showed that the LAI, dry matter accumulation, net photosynthesis (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conduction (g(s)) of soybean in all intercropping systems were lower than in monoculture because of the influence of intensified lower light during earlier growing stage, and the duration from planting to flowering was extended. When the potato was harvested, the LAI, dry matter accumulation, Pn, Tr and g(s) of soybean in all intercropping systems increased, especially for mid-maturing and late-maturing varieties, which became much closer to those in the monoculture. Compared with sole cropping, the pods per plant, seeds per plant and seeds per pod in intercropping system significantly decreased by 22.0%, 36.0% and 17.6% for early-maturing soybean, 5.1%, 13.1% and 8.9% for mid-maturing soybean, 5.7%, 7.6% and 2.1% for late-maturing soybean, respectively. The yields of mid-maturing and late-maturing varieties in intercropping systems were higher than that of the early-maturing, which increased by 92.4% and 163.4%, with the land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.81 and 1.84, respectively. This suggested that mid-maturing and late-maturing soybean varieties were suitable for intercropping with the potato to improve photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield of intercropping soybean. PMID:26915189

  13. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other...

  14. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean ( Glycine max)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-04-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  15. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

  16. Carbaryl washoff from soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Willis, G H; Smith, S; McDowell, L L; Southwick, L M

    1996-08-01

    Both the efficacy and fate of most foliar-applied pesticides may be affected by weather variables, especially rain. A multiple-intensity rainfall simulator was used to determine the effects of rainfall intensity and amount on concentrations of carbaryl (Sevin(R) XLS Plus) washed from soybean plants. Two hours after carbaryl was applied at 1.12 kg/ha, 25 mm of rain was applied at intensities of 13.0, 27.4, 53.8, or 105.1 mm/h. About 67% of the carbaryl on the plants was washed off by 25 mm of rain. Rainfall intensity affected carbaryl concentrations in washoff; higher concentrations occurred at lower intensities. Even though the experimental conditions were designed for "worst-case" conditions, washoff patterns suggested improved carbaryl rainfastness when compared to carbaryl (formulated as a wettable powder) washoff from cotton plants in earlier studies. Rainfall amount had a greater effect on carbaryl concentrations in washoff than rainfall intensity. PMID:8783550

  17. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  18. Zinc in soybeans. Chemical nature and bioavilability

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.

    1987-01-01

    Soybeans were grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn through root absorption, stem injection and foliar application. Stem injection resulted in the greatest accumulation of /sup 65/Zn. Regardless of the labeling technique, approximately 40-45% of the seed /sup 65/Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of /sup 65/Zn incorporation into soybeans did not change appreciably as a result of the labelling technique. The major portion of the soluble /sup 65/Zn was either free or associated with very low molecular weight proteins, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid rather than the major proteins of soybeans. Zinc in soybeans is ionically bound to proteins, peptides and phytic acid. Autoclaving did not affect the chemical association of zinc with soy proteins. Solubility of protein, zinc and phytic acid was studied over the pH range of 3.5-12.0. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from soybeans was lower than from casein and rats adapted to a casein basal diet absorbed more /sup 65/Zn from both casein and soy than rats adapted to a soy basal diet.

  19. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain. PMID:26949980

  20. Assessment Of Product In Corn And Soybean Intercropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad Mehdi; Yadegari, Mehrab

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in research station of Fars in 2004, in a piece of Land with a clay texture. In order to evaluate the different ratios of CORN and SOYBEAN intercropping, in comparison to pure culture, a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was adapted. Treatments consist of: p1 = pure corn, p2 = pure soybean, p3 = 50% corn+50% soybean, p4 = %75 corn+%25 soybean, p5 = %75 soybean+%25 corn. This Experiment was conducted by using replacement system. Evaluated factors are as the following Soybean and corn seed yield in pure culture and intercropping, Land Equivalent Ratio, Relative corn yield, Relative soybean yield, aggressively. Results showed that the treatment with %75 SOYBEAN+%25 CORN with LER = 1.19 and also the treatment with %50 soybean+%50 corn with LER—1.11 have preference %19 and %11 respectively higher yield compared to pure culture. Also in relation to the aggressively in treatment with %50corn+%50 soybean and also with %75corn+%25soybean, corn was dominant. Finally the best treatment was %75 soybean+%25corn with %19 efficiency compared to pure culture.

  1. Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world’s most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. More efficient agricultural practices and breeding of improved soybean cultivars suited to many latitudes have resulted in steady increases in soybean yields over the past century...

  2. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  3. Heterodera glycines Population Development on Soybean Treated with Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is a major yield limiting pest in all major soybean producing countries. In the last decade genetically modified soybean tolerant to glyphosate has become widely planted and postemergence application of glyphosate has increased exponentially. Genetically m...

  4. Phenotypic and genetic variation among soybean rust isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust, is an aggressive foliar disease that is found in all major soybean growing regions. The discovery of soybean rust in production fields in the southeastern U. S. in 2004 and its spread to other areas in subsequent years has heightened concerns ...

  5. Agressiveness of Phomopsis longicolla and other Phomopsis species on soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality of soybean seeds. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla. In this study, aggressiveness of isolates of P. longicolla from soybean and other Phomopsis spp. from other hosts were compared by inoculat...

  6. Vegetable soybean tolerance to bentazon, fomesafen, imazamox, linuron, and sulfentrazone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor weed control, resulting from limited herbicide availability and undeveloped integrated weed management systems, is a major hurdle to production of vegetable soybean in the U.S. Vegetable soybean, the same species as grain-type soybean, has few registered herbicides due to unknown crop tolerance...

  7. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since it’s introduction into the United States in the past ten years, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Predicting their arrival in a soybean field on a year-by-year basis has been difficult as little is ...

  8. Molecular Marker Diversity of SCN Resistant Sources in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is one of the most destructive pests of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr) in the United States. Over 100 SCN resistant accessions within the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection have been identified, but little is known about the genetic diversit...

  9. A public program to evaluate commercial soybean cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The information generated through the evaluation of soybean cultivars entered into the Varietal Information Program for Soybeans (VIPS) provides an independent, objective, and unbiased assessment of hundreds of soybean cultivars used or targeted for use in maturity groups representing the majority o...

  10. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Seed Hardness in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seeds with undesirable texture cause processing complications in soyfood production. Seed hardness is an important quality attribute for food-grade soybeans. The objective of this study was to identify QTL associated with seed hardness in soybean. Three generations of F2-derived lines (159 F...

  11. Classification of distinct seed carbohydrate profiles in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans are an important source of protein-rich meal for livestock feed formulations. Recent changes in the cost of commodity-based sources of metabolizable energy (ME) inputs has put pressure on soybean meal to deliver both protein and ME in feed formulations. The non-oil fraction of soybean con...

  12. Mapping soybean aphid resistance genes in PI 567598B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) has been a major pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North America since it was first discovered in 2000. Plant introduction PI 567598B possesses strong antibiosis resistance to soybean aphids. Our previous study revealed that the aphid resistan...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  14. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  16. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  17. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  2. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. Putatively novel sources of resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) remains to be the most economically devastating endo-root parasite of soybean [Glycine max L. (Merrill)], in the USA and worldwide. Currently, two resistance loci, rhg1 and Rhg4 have been the main sources of resistance to SCN. Over 95% of soybean cultivars with SCN resist...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  8. Soybean Resistance to Frogeye Leaf Spot and Marker Assisted Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frogeye leaf spot (FLS) caused by Cercospora sojina K. Hara is a common disease of soybean. Significant yield losses of soybean occur due to FLS under hot and humid growing conditions of the southern USA. Recently, FLS has moved further north into the northern soybean growing states. C. sojina i...

  9. Bean Pod Mottle Virus Spread in Insect Feeding Resistant Soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) reduces yield and seed quality in soybeans. No qualitative resistance to this virus has been found in soybean, although some tolerance is known. To test the hypothesis that virus incidence and movement would be reduced in soybeans with resistance to feeding by the viru...

  10. Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi infecting soybean in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a major disease in many soybean-producing areas in Nigeria. To determine the virulence and the genetic structure of Nigerian field populations of the soybean rust pathogen, a total of 116 purified isolates established from infected leaves randomly co...

  11. New Plant Introductions with Resistance to the Soybean Aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (SA) was first found in the northern soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., growing regions of the USA in 2000. By 2005, the aphid had spread to 23 soybean growing states reaching as far south as Mississippi and Georgia and also north into Ontario, Canada. Th...

  12. Mapping cell fate decisions that occur during soybean defense responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the top five agricultural products in the United States with an estimated production of 3.36 billion bushels in 2009. Its protection from all pathogens is very important for soybean production. The Glycine max L. Merr. (soybean) defense response to Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (soy...

  13. PUTATIVE ALLELES FOR INCREASED YIELD FROM SOYBEAN PLANT INTRODUCTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving seed yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars is an important goal of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate two soybean plant introductions (PIs) as sources of alleles for the enhancement of seed yield in North American cultivars. A soybean population ...

  14. Heterosis and Combining Ability Estimates in Isoflavone Content Using Different Parental Soybean Accessions: Wild Soybean, a Valuable Germplasm for Soybean Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yingdong; Li, Wei; Xiao, Jialei; Lin, Hong; Liu, Ming; Liu, Miao; Luan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Bixian; Xie, Xuejun; Guo, Donglin; Lai, Yongcai

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone, a group of secondary metabolites in soybean, is beneficial to human health. Improving isoflavone content in soybean seeds has become one of the most important breeding objectives. However, the narrow genetic base of soybean cultivars hampered crop improvement. Wild soybean is an extraordinarily important gene pool for soybean breeding. In order to select an optimal germplasm for breeding programs to increase isoflavone concentration, 36 F1 soybean progenies from different parental accessions (cultivars, wild, Semi-wild and Interspecific) with various total isoflavone (TIF) concentration (High, Middle, Low) were analyzed for their isoflavone content. Results showed that male parents, except for Cultivars, showed positive GCA effects. In particular, wild soybean had higher positive GCA effects for TIF concentration. Both MP and BP heterosis value declined in the hybrid in which male parents were wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, interspecific offspring and cultivar in turn. In general, combining ability and heterosis in hybrids which had relative higher TIF concentration level parents showed better performance than those which had lower TIF concentration level parents. These results indicated characteristics of isoflavone content were mainly governed by additive type of gene action, and wild relatives could be utilized for breeding of soybean cultivars with this trait. A promising combination was found as the best potential hybrid for isoflavone content improvement. PMID:25607952

  15. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect changes in production levels that have occurred since...

  16. Weather variability, climatic change, and soybean production

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    A crop/weather model was used to determine the effect of changing climate and weather variability on soybean production in the Corn Belt. A cooling trend from the 1930s to the 1970s was accompanied by an upward trend in July plus August rainfall. There was decreased weather variability from the 1930s to 1973 and greatly increased weather variability after 1973. Improved weather from 1930 to 1972 increased soybean yields 3 bushels/acre. Higher intensity rainfalls increased in Illinois and Iowa after 1970.

  17. Phytophthora Resistance of Soybean Germplasm with High Potential for Asian Soybean Rust Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple disease resistance is an important component of production agriculture. Major challenges include resistance to Phytophthora root rot caused by evolving Phytophthora sojae races and the recently introduced invasive Asian soybean rust (ASBR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The diseases cause...

  18. Stability of isoflavone isomers in steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji stored under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Yue; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-03-11

    Steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji, a potentially functional food additive, were stored at 4 or 25 degrees C with or without deoxidant and desiccant for 120 days. After storage, steamed black soybeans and koji showed various extents of reduction in isoflavone contents dependent on storage temperature, packaging condition, and the kind of isoflavone isomer. Generally, black soybeans and koji showed the highest residual of isoflavone when they were stored at 4 degrees C with deoxidant and desiccant. Under this storage condition, beta-glucosides (daidzin, glycitin, and genistein), acetyl glucosides (acetyldaidzin, acetylglycitin, and acetylgenistin), manlonyl glucosides (malonyldaidzin, malonglycitin, and malonylgenistin), and aglycones (daidzein, glycitein, and genistin) in steamed black soybeans exhibited residuals of 100.1-100.9, 92.0-99.4, 90.0-94.0, and 77.2-78.8%, respectively, of their original contents after 120 days of storage. Meanwhile, the residuals found in black soybean koji were 77.8-90.0, 13.1-88.9, 66.7-85.5, and 76.4-80.6%, respectively. PMID:19256558

  19. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. PMID:24491722

  20. Protein syntehsis during soybean seed maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L.A.; Rinne, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    The authors previous work has demonstrated that physiological and biochemical changes specifically associated with soybean seed maturation can be separated from events associated with seed development. The objective of this study was to determine if soybean seed metabolism is altered during maturation drying at the level of protein synthesis. Seed harvested 35 days after flowering (0% seedling growth) were induced to mature (100% seedling growth) through controlled dehydration. Proteins labeled with (/sup 35/S)-methionine were extracted and analyzed by 1-D PAGE coupled with autoradiography and densitometry. Results show a 31 kD and 128 kD polypeptide synthesized de novo during dehydration and precocious maturation. The same two polypeptides are synthesized during natural dehydration and maturation (>60 days after flowering). Furthermore, these polypeptides persist during rehydration and germination of both precociously and naturally matured seed, but specifically disappear during early seedling growth. The authors are currently investigating the role of protein synthesis during soybean seed maturation and if it is required for establishment of a soybean seedling.

  1. Tolerance of Soybean Crops to Soil Waterlogging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoculture of irrigated paddy rice, common in the Mississippi delta of the United States and in Asia, diminishes soil nutrients, compacts soils, contaminates water supplies, and increases pest and diseases. While the addition of soybean crops to this cropping ecosystem can attenuate many of these p...

  2. Soybean mineral composition and glyphosate use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in soybeans, primarily because of its use in transgenic, glyphosate-resistant (GR) cultivars of this crop. There have been claims that glyphosate reduces the levels of certain minerals, especially Mn, in GR crops. The published literature related ...

  3. Registration of ‘Prohio’ Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Prohio’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) was developed jointly by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) in Wooster, OH and was released as a high-protein high-yielding maturity group IV (relative maturity 4.1) non Roundup Ready® cu...

  4. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  5. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  6. RHIZOSPHERE ECOLOGY AND GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean with the ecology of plant-associated microbial populations has been the subject of environmental assessments in response to the public concern regarding the ecological compatibility of transgenic crops. Changes in the dynamics of soil and rhizosph...

  7. Effects of magnetite nanoparticles on soybean chlorophyll.

    PubMed

    Ghafariyan, Mohammad H; Malakouti, Mohammad J; Dadpour, Mohammad R; Stroeve, Pieter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2013-09-17

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as one of the most innovative and promising application in agriculture. Since plants are recognized as essential component of all ecosystems, the effects of NPs on plants may pave a new insight to the ecosystems. Here, uptake and translocation of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), with various surface charges, on soybean has been probed; in addition, the effects of SPIONs on variations of chlorophyll, in hydroponic condition, together with their ability for reduction of iron deficiency chlorosis were explored. We find that SPIONs, which were entered and translocated in the soybean, increased chlorophyll levels, with no trace of toxicity. Furthermore, it was found that physicochemical characteristics of the SPIONs had a crucial role on the enhancement of chlorophyll content in subapical leaves of soybean. The equivalent ratio of chlorophyll a to b, in all treatments with conventional growth medium iron chelate and SPIONs (as iron source), indicated no significant difference on the photosynthesis efficiency. Finally, it was observed that the effect of SPIONs on the soybean chlorophyll content may have influence on both biochemical and enzymatic efficiency in different stages of the photosynthesis reactions. PMID:23951999

  8. "Green" composites and nanocomposites from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report preparation of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) based "green" composites and nanocomposites. The high strength and stiffness composites and nanocomposites are formed through flax fiber and organoclay reinforcement. The epoxy resin, 1,1,1-tris(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl...

  9. Hydrolysis of soybean protein improves iron bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...

  10. Development of soybean gene expression database (SGED)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large volumes of microarray expression data is a challenge for analysis. To address this problem a web-based database, Soybean Expression Database (SGED) was built, using PERL/CGI, C and an ORACLE database management system. SGED contains three components. The Data Mining component serves as a repos...

  11. US corn and soybeans exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The results from the U.S. corn/soybeans exploratory experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are summarized. The experiment consisted of two parts: the classification procedures verification test and the simulated aggregation test. Evaluations of labeling, proportion estimation, and aggregation procedures are presented.

  12. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  13. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  14. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust resistance by virus-induced gene silencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust is a fungus that causes disease on soybeans. The discovery of soybean genes and proteins that are important for disease resistance to soybean rust may help improve soybean cultivars through breeding or transgenic technology. Proteins previously discovered in the cell nucleus of soybea...

  15. Methods and evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to Colletotrichum truncatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] occurs throughout the soybean production areas of the world. The fungal species that cause soybean anthracnose infect all parts of the soybean plant. There is little information on standardizing an inoculation technique or on evaluating soybean germpla...

  16. Geographic distribution of soybean aphid biotypes in USA and Canada during 2008 - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a native pest of soybean in eastern Asia and was detected on soybeans in North America in 2000. In 2004, the soybean variety ‘“Dowling”’ was described to be resistant to soybean aphids with the Rag1 gene for resistance. In 2006, a virulent biotype of s...

  17. Diverse soybean accessions identified with temperature-sensitive resistance to Tobacco streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is a pathogen that has been reported in soybean in Brazil and the United States, for which resistance has only been reported in the “hay-type” soybean cultivar Tanner. To find additional resistant soybean genotypes, over 1000 soybean accessions from the USDA Soybean Germpl...

  18. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation. PMID:23322364

  19. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  20. Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...

  1. Soybean-Peanut Rotations for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Robertson, D. G.; Backman, P. A.; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Rotating soybean (Glycine max cv. Kirby) with peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner) for managing Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 was studied for 3 years (1985-87) in a field near Headland, Alabama. Each year soybean plots had lower soil numbers of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) at peanut harvest than did plots in peanut monocnlture. Peanut following either 1 or 2 years of soybean resulted in approximately 50% reduction in J2 soil population densities and a 14% (1-year soybean) or 20% (2-year soybean) increase in yields compared with continuous peanut. The soybean-peanut rotation increased peanut yield equal to or higher than the yield obtained with continuous peanut treated with aldicarb at 0.34 g a.i./mL. PMID:19290309

  2. Effect of processing soybeans on their use by calves.

    PubMed

    Prasad, D A; Morrill, J L

    1976-02-01

    Full-fat soybeans processed by grinding, roasting, or heating by microwave were used to supply the protein in rations fed Holstein calves. Nitrogen digestibilities of the rations were not significantly different. Nitrogen retention for the roasted soybean ration was higher than that of raw or microwave-heated soybean rations. Nitrogen solubility of the roasted soybeans was lower than that of the other soybeans. Protein hydrolysis, as measured by a new in vitro technique, was higher for the roasted soybeans than for the raw or microwave-heated beans. There were no significant differences in the digestibilities of dry matter, ether extract, or nitrogen free extract among the three rations. Digestibility of crude fiber was lower for the roasted ration than for the other rations. PMID:942983

  3. Preparation and characterization of fine powdered whole soybean curd

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficacy and comparative characteristics of fine powdered whole soybean curd. [Methods] Ground dried soybean to a fine powder (700 mesh) containing bean components in its entirety, and then produced whole soybean curd. Analysed its nutritive components, bioactive substances, antioxidant activities and texture compared with pressed soybean curd. [Results] Compared with pressed soybean curd, the nutrients and isoflavone in whole soybean curd were slightly decreased, but antioxidant activities, dietary fibers and moisture content were increased. Also, the yield rate of the total process was improved 1.9 times. [Conclusion] Fine powdered whole bean curd has antioxidant effects, contains dietary fiber and possesses soft characteristics, hence has development potential in the diet market and as food for patients. PMID:27274462

  4. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  5. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  6. Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB): a Web Resource for Soybean Translational Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Trupti; Patil, Kapil; Fitzpatrick, Michael R.; Franklin, Levi D.; Yao, Qiuming; Cook, Jeffrey R.; Wang, Zhem; Libault, Marc; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Valliyodan, Babu; Wu, Xiaolei; Cheng, Jianlin; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T.; Xu, Dong

    2012-01-17

    Background: Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB) is a comprehensive all-inclusive web resource for soybean translational genomics. SoyKB is designed to handle the management and integration of soybean genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data along with annotation of gene function and biological pathway. It contains information on four entities, namely genes, microRNAs, metabolites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: SoyKB has many useful tools such as Affymetrix probe ID search, gene family search, multiple gene/ metabolite search supporting co-expression analysis, and protein 3D structure viewer as well as download and upload capacity for experimental data and annotations. It has four tiers of registration, which control different levels of access to public and private data. It allows users of certain levels to share their expertise by adding comments to the data. It has a user-friendly web interface together with genome browser and pathway viewer, which display data in an intuitive manner to the soybean researchers, producers and consumers. Conclusions: SoyKB addresses the increasing need of the soybean research community to have a one-stop-shop functional and translational omics web resource for information retrieval and analysis in a user-friendly way. SoyKB can be publicly accessed at http://soykb.org/.

  7. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity. PMID:26635848

  8. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity. PMID:26635848

  9. Photosynthesis inhibition of soybean leaves by insecticides.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Reheem, S; Belal, M H; Gupta, G

    1991-01-01

    Field grown soybean cv. Williams-82 plants were sprayed with malathion or carbaryl formulations at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. Net photosynthesis (PN) was measured in the control (water-sprayed) and pesticide-treated plants, 1, 3 and 7 days after treatment, with a LICOR 6200 Portable Photosynthesis System. The pesticide-treated plants showed a significant reduction (24% with malathion and 20% with carbaryl) in PN after the first application. After the 60-day spray treatment PN suppression on day 1 and day 3 after treatment was the same as after the first application; but PN reached the same level as that of the water-sprayed control 7 days after treatment. After the 90-day treatment no change in PN was observed with the pesticide-treated plants compared to the control. These data indicate that malathion and carbaryl formulations may exert a detrimental influence on soybean physiology. PMID:15092064

  10. Microwave backscattering from an anisotropic soybean canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. H.; Saatchi, S.; Levine, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic backscattering from a soybean canopy is modeled in the L band region of the spectrum. Mature soybean plants are taken as an ensemble of leaves and stems which are represented by lossy dielectric disks and rods respectively. Field data indicated that leaves and stems are not distributed uniformly in the azimuth coordinate. The plant has a tendency to grow out into the area between the rows. The effects on backscattered radar waves was computed by the distorted Born approximation. Results for look directions along the rows and perpendicular to the rows show that only a modest difference occurs in the L band frequency range. The use of another nonuniform distribution, different from those observed experimentally, results in a significant effect due to vegetation asymmetry.

  11. Lady Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Communities in Soybean and Maize.

    PubMed

    Prescott, K K; Andow, D A

    2016-02-01

    Coccinellids provide the most effective natural control of soybean aphid, but outbreaks remain common. Previous work suggests that native coccinellids are rare in soybean, potentially limiting soybean aphid control. We compared the coccinellid community in soybean with that of maize to identify differences in how coccinellid species use these habitats. As maize has long been used by coccinellids in the Americas, we hypothesized that coccinellids native to the Americas would use maize habitats, while exotic coccinellids would be more common in soybean. We identified and quantified aphids and all species and stages of coccinellids in a randomized complete block experiment with four blocks of 10 by 10 -m plots of soybean and maize in central Minnesota during 2008 and 2009. Coccinellid egg masses were identified by hatching in the laboratory. We used repeated-measures ANOVA to identify the dominant species in each habitat and compared species richness and Shannon's diversity with a paired t-test. Aphids and coccinellids had a similar phenology across habitats, but the coccinellid species composition differed significantly between soybean and maize. In soybean, the exotic, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, was the dominant species, while in maize, H. axyridis and the native, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, were co-dominant. Eggs of H. axyridis were abundant in both habitats. In contrast, C. maculata eggs were very rare in soybean, despite being abundant in adjacent plots of maize. Species diversity was higher in maize. These findings were consistent with other published studies of coccinellid communities in these habitats. PMID:26396229

  12. Natural variability in abundance of prevalent soybean proteins.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S

    2010-12-01

    Soybean is an inexpensive source of protein for humans and animals. Genetic modifications (GMO) to soybean have become inevitable on two fronts, both quality and yield will need to improve to meet increasing global demand. To ensure the safety of the crop for consumers it is important to determine the natural variation in seed protein constituents as well as any unintended changes that may occur in the GMO as a result of genetic modification. Understanding the natural variation of seed proteins in wild and cultivated soybeans that have been used in conventional soybean breeding programs is critical for determining unintended protein expression in GMO soybeans. In recent years, proteomic technologies have been used as an effective analytical tool for examining modifications of protein profiles. We have standardized and applied these technologies to determine and quantify the spectrum of proteins present in soybean seed. We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the separation, quantification, and identification of different classes of soybean seed proteins. We have observed significant variations in different classes of proteins, including storage, allergen and anti-nutritional protein profiles, between non-GMO cultivated and wild soybean varieties. This information is useful for scientists and regulatory agencies to determine whether the unintended expression of proteins found in transgenic soybean is within the range of natural variation. PMID:20709130

  13. Engineering of soybean mosaic virus as a versatile tool for studying protein–protein interactions in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Transient gene expression approaches are valuable tools for rapid introduction of genes of interest and characterization of their functions in plants. Although agroinfiltration is the most effectively and routinely used method for transient expression of multiple genes in various plant species, this approach has been largely unsuccessful in soybean. In this study, we engineered soybean mosaic virus (SMV) as a dual-gene delivery vector to simultaneously deliver and express two genes in soybean cells. We further show the application of the SMV-based dual vector for a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to visualize in vivo protein–protein interactions in soybean and for a co-immunoprecipitation assay to identify cellular proteins interacting with SMV helper component protease. This approach provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for transient introduction of multiple traits into soybean and for in vivo characterization of the soybean cellular protein interaction network. PMID:26926710

  14. Engineering of soybean mosaic virus as a versatile tool for studying protein-protein interactions in soybean.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Transient gene expression approaches are valuable tools for rapid introduction of genes of interest and characterization of their functions in plants. Although agroinfiltration is the most effectively and routinely used method for transient expression of multiple genes in various plant species, this approach has been largely unsuccessful in soybean. In this study, we engineered soybean mosaic virus (SMV) as a dual-gene delivery vector to simultaneously deliver and express two genes in soybean cells. We further show the application of the SMV-based dual vector for a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to visualize in vivo protein-protein interactions in soybean and for a co-immunoprecipitation assay to identify cellular proteins interacting with SMV helper component protease. This approach provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for transient introduction of multiple traits into soybean and for in vivo characterization of the soybean cellular protein interaction network. PMID:26926710

  15. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  16. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  17. Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods.

    PubMed

    Liener, I E

    1994-01-01

    There are a number of components present in soybeans that exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Among those factors that are destroyed by heat treatment are the protease inhibitors and lectins. Protease inhibitors exert their antinutritional effect by causing pancreatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia, which ultimately results in an inhibition of growth. The lectin, by virtue of its ability to bind to glycoprotein receptors on the epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa, inhibits growth by interfering with the absorption of nutrients. Of lesser significance are the antinutritional effects produced by relatively heat stable factors, such as goitrogens, tannins, phytoestrogens, flatus-producing oligosaccharides, phytate, and saponins. Other diverse but ill-defined factors appear to increase the requirements for vitamins A, B12, D, and E. The processing of soybeans under severe alkaline conditions leads to the formation of lysinoalanine, which has been shown to damage the kidneys of rats. This is not generally true, however, for edible soy protein that has been produced under milder alkaline conditions. Also meriting consideration is the allergenic response that may sometimes occur in humans, as well as calves and piglets, on dietary exposure to soybeans. PMID:8142044

  18. Major Soybean Maturity Gene Haplotypes Revealed by SNPViz Analysis of 72 Sequenced Soybean Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

  19. Feeding Behavior of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype 2 on Resistant and Susceptible Soybean.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jane C; Rouf Mian, M A; Backus, Elaine A; Finer, John J; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2016-02-01

    Host plant resistance to the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an effective means of controlling populations of this introduced pest species in the United States. Rag (Resistance to Aphis glycines) genes identified in soybean germplasm have been incorporated into commercial cultivars, but differential responses by soybean aphid biotypes to the Rag genes have made understanding mechanisms underlying resistance associated with Rag genes increasingly important. We compared the behavior of biotype 2 aphids on the resistant soybean line PI243540, which is a source of Rag2, and the susceptible cultivar Wyandot. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the abaxial surface of leaves from resistant plants had a higher density of both long and glandulartrichomes, which might repel aphids, on veins. Time-lapse animation also suggested a repellent effect of resistant plants on aphids. However, electropenatography (EPG) indicated that the time to first probe did not differ between aphids feeding on the resistant and susceptible lines. EPG also indicated that fewer aphids feeding on resistant plants reached the phloem, and the time before reaching the phloem was much longer relative to susceptible soybean. For aphids that reached the phloem, there was no difference in either number of feedings or their duration in phloem. However, aphids feeding on resistant soybean had fewer prolonged phases of active salivation (E1) and many more pathway activities and non-probing intervals. Together, the feeding behavior of aphids suggested that Rag2 resistance has strong antixenosis effects, in addition to previously reported antibiosis, and was associated with epidermal and mesophyll tissues. PMID:26578627

  20. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  1. Identification and Development of Soybean Rust-Resistant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cultivars with resistance to soybean rust (SBR; Phakopsora pachyrhizi) would be valuable assets for an integrated disease management program. Researchers from the United States and several South American countries have been striving to identify and confirm germplasm with SBR resistance that ...

  2. Fast Neutron Mutagenesis of Soybean: A Resource for the Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutagenized populations have become indispensable resources for introducing variation and studying gene function in plant genomics research. To create a soybean population for forward and reverse genetic screens, we chose to use fast neutron irradiation to induce deletion mutations in the soybean ge...

  3. Glyphosate affects seed composition in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has continuously increased worldwide in recent years mainly due to the importance of glyphosate in current weed management systems. However, not much has been done to understand eventual effects of glyphosate on GR soybean physiology, especially ...

  4. Predicting potential ecological impact of soybean aphid biological control introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, APHIS GLYCINES, was first reported in the US in 2000; since then, it has spread to 22 states, putting >24 million hectares of soybean at risk. In China, APHIS GLYCINES rarely reaches damaging levels and has a diverse complex of predators and parasitoids. In the US, parasitoids are...

  5. Fatty acid profiling of soybean cotyledons by NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research was conducted to quantify the five fatty acids in soybean (Glycine max) cotyledons using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Soybean cotyledon samples were dried and ground. A 250-mg sample was scanned in the visible and NIR regions (400 to 2500 nm), and diffuse reflectance was recorded...

  6. STARTER FERTILIZER EFFECTS ON SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizing soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is not an entirely new concept; for a number of years, scientists have investigated the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on yield and quality of soybeans. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of starter fertilizer N rates and ...

  7. SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE REPRODUCTION RELATED TO TILLAGE AND RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in tillage may affect soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, (SCN) reproduction. Plots of no-tillage and tilled soybeans were established in 1979 in a randomized complete block design and individual plots were split in half in 2002 with conversion of tillage treatments to compare th...

  8. Application Technology Research for Asian Soybean Rust Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides are currently the only means for managing potentially devastating Asian Soybean Rust (ASR) infection in the U.S. ASR is likely to first infection those portions of the soybean canopy closer to the ground. Infection is most likely to occur once the canopy is nearly fully developed and mo...

  9. Gaining insight into soybean defense responses using functional genomics approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean pathogens significantly impact yield, resulting in over 4 billion dollars in lost revenue annually in the United States alone as a result of disease. Despite the deployment of improved soybean cultivars, pathogens continue to evolve to evade plant defense responses. Thus, there is an urgent ...

  10. Increasing the Oleic Acid in Soybean Oil with Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the oleic acid content along with decrease in linolenic acid can improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Genetic changes in soybean using standard plant breeding practices has resulted in a publicly released a mid-oleic breeding line, N98-4445A, with oil that averages 57% oleic ac...