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The Chinese Mestizo in Philippine History  

E-print Network

singled out for specific treatment. Perhaps this is because in most parts of Southeast Asia the Chinese mestizos (to use the Philippine term for persons of mixed Chinese-native ancestry) have not been formally and legally recognized as a separate group... by the fact that since 1898 there has been no legally-defined mestizo class which we may use as a basis for understanding the Spanish usage of the term. It is sometimes claimed that Spanish mestizos were of great importance in Philippine history when...

Wickberg, Edgar



A Reply to Peter Doble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peter Doble has recently made his opinions on an article written by the author (Thompson, 2004a). Several of the points Doble raised were addressed in the author's book "Whatever Happened to Religious Education?" (Thompson, 2004b). In this article, the author addresses the points made by Doble in response to her article. The author contends how…

Thompson, Penny



Tumor necrosis factor haplotype diversity in Mestizo and native populations of Mexico.  


The so-called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) block includes the TNFA, lymphotoxin alpha and beta (LTA and LTB) genes with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and microsatellites with an allele frequency that exhibits interpopulation variability. To date, no reports have included both SNPs and microsatellites at the TNF block to study Mestizo or Amerindian populations from Mexico. In this study, samples of five Mexican Mestizo populations (Durango, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, and Tierra Blanca) and four native-Mexican populations (North Lacandonians, South Lacandonians, Tepehuanos, and Yaquis) were genotyped for two SNPs (LTA+252A>G and TNFA-308G>A) and four microsatellites (TNFa, d, e, and f), to analyze the genetic substructure of the Mexican population. Allele and haplotype frequencies, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and interpopulation genetic relationships were calculated. There was significant LD along almost all of the TNF block but the lowest D' values were observed for the TNFf-TNFd pair. Mestizos showed higher allele and haplotype diversity than did natives. The genetic differentiation level was reduced among Mestizos; however, a slightly, but significant genetic substructure was observed between northern and southern Mexican Mestizos. Among the Amerindian populations, the genetic differentiation level was significantly elevated, particularly in both North and South Lacandonians. Furthermore, among Southern Lacandonians, inhabitants of Lacanja town were the most differentiated from all the Mexicans analyzed. The data presented here will serve as a reference for further population and epidemiological studies including these TNF polymorphisms in the Mexican population. PMID:24517517

Castro-Martínez, X H; Leal-Cortés, C; Flores-Martínez, S E; García-Zapién, A G; Sánchez-Corona, J; Portilla-de Buen, E; Gómez-Espinel, I; Zamora-Ginez, I; Pérez-Fuentes, R; Islas-Andrade, S; Revilla-Monsalve, C; Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Mendoza-Carrera, F



Brief Communication: Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.  


Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:482-487, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25137143

Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V



Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Mexico is developing the basis for genomic medicine to improve healthcare of its population. The extensive study of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium structure of different populations has made it possible to develop tagging and imputation strategies to comprehensively analyze common genetic variation in association studies of complex diseases. We assessed the benefit of a Mexican haplotype map to improve identification of genes related to common diseases in the Mexican population. We evaluated genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium patterns, and extent of haplotype sharing using genomewide data from Mexican Mestizos from regions with different histories of admixture and particular population dynamics. Ancestry was evaluated by including 1 Mexican Amerindian group and data from the HapMap. Our results provide evidence of genetic differences between Mexican subpopulations that should be considered in the design and analysis of association studies of complex diseases. In addition, these results support the notion that a haplotype map of the Mexican Mestizo population can reduce the number of tag SNPs required to characterize common genetic variation in this population. This is one of the first genomewide genotyping efforts of a recently admixed population in Latin America. PMID:19433783

Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Estrada-Gil, Jesus; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Contreras, Alejandra; Balam-Ortiz, Eros; del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Velazquez-Fernandez, David; Lara, Cesar; Goya, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Lemus, Enrique; Davila, Carlos; Barrientos, Eduardo; March, Santiago; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo



Mitochondrial DNA studies show asymmetrical Amerindian admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations.  


The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by analyzing the markers defining the main (A, B, C, D) and minor (X) founder haplogroups in Native Americans, the principal African haplogroup (L), and additional generic markers present in Caucasian (I, J, K, H, T, U, V, W) and minor African lineages (L3). As part of an interdisciplinary research program (the Expedición Humana, furthered by the Universidad Javeriana and directed by J.E. Bernal V.), 159 Afro-Colombians from five populations in which they are the majority and 91 urban Mestizos were studied. No Amerindian haplogroups (A-D, X) were detected in 81% of the Afro-Colombians. In those samples with Amerindian lineages (average 18.8%, with a range from 10% to 43%), haplogroup B predominated. When analyzed for the presence of African haplotypes, Afro-Colombians showed an overall frequency of 35.8% for haplogroup L mtDNAs, although with broad differences between populations. A few Afro-Colombian samples (1.9%) had mutations that have not been described before, and might therefore be considered as previously unsampled African variants or as new mutations arising in the American continent. Conversely, in Mestizos less than 22% of their mtDNAs belonged to non-Amerindian lineages, of which most were likely to be West Eurasian in origin. Haplogroup L mtDNAs were found in only one Mestizo (1.1%), indicating that, if present, admixture with African women would bring in other, rarer African lineages. On the other hand, in an accompanying paper (Keyeux et al. 2002) we have shown that Amerindians from Colombia have experienced little or no matrilineal admixture with Caucasians or Africans. Taken together, these results are evidence of different patterns of past ethnic admixture among Africans, Amerindians, and Spaniards in the geographic region now encompassing Colombia, which is also reflected in much of the region's cultural diversity. PMID:12713143

Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Keyeux, Genoveva



Helmintos parásitos presentes en las explotaciones de ganado caprino de la Comunidad Valenciana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Con el objetivo de conocer la frecuencia y distribución de los helmintos parásitos del ganado caprino en las tres provincias biogeográficas que incluye la Comunidad Valenciana, se ha realizado un estudio cuantitativo mediante análisis coprológicos. Para ello, se tomaron muestras en 89 explotaciones de cabras elegidas al azar (er ror máximo aceptado = 10%, nivel de confianza = 95%). Se

S. Hernández-de-Luján


A Comparative Analysis of Mestizo and Indigenous Mayan Young Women in Guatemala: Attitudes and Knowledge of Sexual Reproduction and Health among Members of Children International's Youth Health Corps  

E-print Network

Children International’s Youth Health Corps Program uses Peer Education techniques to teach impoverished adolescents about Sexual Health and Reproduction. In the Youth Health Corps in Guatemala, both rural indigenous Maya youth and urban mestizo...

Trapp, Sarah Casement



Association of PPARG2 Pro12Ala Variant with Larger Body Mass Index in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have sought to associate the Pro12Ala variant of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?2 (PPARG2) gene with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity, with controversial results. We have determined the Pro12Ala variant frequency in 370 nondiabetic Mexican Mestizo subjects and in five Mexican Amerindian groups and have investigated its possible association with lipid metabolism, insulin serum levels, and

S. Canizales-Quinteros; C. A. Aguilar-Salinas; M. G. Ortiz-López; M. Rodríguez-Cruz; M. T. Villarreal-Molina; R. Coral-Vázquez; A. Huertas-Vázquez; A. Hernández-Caballero; M. López-Alarcón; O. R. Brito-Zurita; A. Domínguez-Banda; L. R. Martinez-Sánchez; T. Canto-De Cetina; G. Vilchis-Dorantes; H. Rosas-Vargas; M. A. Granados-Silvestre; A. Medeiros-Domingo; M. Menjivar; M. T. Tusíe-Luna



Association of PPARG2 Pro12Ala Variant with Larger Body Mass Index in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

9 AND M. T. TUSIÉ-LUNA 1 Abstract Previous studies have sought to associate the Pro12Ala variant of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?2 (PPARG2) gene with type 2 dia- betes, insulin resistance, and obesity, with controversial results. We have de- termined the Pro12Ala variant frequency in 370 nondiabetic Mexican Mestizo subjects and in five Mexican Amerindian groups and have investigated its

S. Canizales-Quinteros; C. A. Aguilar-Salinas; G. Ortiz-López; M. Rodríguez-Cruz; M. T. Villarreal-Molina; R. Coral-Vázquez; A. Huertas-Vázquez; A. Hernández-Caballero; M. López-Alarcón; O. R. Brito-Zurita; A. Domínguez-Banda; L. R. Martinez-Sánchez; T. Canto-de. Cetina; G. Vilchis-Dorantes; H. Rosas-Vargas; A. Medeiros-Domingo; M. Menjivar; M. T. Tusié-Luna



Population data on 6 short tandem repeat loci in a sample of Caucasian-Mestizos from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples from 409–452 unrelated Colombian Caucasian-Mestizo individuals were amplified and typed for six short tandem\\u000a repeat (STR) markers (HUMF13A01, HUMFES\\/FPS, HUMVWA, HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTH01). The allele frequencies, genotype frequencies,\\u000a heterozygocity, mean paternity exclusion chance, polymorphism information content, discrimination power, assumption of independence\\u000a within and between loci and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were determined. The results demonstrate that all markers conform

J. J. Yunis; O. García; I. Uriarte; E. J. Yunis



A mixed longitudinal anthropometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6-17 years of age.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos. Four age cohorts, including a total of 458 children and adolescents (262 males and 216 females), were included in this mixed-longitudinal study. The cohorts were first measured at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 and every year thereafter for 3 years. Eight anthropometric measurements were taken, including three cranial (head perimeter, head width, and head length), two craniofacial (maxillary and mandibular length), and three facial (face height, bizygomatic width, and bigonial width). Multilevel analyses showed that all dimensions increased between 6 and 17 years of age. The cranium grew less than the craniofacial, which in turn grew less than the facial dimensions. In addition, vertical dimensions showed more growth than antero-posterior dimensions, which in turn grew more than transverse dimensions. None of the measurement showed statistically significant growth differences between subjects with normal occlusion and Class I or Class II malocclusions. Males were generally larger than females and showed greater growth rates. Except for facial width, whose yearly velocities decreased regularly with age, an adolescent growth spurt was evident for most of the male measurements. Yearly velocities for females followed a simpler decelerating pattern. The results provide reference data for Colombian mestizos, for whom normative data of other ethnic groups are not applicable. While occlusion had little or no effect, there were gender differences, as well as important growth differences between cranial and facial measurements. PMID:21097992

Arboleda, Cleidy; Buschang, Peter H; Camacho, Jesus A; Botero, Paola; Roldan, Samuel



Ganado Public Schools Title VII Project 1976-1977: Saad Naaki Bee Olta (Bilingual Education). Final Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1976-77 academic year the Ganado (Arizona) Title VII Bilingual Education Project operated within a Cooperative Teaching Model based on language roles. Each teacher was assigned a role based on language responsibility: English language teachers concentrated on teaching English as a second language, while Navajo language teachers taught…

Rosier, Paul; Farella, Merilyn


Association analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.  


We investigated associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, FokI T>C (rs2228570), BsmI G>A (rs1544410), ApaI G>T (rs7975232), and TaqI T>C (rs731236), with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Three hundred and twenty postmenopausal women participated, who were classified according to World Health Organization criteria as non-osteoporotic (Non-OP; N = 88), osteopenic (Opn; N = 144), and osteoporotic (OP; N = 88). BMD measurements at the lumbar (L1-L4) spine and at the left and right femoral neck were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan probes. Genotype and allelic frequencies of the 4 VDR SNPs were similar among the 3 groups. Polymorphic allele frequencies were as follows: FokI (C) 0.53, 0.49, 0.56; BsmI (A) 0.26, 0.22, 0.23; ApaI (T) 0.43, 0.39, 0.44; TaqI (C) 0.27, 0.22, 0.23 for the Non-OP, Opn, and OP groups, respectively. Although no associations were found between the SNPs and BMD, based on the putative function of the FokI SNP, we constructed, for the first time, the haplotype with the 4 VDR SNPs, and found that the CGGT haplotype differed between the Non- OP and OP groups (21.8 vs 31.8%, P < 0.05). The risk analysis for this haplotype was nearly significant under the dominant model (OR = 1.783, 95%CI = 0.98-3.25, P = 0.058). This result suggests a possible susceptibility effect of the C allele of the FokI SNP for the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. PMID:23979900

González-Mercado, A; Sánchez-López, J Y; Regla-Nava, J A; Gámez-Nava, J I; González-López, L; Duran-Gonzalez, J; Celis, A; Perea-Díaz, F J; Salazar-Páramo, M; Ibarra, B



49. DOBLE BUCKETS ON PELTON WHEEL. EEC print no. GC0100148, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. DOBLE BUCKETS ON PELTON WHEEL. EEC print no. G-C-01-00148, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA



E-print Network

DOBLE GRAU EN DRET I ADMINISTRACI� I DIRECCI� D'EMPRESES O ECONOMIA Presentació La Facultat de Dret-2012 el doble grau en Dret i Administració i Direcció d'Empreses o Economia. Aquest nou estudi permet Administració i Direcció d'Empreses o graduat en Economia Accés: preinscripció universitària Codi de

Geffner, Hector


Analysis of Polymorphisms in Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo Women with Pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

Due to the fact that studies seeking associations of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine genes with pre-eclampsia (PE) have not always been consistent in different population analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between rs1800896 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), rs1800795 of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 2 of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as gene–gene interactions between these three polymorphisms with the presence of PE in Mexican-Mestizo women and one Amerindian population from México (Maya). A case–control study was performed where 411 pre-eclamptic cases and 613 controls were genotyped. For the rs1800896 of IL-10 and rs1800795 of IL-6, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination and for the VNTR of IL-1Ra, PCR. Allele frequency differences were assessed by Chi-squared test; logistic regression was used to test for associations; a gene–gene interaction was conducted. Genotypic and allelic distribution of the polymorphisms was similar in our population. The estimated of the gene–gene interaction between the polymorphisms did not differ significantly. However, we observed important differences in the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the three polymorphisms analyzed between Mestiza-Mexicanas and Maya-Mestizo women. In conclusion, we did not find an association between polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1Ra and PE in Mexican-Mestizo and Maya-Mestizo women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene–gene interaction in women with PE. PMID:23013217

Valencia Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Romero Arauz, Juan Fernando; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon Mauricio; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Coronel, Agustin; Carlos Falcon, Juan; Hernandez Rivera, Jaime; Ibarra, Roberto; Polanco Reyes, Lucila



Distribution of ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 gene polymorphisms in a Mexican Mestizos population.  


The aim of the present study was to establish the gene frequency of six polymorphisms of the ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 genes in a population resident of Mexico City. The proteins encoded by these genes have been associated with the absorption, and biotransformation of clopidogrel. The ABCB1 T3435C, CYP3A5 V3* A6986G, P2RY12 G52T, P2RY12 C34T, CYP2C19 V2* and V3* (positions G681A and G636A, respectively), polymorphisms were analyzed by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 269 healthy unrelated Mexican Mestizo individuals. The CYP2C19 V3* G636A polymorphism was not detected in the Mexican Mestizos population. However, the studied population presented significant differences (P < 0.05) in the distribution of the T3435C, A6986G, G681A, G52T and C34T polymorphisms when compared to reported frequencies of Amerindian of South America, Caucasian, Asian, and African populations. In summary, the distribution of the ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 gene polymorphisms distinguishes to the Mexican Mestizos population from other ethnic groups. PMID:25106522

Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Ramírez-Bello, Julián; de la Peña, Aurora; Calderón-Cruz, Beatriz; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Fuentes, Silvestre; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Fragoso, José Manuel



JAG1 and COL1A1 polymorphisms and haplotypes in relation to bone mineral density variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo Women.  


Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD). One of the most important factors that influence BMD is the genetic contribution. The collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) and the JAGGED (JAG1) have been investigated in relation to BMD. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COL1A1, their haplotypes, and one SNP of JAG1 with BMD in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Seven hundred and fifty unrelated postmenopausal women were included. Risk factors were recorded and BMD was measured in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. Two SNPs in COL1A1 (rs1800012 and rs1107946) and one in JAG1 (rs2273061) were studied. Real-time PCR allelic discrimination was used for genotyping. The differences between the means of the BMDs according to genotype were analyzed with covariance. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r (2), and haplotype analysis of COL1A1 was conducted. Under a dominant model, the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1 showed an association with BMD of the lumbar spine (P?=?0.021). In addition, analysis of the haplotype of COL1A1 showed that the G-G haplotype presented a higher BMD in lumbar spine. We did not find an association between the s1107946 and rs2273061 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 and JAG1, respectively. Our results suggest that the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1, in addition to one haplotype, were significantly associated with BMD variation in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women. PMID:22174012

Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Espinosa, Leticia Cortes; López-Medina, Guillermo; Aguirre-García, María C; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia



Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes (APEX1, XPD, XRCC1 and XRCC3) and Risk of Preeclampsia in a Mexican Mestizo Population  

PubMed Central

Variations in genes involved in DNA repair systems have been proposed as risk factors for the development of preeclampsia (PE). We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APEX1) Asp148Glu (rs1130409), Xeroderma Pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln (rs13181), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC) Arg399Gln (rs25487) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met (rs861539) polymorphisms with PE in a Mexican population. Samples of 202 cases and 350 controls were genotyped using RTPCR. Association analyses based on a ?2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each polymorphism. The allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed statistical significant differences between preeclamptic and normal women (p = 0.036). Although neither of the polymorphisms proved to be a risk factor for the disease, the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed a tendency of association (OR: 1.74, 95% CI = 0.96–3.14) and a significant trend (p for trend = 0.048). A subgroup analyses revealed differences in the allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism between women with mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia (p = 0.035). In conclusion, our results reveal no association between XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms and the risk of PE in a Mexican mestizo population; however, the results in the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism suggest the need for future studies using a larger sample size. PMID:24619222

Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Mendez-Hernandez, Edna M.; Vazquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Aguilar-Duran, Marisela; Tellez-Valencia, Alfredo; Barraza-Salas, Marcelo; Castellanos-Juarez, Francisco X.; La Llave-Leon, Osmel; Salas-Pacheco, Jose M.



Diagnostico de Prenez en Ganado Vacuno.  

E-print Network

Becerros logrados (por 100 vacas) 550' 500 450 400 350 1 90 19.2 21.1 23.5 26.4 30.2 330 300 270 240 21 0 60 28.8 31.7 35.2 39.6 45.2 'Los nlimeros de arriba indican libras de becerro producido por vaca. CARUNCULAS \\ VULVA Figura 2. Anatornia del... Becerros logrados (por 100 vacas) 550' 500 450 400 350 1 90 19.2 21.1 23.5 26.4 30.2 330 300 270 240 21 0 60 28.8 31.7 35.2 39.6 45.2 'Los nlimeros de arriba indican libras de becerro producido por vaca. CARUNCULAS \\ VULVA Figura 2. Anatornia del...

Sorensen, A. M. Jr.; Beverly, J. R.; Arias, A. A.



DOBLE LAVADO DE MANOS 2. Aplique jabn  

E-print Network

bajo el agua potable limpia Un único lavado de manos...pasos 1­ 4 Repita los pasos 1-4 y termine con el, TX 78756 1. Mójese las manos con agua potable, (al menos 100


Mitochondrial DNA Studies Show Asymmetrical Amerindian Admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these

Clemencia Rodas; Nancy Gelvez; Genoveva Keyeux



Association of vWA and TPOX Polymorphisms with Venous Thrombosis in Mexican Mestizos  

PubMed Central

Objective. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disorder and, worldwide, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors play a critical role in its aetiology. Microsatellites are the most important source of human genetic variation having more phenotypic effect than many single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hence, we evaluate a possible relationship between VTE and the genetic variants in von Willebrand factor, human alpha fibrinogen, and human thyroid peroxidase microsatellites to identify possible diagnostic markers. Methods. Genotypes were obtained from 177 patients with VTE and 531 nonrelated individuals using validated genotyping methods. The allelic frequencies were compared; Bayesian methods were used to correct population stratification to avoid spurious associations. Results. The vWA-18, TPOX-9, and TPOX-12 alleles were significantly associated with VTE. Moreover, subjects bearing the combination vWA-18/TPOX-12 loci exhibited doubled risk for VTE (95% CI = 1.02–3.64), whereas the combination vWA-18/TPOX-9 showed an OR = 10 (95% CI = 4.93–21.49). Conclusions. The vWA and TPOX microsatellites are good candidate biomarkers in venous thromboembolism diseases and could help to elucidate their origins. Additionally, these polymorphisms could become useful markers for genetic studies of VTE in the Mexican population; however, further studies should be done owing that this data only show preliminary evidence.

Meraz-Rios, Marco Antonio; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S.; Hernandez-Juarez, Jesus; Magana, Jonathan J.; Gomez, Rocio



Clan, Sage, and Sky: Indigenous, Hispano, and Mestizo Narratives of Learning in New Mexico Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities retain Native American and Latino college students at lower rates than other ethnic groups even when culturally based services, financial assistance, and support are provided. College teaching and conceptions of learning have yet to evolve on a widespread basis toward culturally diverse epistemologies and practice. This…

Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Ke, Fengfeng; Herrera, Felisha A.



75 FR 9114 - FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...Pyeatt to allot Channel 283A to Markham...Channel 284C2 to Channel 235C and to...ADDRESSES: Federal Communications Commission...adding Markham, Channel 283A. Federal Communications...




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background: Depression is the most frequent mental disorder in the world; its overall prevalence is about 8-12%. In Mexico, it has been calculated that 8.3% of the population aged 18-64 years has suffered this disorder along their lifetime. Disregarding country or culture, depression is two to three times more frequent in women than in men, more usual among separated

Jaime López Rodríguez; Marco Antonio; López Butrón; Blanca Estela; Vargas Terrez; Valerio Villamil Salcedo




Microsoft Academic Search

La selección recurrente para aptitud combinatoria en cultivos autógamos (SRAC), aunque exitosa, enfrenta dificultades para ha- cer las cruzas y para obtener suficiente semilla de éstas. Además, las derivaciones de la respuesta a la SRAC (R) basadas en el mode- lo de dos alelos pueden no ser adecuadas si la población se formó con más de dos progenitores. El objetivo

Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; Autónoma Chapingo



A Framework for Understanding Multicultural Identities: An Investigation of a Middle Level Student's French-Canadian Honduran-American (Mestizo) Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 1 middle level student of mixed heritage and his siblings as they assimilated and achieved within a small urban community. The main case focuses on 1 adolescent's experiences both in and out of schools. How this middle grade student identified and was treated had vast effects on his educational performance, adding insights…

Hurd, Ellis




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature about differentiation between European wild boars, pigs (feral and do- mestic) and their crosses. In the past, cranial and external body measurements, coat coloration patterns and hair measurements were used with limited success, as a differentiating method. Later, the differential ch- romosomal number offered better possibilities of discrimination, where 2n36 is the diploid number of

Paula Aravena; Oscar Skewes



Efectividad del doble test bioquímico como prueba de cribado de síndrome de Down en el segundo trimestre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several screening tests are available to identify the population at risk of Down syndrome. This population should then be recommended to undergo an invasive technique to obtain a fetal karyotype. In our hospital, screening is done by the combined test (maternal age+nuchal translucency+? subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin [?-HCG]+pregnancy-associated plasma-A [PAPP-A]) during the first trimester of pregnancy. When this test

Ana M. Rubio Lorente; M. José Rodríguez Suárez; María Moreno-Cid García-Suelto; Carmen Pastor Onofre; Tomás Salinas Adelantado; Ana I. Pascual Pedreño; Mazhar Chereki Kaloup



Programa de CaPaCitaCin y eduCaCin en Seguridad y Salud Para trabajadoreS  

E-print Network

trabajar con seguridad con el ganado, necesitas entender a los animales. Hablemos de algunas cosas escape, el ganado volteará sus cuerpos de manera que puedan ver al trabajador. Las vacas son animales

Leistikow, Bruce N.


“Una Mujer Trabaja Doble Aquí”: Vignette-Based Focus Groups on Stress and Work for Latina Blue-Collar Women in Eastern North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple

Michele M. Easter; Laura A. Linnan; Margaret E. Bentley; Brenda M. DeVellis; Andrea Meier; Pamela Y. Frasier; Kristine S. Kelsey; Marci K. Campbell



Evaluación de un sistema de enfriamiento aplicado en el periodo seco de ganado lechero durante el verano Evaluation of a cooling system used in the dry period of dairy cattle in summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine some physiological responses 60 d prepartum and production responses postpartum to a cooling system in summer, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to two groups: one group with (n=12) and a second group without (n=12) cooling. Cooled cows showed a lower (P<0.05) respiration rate (77.5 vs 83.7 breaths\\/min) and rectal temperature (39.1 vs 39.3 °C) in

Leonel Avendaño Reyes; Francisco Daniel Álvarez Valenzuela; Abelardo Correa Calderón



Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of strategic anthelmintic treatment and protein suplementation was evaluated in steers using the parameter body weight gain, during the period from weans to slawghtery. Forty animals were used, with 8-9 months of age, 20 of Guzera breed (Bos indicus) and 20 of Nelore - Angus, weighing 211.8 kg in average. These animals were distributed in four groups and

Fernando Paes; José Francisco


HLA-B alleles and complotypes in Mexican patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To analyse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes in Mexican mestizo patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSpA) and normal controls, to discover if there are other antigens, besides B27, in the HLA region that might show association with the disease. METHODS--The study included 100 Mexican mestizo patients with SSpA and 200 of their first degree relatives. These groups were compared with 85

G Vargas-Alarcón; A Garcia; S Bahena; H Melin-Aldana; F Andrade; G Ibañez-de-Kasep; J Alcocer-Varela; D Alarcón-Segovia; J Granados



IDENTIFICACIN Ala anterior de 26-36 mm y dorso con dos de las manchas blancas postdiscales claramente di-  

E-print Network

claramente di- vididas por un lunar oscuro, sin mancha blanca postdiscal en el espacio E4. Cara ventral del ganado ovicaprino. El ciclo es anual (especie univoltina). Los adultos se encuentran en junio (en las

García-Barros, Enrique


The Economic and Financial Implications of Supplying a Bioenergy Conversion Facility with Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks  

E-print Network

biomass feedstocks. Targeting the Middle Gulf Coast, Edna-Ganado, Texas area, mathematical programming in the form of a cost-minimization linear programming model(Sorghasaurus) is used to assess the financial and economic logistics costs for supplying a...

McLaughlin, Will



Hotel Saratoga Paseo Mallorca 6  

E-print Network

doble uso individual : 100,00 +IVA/día -Precio por habitación doble : 100,00 +IVA/día. -Suplemento desayuno : 10 +IVA/por persona y día. Del 01/05/2012 al 31/10/2012 -Precio por habitación doble uso individual : 110,00 +IVA/día -Precio por habitación doble : 110,00 +IVA/día. -Suplemento desayuno : 10 +IVA

Oro, Daniel


MONITOREO EPIDEMIOLÓGICO PARA Brucella abortus EN FINCAS DOBLE PROPÓSITO DEL MUNICIPIO MACHIQUES DE PERIJÁ, VENEZUELA. PARTE II: VALIDEZ Y SEGURIDAD DE LAS PRUEBAS ANILLO DE LA LECHE Y ROSA DE BENGALA Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Brucella abortus in Dual Purpose Farms from Machiques de Perijá County, Venezuela. Part Two: Validity and Accuracy of Ring Test and Rose Bengal Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the following diagnostic tests: Milk Ring Test (MRT), Indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA), Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and Competitive ELISA (cE- LISA) used for 5 years (2003-2007) in the epidemiological sur- veillance system for bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus )i n Ma- chiques de Perijá County was evaluated. For this purpose, milk and sera samples previously assessed through

Alfredo Sánchez-Villalobos; Regino Villarroel-Neri; Ana Oviedo-Bustos; Gilberto Sandrea; Julio Boscán-Ocando; Roymi Pinto-Patiño; Francisco Pirela-Larrazábal; Luís Becerra-Ramírez; Edgar López



¿Qué Es Racismo?: Awareness of Racism and Discrimination in Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the national consciousness, Ecuador is a mestizo nation. However, it is also an ethnically diverse nation with sizable minorities of indigenous and Afrodescended peoples. In national surveys, there is also a considerable minority who self-identify as blanco (white). Although there is strong evidence of continuing discrimination and prejudice toward both indigenous and Afro-descended peoples, there is little public discussion

Kenneth J. Mijeski; Meagan M. Stark; Scott H. Beck



¿Qué Es Racismo?: Awareness of Racism and Discrimination in Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In the national consciousness, Ecuador is a mestizo nation. However, it is also an ethnically diverse nation with sizable minorities of indigenous and Afrodescended peoples. In national surveys, there is also a considerable minority who self-identify as blanco (white). Although there is strong evidence of continuing discrimination and prejudice toward both indigenous and Afro-descended peoples, there is little public discussion

Kenneth J. Mijeski; Meagan M. Stark; Scott H. Beck



Historical Development of the Concept of the Multicultural Personality: A Mixed Ethnic Heritage Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mestizo (mixed ethnic heritage) Civil Rights Movement in the United States can be divided into five phases: Pre-Civil Rights, Civil Rights, Bilingual-Multicultural Education, Political Conservatism, and the current period, an Assault on Civil Rights. The paper describes how a personal research career has been influenced by the different stages…

Ramirez, Manuel, III


Teaching English Critically to Mexican Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present one significant part of a large-scale critical-ethnographic-action-research project (CEAR Project) carried out in Oaxaca, Mexico. The overall CEAR Project has been conducted since 2007 in different Oaxacan elementary schools serving indigenous and mestizo (mixed-race) children. In the CEAR Project, teacher…

López-Gopar, Mario E.



Hernan Cortes; Conquistador and Colonizer. The Tinker Pamphlet Series for the Teaching of Mexican American Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conquest and colonization of Mexico initiated by Hernan Cortes resulted in the fusion of the Indian and Hispanic cultures. This fusion led to the "mestizo" culture. Cortes was the bearer of the Hispanic heritage just as the Aztecs and other Indians in Mexico and the Southwest were the carriers of the Indian heritage. In studying the life of…

Miller, Hubert J.


Chicanos: Mexicans in the United States. A Stepping-Stone Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for second and third grade children, the book gives an account of Chicanos in the United States. Beginning with the Mayas, Toltecs, and Aztecs, it explains the history of Mexico, the Spanish conquest, and the northward movement of the "Mestizos". Subsequent chapters detail the immigration movement across the Rio Grande in search of work.…

Martin, Patricia Miles


Let Jorge Do It: An Approach to Rural Nonformal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operating under the philosophy that people can learn from each other, the Nonformal Education Project trained 24 Ecuadorian campesinos in seven rural mestizo villages to instruct their peers in basic litaracy skills, negotiating techniques, and the development of self-esteem. Within a year of operation some of the original "facilitators" were…

Hoxeng, James


Linguistic Purism in Cuzco, Peru: A Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that a group of mestizo intellectuals in Peru claims that "Qhpaj'simi" is the Quechua used by the ancient Inca nobility and is the purest form of Quechua. Explains that a social hierarchy has arisen with the use of this "imperial language" demarcating its users from the common people and that these purist attitudes play a role in the…

Nino-Murcia, Mercedes



Minimum welfare levels of farm workers in the San Quintín and Mexicali valleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm workers represent one of the poorest sectors of the population in Mexico, including Baja California. This study compares the welfare levels of a mostly immigrant population of indigenous workers from San Quintín Valley with those of mestizo farm workers from Mexicali Valley. Surveys were conducted between 1997 and 2000 by the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales of the Universidad Autónoma



Orphans of the americas: Why the existence of zambo societies has been denied  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much scholarship, in a number of different disciplines, has been devoted to the study of mulattos, and mestizos, but little\\u000a to zambos. This paper begins with an examination of efforts made in the American colonial period and then demonstrates how\\u000a internalized decisions made by Indians and African Americans worked against zambo societies.

Rhett S. Jones



Afrodescendants, Identity, and the Struggle for Development in the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous people and African descendants in Latin America and the Caribbean have long been affected by a social hierarchy established by elites, through which some groups were racialized and others were normalized. Far from being “racial paradises” populated by an amalgamated “cosmic race” of mulattos and mestizos, Latin America and the Caribbean have long been sites of shifting exploitative strategies

Bernd Reiter; Kimberly E. Simmons



The Multinational Andean Genetic and Health Program. IX. Gene frequencies and rare variants of 20 serum proteins and erythrocyte enzymes in the Aymara of Chile.  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic variants at 22 genetic loci in the Aymara, mestizo, and Spanish populations of northern Chile are presented, and their possible role in adaptation to hypoxic environments are discussed. Some apparently unique variants were found. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7361767

Ferrell, R E; Bertin, T; Barton, S A; Rothhammer, F; Schull, W J



Use of Alternative Folk Medicine by Mexican American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontraditional health care resources available to Mexican Americans are many. The Mexican culture is rich with alternative health and illness beliefs and remedies which have their origins in ancient Mestizo\\/Indian folklore which viewed the causes of illness to include social, spiritual, and physical forces. This perception calls for culturally relevant folk practitioners who can treat all aspects of the perceived

Rebecca A. Lopez




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



77 FR 50681 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Receipt of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture--Forest Service (Forest Service). g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Richard Doble, Senior License Coordinator, PG&E, 245 Market Street, San...



Aquesta llista de llibres que he llegit la vaig comenar, crec, l'any 1985, els llibres anteriors els vaig escriure fent una mica de memria.  

E-print Network

libro de las profecías J. Chapentier 39. Misterio del doble mortal Alfred Hitchcock 40. Picasso Mario de Micheli 41. Misterio del caballo decapitado Alfred Hitchcock 42. China, lágrima innumerable J.M. Gironella

Márquez-Carreras, David


Modalidades Biomtricas Javier Ortega Garca  

E-print Network

ha utilizado también en el reconocimiento de ganado.nado. Hasta ahora los animales se reconocían por medio deHasta ahora los animales se reconocían por medio de "nose"nose--prints"prints" yy etiquetas

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


J. Field Ornithol. 82(2):140149, 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1557-9263.2011.00316.x Nest-site selection and productivity of Vesper Sparrows  

E-print Network

selection and productivity of ground-nesting Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) across sites productividad en Pooecetes gramineus anidando en h´abitats de pastoreo El pastoreo de ganado en pastos de estepa lugares de anidaci´on y productividad de Pooecetes gramineus que anida en el suelo a trav´es de lugares



Microsoft Academic Search

Los cactus del género Opuntia son muy importantes en Méjico especialmente en las areas semi áridas y áridas donde pocos otros cultivos economicos pueden florecer. Historicamente estas plantas han sido utilizadas como alimento, forraje para ganado, en la manufactura de productos medicinales, cosméticos, tintes y como barreras limitrofes naturales. Asimismo, la fruta del cactus (tuna) constituye un importante componente de



A Pressing Societal Issue: Livestock Welfare The School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis addresses welfare issues of livestock through education and research  

E-print Network

-Farm Livestock Euthanasia/La Eutanasia del Ganado en Granja · Euthanasia Action Plan/Plan de Acción de Euthanasia and producers in the proper use of captive bolt devices for humane euthanasia of cattle. The research of faculty, including UC Davis-developed guidelines for cattle transportation and on-farm euthanasia Veterinary Medicine

Schladow, S. Geoffrey


Human genetics. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits.  


Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; del Rio Navarro, Blanca; London, Stephanie J; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D



Ethnicity and the use of health services in Belize.  


Data from the 1991 Belize Family Health Survey show differentials in the use of maternal and child health services between ethnic groups (Creole, Mestizo, Maya/Ketchi and Garifuna). Multivariate analysis is used to explore whether such differentials can truly be attributed to ethnicity or to other characteristics that distinguish the ethnic groups. Health services considered are: family planning, place of delivery (hospital/other), postpartum and newborn check-ups after a birth, and immunisations for children. The language usually spoken in the household is found to be important for interpreting ethnic differentials. Mayan-speaking Maya/Ketchis are significantly less likely to use family planning services or to give birth in a hospital. Spanish-speakers (Mestizos and Maya/Ketchis) are less likely to use newborn and postpartum check-ups, after controlling for other characteristics. There are no ethnic differentials for immunisations. Programmatic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:8014173

Stupp, P W; Macke, B A; Monteith, R; Paredez, S



Hotel Trias/ UPC Tarifes UPC 2011 * Temporada Alta: Del 18/06/2010 a 04/09/2010* Temporada Alta: Del 18/06/2010 a 04/09/2010* Temporada Alta: Del 18/06/2010 a 04/09/2010  

E-print Network

Tramuntana 202,54 Temporada Alta, Mitja i Baixa IVA no incl. Temporada Alta: Del 17/6 a 31/8 Temporada Mitja/12 Tarifa UPC 2011 Allotjament i esmorzar Temporada Baixa* IVA no incl. Temporada Mitja* IVA no incl. Temporada Alta* IVA no incl. Habitació Doble - �s individual 59,26 71,30 109,58 Habitació Doble 68,52 94

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. 800 H.P. WATER WHEEL UNIT (LEFT HAND) DIRECT CONNECTED TO A 500 K.W. G.E. CO. GENERATOR, SPEED 176 R.P.M., HEAD OF WATER 305 FT EFF., FOR SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PLANT. ABNER DOBLE CO., ENGINEERS, SAN FRANCISCO, AUG. 29, 1904. TRACED FROM DOBLE BLUE PRINT, SEPT. 9, 1911. SCE drawing no. 5698. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA


Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 05, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

those years. (In Spanish ) (AH) Hugo Carrillo, "Orígenes y desarrollo del teatro guatemalteco." Guatemalan folk theatre today shows the combination of pre-Conquest drama-ballet with Spanish religious indoctrination. Development of a "mestizo" theatre...LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW a Journal devoted to the Theatre and Drama of Spanish and Portuguese America Editor GEORGE W. WOODYARD Associate Editor JOHN S. BRUSHWOOD Assistant Editors MICHAEL J. DOUDOROFF RAYMOND D. SOUZA JON S...




MHC class II sequences of susceptibility and protection in Mexicans with autoimmune hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Autoimmune hepatitis has a genetic background associated with different HLA DRB1 alleles depending on the ethnic group. The aim of this study was to analyse the immunogenetics of type I autoimmune hepatitis in Mexicans.Methods: Thirty Mexican Mestizo patients and 175 healthy controls were HLA typed as follows: class I antigens were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and class II typing was

Miriam Nohemí Vázquez-García; Carmen Aláez; Angélica Olivo; Héctor Debaz; Elva Pérez-Luque; Ana Burguete; Silvia Cano; Gabriela de la Rosa; Norma Bautista; Arturo Hernández; José Bandera; Luis Fernando Torres; David Kershenobich; Fernando Alvarez; Clara Gorodezky



[Homocysteinemia and its relationship with the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism in various ethnic groups from western Venezuela].  


The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and C677T MTHFR polymorphism was studied in various ethnic groups from Western Venezuela (60 Wayuu Indians, 42 italian immigrants and 77 Venezuelan mestizos) in relation with the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and the C677T MTHFR polymorphism. Homocysteinemia was determined by polarized fluorescence immunoassay in an IMX system, serum folate was measured by radioimmunoanalysis and the MTHFR genotype was determined by PCR and restriction analysis. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as a value over 2 SD above the mean value for normal MTHFR (CC677) in each group. The prevalence of MTHFR variants (C677T and 677TT) was elevated in all ethnic groups (78% among the wayuu, 76% among Italians and 63% among mestizos) with a significant association between the concentrations of homocysteine and the levels of serum folate among the wayuu (p < 0.0001) and the mestizos (p < 0.001) only. Hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with MTHFR variants in 23% of the wayuu (OR: 6.17, CI 95: 0.74-51.36), 9.5% of the Italians (OR: 0.93, CI 95: 0.085-10.10) and 20.7 of the Venezuelans mestizos (OR: 5.2, CI 95: 1.08-24.90, p > 0.03). There was no relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and folate deficiency in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, despite a high prevalence of C677T MTHFR variants in these ethnic groups of western Venezuela, the lack of no evidence of hyperhomocysteinemia combined with folate deficiency may imply that the nutritional status of these groups plays an important role in the control of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. PMID:16353542

Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Diez-Ewald, María; Herrmann, Falko H; Schuster, Gudrun; Torres-Guerra, Enrique; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis



Book Reviews  

E-print Network

-American economic system, and how this caused mestizos to alter the Creek political reality in an effort to protect their accumulated wealth. Spe cifically, his focuses on Alexander McGillivray's self-aggrandizing role in this process, the shifting position... and In digenous knowledge can coexist in a complementary way, especially in a peda gogical setting. Ann Parish's analysis of the manner in which farmers of Egypt's El Bahkta Oasis balanced potentially environmentally destructive agricultural techniques...



Orígenes y desarrollo del teatro guatemalteco.  

E-print Network

teatral bifurcado en dos corrientes muy definidas—la de nuestro mundo indígena y la de nuestro mundo mestizo. La primera se desborda por los pueblos del interior del país, a la sombra de las iglesias, en los patios de las alcaldías municipales o en las... sutil, más amable por menos sangriento, pero muy eficaz para lograr la total cristianización de aquellos pueblos, apareció el teatro inmediatamente después de la conquista. Se adaptaron las danzas locales, 42 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW...

Carrillo, Hugo



Geographical and ethnic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms within genes of the folate/homocysteine pathway metabolism.  


High levels of plasma homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of many health conditions influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this study was to provide the geographical distribution of folate pathway genetic polymorphisms in Mexico and the comparison with the reported frequencies in different continental populations. This study included the analysis of the genotypic frequencies of eight polymorphisms in genes of the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway in 1,350 Mestizo and Amerindian subjects from different regions in Mexico and 836 individuals from European, African and Asian populations of the 1,000 Genomes Project. In Mexican Mestizo and Amerindian populations, the MTHFR C677T risk genotype (TT) was highly prevalent (frequency: 25 and 57 %, respectively). In Mestizos, the frequency showed clear regional variation related to ancestry; the Guerrero subpopulation with the highest Amerindian contribution had the highest TT frequency (33 %). The MTHFD1 G1958A AA risk genotype was also enriched in Mexican Mestizos and Amerindians (frequency: 34 and 58 %, respectively), whereas in African and Asian ancestry populations the frequency for AA was low (~4 %). All together risk genotypes showed regional differences, and Sonora had significantly different genetic frequencies compared with the other regions (P value <0.05). Our study illustrates differential geographical distribution of the risk variants in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway relative to ethnic background. This work supports that certain areas of the world have increased needs for folic acid and vitamin B supplementation, and this information needs to be considered in public health guidelines and eventually policies. PMID:25106483

Binia, Aristea; Contreras, Alejandra V; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Alonzo, Victor Acuña; Tejero, M Elizabeth; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma



Metabolic effects of the contraceptive skin patch and subdermal contraceptive implant in Mexican women: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The contraceptive skin patch (CSP) accepted by the U.S. FDA in 2001 includes ethinylestradiol and norelgestromine, whereas the subdermal contraceptive implant (SCI) has etonogestrel and is also approved by the FDA. In Mexico, both are now widely used for contraception but their effects on Mexican population are unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate if these treatments induce metabolic changes in a sample of indigenous and mestizo Mexican women. Methods An observational, prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study of women between 18 and 35 years of age assigned to CSP or SCI. We performed several laboratory tests: clinical chemistry, lipid profile, and liver and thyroid function tests. Also, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, IGF-1, leptin, adiponectin, and C reactive protein were assayed. Results Sixty-two women were enrolled, 25 used CSP (0 indigenous; 25 mestizos) and 37 used SCI (18 indigenous; 19 mestizos). Clinical symptoms were relatively more frequent in the SCI group. Thirty-four contraceptive users gained weight without other clinical significant changes. After 4 months of treatment, significant changes were found in some biochemical parameters in both treatment groups. Most were clinically irrelevant. Interestingly, the percentage of users with an abnormal atherogenic index diminished from 75% to 41.6% after follow-up. Conclusions The CSP slightly modified the metabolic variables. Most changes were nonsignificant, whereas for SCI users changes were more evident and perhaps beneficial. Results of this attempt to evaluate the effects of contraceptives in mestizo and native-American populations show that clinical symptoms are frequent in Mexican users of CSP and SCI. Although these medications may affect some metabolic variables, these changes seem clinically irrelevant. Induction of abnormalities in other physiological pathways cannot be ruled out. PMID:24767248



Self-exiled in the earthly paradise: One hundred years of solitude for the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ethno-historical study of a unique group of Jews in a remote region of Peru who consider themselves Jewish despite isolation from--and even neglect by--mainstream Jews in Peru and Brazil, raises crucial questions about the identity of what I argue are Marrano communities living on a borderline between Judaism and other religious and cultural systems.The Mestizo Jews of Iquitos, in

Ariel Yehuda Segal




Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of mercury (Hg) intoxication was investigated in 114 Andean Saraguro and non-Saraguro (Mestizo) children living in remote gold-mining settlements in Nambija and Portovelo, Ecuador. Venous blood samples showed a mean total blood mercury (BHg) level of 18.2 µg\\/L (SD 15.5; range 2-89.) for 77 Saraguro and non-Saraguro children in the Nambija settlement, which was significantly higher than that

S. Allen Counter; Leo H. Buchanan; Fernando Ortega; Göran Laurell



Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripcin  

E-print Network

depende en los ingresos que ha ganado en un periodo de 12 meses...esto es lo que se le llama ingresos del éste Segundo...usted puede visitar nuestro sitio de Internet y presentar su solicitud en línea O. Busque el enlace de la "Lista de Verificación" en nuestro sitio del Internet. Púlselo e imprímalo. Al


Ethnic variation of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) gene in southwestern Mexico.  


In this study, we examined the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase gene (MTHFR) in two ethnic groups in the State of Guerrero, Mexico, which were compared with those of the Mestizo population of the region. A comparative study was conducted on 455 women from two ethnic groups and a group of Mestizo women of the State of Guerrero, Mexico: 135 Nahuas, 124 Mixtecas, and 196 Mestizas. Genotyping of both polymorphisms were performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We found that the 677TT genotype was more frequent in Nahua and Mixteca women compared to Mestiza women (P = 0.008), and the most prevalent genotype in both ethnic groups was the 1298AA genotype (P < 0.001). We also compared the 677T allele frequency obtained from the groups studied with the frequencies reported in other ethnic groups of Mexico (Huichol, Tarahumara, and Purepecha). There were significant differences between the three ethnic groups compared to Nahuas (Huicholes, P = 0.004; Tarahumaras, P < 0.001; Purepechas, P = 0.042). Our results indicated significant differences in the frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms between the two ethnic groups and the Mestizo population of the State of Guerrero. In addition, we found strong differences with other ethnic groups in Mexico. These results could be useful for future studies investigating diseases related to folate metabolism, and could help the government to design specific nutrition programs for different ethnic groups. PMID:25299110

Antonio-Véjar, V; Del Moral-Hernández, O; Alarcón-Romero, L C; Flores-Alfaro, E; Leyva-Vázquez, M A; Hernández-Sotelo, D; Illades-Aguiar, B



Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN ADMON Y DIRECCION DE EMPRESAS Y DERECHO % Doctores DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Guinea Fernández, David Rafael Si DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL I Derecho Público I y Ciencia Política Derecho Constitucional Triguero

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN CRIMINOLOGIA Y DERECHO % DoctoresCategoría Nº Profesores Universitaria interino 2 0 CAMPUS VICÁLVARO CURSO 1 ASIGNATURA DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Díaz Pardo, Gloria Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN ECONOMIA Y DERECHO % DoctoresCategoría Nº Profesores Nº interino 5 1 CAMPUS FUENLABRADA CURSO 1 ASIGNATURA DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Guinea Fernández, David Rafael Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN DERECHO Y RELACIONES LABORALES Y RECURSOS HUMANOS., Lenguaje, Cultura y Artes Filosofía Barraca Mairal, Javier Si DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Díaz Pardo, Gloria Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Pereña Vicente, Montserrat Si

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Derechos Humanos DERECHOS HUMANOS  

E-print Network

Derechos Humanos DERECHOS HUMANOS EMIGRACI�N, INMIGRACI�N Y EXTRANJERIA CONVENIOS DE DOBLE NACIONALIDAD DERECHOS HUMANOS Centro de Información Administrativa del MAP Organización de las Naciones Unidas Minnesota Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos Amnistía Internacional - Sección Española Asociación contra

Escolano, Francisco


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN DERECHO Y CIENCIA POLITICA Y GESTION PUBLICA % Doctores interino 3 0 CAMPUS VICÁLVARO CURSO 1 ASIGNATURA DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Díaz Pardo, Gloria Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Priego

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Le rôle des prix dans la régulation du secteur pharmaceutique  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] El papel de los precios en la regulaciôn del sector farmaceutico. Pesé a su carâcter compétitive el sector del medicamento ofrece rasgos de utilidad pûblica. . A nivel econômico, las tutelas desempenan el doble papel de comprador de productos, a través de los reembolsos del seguro médico, y de aseguradores colectivos, siendo reembolsados taies gastos a los pacientes. A

Stéphane Jacobzone



Impacto del programa familia guardabosques sobre la criminalidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existe una relación de doble causalidad entre el narcotráfico y la violencia en Colombia. Este trabajo propone un modelo teórico dinámico de portafolio sobre la actividad criminal, que explica la retroalimentación de los dos fenómenos a través de trampas de criminalidad, ocasionadas por bajos niveles de capital humano y capital social. Una política efectiva para abordar el problema debería lograr

Catalina Martínez Gutiérrez



Escasas Evidencias de las Bacterias Lácticas del Yo gur en Heces Humanas tras Consumo Diario de Yogur en Voluntarios Sanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

10 yogur (15 días) en 114 voluntarios sanos. Las técni cas empleadas han sido cultivos microbiológico clásicos, PCR con cebadores específi cos para estas bacterias e hibridación de ADN con sondas específicas. El diseño del estudio fue prospectivo y de doble ciego. Se obtuvieron resultados consistenteme nte negativos en los cultivos microbiológicos, así como en la detección específic a del

Rosa del Campo; Daniel Bravo; Rafael Cantón; Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa; Raimundo García-Albiach; Alejandra Montesi-Libois; Francisco-Javier Yuste; Victor Abraira; Fernando Baquero


Oferta de Proyectos Fin de Carrera Ingeniera de Telecomunicacin Escuela Politcnica Superior  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................. 16 6.2. Diseño de estructuras de microondas de doble polarización.......................... 17 6.3. Herramienta de análisis de estructuras de microondas................................... 18 6.4. Modelos de análisis y diseño de estructuras en guí

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


A Reply? A Response to Penny Thompson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Penny Thompson's "reply" to the author's article (Doble, 2005) briefly tells readers that for an answer to some of the author's queries, readers may turn to her book; for the rest, she proposes to take "the argument" further. One of the problems with her earlier article was that it had no discernible argument, so it is not easy to see how it may…

Doble, Peter



The -174G/C and -572G/C Interleukin 6 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. There is a lack of information about the genotype frequencies of IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexicans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo with RA. Methods. We included 137 patients with RA and 102 healthy controls. Patients were assessed for clinical characteristics. IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. Allele and genotype frequencies and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were computed. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed to identify the risk for RA associated with the presence of GG genotype in comparison with the GC or CC genotypes. Results. The genotype ?174GG occurred at a higher frequency in cases and controls (77.4% versus 78.4%, P = 0.845). We found similar results for the genotype ?572GG (54% in patients versus 60.8% in controls, P = 0.295). Conclusions. This is the first study to evaluate the association of ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms of the IL-6 gene with RA in Mexican mestizo patients. These two polymorphisms were not associated with RA in the studied sample. Additional studies are required to evaluate if these IL-6 polymorphisms have relevance to the development of more severe disease. PMID:24223608

Zavaleta-Muniz, S. A.; Martin-Marquez, B. T.; Gonzalez-Lopez, L.; Gonzalez-Montoya, N. G.; Diaz-Toscano, M. L.; Ponce-Guarneros, J. M.; Ruiz-Padilla, A. J.; Mercado, M. Vazquez-Del; Maldonado-Gonzalez, M.; Fafutis-Morris, M.; Flores-Martinez, S. E.; Martinez-Garcia, E. A.; Gamez-Nava, J. I.



Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: association of -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C polymorphisms with TNF-? in systemic lupus erythematosus.  


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream immunoregulatory cytokine associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. There is evidence that MIF functions in a positive feedback loop with TNF-? that could perpetuate the inflammatory process in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this case-control study we investigated whether commonly occurring functional MIF polymorphisms are associated with SLE as well as with MIF and TNF-? serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population. Genotyping of the -794 CATT5-8 (rs5844572) and -173 G>C (rs755622) MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively in 186 SLE patients and 200 healthy subjects. MIF and TNF-? serum levels were determined by ELISA. A significant increase of MIF and TNF-? levels was found in SLE patients. According to a genetic model, we found a significant association of genotypes carrying the -794 CATT7 and -173(?)C risk alleles with susceptibility to SLE and with a significant increase of TNF-?. In conclusion, MIF gene polymorphisms are associated with SLE susceptibility and with an increase of TNF-? serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population. PMID:24530749

De la Cruz-Mosso, U; Bucala, R; Palafox-Sánchez, C A; Parra-Rojas, I; Padilla-Gutiérrez, J R; Pereira-Suárez, A L; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Vázquez-Villamar, M; Angel-Chávez, L I; Muñoz-Valle, J F



Hurricane Preparedness for Livestock (Spanish)  

E-print Network

(blackleg), leptospirosis, t?tano, encefalitis). Varios d?as antes de la pronosticada llegada de un hurac?n, compre alimento, forraje y agua adi- cionales. Es posible que no est?n disponibles despu?s del hurac?n. Los ganaderos tambi?n deben comprar un buen... posible. Inmediatamente antes de llegar a tierra el hurac?n, apague la electricidad y cierre el suministro de agua del establo/granero. No apague la electricidad de las cercas. Es mejor evacuar el ganado con bastante antici- paci?n de la llegada de la...

Paschal, Joseph C.



Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water (Spanish)  

E-print Network

Utilizando energ?a renovable para bombear agua Juan Enciso y Michael Mecke* incluyendo el costo inicial, los costos de la energ?a y los costos de mantenimiento. Energ?a e?lica El viento se utiliza a menudo como una fuente de energ?a para operar... las bombas de agua y sum- inistrar agua al ganado. Debido a la gran cantidad de agua necesaria para los cultivos, la energ?a e?lica se utiliza raramente para regar los cultivos. A medida que se desarrollen turbinas de viento m?s grandes y/o m...

Mecke, Michael; Enciso, Juan



Balancing Forage Demand with Forage Supply (Spanish)  

E-print Network

Una de las principales prioridades en el ade- cuado manejo de los pastizales es el establec- imiento del balance entre el n?mero de ani- males en pastoreo y la producci?n de forraje. Es necesario tener un balance entre la carga animal y la utilizaci...- dad de forraje disponible en el pastizal cono- ciendo la siguiente informaci?n: condici?n actu- al e inventario de los forrajes, informaci?n planeada del flujo del ganado y conocimiento de las condiciones de crecimiento del rancho. Con frecuencia, para...

White, Larry D.; Troxel, Tom R.



Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.  


Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin



The genetic male component of two South-Western Colombian populations.  


In the recent history of Colombia, two factors have contributed to change the population structure, the Spanish conquest and the slave trading promoted principally by Portugal, England and Spain. As a consequence the native population of Colombia has been reduced and mixed with the European and African arriving groups. To assess the male ancestry of the Cauca population, we have examined the frequency of the major Y-chromosome lineages by typing 30 Y-SNPs in two populations from this region: 105 Afro-Colombian individuals and 110 Caucasian-Mestizo individuals. Among the 33 haplogroups defined with the SNPs analysed, 15 haplogroups were detected, 10 of them being shared by both populations. In order to investigate how the level of admixture is, and to compare the genetic background with other neighbour populations, other South American samples previously published were used for comparative analysis. PMID:19215870

Acosta, María Amparo; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Lareu, María Victoria; Brion, María; Carracedo, Angel



[Predictions are always deceptive: João Baptista de Lacerda and his white Brazil.  


The article presents and analyzes the talk given by scientist João Baptista de Lacerda at the First Universal Races Congress, held in London in 1911 and financed by England and other participating nations (France, Belgium, Italy, Persia, Turkey, Egypt, Japan, South Africa, Hungary, Russia, Haiti, Sierra Leone, and Brazil). Governmental and church authorities, professors, members of The Hague's Permanent Court of Arbitration and Second Conference, plus a representative of each invited country were in attendance. Brazil, the only Latin American nation invited, was seen as an example of the mixing of the races, and Lacerda argued that immigration policies would lead to the whitening of mestizos and the extinction of the "black race" in Brazil. The country thus occupied a unique position in the Americas, standing apart from the segregationist model of the United States and from South America's tyrannies. PMID:21552698

Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz



Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN CONTABILIDAD Y FINANZAS Y DERECHO % DoctoresCategoría Nº, Ana María Si DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Martín Azcano, Eva Mª Si DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL I Derecho Público I y Ciencia Política Derecho Constitucional Cancio Álvarez, María Dolores

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Departament comercial F&P. 2011  

E-print Network

) Saló Ruark 202,54 Saló Tramuntana 202,54 Temporada Alta, Mitja i Baixa IVA no incl. Temporada Alta: Del 1/1 a 14/4, Del 25/9 a 8/12 Tarifa UPC 2011 Allotjament i esmorzar Temporada Baixa* IVA no incl. Temporada Mitja* IVA no incl. Temporada Alta* IVA no incl. Habitació Doble - �s individual 59,26 71,30 109

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat


MsterUniversitario enFonticayFonologa  

E-print Network

en Fonética y Fonología Doctorado en Estudios Fónicos La Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo (UIMP) y el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) han programado, en alianza académica mercado laboral, debido a las múltiples aplicacio- nes de las que es susceptible. El Máster tiene la doble


Estructura de preferencias de los consumidores de vino y actitudes hacia los vinos con Denominacion de Origen. El caso de Castilla-La Mancha  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo ha cubierto un doble objetivo, por un lado se ha determinado la importancia relativa de los atributos del vino que influyen en la conformaci�n de las preferencias de los consumidores de Castilla-La Mancha, y por otro se ha analizado la actitud de los consumidores hacia los vinos con certificaci�n de Denominaci�n de Origen (D.O.) m�s importantes de Castilla-La

Rodolfo Bernabeu; Miguel Olmeda; Monica Diaz




E-print Network

estructuras en guías de onda rectangulares mediante el método de adaptación modal. Las estructuras que se han anchura, llamadas Plano H), estructuras cuyas guías mantienen su anchura constante (y que pueden variar en altura, llamadas Plano E) y estructuras cuyas guías varían en altura y anchura (Doble Salto). Para ello

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


Mobile radio propagation path loss studies at VHF\\/UHF bands in Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field strength measurements at 200, 400 and 450 MHz (VHF\\/UHF band) were conducted with the field strength meter placed on board a vehicle in Southern India. Observed field strength values were converted into path losses and are compared with different path loss prediction methods like Hata (1980), Egli (1957), Blomquist-Ladell (1974), COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegami (Doble 1996), Walfisch-Bertoni (1988) and ITU-R.

T. Rama Rao; S. V. B. Rao; M. V. S. N. Prasad; Mangal Sain; A. Iqbal; D. R. Lakshmi



El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer está bajando el doblesu enfoque especial examina el cáncer entre los indígenas americanos y los nativos de Alaska

Según un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas de la nación, las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer disminuyeron en promedio 2,1 por ciento por año de 2002 a 2004; casi el doble de la disminución anual de 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002. Estos resultados se encuentran en el "Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2004. Preguntas y respuestas


Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquin




E-print Network

nivel, en los diversos campos del saber arriba indicados. Comunicaciones. Los originales deberán presentarse en hojas tamaño carta, escritas de un solo lado a doble espacio, dejando un margen izquierdo de 3.5 cm. y un margen derecho de 2 cm. Deberán...-called "Pope of Surrealism" in the contemporary world of letters. Treating such diverse topics as his relationship to art as well as to the structuralist movement, it also sheds light on some of his lesser-known works. Fashion and Fashionability in Modern...




Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promoter polymorphisms (-794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C): association with MIF and TNF? in psoriatic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune disease with a complex interaction of gene and with a dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as Macrophage migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF?). Two polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the MIF gene have been described: the STR-794 CATT5-8 (rs5844572) and the SNP-173 G>C (rs755622), which are associated with increased MIF levels in circulation and with autoimmune diseases in several populations. In this case-control study we investigated whether commonly occurring functional MIF polymorphisms are associated with PsA susceptibility and clinical variables as well as with MIF and TNF? serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population. Genotyping of the -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP respectively in 50 PsA patients and 100 healthy subjects (HS). MIF and TNF? serum levels were determined by ELISA. A significant increase of MIF (PsA: 7.8 vs. HS: 5.25 ng/mL; p < 0.001) and TNF? (PsA: 24.6 vs. HS: 9.9 pg/mL; p < 0.001) levels was found in PsA patients, a significant correlation was observed between MIF and TNF? (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The 5,6 repeats genotype of the -794 CATT5-8 MIF was associated with protection to PsA (OR = 0.29; CI 0.77-0.98; p = 0.03), and the G/C genotype (OR = 7.5; CI 2.92-21.64; p < 0.001) and the -173*C allele (OR = 2.45; CI 1.43-4.20; p < 0.001) of the -173 G>C MIF were associated with susceptibility to PsA. In conclusion the -173*C allele is associated with susceptibility to PsA in Mexican-Mestizo population, whereas the correlation between MIF and TNF? soluble levels provided evidence that both cytokines are closely related in the pathophysiology of the PsA. PMID:25356116

Morales-Zambrano, Ramses; Bautista-Herrera, Luis A; la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises De; Villanueva-Quintero, Guadalupe D; Padilla-Gutierrez, Jorge R; Valle, Yeminia; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Gutierrez-Urena, Sergio R; Munoz-Valle, Jose F



Geology of 1. 7 GA ( ) Baldwin gneiss in the Baldwin Lake type area, San Bernardino Mountains, southern California  

SciTech Connect

Precambrian gneisses in the San Bernardino Mountains were first identified and described in the vicinity of Baldwin Lake by Guillou (1953). Five lithologic units mappable at 1:24,000 scale are recognized: biotite [+-] muscovite quartzofeldspathic gneiss, amphibolite, pyroxene metagabbro, augen gneiss, and biotite [+-] muscovite granitic gneiss. Baldwin gneiss with this L < S tectonite fabric is unconformably overlain by latest Proterozoic, upright, greenschist/hornfels facies quartzite (Big Bear Group). North and northeast of Baldwin Lake, the gneissic fabric is rotated toward the northwest, subparallel to the Doble fault. Along this fault, Baldwin gneiss is structurally underlain by overturned Paleozoic quartzite and marble (Zabriskie Quartzite and Carrara Formation). Regional relations suggest that the Doble fault is a northeast-directed basement thrust fault of pre-Late Cretaceous age, and may be contemporaneous with late Paleozoic deformation and metamorphism of Paleozoic rocks further west in the range. Field relations suggest that Baldwin gneiss in its type area largely retains Proterozoic fabrics and mineral assemblages, despite marginal Phanerozoic reworking. Silver (1971) reported a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1,730 Ma for Baldwin augen ( ) gneiss, from an unknown locality, and Miller and Morton (1980) reported Late Cretaceous mica K-Ar ages from a sample of augen gneiss. Preliminary Pb isotopic ratios in galena, feldspar and whole rock samples of Baldwin gneiss, and feldspars in Mesozoic plutons suggest isotopic affinity to the Mojave crustal province of Wooden and Miller (1990).

Barth, A.P. (Indiana/Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Geology); Ehlig, P.L. (California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Wooden, J.L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))



Pulmonary endocrine cells of Aymara Indians from the Bolivian Andes.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence to suggest that life at high altitude causes changes in the population of pulmonary endocrine cells, possibly because of exposure to chronic hypoxia. A study was made of the populations of pulmonary endocrine cells in three Aymara Indians and three Mestizos of La Paz (3600 m), Bolivia, which were compared with those in four white lowlanders. METHODS: Pulmonary endocrine cells were immunolabelled for neurone specific enolase and their two major secretory products, gastrin releasing peptide and calcitonin, and their numbers expressed per cm2 of tissue section. RESULTS: No differences in morphology, number, content, or distribution of immunoreactive cells were found when the native highlanders were compared with the lowlanders. CONCLUSIONS: If chronic hypoxia as such exerts an influence on human pulmonary endocrine cells it was not apparent in this morphological study. There was no increase in gastrin releasing peptide containing pulmonary endocrine cells, such as have previously been seen in patients with pulmonary hypertension characterised by plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy. This may be due to the fact that in plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy there is free migration of smooth muscle cells. Although three of the highlanders in this present study showed pulmonary vascular remodelling, this was in contrast only modest. Images PMID:8434355

Williams, D; Heath, D; Gosney, J; Rios-Dalenz, J



Understanding the facilitators and barriers of antiretroviral adherence in Peru: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral scale-up is increasing in resource-constrained settings. To date, few studies have explored the barriers and facilitators of adherence to ART in these settings. Facilitators and barriers of antiretroviral adherence in Peru are not completely understood. Methods At two clinics that serve a large number of HIV-positive individuals in Lima, Peru, 31 in-depth interviews were carried out in 2006 with adult HIV-positive individuals receiving ART. Purposive sampling was used to recruit the participants. Interviews were transcribed and coded using two Spanish-speaking researchers and a content analysis approach to identify themes in the data. Results Among the participants, 28/31 (90%) were male, 25/31 (81%) were self-identified as mestizo, and 19/31 (61%) had an education above high school. The most frequently discussed barriers to adherence included side effects, simply forgetting, inconvenience, dietary requirements, being away from home, and fear of disclosure/stigma. The most frequently discussed facilitators to adherence included having a fixed routine, understanding the need for compliance, seeing positive results, treatment knowledge, and faith in treatment. Conclusions Overall, these findings were similar to the facilitators and challenges experienced by individuals on ART in other resource constrained settings. Further treatment support tools and networks should be developed to decrease the challenges of ART adherence for HIV-positive individuals in Lima, Peru. PMID:20070889



Plasma triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk in young adults  

PubMed Central

Studies in mature adults suggest that the plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride (TG)/HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) provides a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals who are insulin resistant (IR) and at increased cardiometabolic risk. This study extends these observations by examining the clinical utility of the TG/HDL-C ratio and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 2,244 healthy college students (17–24 years old) of Mexican Mestizo ancestry. The TG/HDL-C ratio separating the 25% with the highest value was used to identify IR and increased cardiometabolic risk. Cardiometabolic risk factors were more adverse in men and women whose TG/HDL-C ratios exceeded 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, and approximately one third were identified as being IR. The MetS identified fewer individuals as being IR, but their risk profile was accentuated. In conclusion, both a higher TG/HDL-C ratio and a diagnosis of the MetS identify young IR individuals with an increased cardiometabolic risk profile. The TG/HDL-C ratio identified a somewhat greater number of “high risk” subjects, whereas the MetS found a group whose risk profile was somewhat magnified. These findings suggest that the TG/HDL-C ratio may serve as a simple and clinically useful approach to identify apparently healthy, young individuals who are IR and at increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:23863983

Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Jiménez-Flores, J. Rafael; Sigrist-Flores, Santiago C.; Espinoza-Camacho, Miguel A.; Jiménez-Morales, Mayra; Piña, Enrique; Méndez-Cruz, A. René; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Reaven, Gerald M.



A new mutation of the PCNT gene in a Colombian patient with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a syndrome characterized by the presence of intrauterine growth restriction, post-natal growth deficiency and microcephaly. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is the most distinctive syndrome in this group of entities. Individuals affected by this disease present at an adult height of less than 100cm, a post-pubertal head circumference of 40cm or less, mild mental retardation, an outgoing personality and bone dysplasia. Case presentation We report the first case of a five-year-old Colombian boy of mixed race ancestry (mestizo), with clinical features of microcephaly, prominent and narrow nose, arched palate, amelogenesis imperfecta, short stature, tall and narrow pelvis, disproportionate shortening of fore-arms and legs, and mild coxa vara. Analysis of the PCNT gene by sequencing showed the presence of a nucleotide change in exon 10, c. 1468C>T, evidencing a new mutation not reported in the literature for microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism. Conclusion The new mutation identified in this case could be associated with the severity of the phenotypic expression of the disease, resulting in the extreme short stature of the patient. Further studies are required to reach an explanation that can justify such findings, and it is vital to emphasize the importance of detection and follow-up by the epidemiological surveillance groups in birth defects and rare diseases. PMID:24928221





Uruguay is a country of 176,000 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 96% are literate. Independence was gained on August 25, 1825. The terrain consists of plains and low hills, with a climate which is temperate. Spanish is spoken by White, Mestizo, and Black ethnic groups who are variously non-professing or of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 69-75 years. GDP is $11.3 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $3600. The country's natural resources include arable land, hydroelectric potential, gold, granite, and marble. Beef, wool, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat processing, would and hides, textiles, shoes, handbags, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, and petroleum refining are areas of economic production. Fuels, chemical, machinery, and metals are imported, and meat, wool, hides, leather and wool products, fish, rice and furs are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country. PMID:12178048



American Indians without Tribes in the 21st Century  

PubMed Central

Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, most aspects of ethnicity are tightly associated with the person's tribal origins. Language, history, foods, land, and traditions differ among the hundreds of tribes indigenous to the United States. With this in mind, we ask why almost one million American Indians failed to respond to the tribal affiliation part of the Census 2000 race question. We investigate four hypotheses about why one-third of multiracial American Indians and one-sixth of single-race American Indians did not write any response to the tribal affiliation question: (1) survey item non-response which undermines all fill-in-the-blank questions, (2) a non-salient tribal identity, (3) a genealogy-based affiliation, and (4) a mestizo identity which does not require a tribe. We use multivariate logistic regression models and high-density restricted-use Census 2000 data. We find support for the first two hypotheses and note that predictors differ substantially for single-race versus multiple-race American Indians.

Liebler, Carolyn; Zacher, Meghan



Present status and perspective of pharmacogenetics in Mexico.  


Drug costs account for up to 24% of the country's health expenditure and there are 13,000 registered drugs being prescribed. Diabetes is the main cause of death in the country, with over 85% of diabetic patients currently under drug treatment. The importance of knowing interindividual variability in drug metabolism on Mexican populations is thus evident. The purpose of this article is to provide an overlook of the current situation of pharmacogenetic research in Mexico, focusing on drug-metabolizing enzymes, and the possibility of developing a phenotyping cocktail for Mexican populations. So far, 21 pharmacogenetic studies on Mexican population samples (Mestizos and Amerindian) have been published. These have reported interindividual variability through phenotyping and/or genotyping cytochromes: CYP2D6, 2C19, 2C9, 2E1, and phase II enzymes UGT and NAT2. Some cytochromes with important clinical implications have not yet been phenotyped in Mexican populations. The development of a cocktail adapted to them could be a significant contribution to a larger knowledge on drug response variability at a lower price and shorter time. There are validated phenotyping cocktails that present several practical advantages, being valuable, safe, and inexpensive tools in drug metabolism characterization, which require only a single experiment to provide information on several cytochrome activities. PMID:24129103

Cuautle-Rodríguez, Patricia; Llerena, Adrián; Molina-Guarneros, Juan



Genetic and environmental determinants of the susceptibility of Amerindian derived populations for having hypertriglyceridemia.  


Here, we discuss potential explanations for the higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in populations with an Amerindian background. Although environmental factors are the triggers, the search for the ethnic related factors that explain the increased susceptibility of the Amerindians is a promising area for research. The study of the genetics of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanic populations faces several challenges. Ethnicity could be a major confounding variable to prove genetic associations. Despite that, the study of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanics has resulted in significant contributions. Two GWAS reports have exclusively included Mexican mestizos. Fifty percent of the associations reported in Caucasians could be generalized to the Mexicans, but in many cases the Mexican lead SNP was different than that reported in Europeans. Both reports included new associations with apo B or triglycerides concentrations. The frequency of susceptibility alleles in Mexicans is higher than that found in Europeans for several of the genes with the greatest effect on triglycerides levels. An example is the SNP rs964184 in APOA5. The same trend was observed for ANGPTL3 and TIMD4 variants. In summary, we postulate that the study of the genetic determinants of hypertriglyceridemia in Amerindian populations which have major changes in their lifestyle, may prove to be a great resource to identify new genes and pathways associated with hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24768220

Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi



Spotlight: Costa Rica.  


3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning. PMID:12321532





Nicaragua is a country of 130,000 sq km with 4 million inhabitants, of whom 30-49% are literate. Independence was gained in 1821. There are Mestizo, White, Black, and Indian ethnic groups who tend to be of Roman Catholic faith. Life expectancy is 63 years. GDP is $1.7 billion, growing at a rate of 0.8%. Per capita income is $413. The country's natural resource include gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, and fish. Cash crops, production crops, processed food, beverages, textiles, chemicals and petroleum, metal products, commerce, government, transportation, banking, energy, and water are areas of economic production. Petroleum, agricultural supplies, and manufactured goods are imported, and coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, beef, gold, and shellfish are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense. foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country. PMID:12178055



Metric bingles and tringles in H_3  

E-print Network

In the 3-dimensional Berwald-Moor space are bingles and tringles constructed, as additive characteristic objects associated to couples and triples of unit vectors - practically lengths and areas on the unit sphere. In analogy with the spherical angles, we build two types of bingles (reciprocal and relative). It is shown that reciprocal bingles are norms in the space of exponential angles (in the bi-space H^{\\flat}, which exponentially define the representation of poly-numbers. It is shown that the metric of this space coincides with the Berwald-Moor metric of the original space. The relative bingles are connected to the elements of the second bi-space (angles, in the space of angles) H^{2\\flat} and allow to provide the doble-exponential representation of poly-numbers. The explicit formulas for relative bingles and tringles contain integrals, which cannot be expressed by means of elementary functions.

Dmitriy G. Pavlov; Sergey S. Kokarev



Knowledge, perceptions, and practices with respect to the prevention of dengue in a mid-Pacific coastal village of Costa Rica.  


Dengue fever is the fastest spreading, most prevalent and deadly arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide, present in over 125 countries. In 2013, Costa Rica is experiencing the highest number of Dengue infections since the virus's reintroduction to the country in 1993. This study evaluated the Dengue-related knowledge of 320 community members, and polled opinions on how to better educate and mobilize the community on Dengue prevention in Quebrada Ganado, Costa Rica during March-May, 2013. In addition, property inspections were used to find relationships between knowledge or opinions and presence ofAedes breeding sites. Results showed that while citizens knew the virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that reproduce near water, they lacked knowledge on Aedes habits and confused it with other mosquitoes. Eighty-one percent of respondents assumed some responsibility for dengue prevention. Suggestions for improved education included consistent and continual information on the risks and dangers dengue poses to an individual. Characteristics relating to households with more positive breeding sites were: lower education level, higher prevalence of dengue infections in the household, lesser knowledge of dengue symptoms, a lower rating on the dangers of dengue and a lower rating on the importance of preventative actions. While a range of prevention methods are implemented, active community involvement is highly important for successful Dengue prevention. Continual evaluation is necessary to make more immediate, long-term behavioral societal changes, and to maximize the economic resources spent on Dengue prevention. PMID:25412518

Egedus, Victoria L; Ortega, José Morales; Obando, Anabelle Alfaro



Lactobacillus species isolated from vaginal secretions of healthy and bacterial vaginosis-intermediate Mexican women: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus jensenii, L. iners, L. crispatus and L. gasseri are the most frequently occurring lactobacilli in the vagina. However, the native species vary widely according to the studied population. The present study was performed to genetically determine the identity of Lactobacillus strains present in the vaginal discharge of healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) intermediate Mexican women. Methods In a prospective study, 31 strains preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus species were isolated from 21 samples collected from 105 non-pregnant Mexican women. The samples were classified into groups according to the Nugent score criteria proposed for detection of BV: normal (N), intermediate (I) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). We examined the isolates using culture-based methods as well as molecular analysis of the V1–V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence analysis was performed to reject clones. Results Clinical isolates (25/31) were classified into four groups based on sequencing and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene: L. acidophilus (14/25), L. reuteri (6/25), L. casei (4/25) and L. buchneri (1/25). The remaining six isolates were presumptively identified as Enterococcus species. Within the L. acidophilus group, L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated species, followed by L. jensenii and L. crispatus. L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. brevis were also isolated, and were placed in the L. reuteri, L. casei and L. buchneri groups, respectively. ERIC profile analysis showed intraspecific variability amongst the L. gasseri and L. fermentum species. Conclusions These findings agree with previous studies showing that L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii are consistently present in the healthy vaginal ecosystem. Additional species or phylotypes were detected in the vaginal microbiota of the non-pregnant Mexican (Hispanic-mestizo) population, and thus, these results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonisation and richness in this particular population. PMID:23617246





Panama's territory is 77,381 square km or 29,762 square miles with a population of 2.4 million of whom 70% are mestizos or mixed Spanish and Indian. Literacy is 87%, infant mortality is 22/1000, and life expectancy is 72 years. Panama was part of the Spanish empire from 1538 to 1821. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia, and afterwards signed a treaty with the US to build a canal 10 miles wide. The existing 52-mile lock canal was completed in 1914. From the 1960s pressure mounted to renegotiate the treaty that was eventually accomplished in 1977. In 1989 the Noriega regime called elections and lost, but it did not accept the results, and continued repression until it was ousted by a 1989 US military action. Noriega surrendered and was indicted for drug trafficking. The economy was in disrepair after mismanagement and US sanctions. During 1990-91 the economy started to recover with the return of capital to banks, increase of exports and construction, and the decrease of government deficit and unemployment. The gross domestic product grew 3.45 in 1990 and 9.3% in 1991 with a low level of inflation. Government policies were proposed to stimulate foreign private investment, improve market conditions, and reduce tariffs and price controls. In 1992 the Endara government signed agreements with international financial institutions on credit that entailed tax, social security, and public investment reforms. The unemployment rate decreased from 35% in 1989 to 16% by 1992. The revenues from the canal have to be sustained, therefore the Panama Canal Commission approved a $200-million project to widen it over the next 20 years. PMID:12178035



Declining Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin levels in Ecuadorian Andean Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate current lead (Pb) exposure in children living in Andean Ecuadorian communities. Blood Pb (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were used respectively as biomarkers of acute and chronic Pb poisoning. The current PbB-ZPP levels were compared with previous pediatric PbB-ZPP levels recorded over years in the study area. Design and Methods Samples of whole blood were collected from 22 Andean children of Quechua and Mestizo backgrounds and measured for PbB concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. ZPP/heme ratio and ZPP whole blood (ZPP WB) levels were measured with a hematofluorometer. Results The mean PbB level for children in the current study group was 14.5 ?g/dL, which was significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 41.1 ?g/dL found in the same study area in the 1996–2000 test period, and lower than the 22.2 ?g/dL mean level found in the 2003–2007 period. The current mean ZPP/heme ratio was 102.1 ?mol/mol, and the mean ZPP WB level was 46.3 ?g/dL, both lower than values previously found in children in the study area. Conclusion While the current pediatric PbB-ZPP levels in the study area remain elevated in some children, the overall levels indicate a decline relative to levels observed in the same Pb-contaminated area in the period between 1996 and 2007. The elevated ZPP levels suggest a history of chronic Pb exposure, and potential iron deficiency in some children. The overall reduction in PbB-ZPP levels suggests a positive outcome of a Pb-exposure education and prevention program, and the therapeutic intervention of succimer chelation therapy. PMID:23684775

Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Coronel Parra, Angelica M.; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.; Rifai, Nader; Hoover, Patricia Nolan



African genetic ancestry is associated with a protective effect on Dengue severity in colombian populations.  


The wide variation in severity displayed during Dengue Virus (DENV) infection may be influenced by host susceptibility. In several epidemiological approaches, differences in disease outcomes have been found between some ethnic groups, suggesting that human genetic background has an important role in disease severity. In the Caribbean, It has been reported that populations of African descent present considerable less frequency of severe forms compared with Mestizo and White self-reported groups. Admixed populations offer advantages for genetic epidemiology studies due to variation and distribution of alleles, such as those involved in disease susceptibility, as well to provide explanations of individual variability in clinical outcomes. The current study analysed three Colombian populations, which like most of Latin American populations, are made up of the product of complex admixture processes between European, Native American and African ancestors; having as a main goal to assess the effect of genetic ancestry, estimated with 30 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs), on DENV infection severity. We found that African ancestry has a protective effect against severe outcomes under several systems of clinical classification: Severe Dengue (OR: 0.963 for every 1% increase in African ancestry, 95% confidence interval (0.934-0.993), p-value: 0.016), Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (OR: 0.969, 95% CI (0.947-0.991), p-value: 0.006), and occurrence of haemorrhages (OR: 0.971, 95% CI (0.952-0.989), p-value: 0.002). Conversely, decrease from 100% to 0% African ancestry significantly increases the chance of severe outcomes: OR is 44-fold for Severe Dengue, 24-fold for Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever, and 20-fold for occurrence of haemorrhages. Furthermore, several warning signs also showed statistically significant association given more evidences in specific stages of DENV infection. These results provide consistent evidence in order to infer statistical models providing a framework for future genetic epidemiology and clinical studies. PMID:25017656

Chacón-Duque, Juan Camilo; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Avendaño, Efren; Campo, Omer; Ramirez, Ruth; Rojas, Winston; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Bedoya, Gabriel



Prognostic significance of p21WAF1/CIP1, p27Kip1, p53 and E-cadherin expression in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric carcinoma is characterised by numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations that influence cell cycle progression, apoptosis and DNA repair. These alterations include down?regulation of the cyclin?dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27Kip1, and mutations of the tumour suppressor protein p53 and the cell adhesion molecule E?cadherin. Combined evaluation of the prognostic significance of these alterations has not been reported in Mexican Mestizo patients. Aims To evaluate p21WAF1/CIP1, p27Kip1, p53 and E?cadherin protein expression, including mutant E?cadherin variants with deletion of exon 8 (del 8) or 9 (del 9), in gastric cancer from Mexican patients. Methods Immunohistochemistry for the above?mentioned markers, including mutation?specific E?cadherin antibodies, was carried out in 69 gastric carcinomas; expression levels were correlated with histotype, tumour stage and prognosis. Results Expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 alone or in combination with p27Kip1 or in the absence of p53 was associated with favourable prognosis. Staining of del 8 and del 9 E?cadherin was found exclusively in patients negative for p53 and positive for p21WAF1/CIP1, suggesting that the p21WAF1/CIP1 regulatory function of p53 was intact. Conclusion Combined evaluation of the prognostic significance of cell cycle regulators and E?cadherin should be performed. Even though patients negative for p53 and positive for p21WAF1/CIP1 have a favourable prognosis, it may have a negative influence on prognosis if they acquire in addition E?cadherin mutations which have been shown previously to be associated with poor survival. PMID:17483253

Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Seidl, Stefan; Reyes-Gutierrez, Edgardo; Hermannstadter, Christine; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Busch, Raymonde; Hofler, Heinz; Fend, Falko; Luber, Birgit





The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052



Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations  

PubMed Central

Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo





Honduras has an area of 112,088 square km or 43,277 square miles with a population of 4.8 million in 1991 of whom 90% are mestizos. Literacy is 68%, the infant mortality rate is 60/1000, and life expectancy is 63 years. After independence from Spain in 1821 the Central American Federation collapsed in 1938. There have been 300 internal rebellions since independence. With an inadequate economic infrastructure, sociopolitical integration has been fragile. In 1982 the Suazo government relied on US support to face the economic recession, the threat posed by the Marxist government in Nicaragua, and civil war in El Salvador. USAID sponsored ambitious social and economic projects. A peaceful transfer of power between civilian presidents occurred in 1986 despite an electoral quirk. In 1990 President Callejas introduced reforms to reduce the deficit, and to stimulate investments and exports. After initial higher inflation and low growth in 1990 and 1991, modest progress is forecast for 1992 and 1993. The powerful military has been kept in check, and human rights have been better protected. The country is among the poorest in Latin America with underemployment of 30-40% and a mostly agricultural economy. The 1990 reforms of deregulation of prices, liberalization of trade, less protectionism, and export orientation is expected to produce longterm benefits not only in agriculture but also in manufacturing. The US is the primary trading partner, and the main direct foreign investor (fruits, refining, and mining). The slash-and-burn agricultural cultivation has created environmental destruction, and as a sign of public awareness the armed forces have engaged in reforestation and fighting forest fires. PMID:12178036



Full-Exon Pyrosequencing Screening of BRCA Germline Mutations in Mexican Women with Inherited Breast and Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Hereditary breast cancer comprises 10% of all breast cancers. The most prevalent genes causing this pathology are BRCA1 and BRCA2 (breast cancer early onset 1 and 2), which also predispose to other cancers. Despite the outstanding relevance of genetic screening of BRCA deleterious variants in patients with a history of familial cancer, this practice is not common in Latin American public institutions. In this work we assessed mutations in the entire exonic and splice-site regions of BRCA in 39 patients with breast and ovarian cancer and with familial history of breast cancer or with clinical features suggestive for BRCA mutations by massive parallel pyrosequencing. First we evaluated the method with controls and found 41–485 reads per sequence in BRCA pathogenic mutations. Negative controls did not show deleterious variants, confirming the suitability of the approach. In patients diagnosed with cancer we found 4 novel deleterious mutations (c.2805_2808delAGAT and c.3124_3133delAGCAATATTA in BRCA1; c.2639_2640delTG and c.5114_5117delTAAA in BRCA2). The prevalence of BRCA mutations in these patients was 10.2%. Moreover, we discovered 16 variants with unknown clinical significance (11 in exons and 5 in introns); 4 were predicted as possibly pathogenic by in silico analyses, and 3 have not been described previously. This study illustrates how massive pyrosequencing technology can be applied to screen for BRCA mutations in the whole exonic and splice regions in patients with suspected BRCA-related cancers. This is the first effort to analyse the mutational status of BRCA genes on a Mexican-mestizo population by means of pyrosequencing. PMID:22655046

Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa Maria; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Vidal-Millan, Silvia; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantu, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos



Socioeconomic and Nutritional Factors Account for the Association of Gastric Cancer with Amerindian Ancestry in a Latin American Admixed Population  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (<5%). We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group. PMID:22870209

Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C.; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M.; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A.; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo





The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038





Honduras is a country with an area of 68,000 square miles, with considerable mountainous terrain, and a subtropical but variable climate. It has a population of 4.4 million people and an annual growth rate of 3.1%. The ethnic make up is 90% mestizo, a mixture of Indian and European, with others consisting of Arab, African, oriental, and Indians. The main religion is Catholic with a fast growing Protestant minority, and the language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 60/1000 and life expectancy is 63 years. The work force is mainly agricultural 63%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, and construction 3%. The government is a democratic constitutional republic established in 1821. The budget is $1,334 million with 7% used for defense, and the gross national product is $4.4 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.5%. Despite being poor and underdeveloped, natural resources include arable land, hydro- electric power, and considerable forest, marine, and mineral resources. Agriculture products include coffee, bananas, citrus fruit, corn, beans, and livestock. The major industries are textiles, cement, wood products, cigars and foodstuffs. Unemployment is over 15% and underemployment is estimated over 40% with the literacy rate at only 60%. In the last few years with US aid the economy has grown 3.8% a year assisted by mining, construction and the service sectors. Honduras must undertake major economic reforms to gain longterm growth and stability since it has large fiscal and trade deficits, a large public bureaucracy, poorly run state enterprises and overvalued exchange rate. PMID:12178019



Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infecci?n por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables  

PubMed Central

Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175




Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65?±?2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and the Ocellated Turkey were extremely important for local hunters, representing around 40% of total prey taken. Final considerations Our results suggest that hunting is frequent in our study areas. Low human densities allow low hunting pressure on most game species and favor conservation of the tropical forest. We suggest that co-management may help regulating hunting, prioritizing cultural practices of sustainable use and conservation for benefiting local users and animal populations. PMID:23031274



Land cover changes in the Bosawas region of Nicaragua: 1986-1995/1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BOSAWAS Natural Resource Reserve of Nicaragua was established in 1991, in order to protect a portion of the remaining tropical rain forest and to promote the sustainable use of the region's resources. Information required to effectively manage the Reserve includes the extents and locations of present land covers, as well as recent land cover changes. Land cover of 1986 and 1995/96 were identified from remotely sensed images acquired by a number of sensors, including Landsat MSS and TM, SPOT HRV and NOAA AVHRR. This information was input into a geographic information system (GIS) database to conduct the change analysis, as well as to assess the current soil erosion problem and identify land covers within the management use zones that comprise the Reserve. These zones include indigenous land use zones and Saslaya National Park. Results reveal that the land cover of the region was determined by the political and economic changes that were occurring in the country. During the 1980's the country was in the midst of a civil war, which disrupted agricultural production and displaced many of the region's inhabitants. The result was that much of the agricultural land in isolated areas was abandoned. Following the cessation of hostilities in 1990, the region experienced a large influx of mestizo settlers seeking lands to occupy. Despite these incursions and the return of the indigenous peoples to the region, a large portion of the Reserve remains forested. Land cover changes identified during the study period include deforestation, reconversion of fallow lands, reforestation and forest degradation. Analysis of the land covers within the management use zones reveals that the Reserve does contain a large forest core area, with buffer zones surrounding this core, except in the northeast. The conservation zones and Saslaya National Park were entirely covered with forest, while most of the deforestation occurred in areas zoned for agriculture. Results also reveal that few areas currently pose a significant soil erosion risk, but that may change in the future as a large portion of the study area contains slopes greater than eight percent.

Smith, Jonathan Henry


[In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].  


Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make Indians actors in cultural, social, or political affairs at the regional or national level previously dominated by non-Indians. The peasant Indian movements are above all interested in issues of land and agrarian development, but they are not exclusively peasant. Some of the members are not agricultural workers, and their concerns exceed those of a simple peasant society. Diverse influences have been exercised on the formation and development of the movements. Progressive sectors of the Catholic Church were influential in almost all. The movements encountered opposition from class and national adversaries interested in maintaining the status quo, and also often experienced distrust, misunderstanding, or paternalistic attitudes on the part of nonpeasant organizations working for change. The future is uncertain for all of the movements, despite notable past successes for some of them. PMID:12317604

Le Bot, Y





Focus in this discussion of Nicaragua is on the following: geography; the people and history; government and polictical conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Nicaragua. Nicaragua's population is 2.9 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3% (1981). The infant mortality rate is 37/1000; life expectancy is 56 years. Most Nicaraguans are mestizo, a mix of European and Indian. Smaller ethnic groups also are recognizable. A large black minority of Jamaican origin is concentrated on the Caribbean coast, although migration to Managua is on the rise. Nicaragua borders Costa Rica to the south and El Salvador--across the Gulf of Fonseca--and Honduras to the north. The climate is tropical. About 40% of the population are urban; most live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands region. On July 19, 1979 the Government of National Reconstruction formed in exile as a coalition of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) and civic leaders, stepped into the power vacuum left by the Somoza government's collapse. The GRN was organized into a 5-member junta, the 19 member Council of Ministers, and the 33 member quasi legislative National Council. The GRN's July 19 Declaration of San Jose, promising a democratically elected government and an equitable pluralistic society, met with strong popular support. Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly are guaranteed by the declaration, yet the GRN's efforts at promoting political freedom have been less successful than its efforts at economic equity. At different times, the GRN has restricted operation of opposition newspapers on national security grounds, banned individual foreign films on political grounds, attempted to reduce the role of the Roman Catholic Church and tried to reduce the traditional autonomy of the national university. The country's resources are primarily agricultural. Some estimates indicate that 70% of Nicaragua's territory is usable for agriculture of livestock, though much is underutilized. Currently, more than half the country is covered in forest. The forest industry collapsed since it was nationalized, although its potential remains. Nicaragua's industrial sector is still small but grew rapidly following the formation of the Central American Common Market. Nicaragua's current economic problems stem from continued tension between the private sector and the revolutionary government, which has discouraged private investment. The GRN is committed to maintaining ties with all nations while espousing a policy of nonalignment. The FSLN has converted and expanded the military. The US has contributed $128 million in economic aid to Nicaragua. Nicaraguan support for the Salvadoran insurgents resulted in a US presidential determination in April 1981 to suspend US aid to Nicaragua. PMID:12178081



Characterization of a malaria outbreak in Colombia in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although malaria has presented a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality worldwide during the last decade, it remains a serious global public health problem. In Colombia, during this period, many factors have contributed to sustained disease transmission, with significant fluctuations in an overall downward trend in the number of reported malaria cases. Despite its epidemiological importance, few studies have used surveillance data to describe the malaria situation in Colombia. This study aims to describe the characteristics of malaria cases reported during 2010 to the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) of the National Institute of Health (INS) of Colombia. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using malaria information from SIVIGILA 2010. Cases, frequencies, proportions, ratio and measures of central tendency and data dispersion were calculated. In addition, the annual parasite index (API) and the differences between the variables reported in 2009 and 2010 were estimated. Results A total of 117,108 cases were recorded by SIVIGILA in 2010 for a national API of 10.5/1,000 habitants, with a greater number of cases occurring during the first half of the year. More than 90% of cases were reported in seven departments (=states): Antioquia: 46,476 (39.7%); Chocó: 22,493 (19.2%); Cordoba: 20,182 (17.2%); Valle: 6,360 (5.4%); Guaviare: 5,876 (5.0%); Nariño: 4,085 (3.5%); and Bolivar: 3,590 (3.1%). Plasmodium vivax represented ~71% of the cases; Plasmodium falciparum ~28%; and few infrequent cases caused by Plasmodium malariae. Conclusions Overall, a greater incidence was found in men (65%) than in women (35%). Although about a third of cases occurred in children <15 years, most of these cases occurred in children >5 years of age. The ethnic distribution indicated that about 68% of the cases occurred in mestizos and whites, followed by 23% in Afro-descendants, and the remainder (9%) in indigenous communities. In over half of the cases, consultation occurred early, with 623 complicated and 23 fatal cases. However, the overall incidence increased, corresponding to an epidemic burst and indicating the need to strengthen prevention and control activities as well as surveillance to reduce the risk of outbreaks and the consequent economic and social impact. PMID:24044437



[The indigenous population of Sierra Norte de Puebla].  


The northern sierra region of Pueblo, Mexico, contains 1496 communities in 65 municipios and covers 1/4 of the area of the state of Puebla. The topography is steep and mountainous, and the area is inaccessible. The region contains the 3 principal zones of Mesoamerica, hot lands from sea level to 700 meters above sea level, temperate zones from 700-1500 meters, and cold country from 1500-2000 meters above sea level. Most of the population resides in the temperate and cold lands, but the hot zones are economically important. Little is known of the prehistory of the area. The Totonac were believed to have been the earliest settlers. In the mid-15th century numerous Nahua groups came to the area. In the late 15th century the region fell to the Aztecs, but their dominion was cut short by the arrival of the Spanish. Spanish penetration was relatively slow because of the difficult terrain and the lack of precious metals desired by the Spanish. The introduction of coffee cultivation in the late 19th century accelerated the adoption of urban-mestizo sociocultural and commercial elements by the indigenous population. The population of the northern sierra increased from 752,656 in 1980 to 965,976 in 1990. The 1980 census reported that 259,140 persons spoke indigenous languages, including 179,677 who spoke Nahuatl, 66,020 Totonaco, and 4921 Otomi. The most important cities are located on paved roads: Teziutland, Zacatlan, Hauachinango, and Zacapoaxtla. The municipios with predominantly monolingual indigenous populations are concentrated in the most difficult to reach areas of the central sierra massif. The region is characterized by temporary and permanent emigration of the indigenous population. The main reasons for emigration are lack of land and of alternative sources of employment, and desire for education. During the months August-December, known as the time of hunger, there is seasonal migration of household heads in search of work as laborers in cane cutting, tobacco, or fruit harvesting. The local economy is based on subsistence agriculture and production of coffee, fruits, and woods for export. The most isolated and inaccessible communities have preserved traditional cultural elements the most strongly. PMID:12284139

Marquez Gonzalez, G





Panama has an area of 29,762 square miles, with a population of 2,274 million. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is tropical. The ethnic groups consist of mestizo 79% West Indian 14%, white 10%, and Indian 6%. The religions are Roman Catholic 93% and Protestant 6% and the official language is Spanish with 14% using English. There is 6 years of mandatory primary schooling and the literacy rate is 87.1%. The infant mortality rate is 25.6/1000 and life expectancy is 72.1 years. The work force of 770,000 has 26.6% in agriculture, 27.9% in government, 16% in commerce, 10.5% manufacturing, 5.3% in finance, canal 2.4% and utilities 1.4%. The government was a military dictatorship established in 1903 and a constitution was created in 1972 and revised in 1983. A president and 2 vice presidents, a legislative assembly with 67 members and a supreme court now make up the government. There are 9 provinces and 1 Indian territory and the major political parties are the Panamenista, Democratic Revolutionary, Christian Democratic, Labor, Republican, Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement and many other small parties. The economy has a gross national product of over 5 billion dollars and has a growth rate of .47% in 1987, with an inflation rate of 1.1% in 1985. National resources consist of timber, seafood, and copper ore. Agriculture products are bananas, corn, sugar, rice, coffee, shrimp, timber, vegetables, and cattle. There is 24% agricultural land, 20% forest land and industries include food and drink processing, metal working, petroleum products, chemicals, paper, printing, mining, sugar refining, clothing, furniture, and construction. Exports consist of bananas 21%, shrimp 21%, coffee 9%, sugar 6%, clothing 4%, and other 39%. During the colonial period Panama was ruled by Spain and won independence in 1821 and joined Columbia. In 1903 Panama proclaimed independence and made a treaty with the US to build the canal. PMID:12178029



Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas  

PubMed Central

Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat allele were identical by descent and that the geographic distribution of this allele had not been influenced by natural selection. To investigate whether these assumptions are satisfied, we genotyped 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms across ?500 kilobases (kb) around D9S1120 in 21 Native American and Western Beringian populations and 54 other worldwide populations. All chromosomes with the 9-repeat allele share the same haplotypic background in the vicinity of D9S1120, suggesting that all sampled copies of the 9-repeat allele are identical by descent. Ninety-one percent of these chromosomes share the same 76.26 kb haplotype, which we call the “American Modal Haplotype” (AMH). Three observations lead us to conclude that the high frequency and widespread distribution of the 9-repeat allele are unlikely to be the result of positive selection: 1) aside from its association with the 9-repeat allele, the AMH does not have a high frequency in the Americas, 2) the AMH is not unusually long for its frequency compared with other haplotypes in the Americas, and 3) in Latin American mestizo populations, the proportion of Native American ancestry at D9S1120 is not unusual compared with that observed at other genomewide microsatellites. Using a new method for estimating the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all sampled copies of an allele on the basis of an estimate of the length of the genealogy descended from the MRCA, we calculate the mean time to the MRCA of the 9-repeat allele to be between 7,325 and 39,900 years, depending on the demographic model used. The results support the hypothesis that all modern Native Americans and Western Beringians trace a large portion of their ancestry to a single founding population that may have been isolated from other Asian populations prior to expanding into the Americas. PMID:19221006

Schroeder, Kari B.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Crawford, Michael H.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Boca, Simina M.; Conrad, Donald F.; Tito, Raul Y.; Osipova, Ludmilla P.; Tarskaia, Larissa A.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Smith, David G.; Rosenberg, Noah A.



Secondary syphilis in cali, Colombia: new concepts in disease pathogenesis.  


Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18-68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer > or = 1 : 4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5-240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study. PMID:20502522

Cruz, Adriana R; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V; Ramirez, Lady G; Duque, Jorge E; Aristizabal, Gloria E; Fiel-Gan, Mary D; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L; Radolf, Justin D; Salazar, Juan C




PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

Silvia, Mejia-Arango; Clemente, y Zuniga-Gil



Reacciones de intercambio de carga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se discute la validez de diversas metodologías y su aplicación al estudio de procesos de intercambio de carga electrónico entre iones y blancos atómicos y moleculares. Para energías de impacto entre 0.05 y 5 eV / amu se emplea el método cuántico de la Coordenada de Reacción Común (CRC). A mayores energías, se utiliza el método semiclásico iconal con un desarrollo de la función de onda dinámica en estados moleculares adiabáticos, modificados con un factor de traslación común (FTC). Estos estados pueden obtenerse con cálculos ab initio o empleando potenciales modelo. Cuando la ionización compite con la transferencia de carga, la inclusión de pseudoestados en estos desarrollos permite calcular simultáneamente las secciones eficaces de ambos procesos. Otra técnica utilizada es el método estadístico CTMC. En el tratamiento de colisiones ión-molécula (diatómica) contrastamos la aplicabilidad de distintos métodos, desde la llamada aproximación Franck-Condon hasta un desarrollo en estados vibrónicos, pasando por la aproximación súbita vibro-rotacional, obteniéndose secciones eficaces de captura electrónica total y a estados individuales, así como secciones de excitación vibracional a estados ligados y del continuo (disociación). En todos los casos es necesario calcular superficies de energía y los correspondientes acoplamientos dinámicos entre los estados. La aplicación de estos métodos permite determinar el grado de contaminación de los haces por estados metaestables en un experimento dado, el cambio en los resultados con diferentes isótopos, la importancia de procesos de doble captura, seguida de explosión culombiana, todo ello con precisión comparable a la de medidas experimentales, para sistemas de interés en distintos tipos de plasmas.

Errea, L. F.


Application example: Preliminary Results of ISOLA use to find moment tensor solutions and centroid depth applied to aftershocks of Mw=8.8 February 27 2010, Maule Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We selected seven aftershocks from Maule earthquake between 33.5°S to 35°S from May to September to find single source inversion. The data were provided by XY Chile Ramp Experiment* which was deployed after great Maule earthquake. Waveform data are from 13 broad band stations chosen from the 58 broad band stations deployed by IRIS-PASCAL from April to September 2010. Stations are placed above the normal subduction section south of ~33.5°S. Events were located with an iterative software called Hypocenter using one dimensional local model, obtained above for the forearc region between 33°S to 35°S. We used ISOLA which is a fortran code with a Matlab interface to obtain moment tensors solutions, optimum position and time of the subevents. Values depth obtained by a grid search of centroid position show range values which are compatibles with the interplate seismogenic zone. Double-Couple focal mechanism solutions (Figure 1) show 4 thrust events which can be associated with that zone. However, only one of them has strike, dip and rake of 358°, 27° and 101 respectively, appropriate to be expected for interplate seismogenic zone. On the other hand, the other 3 events show strike and normal double-couple focal mechanism solutions (Figure 1). This last topic makes association to those events to the contact of the Nazca and South American plate difficult. Nevertheless, in a first stage, their depths may allow possibility of an origin there. * The facilities of the IRIS Data Management System, and specifically the IRIS Data Management Center, were used for access to waveform, metadata or products required in this study. The IRIS DMS is funded through the National Science Foundation and specifically the GEO Directorate through the Instrumentation and Facilities Program of the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement EAR-0552316. Some activities of are supported by the National Science Foundation EarthScope Program under Cooperative Agreement EAR-0733069. Figure 1. Doble-Couple focal mechanisms solutions from Moment Tensor Inversion using ISOLA. Triangles show broad band stations used in this work from IRIS-PASSCAL.

Nacif, S. V.; Sanchez, M. A.



A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau de l'État s'est appliqué à développer une stratégie sur deux plans. Tout d'abord, des études hydrogéologiques de base et des modèles mathématiques d'écoulement et de transport de nappe ont été réalisés à partir d'un suivi d'ensemble des puits existants et d'une révision générale du contexte géologique de l'État. Ensuite, on a soutenu une structure de participation des usagers de l'eau aux actions de gestion de l'eau, à partir de la dissémination de l'information pour la mise en place de projets pilotes efficaces d'utilisation de l'eau, avec des aides financières, techniques et politiques de l'État. Simultanément, un effort coordonné en vue de l'achèvement de l'enregistrement des usagers de l'eau a été fait avec l'autorité fédérale, en même temps que d'autres mesures de soutien, telles que des programmes de formation et des campagnes de surveillance. Cet article présente une vue d'ensemble des réalisations de projets et des défis. Resumen El Estado de Guanajuato, situado en el centro de México, ocupa menos del 2% de la superficie del país. Tiene casi 17.000 pozos profundos, de los cuales se extrae cerca de 4.000 hm3/a, lo que supone un exceso de 1.000 hm3/a respecto a la recarga anual. Puesto que el agua es administrada a nivel federal en México, el gobierno del Estado afronta el reto de asegurar el desarrollo de la población sin disponer de medios formales de intervención. Dadas las limitaciones para aplicar políticas y medidas reguladoras, el programa del agua en el Estado tiene como objetivo principal la implantación de una doble estrategia. Por un lado, desarrollar estudios hidrogeológicos básicos y modelos matemáticos de flujo y transporte de los acuíferos, basándose en una campaña exhaustiva de pozos existentes y en una revisión del marco geológico del Estado. Por otro lado, promover-con soporte financiero, técnico y político-una estructura de participación de los usuarios en las acciones de gestión, incluyendo desde la difusión de la información hasta la implantación de proyectos piloto para un uso

Sandoval, Ricardo