Sample records for ganado mestizo doble

  1. Reproduccion del ganado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    La determination de prenez es una de las principales herramientas de manejo en el Ganado de came. Le habilidad de determiner prenez proporciona al productor un medio de tomar sus decsiones de seleccion y descartarte en momentos decisivos, enfocando los recursos de la operacion en reporductores confi...

  2. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk" chronic…

  3. Tumor necrosis factor haplotype diversity in Mestizo and native populations of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro-Martínez, X H; Leal-Cortés, C; Flores-Martínez, S E; García-Zapién, A G; Sánchez-Corona, J; Portilla-de Buen, E; Gómez-Espinel, I; Zamora-Ginez, I; Pérez-Fuentes, R; Islas-Andrade, S; Revilla-Monsalve, C; Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Mendoza-Carrera, F

    2014-04-01

    The so-called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) block includes the TNFA, lymphotoxin alpha and beta (LTA and LTB) genes with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and microsatellites with an allele frequency that exhibits interpopulation variability. To date, no reports have included both SNPs and microsatellites at the TNF block to study Mestizo or Amerindian populations from Mexico. In this study, samples of five Mexican Mestizo populations (Durango, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, and Tierra Blanca) and four native-Mexican populations (North Lacandonians, South Lacandonians, Tepehuanos, and Yaquis) were genotyped for two SNPs (LTA+252A>G and TNFA-308G>A) and four microsatellites (TNFa, d, e, and f), to analyze the genetic substructure of the Mexican population. Allele and haplotype frequencies, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and interpopulation genetic relationships were calculated. There was significant LD along almost all of the TNF block but the lowest D' values were observed for the TNFf-TNFd pair. Mestizos showed higher allele and haplotype diversity than did natives. The genetic differentiation level was reduced among Mestizos; however, a slightly, but significant genetic substructure was observed between northern and southern Mexican Mestizos. Among the Amerindian populations, the genetic differentiation level was significantly elevated, particularly in both North and South Lacandonians. Furthermore, among Southern Lacandonians, inhabitants of Lacanja town were the most differentiated from all the Mexicans analyzed. The data presented here will serve as a reference for further population and epidemiological studies including these TNF polymorphisms in the Mexican population. PMID:24517517

  4. 51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, switchboard with overhead field rheostat (above). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  5. [Relation of leptin in plasma with oxidative damage in indigenous tepehuán and mestizo populations from Durango].

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Guzmán, Dealmy; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha Angélica; Carrera-Gracia, Manuela de la A; Lares-Aseff, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es una alteración metabólica multifactorial que incluye los efectos de citocinas como la leptina, la lipoperoxidación (LPX) y la activación de sistemas antioxidantes para contrarrestar los daños celulares. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación de las concentraciones de leptina y estrés oxidativo en poblaciones mestiza e indígena tepehuana de Durango, en México. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio clínico y nutricional para confirmar el estado de salud de un grupo de 60 tepehuanos indígenas y 68 sujetos mestizos, de entre 18 y 59 años. Se determinaron las concentraciones de leptina, la capacidad antioxidante (CA) y la LPX en condiciones de ayuno en el plasma de los participantes, comparando los resultados por medio de análisis de la varianza (ANOVA) y prueba de Kruskal-Wallis. Para la correlación de las variables se aplicó la prueba de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: Los niveles de leptina fueron inferiores en los indígenas tepehuanos que en los sujetos mestizos, independientemente del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Los sujetos mestizos y tepehuanos con sobrepeso y obesidad (SP/O) mostraron mayor grado de LPX (3.39 ± 0.31 y 2.72 ± 0.54 µmol/l de malondialdehído [MDA], respectivamente; p < 0.05); los mestizos SP/O mostraron una mayor activación de su CA (0.37 ± 0.03 miliequivalente [meq] de trolox) que los tepehuanos SP/O (0.32 ± 0.01 meq de trolox) (p < 0.001). La correlación entre la CA y la LPX en los mestizos SP/O fue positiva (R = 0.9; p < 0.001). Existe una correlación entre los niveles de leptina y la CA en los sujetos tepehuanos tanto con normopeso (NP) (R = 0.40; p < 0.05) como con SP/O (R = -0.66; p < 0.0001). Conclusiones: Los indígenas tepehuanos con SP/O tienen menor daño oxidativo que los mestizos, y en ellos los mecanismos antioxidantes tienen una menor activación que en los mestizos de la misma condición nutricional. Los resultados sugieren que, en los sujetos tepehuanos, la CA está implicada en la regulación de los niveles de leptina. PMID:25946533

  6. Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

    2014-11-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. PMID:25137143

  7. A great diversity of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA ancestry is present in the Mexican mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Juarez-Torres, Eligia; Medina-Martinez, Ingrid; Wegier, Ana; Macías, Antonio; Gomez, Guillermo; Cruz-Talonia, Fernando; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Piñero, Daniel; Kofman-Alfaro, Susana; Berumen, Jaime

    2009-12-01

    There are limited data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Mexican mestizo population. To examine the genetic diversity and matrilineal ancestry, the full mtDNA hypervariable regions I and II were sequenced in 270 unrelated mestizos from different regions of Mexico. A total of 202 different haplotypes were identified and the haplotype diversity was 0.9945. Amerindian haplotypes predominated in the sample with a proportion of 93.3%, followed by European (6.0%) and African haplotypes (0.7%). The frequency of the Amerindian haplogroups A2, B2, C1 and D1 was 51.1, 17.8, 18.5 and 5.9%, respectively. The frequency of Amerindian haplogroups was higher in the central region than in Mexico City, whereas it was the contrary for European haplogroups. This difference was accounted principally by the high frequency of B2 haplotypes in the central region. The minimum spanning network, the mismatch distribution and Tajima's D neutrality test suggest a population expansion for each Amerindian haplogroup, which could be initiated more recently for haplogroups A2 and D1. The present knowledge combined with other nuclear genetic markers will be essential in future association studies to correct for genetic substructure in mestizo populations. PMID:19834499

  8. 47. Credit JE. Housing of one of the Doble rotors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Credit JE. Housing of one of the Doble rotors, cooling ducts, governor, and gate valve. (JE, v. 25 1910 p. 121). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. 75 FR 9114 - FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications...substitutes Channel 284C3 for Channel 236C3 at Victoria, Texas, and modifies the license for Station KVIC(FM), Victoria, to specify operation on Channel...

  10. VDR polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density in post-menopausal Mayan-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Cetina Manzanilla, José Antonio; González Herrera, Lizbeth; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is determined by an interaction of genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Aim: To analyse the association between two polymorphisms of VDR as well as their haplotypes with BMD in post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. Subjects and methods: This study comprised 600 post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of VDR (rs731236 and rs2228570) were studied using real-time PCR allelic discrimination for genotyping. Differences between the means of the BMDs according to the genotype were analysed with covariance. Haplotype analysis was conducted. Results: TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR had higher BMD at total hip and femoral neck (FN), and one haplotype formed by the two polymorphisms was associated with only TH-BMD variations. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. The genotype of rs2228570 of VDR analysis showed no significant differences with BMD variations. Conclusion: The results showed that the TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR and one haplotype formed by rs731236 and rs2228570 polymorphisms were associated with higher BMD at TH and FN. PMID:25347090

  11. Population structure and paternal admixture landscape on present-day Mexican-Mestizos revealed by Y-STR haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Flores, J; Dondiego-Aldape, R; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Nuño-Arana, I; Canseco-Avila, L M; Flores-Flores, G; Morales-Vallejo, M E; Barojas-Pérez, N; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Campos-Gutiérrez, R; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2010-01-01

    Mestizos currently represent most of the Mexican population (>90%); they are defined as individuals born in the country having a Spanish-derived last name, with family antecedents of Mexican ancestors back at least to the third generation. Mestizos are result of 500 years of admixture mainly among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves. Consequently, a complex genetic pattern has been generated throughout the country that has been scarcely studied from the paternal point of view. This fact is important, taking into account that gene flow toward the New World comprised largely males. We analyzed the population structure and paternal admixture of present-day Mexican-Mestizo populations based on Y-STRs. We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 males from five states: Aguascalientes (n = 293); Jalisco (n = 185); Guanajuato (n = 168); Chiapas (n = 170); and Yucatán (n = 170). AmpFlSTR Y-filer and Powerplex-Y(R) kits were used. Inclusion of North and Central Y-STR databases in the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico. Results confirmed the population differentiation gradient previously noted in Mestizos with SNPs and autosomal STRs throughout the Mexican territory: European ancestry increments to the Northwest and, correspondingly, Amerindian ancestry increments to the Center and Southeast. In addition, SAMOVA test and Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis autocorrelogram plot suggested preferential gene flow of males with neighboring populations in agreement with the isolation-by-distance model. Results are important for disease-risk studies (principally male-related) and for human identification purposes, because Y-STR databases are not available on the majority of Mexican-Mestizo populations. PMID:19967759

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Mestizo and Indigenous Mayan Young Women in Guatemala: Attitudes and Knowledge of Sexual Reproduction and Health among Members of Children International's Youth Health Corps

    E-print Network

    Trapp, Sarah Casement

    2011-04-21

    Children International’s Youth Health Corps Program uses Peer Education techniques to teach impoverished adolescents about Sexual Health and Reproduction. In the Youth Health Corps in Guatemala, both rural indigenous Maya youth and urban mestizo...

  13. PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ? 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations. PMID:24691744

  14. Conectarse a la red inalmbrica (WiFi) EDUROAM Hacer doble click sobre el

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Conectarse a la red inalámbrica (WiFi) EDUROAM Paso 1: Hacer doble click sobre el icono de conexiones de red inalámbricas. Paso 2: Esperar a que localice redes inalámbricas cercanas y hacer doble en la barra de tareas que tenemos cuando estamos conectados #12;Desconectarse de la red inalámbrica

  15. Calpain-10 gene polymorphisms and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexican mestizos.

    PubMed

    Picos-Cárdenas, V J; Sáinz-González, E; Miliar-García, A; Romero-Zazueta, A; Quintero-Osuna, R; Leal-Ugarte, E; Peralta-Leal, V; Meza-Espinoza, J P

    2015-01-01

    The calpain-10 gene is expressed primarily in tissues important in glucose metabolism; thus, some of its polymorphisms have been associated with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the association between the calpain-10 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-43, SNP-19, and SNP-63 and type 2 diabetes in Mexican mestizos. We included 211 patients and 152 non-diabetic subjects. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify alleles. We compared allele, genotype, haplotype, and diplotype frequencies between both groups and used the chi-square test to calculate the risk. The allele frequency of SNP-43 allele 1 was 70% in controls and 72% in patients; the GG, GA, and AA genotype frequencies were 48.7, 42.8, and 8.5% in controls and 51.2, 41.7, and 7.1% in patients, respectively. For SNP- 19, the prevalence of allele 1 (2R) was 32% in controls and 39% in patients. In controls, homozygosity (2R/2R) was 10.5%, heterozygosity was 42.8%, and 3R/3R was 46.7%; in cases, these values were 13.3, 50.7, and 36.0%, respectively. For SNP-63, the frequency of allele 1 was 87% in controls and 83% in patients; genotype frequencies in controls were 75.7% (CC), 23% (CT), and 1.3% (TT), and were 69.7, 27.5, and 2.8%, respectively for the cases. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant intergroup differences for allele, genotype, haplotype, or diplotype frequencies were observed. We found no association between these polymorphisms and diabetes. However, our sample size was small, so the role of calpain-10 risk alleles should be further examined. PMID:25867367

  16. Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vásquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, José L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, María I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. PMID:23857989

  17. A mixed longitudinal anthropometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Cleidy; Buschang, Peter H; Camacho, Jesus A; Botero, Paola; Roldan, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos. Four age cohorts, including a total of 458 children and adolescents (262 males and 216 females), were included in this mixed-longitudinal study. The cohorts were first measured at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 and every year thereafter for 3 years. Eight anthropometric measurements were taken, including three cranial (head perimeter, head width, and head length), two craniofacial (maxillary and mandibular length), and three facial (face height, bizygomatic width, and bigonial width). Multilevel analyses showed that all dimensions increased between 6 and 17 years of age. The cranium grew less than the craniofacial, which in turn grew less than the facial dimensions. In addition, vertical dimensions showed more growth than antero-posterior dimensions, which in turn grew more than transverse dimensions. None of the measurement showed statistically significant growth differences between subjects with normal occlusion and Class I or Class II malocclusions. Males were generally larger than females and showed greater growth rates. Except for facial width, whose yearly velocities decreased regularly with age, an adolescent growth spurt was evident for most of the male measurements. Yearly velocities for females followed a simpler decelerating pattern. The results provide reference data for Colombian mestizos, for whom normative data of other ethnic groups are not applicable. While occlusion had little or no effect, there were gender differences, as well as important growth differences between cranial and facial measurements. PMID:21097992

  18. The Genetic structure of Mexican Mestizos of different locations: tracking back their origins through MHC genes, blood group systems, and microsatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Gorodezky; Carmen Alaez; Miriam N Vázquez-Garc??a; Gabriela de la Rosa; Eduardo Infante; Sandra Balladares; Rosa Toribio; Elva Pérez-Luque; Linda Muñoz

    2001-01-01

    Mexican Mestizos, who are the result of the admixture of Spanish, Indian, and Black genes, were analyzed for different systems. Three populations from geographical distinct areas were studied: the north (State of Nuevo Leon ), the center (State of Guanajuato), and the highlands (mainly Mexico City). Ten blood group systems (N = 229), STRs (N = 107), HLA-A?, B?, C?

  19. SENSIBILIDAD A LOS AGENTES ANTIMICROBIANOS DE ALGUNOS PATÓGENOS MASTITOGÉNICOS AISLADOS DE LECHE DE CUARTOS DE BOVINOS MESTIZOS DOBLE PROPÓSITO Sensitivity to antimicrobials Agents of Some Mastitogenic Pathogens Isolated from Milk Quarters of Dual Purpose Bovines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José F. Faría Reyes; Kutchynskaya Valero-Leal; Gerardo DPool; Aleida García Urdaneta; María Allara Cagnasso

    2005-01-01

    To determine sensitivity of mastitogenic pathogens to antimi- crobial agents, 158 samples were recollected from milk quar- ters of dual purpose bovines in four (4) farms of Zulia state, Venezuela. Samples were analyzed to determine presence of antibiotics by using the Delvotest® SP. The bacterial culture isolations were made following the National Mastitis Council procedures. Sensitivity was determined by Kirby-Bauer

  20. Frequency of SMN1 deletion carriers in a Mestizo population of central and northeastern Mexico: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    CONTRERAS-CAPETILLO, SILVINA NOEMI; BLANCO, HUGO LEONID GALLARDO; CERDA-FLORES, RICARDO MARTIN; LUGO-TRAMPE, JOSÉ; TORRES-MUÑOZ, IRIS; BRAVO-ORO, ANTONIO; ESMER, CARMEN; DE VILLARREAL, LAURA ELLA MARTÍNEZ

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who suffer from spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) exhibit progressive muscle weakness that frequently results in mortality in the most severe forms of the disease. In 98% of cases, there is a homozygous deletion of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and both parents carry the same heterozygous genetic abnormality in the majority of cases. Various population studies have been conducted to estimate the frequency of carriers and thereby identify the communities or countries in which children are at a high risk of being affected by SMA. However, the prevalence of SMA in Mexican populations has not yet been established. In the present pilot study, the frequency of the heterozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene was determined in two groups from northeastern (n=287) and central (n=133) Mexican Mestizo populations and compared with other ethnic populations. Amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction analysis yielded a disease carrier frequency of 11/420 (2.62%) healthy individuals, comprising 9/287 (3.14%) northeastern and 2/133 (1.5%) central Mexican individuals. In summary, no significant differences were identified between the northeastern and central populations of Mexico and other ethnic populations, with the exception of the general worldwide Hispanic population, which exhibited the lowest carrier frequency of 8/1,030. The results of the present study may be used to improve the evaluation procedure, and appear to justify further studies involving larger sample populations.

  1. 22. Credit PG&E. View of the Doble water wheel housing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Credit PG&E. View of the Doble water wheel housing and the 3000 kVA generator installed in 1926 to replace (original) units 1,2 and 3. Photo 10 November 1927. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  2. G6PD (AC)n and (CTT)n microsatellites in Mexican Mestizos with common G6PD African variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Vaca

    2007-01-01

    Genotyping for the G6PD (AC)n and (CTT)n microsatellites in a sample of 58 Mexican Mestizos with common G6PD African variants was carried out. The second mutation that defines to the variants G6PD A?202A\\/376G, G6PD Santamaria376G\\/542T and G6PD A?376G\\/968C very probably occurred on G6PD A376G chromosomes with the compound haplotypes, intragenic silent polymorphisms and microsatellites, Pvu-II\\/Pst-I\\/Bcl-I\\/Nla-III\\/(AC)n\\/(CTT)n: +\\/+\\/?\\/+\\/166 bp\\/195 bp, ?\\/+\\/?\\/+\\/166 bp\\/201 bp, and ?\\/+\\/?\\/+\\/166 bp\\/204 bp respectively.

  3. PERSPECTIVAS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN PECUARIA EN EL MUNDO TROPICAL: UTILIZACIÓN DE RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE GANADO BOVINO PERSPECTIVES ON LIVESTOCK RESEARCH FOR THE TROPICAL WORLD: CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCE UTILIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Blake

    Los sistemas de producción de ganado vacuno en el trópico tienen más restricciones climáticas, nutricionales y económicas que los de las regiones templadas. Estos últimos ofrecen y proporcionan gran cantidad de tecnología en los mercados mundiales. La productividad por el animal en muchos lugares tropicales tiene menos grado de asociación con la ganancia general por hato o rebaño. El manejo

  4. Incidence of Lobar and Non-Lobar Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage in a Predominantly Hispanic-Mestizo Population – The PISCIS Stroke Project: A Community-Based Prospective Study in Iquique, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo M. Lavados; Claudio Sacks; Liliana Prina; Arturo Escobar; Claudia Tossi; Fernando Araya; Walter Feuerhake; Marcelo Gálvez; Rodrigo Salinas; Gonzalo Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    Background: The incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in Hispanics is high, especially of non-lobar ICH. Our aim was to ascertain prospectively the incidence of first-ever spontaneous ICH (SICH) stratified by localisation in a Hispanic-Mestizo population of the north of Chile. Methods: Between July 2000 and June 2002 all possible cases of ICH were ascertained from multiple overlapping sources. The cases

  5. Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Chavarria-Avila, Efrain; Munoz-Valle, Jose-Francisco; Armas-Ramos, Laura-Elizabeth; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Aldrete, Maria Elena Aguilar; Oregon-Romero, Edith; Mercado, Monica Vazquez-Del; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa-Elena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766) with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin), distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers. Subjects and methods In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI), were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold. Results sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046) GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL), TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL), and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL), but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T>G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05) with inflammation markers and distribution of body fat storage (Pearson’s r = ?0.169 to ?0.465) were found. Conclusion In this study, we have suggested that the ADIPOQ +45G allele could be associated with distribution of body fat storage in obesity. On the other hand, as no association was observed between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene polymorphism and obesity, it cannot be concluded that the ADIPOQ +45G allele is responsible for the increase of adiponectin levels. PMID:23118546

  6. HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the "shared epitope" are associated with susceptibility to developing rheumatoid arthritis whereas HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding an aspartic acid at position 70 of the beta-chain are protective in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Morales, J A; Vargas-Alarcón, G; Flores-Villanueva, P O; Villarreal-Garza, C; Hernández-Pacheco, G; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Rodríguez-Pérez, J M; Pérez-Hernández, N; Rull, M; Cardiel, M H; Granados, J

    2004-03-01

    The risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with the presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the "shared epitope" (SE). Additionally, HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding an aspartic acid at position 70 (D70+ ) have been associated with protection against the development of RA. In this study we tested the association between either SE or D70+ and rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican Mestizos. We included 84 unrelated Mexican Mestizos patients with RA and 99 unrelated healthy controls. The HLA-typing was performed by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP. We used the chi-squared test to detect differences in proportions of individuals carrying at least one SE or D70+ between patients and controls. We found that the proportion of individuals carrying at least one HLA-DRB1 allele encoding the SE was significantly increased in RA cases as compared to controls (p(c) = 0.0004, OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.2-7.7). The most frequently occurring allele was HLA-DRB1*0404 (0.161 vs 0.045). Moreover, we observed a significantly increased proportion of HLA-DRB1 SE+ cases with RF titers above the median (p = 0.005). Conversely, the proportion of individuals carrying at least one HLA-DRB1 allele encoding the D70+ was significantly decreased (p(c) = 0.004, OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) among RA patients compared with controls. In conclusion, the SE is associated with RA in Mexican Mestizos as well as with the highest titers of RF. PMID:15041166

  7. The 482Ser of PPARGC1A and 12Pro of PPARG2 Alleles Are Associated with Reduction of Metabolic Risk Factors Even Obesity in a Mexican-Mestizo Population

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Guzmán-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Corona Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Ríos-Ibarra, Clara-Patricia; Reyes-Serratos, Eduardo-Alejandro; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between functional polymorphisms Gly482Ser in PPARGC1A and Pro12Ala in PPARG2 with the presence of obesity and metabolic risk factors. We included 375 individuals characterized as Mexican-Mestizos and classified by the body mass index (BMI). Body dimensions and distribution of body fat were measured. The HOMA-IR and adiposity indexes were calculated. Adipokines and metabolic profile quantification were performed by ELISA and routine methods. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A difference between obese and nonobese subjects in polymorphism PPARGC1A distribution was observed. Among obese individuals, carriers of genotype 482Gly/Gly were observed to have decreased body fat, BMI, and body fat ratio versus 482Ser/Ser carriers and increased resistin and leptin levels in carriers Gly+ phenotype versus Gly? phenotype. Subjects with PPARG2 Ala? phenotype (genotype 12Pro/Pro) showed a decreased HOMA-IR index versus individuals with Ala+ phenotype (genotypes 12Pro/Ala plus 12Ala/Ala). We propose that, in obese Mexican-Mestizos, the combination of alleles 482Ser in PPARGC1A and 12Pro in PPARG2 represents a reduced metabolic risk profile, even when the adiposity indexes are increased. PMID:26185753

  8. Diagnostico de Prenez en Ganado Vacuno. 

    E-print Network

    Sorensen, A. M. Jr.; Beverly, J. R.; Arias, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    del Texas Agricultural Extension Service cle su contlaclo. Para c:~lcul:~r 10s costos de operacitin, tome un precio especifico de 27 centavos y coloque el punto en el cual ni g;ma ni pierde dinero (I~reak-even point) con ese precio en la tal~la 1.... Si 1~1ce esto, se requiere destetar un 90 poi- ciento de 10s I,ecerros que pesan 400 1il11-as p:~ra Ilegar a1 punto en el cual ni gana ni pierde dinero. Si sGlo desteta un 60 por ciento de 10s I~ecerros que pesan 400 libras, entonces el costo...

  9. The concept of plants as teachers among four mestizo shamans of Iquitos, northeastern Peru.

    PubMed

    Luna, L E

    1984-07-01

    In the city of Iquitos and its vicinity there is even today a rich tradition of folk medicine. Practitioners, some of whom qualify as shamans, make an important contribution to the psychosomatic health of the inhabitants of this area. Among them there are those called vegetalistas or plant specialists and who use a series of plants called doctores or plant teachers. It is their belief that if they fulfill certain conditions of isolation and follow a prescribed diet, these plants are able to "teach" them how to diagnose and cure illnesses, how to perform other shamanic tasks, usually through magic melodies or icaros, and how to use medicinal plants. Four shamans were questioned about the nature and identity of these magic plants, what are the dietary prescriptions to be followed, how the transmission of shamanic power takes place, the nature of their helping spirits, and the function of the magic melodies or icaros given to them by the plant teachers. PMID:6492831

  10. The concept of plants as teachers among four mestizo shamans of iquitos, Northeastern Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Eduardo Luna

    1984-01-01

    In the city of Iquitos and its vicinity there is even today a rich tradition of folk medicine. Practitioners, some of whom qualify as shamans, make an important contribution to the psychosomatic health of the inhabitants of this area. Among them there are those called uegetalistas or plant specialists and who use a series of plants called doctores or plant

  11. Polimorfismo en el gen de la µ-calpaína en ganado Brahman de registro de México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Parra-Bracamonte; A. M. Sifuentes-Rincón; E. G. Cienfuegos-Rivas; A. Tewolde; J. C. Martínez-González

    The present study was conducted to assess genotypic, allelic and haplotypic frequencies, in Brahman cattle in Mexico, of three single nucleotide polymorphism markers in the m -calpain gene, previously associated with beef tenderness in European, crossbred, and Zebu cattle (C316, C530, C4751). Three allelic discrimination assays were designed for generation of the said frequencies. The C316 marker showed a high

  12. Transcranial Doppler in a Hispanic-Mestizo population with neurological diseases: a study of sonographic window and its determinants.

    PubMed

    Brunser, Alejandro M; Silva, Claudio; Cárcamo, Daniel; Muñoz, Paula; Hoppe, Arnold; Olavarría, Verónica V; Díaz, Violeta; Abarca, Juan

    2012-05-01

    Between 5% and 37% of patients are not suitable for transtemporal insonation with transcranial Doppler (TCD). This unsuitability is particularly frequent in elderly females and non-Caucasians. We aim to evaluate TCD efficiency in a mixed Hispanic population in Santiago, Chile and to determine whether factors associated with the presence of optimal windows depend exclusively on patient-related elements. Seven hundred forty-nine patients were evaluated with power mode TCD. Optimal temporal windows (TWs) included detection of the middle, anterior, posterior cerebral arteries and terminal carotid. The patient's age and sex, the location of the examination, the time of day, whether the test was conducted on weekends and whether mechanical ventilation was used were recorded. Percentages of optimal windows were calculated. Examinations were deemed ideal if both TWs were optimal. TWs were obtained in 82% of cases. In univariate analyses, male sex (P < 0.001), an age below 60 years (P < 0.0001) and mechanical ventilation (P= 0.04) correlated with ideal TWs. Using logistic regression where dependent variable was a non-ideal window only male sex odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (1.51-3.45) and age below 60 OR 13.8 (7.8-24.6) were statistically significant. Our findings indicate that Hispanic populations have detection rates for TWs similar to Europeans and are affected by patient-related elements. PMID:22741096

  13. Transcranial Doppler in a Hispanic–Mestizo population with neurological diseases: a study of sonographic window and its determinants

    PubMed Central

    Brunser, Alejandro M; Silva, Claudio; Cárcamo, Daniel; Muñoz, Paula; Hoppe, Arnold; Olavarría, Verónica V; Díaz, Violeta; Abarca, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Between 5% and 37% of patients are not suitable for transtemporal insonation with transcranial Doppler (TCD). This unsuitability is particularly frequent in elderly females and non-Caucasians. We aim to evaluate TCD efficiency in a mixed Hispanic population in Santiago, Chile and to determine whether factors associated with the presence of optimal windows depend exclusively on patient-related elements. Seven hundred forty-nine patients were evaluated with power mode TCD. Optimal temporal windows (TWs) included detection of the middle, anterior, posterior cerebral arteries and terminal carotid. The patient's age and sex, the location of the examination, the time of day, whether the test was conducted on weekends and whether mechanical ventilation was used were recorded. Percentages of optimal windows were calculated. Examinations were deemed ideal if both TWs were optimal. TWs were obtained in 82% of cases. In univariate analyses, male sex (P < 0.001), an age below 60 years (P < 0.0001) and mechanical ventilation (P= 0.04) correlated with ideal TWs. Using logistic regression where dependent variable was a non-ideal window only male sex odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (1.51–3.45) and age below 60 OR 13.8 (7.8–24.6) were statistically significant. Our findings indicate that Hispanic populations have detection rates for TWs similar to Europeans and are affected by patient-related elements. PMID:22741096

  14. HLA class I and class II alleles and haplotypes in Mexican mestizos established from serological typing of 50 families.

    PubMed

    De Leo, C; Castelan, N; Lopez, M; Gonzalez, N; Weckmann, A L; Melin-Aldana, H; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Bordes, J; Alarcon-Segovia, D; Granados, J; Ramirez, E; Lisker, R

    1997-12-01

    We describe new information on the frequency and association of class II antigens (HLA-DR and HLA-DQ) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Mexicans. The study includes HLA-B typing and its association with the HLA-DR antigens determined in 50 families, which included 100 individuals. This family study allowed the establishment of the precise composition of the 200 HLA haplotypes, which cannot be obtained from unrelated individuals. The predominant antigens in decreasing order of frequency were B35, B39, and B61 at the B locus; DR4, DR5, and DR8 at the DR locus; and DQ3 at the DQ locus. The most common HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotype (considering broad specificities) was B16,DR4, with a frequency of 8.0%. Five HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotypes showed significant delta values (observed vs. expected frequencies) after correcting for the number of comparisons. On the other hand, the most common HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes were DR4,DQ3 and DR5,DQ3 with a frequency higher than 10%. Ten of the 17 HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes had significant postcorrection delta values. PMID:9353976

  15. Adaptación de unos dedos biónicos en una paciente con doble amputación de extremidades superiores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rotllant Solà; C. Navarro Correal; G. Sirvent Batalla; M. Carbajal de la Red; F. Nacenta Arias; M. Gómez Cuba

    2010-01-01

    A case report of bilateral upper limb amputees describing improvement in basic activities of daily living is presented. A 42-year-old female pianist suffered distal necrosis of all limbs and partial amputation of them due to pneumococcal sepsis in 2003. Her left upper limb was prosthetized with a myoelectric prosthesis (infracondilean amputation). In the transmetacarpal amputation of the right upper limb,

  16. Doble grado en Informatica-Matematicas Profesor de Teoria: Luis Fernandez Alvarez.

    E-print Network

    Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

    ´agina web: http://www.uam.es/personal pdi/ciencias/gallardo/ Despacho: M´odulo 17, despacho 302. Horario de´agina web: http://www.uam.es/personal pdi/ciencias/egirondo/docencia/docencia.html [M] L. Merino, E. Santos

  17. Doble descontrol Est claro que tener diabetes aumenta la probabilidad de sufrir depresin y viceversa,

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    trastornos alimentarios. El epidemiólogo Orville Disdier, ayudante de investigación y datos estadísticos de otros trastornos mentales como consecuencia de ello. Sin embargo, sobre la dinámica que se da cuando la aliviar los trastornos mentales más relacionados con la diabetes. Hallazgos Lo que encontró Disdier fue

  18. IDENTIFICACION DE HAPLOTIPOS EN LA REGIÓN MITOCONDRIAL D-LOOP, DE DOS POBLACIONES DE GANADO DE LIDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Williams Arellano; Ana Maria Sifuentes Rincón; Gaspar Manuel Parra Bracamonte

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms identification has important applications in the study of molecular genetic diversity level in domestic animal species. For these studies, the mtDNA control region of maternally inherited, known as D>loop is of particular interest. This study aims to identify mitochondrial D>loop haplotypes throughPCR>RFLPsintwopopulationsoffighting>ca ttle.Sampleswerecollectedfromanimalhairfolliclesfromtwo Mexican fighting>bull herds (Los Encinos (ENC, n= 22) and Montecristo (MC, n= 37)).

  19. Criollo, mestizo, mulato, LatiNegro, indígena, white, or black? The US Hispanic/Latino population and multiple responses in the 2000 census.

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, H; Zambrana, R E

    2000-01-01

    Current dialogues on changes in collecting race and ethnicity data have not considered the complexity of tabulating multiple race responses among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic identification--and its public reporting--among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is embedded in dynamic social factors. Ignoring these factors leads to significant problems in interpreting data and understanding the relationship of race, ethnicity, and health among Hispanics/Latinos. In the flurry of activity to resolve challenges posed by multiple race responses, we must remember the larger issue that looms in the foreground--the lack of adequate estimates of mortality and health conditions affecting Hispanics/Latinos. The implications are deemed important because Hispanics/Latinos will become the largest minority group in the United States within the next decade. PMID:11076239

  20. The Impact of LEP G-2548A and LEPR Gln223Arg Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Leptin, and Leptin-Receptor Serum Levels in a Mexican Mestizo Population

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Avila, Efraín; Gomez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Ruiz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Lizeth; Martín-Marquez, Beatriz Teresita; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphisms in leptin (LEP G-2548A) and leptin-receptor (LEPR Gln223Arg) seem to influence obesity and lipid metabolism among others. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on adiposity, leptin (sLeptin), and leptin-receptor (sLeptin-receptor) serum concentrations as well as inflammation markers. We included 382 adults originally from Western Mexico. They were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Obese individuals showed higher sLeptin (58.2 ± 31.35?ng/mL) but lower sLeptin-receptor (12.6 ± 3.74?ng/mL) levels than normal weight ones (17.6 ± 14.62?ng/mL, 17.4 ± 4.62?ng/mL, resp.), P < 0.001. Obese subjects carriers of Arg/Arg genotype had more (P = 0.016) sLeptin-receptor (14.7 ± 4.96?ng/mL) and less (P = 0.004) sLeptin (44.0 ± 28.12?ng/mL) levels than Gln/Gln genotype (11.0 ± 2.92?ng/mL, 80.3 ± 33.24?ng/mL, resp.). Body fat mass was lower (P from 0.003 to 0.045) for A/A (36.5% ± 6.80) or Arg/Arg (36.8% ± 6.82) genotypes with respect to G/G (41.3% ± 5.52) and G/A (41.6% ± 5.61) or Gln/Gln (43.7% ± 4.74) and Gln/Arg (41.0% ± 5.52) genotypes carriers. Our results suggest that LEP -2548A and LEPR 223Arg could be genetic markers of less body fat mass accumulation in obese subjects from Western Mexico.

  1. Parámetros genéticos de variables de crecimiento de ganado Brahman de registro en México Genetic parameters for growth traits in registered Brahman cattle from Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte; Juan Carlos Martínez-González; Eugenia Guadalupe Cienfuegos-Rivas; Francisco Javier García-Esquivel; Eligio Ortega-Rivas

    In order to estimate and report genetic parameters, an univariate animal model was adjusted for growth traits on standard ages of registered Mexican Brahman cattle. The traits evaluated were: birth weight (BWT), weaning adjusted to 205 days (WT205), yearling (WT365) and 550 days of age (WT550). The adjusted univariate animal model included the random effect of sire, dam and residual;

  2. Expression and function of Cbl-b in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and detection of the 2126 A/G Cblb gene polymorphism in the Mexican mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Doníz-Padilla, L; Martínez-Jiménez, V; Niño-Moreno, P; Abud-Mendoza, C; Hernández-Castro, B; González-Amaro, R; Layseca-Espinosa, E; Baranda-Cándido, L

    2011-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by abnormalities in the function of T and B lymphocytes and in the signaling pathways induced through their receptors. Cbl-b is an intracellular adaptor protein that plays a key role in the negative regulation of lymphocyte activity. We explored the expression and function of Cbl-b in T lymphocytes from SLE patients. In addition, the possible association of SLE and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the Cblb gene was determined. We studied 150 SLE patients, 163 healthy individuals, and 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression of Cbl-b was analyzed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the negative regulatory function of Cbl-b was assessed by analyzing actin polymerization and the phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun induced through CD3. Furthermore, the 2126(A/G) SNP of the Cblb gene was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant small reduction in the expression of Cbl-b as well as increased levels of activation of c-Jun and actin polymerization in T lymphocytes from patients with SLE compared with healthy controls or RA patients. In addition, a significant association between the 2126(A/G) SNP and SLE was detected. Our data suggest that Cbl-b may contribute to the deregulated activation of T lymphocytes observed in SLE. PMID:21558139

  3. HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the “shared epitope” are associated with susceptibility to developing rheumatoid arthritis whereas HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding an aspartic acid at position 70 of the ?-chain are protective in Mexican mestizos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Ruiz-Morales; G Vargas-Alarcón; P. O Flores-Villanueva; C Villarreal-Garza; G Hernández-Pacheco; J. K Yamamoto-Furusho; J. M Rodríguez-Pérez; N Pérez-Hernández; M Rull; M. H Cardiel; J Granados

    2004-01-01

    The risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with the presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the “shared epitope” (SE). Additionally, HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding an aspartic acid at position 70 (D70+ ) have been associated with protection against the development of RA. In this study we tested the association between either SE or D70+ and rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican

  4. La martcula se realizar en el aula 1 de Informtica (Primer piso de la Facultad de Farmacia) Doble Grado en Farmacia /Nutricin Humana y Diettica CITA DE MATRCULA

    E-print Network

    Valencia, Universidad de

    /07/2014 11:00 General 21 DIANA MARTI GARCIA 11,281 29/07/2014 11:00 General 22 REBECA ARAMENDÍA ETAYO 11 SANCHEZ DUQUE 08,090 29/07/2014 11:00 Mayor 25 A 1 ADRIAN SIERRA DEL REY 06,896 29/07/2014 11:00 Grado en

  5. CARACTERÃSTICAS DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y COMERCIALIZACIÓN DE LECHE BOVINA EN SISTEMAS DE DOBLE PROPÓSITO EN DOBLADERO, VERACRUZ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to make a diagnostic and characterization of the production and marketing of bovine milk in double purpose production systems, also known as tropical dairy, in the premises of Dobladero in José Azueta Veracruz, Mexico. Thirty Milk producers from the Local Livestock Association (Asociación Ganadera Local) were interviewed from May to July 2010. The

  6. RELACIÓN ENTRE CARACTERES DE TIPO Y LONGEVIDAD EN GANADO FRISÓN UTILIZANDO TÉCNICAS DE ANÁLISIS DE SOBREVIVENCIA Relationship Between Type Traits and Longevity in Friesian Cattle Using Survival Analysis Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuleima Chirinos; Delfino Hernández; María Jesús Carabaño

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship be- tween type traits and functional longevity using survival analy- sis. Official milk recording data (n= 211.184) and type traits (n= 100.2189) of Spanish Friesian cows with date of first calving between 1988 and 2000 were used. Longevity was measured as days of productive life, using observed global longevity (GL)

  7. Importancia de las pruebas de paternidad basadas en microsatélites para la evaluación genética de ganado de carne en empadre múltiple Importance of microsatellite-based tests in the genetic evaluation of multiple-sire mating systems in beef cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana María; Gaspar Manuel; Parra Bracamonte

    A microsatellite panel for paternity assignment\\/verification was used in a Charolais herd in order to determine the importance of the correct identification of individuals involved in a multiple-sire breeding program. The microsatellite panel used was able to assign paternity with 95% confidence every time the dam, the calf and all possible sires were all included in the analysis. The lack

  8. El Dia de la Raza Module. Secondary Level. [The Day of the Race Module. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Gloria; Lizcano, Jeanette

    "El Dia de la Raza", considered the birthday of the mestizo, is the topic of this unit for the secondary level. As unit objectives, the students are to demonstrate (1) their comprehension by stating 3 major areas of contributions the Indians and the Spaniards gave the mestizo culture and (2) their concept of mestizaje by participating in oral…

  9. A Review of "Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft, and Caste in Colonial Mexico" by Laura A. Lewis 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    , and mestizos working to challenge Span- ish authority. Chapter five, ?Authority Reversed: Indians Ascending,? sees such challenges as empowering to Indians who could both curse and heal, thus gaining multiple agencies as perpetrator and protec- tor. Lewis...

  10. ESTRATEGIAS DE PRODUCCIÓN PARA MAXIMIZAR EL MARGEN BRUTO EN UN SISTEMA TRADICIONAL GANADO-CULTIVO DEL SECANO DE LA IX REGIÓN 1 Production strategies to maximize the gross margin on a traditional crop-livestock system of the dryland of the IX Region 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    A B S T R A C T Based on a real crop-livestock production system, a linear programming model was developed to evaluate and maximize gross margins of the system. The real system evaluated over 4 seasons at the Carillanca Research Center, IX Region, considered a total surface of 15 ha, and a crop rotation with oats (Avena sativa), lupines

  11. Derrota verborreica. Si te dicen que perd, no creas. A veces perdemos todo y no ganamos nada.

    E-print Network

    Geffner, Hector

    pero luego ganaste, y al hacerlo, estuviste más feliz que si hubieses ganado todo el tiempo. Ese rayito agarradas por las garras de los agarrantes compañeros de viaje? Yo quisiera ir en bici a todas horas y

  12. EL TIEMPO.COM -Ecologa -> La diversidad de vegetacin en Amrica del Sur existe desde hace 52 millones de aos Bogot, viernes 11 de abril de 2003

    E-print Network

    Wilf, Peter

    Tierras y ganados Viajar Vida de hoy Vivienda Cine Crucigramas El tarot de Mavé Horóscopo Eskpe Humor Cláusula de privacidad. Responsabilidad social Pero Laguna del Hunco, sitio conocido durante más de 80 años

  13. Influence of School and Environment on Selective Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Alex; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Subjects were 943 mestizo and Quechua Indian children aged five and six years who lived in jungle villages near Lanas and in slum settlements in Lima, Peru. Some six year olds attended school and others did not. The children were tested with a task that assessed memory for central and incidental features of drawings. (JMB)

  14. Schooling, Environment and Cognitive Development: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the influence of schooling and environment on young children's memory and cognitive skills. Subjects were five- and six-year-old Mestizo and Quechua Indian children living in jungle villages or city slums in Peru. Samples of upper-middle-class children in Lima and poor children in Detroit were also tested. (JMB)

  15. Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Carrier

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or

  16. CAMBRIDGE PRESENT As a Cambridge anthropology

    E-print Network

    at the social and environmental impact of logging on the community. I fell in love with Serjali in- volved in a long conflict with log- gers, who themselves are mostly Peruvians displaced from the highlands by economic necessity or civil unrest, or mestizos, of mixed race. Logging is very hard work

  17. Genetically Determined Amerindian Ancestry Correlates with Increased Frequency of Risk Alleles for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, E; Webb, R; Rasmussen, A.; Kelly, J.A; Riba, L.; Kaufman, K.M.; Garcia-de la Torre, I.; Moctezuma, J.F.; Maradiaga-Ceceña, M.A.; Cardiel, M.; Acevedo, E.; Cucho-Venegas, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gamron, S.; Pons-Estel, B.A.; Vasconcelos, C.; Martin, J.; Tusié-Luna, T.; Harley, J.B.; Richardson, B.; Sawalha, A.H.; Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyze if genetically determined Amerindian ancestry predicts the increased presence of risk alleles of known susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms within 16 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a set of 804 Mestizo lupus patients and 667 Mestizo normal healthy controls. In addition, 347 admixture informative markers were genotyped. Individual ancestry proportions were determined using STRUCTURE. Association analysis was performed using PLINK, and correlation of the presence of risk alleles with ancestry was done using linear regression. Results A meta-analysis of the genetic association of the 16 SNPs across populations showed that TNFSF4, STAT4, PDCD1, ITGAM, and IRF5 were associated with lupus in a Hispanic-Mestizo cohort enriched for European and Amerindian ancestry. In addition, two SNPs within the MHC region, previously associated in a genome-wide association study in Europeans, were also associated in Mestizos. Using linear regression we predict an average increase of 2.34 risk alleles when comparing a lupus patient with 100% Amerindian ancestry to an SLE patient with 0% American Indian Ancestry (p<0.0001). SLE patients with 43% more Amerindian ancestry are predicted to carry one additional risk allele. Conclusion Amerindian ancestry increased the number of risk alleles for lupus. PMID:20848568

  18. Genetic structure and forensic parameters of 38 Indels for human identification purposes in eight Mexican populations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cortés, G; Gusmão, L; Pereira, R; Salcido, V H; Favela-Mendoza, A F; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Inclán-Sánchez, A; López-Hernández, L B; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-07-01

    Insertion-deletions for human identification purposes (HID-Indels) offer advantages to solve particular forensic situations and complex paternity cases. In Mexico, admixed population known as Mestizos is the largest (?90%), plus a number of Amerindian groups (?10%), which have not been studied with HID-Indels. For this reason, allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 38 HID-Indels were estimated in 531 unrelated individuals from one Amerindian (Purépecha) and seven Mestizo populations from different regions of the country. Genotype distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in almost all loci/populations. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) test did not reveal possible associations between loci pairs in all eight Mexican populations. The combined power of discrimination was high in all populations (PD >99.99999999998%). However, the power of exclusion of the 38 HID-Indel system (PE >99.6863%) was reduced regarding most of autosomal STR kits. The assessment of genetic structure (AMOVA) and relationships between populations (FST) demonstrated significant differences among Mexican populations, mainly of the Purépecha Amerindian group. Among Mexican-Mestizos, three population clusters consistent with geography were defined: (i) North-West region: Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Jalisco; (ii) Central-Southern region: Mexico City, Veracruz and Yucatan; (iii) South region: Chiapas. In brief, this report validates the inclusion of the 38 HID-Indel system in forensic casework and paternity cases in seven Mexican-Mestizo populations from different regions, and in one Mexican Amerindian group. PMID:25988907

  19. Teaching English Critically to Mexican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Gopar, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present one significant part of a large-scale critical-ethnographic-action-research project (CEAR Project) carried out in Oaxaca, Mexico. The overall CEAR Project has been conducted since 2007 in different Oaxacan elementary schools serving indigenous and mestizo (mixed-race) children. In the CEAR Project, teacher…

  20. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  1. COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM D IETAS CONTENDO QUATRO NÍVEIS DE FARELO DE MAMONA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LIANDRO TORRES BESERRA; MARIETA MARIA MARTINS VIEIRA; ABNER JOSÉ GIRÃO MENESES

    This work had as objective observes influence of fo ur levels of substitution the soy bran for bran cas tor oil plant disintoxicated in rations in ingestive behavi or of mestizo sheep Morada Nova, males, whole, with medium alive weight of 18kg and medium age of 7 months, on feeding time, rumination time, leisure time and other ac tivities time,

  2. Susto and Soul Loss in Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Glazer; Roberta D. Baer; Susan C. Weller; Javier Eduardo Garcia de Alba; Stephen W. Liebowitz

    2004-01-01

    Susto is a Latin American folk illness attributed to having a fright-ening experience, often including “soul loss” as part of the etiology. This article focuses on contemporary descriptions of susto among mestizos in Mexico and Mexican Americans in south Texas and explores the link between susto and soul loss in detail. Interviews conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico (n = 50), and

  3. Population Genetic Analysis of the Genes APOE, APOB (3?VNTR) and ACE in Some Black and Amerindian Communities from Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Jaramillo-Correa; G. Keyeux; M. Ruiz-Garcia; C. Rodas; J. Bernal

    2001-01-01

    A population genetic study was carried out with the APOE, APOB and ACE loci in 17 Colombian human populations. Ten of them were Amerindian communities coming from the northeastern part of Colombia, Pacific region, Eastern Plains and Amazonia. Six were black populations from Providence Island, Caribbean and Pacific coasts. Finally, the Mestizo population of Bogota was studied as well. The

  4. Derechos Humanos DERECHOS HUMANOS

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Derechos Humanos DERECHOS HUMANOS EMIGRACIÓN, INMIGRACIÓN Y EXTRANJERIA CONVENIOS DE DOBLE NACIONALIDAD DERECHOS HUMANOS Centro de Información Administrativa del MAP Organización de las Naciones Unidas Minnesota Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos Amnistía Internacional - Sección Española Asociación contra

  5. TEMA 4. LA CONVERSACIN COLOQUIAL. SU CARACTERIZACIN

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    generacional y, quizá también, de sexo, propicia el habla coloquial; tomamos, pues, el concepto de igualdad bajo este doble aspecto: relaciones de solidaridad y de afinidad (generacional, de sexo) entre los

  6. El dramaturgo Eduardo Sarlós

    E-print Network

    Pignataro Calero, Jorge

    1998-10-01

    Agustini y su marido/ex-marido/amante, figura jurídica que los penalistas llaman "doble suicidio por amor," Sarlós optó poruña aproximación asaz cautelosa, desdeñando las leyendas y enfrentándose a las líneas generales de una psicología sacudida por los...

  7. 14. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR, EXCITER No. 2 SHOWING GENERAL ELECTRIC INDUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR, EXCITER No. 2 SHOWING GENERAL ELECTRIC INDUCTION MOTOR IN SERIES BETWEEN PELTON-DOBLE IMPULSE WHEEL AND GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. Balancing Forage Demand with Forage Supply (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    White, Larry D.; Troxel, Tom R.

    2001-09-10

    establecer ajustes en la carga animal se usa s?lo la experiencia de a?os pasados. Esto puede resultar en un rancho sobrecargado de ganado, forzado a vender bajo condiciones de crisis o a comprar alimento caro (forraje y concentrados) as? como estar constan...

  9. Revitalizing Hispanic and Native American Communities: Four Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes locally controlled economic development strategies used by Native American and Hispanic cooperatives and organizations: Ganados del Valle, Madera Forest Products Association, Seventh Generation Fund, and Ramah Navajo Weavers Association. Discusses the issues of cultural and economic survival in isolated rural communities. (SV)

  10. Variabilidad de corto plazo en la formación de precios en mercados de haciendas en el Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno A. Lanfranco; Cecilia Ois; Alina Bedat

    2006-01-01

    El mercado de haciendas es un mercado diferenciado, donde la calidad del producto está determinada por un conjunto de atributos que lo define completamente. Existe un diferencial de precios (premios y descuentos) que depende de las características del ganado. A través de un modelo de precios hedónicos se estimó el valor monetario que el mercado otorga a dichas características, medidas

  11. A STUDY OF THE SEASONAL PATTERNS IN THE ARGENTINE CATTLE MARKET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Martin Girado

    1985-01-01

    Argentina has a long tradition as a beef producer country. Cattle in particular, have played a major role in the traditional environment as a source of food, employment and savings. Many of the typical symbols of this country are found within an environment of ranches, cowboys, horses and cattle, called in Spanish: Estancias Gauchos, Caballos and Ganado. The cattle sector

  12. Universidad Simn Bolvar Departamento de Computacin y Tecnologa de la Informacin

    E-print Network

    Meza, Oscar J.

    un torneo es de menor dominio que otro en base a la edad de los jugadores: Sean A y B, Arboles jugadores se tiene su nombre, apellidos, nacionalidad, edad, años de experiencia, torneos ganados y ranking Binarios de Búsqueda, se dice que A es de menor dominio que B, si el menor elemento de A es mayor o igual

  13. Un caos perfecto: El cine de Emir Kusturica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn ERLIJ

    Desentrañar la vida de este cineasta, capaz de conv ertir el caos en perfección, es una tortura exquisita sólo para quien tenga en el c uerpo una sobredosis de él suficiente como para soportarla. Aunque su nombre ya está inserto en la historia del séptimo arte como el director que más premios ha ganado en el Festival de Cannes, el

  14. TRACTORES Y MÁQUINAS AGRÍCOLAS TRACTORS AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Camilo; Gutiérrez Botero; Héctor Fabio; Quintero Riaza

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN. En el siguiente artículo se presenta una propuesta para la industrialización del proceso de empaque de forraje de maíz utilizado para ensilaje, el cual es utilizado como alternativa de alimentación para el ganado. En este trabajo se describe el diseño de máquina y el diseño, construcción y pruebas del prototipo para el vacío y sellado de bolsa. En el

  15. El precio de la anarqua La semana pasada se inaugur entre Guadalajara y Madrid una nueva autopista de peaje,

    E-print Network

    Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

    . Otros, que no ahorra los 40 minutos que pregona el Ministerio de Fomento: el tiempo ganado en la nueva podrá hacer nada, por sí sólo, para abreviar su viaje. He ahí la "paradoja de Braess": ¡la apertura de la nueva autopista alargará el viaje para todos los conductores! La paradoja se constató en Nueva

  16. 4-H Activities (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    ?a, una tienda de art?culos para jardines, un corral de ganado, una lecher?a o una planta el?ctrica. Los miembros de 4-H pueden aprender lecciones valiosas al visitar la corte del condado, las oficinas de un peri?dico, bancos, hoteles, los...

  17. Geographical and ethnic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms within genes of the folate/homocysteine pathway metabolism.

    PubMed

    Binia, Aristea; Contreras, Alejandra V; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Alonzo, Victor Acuña; Tejero, M Elizabeth; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma

    2014-09-01

    High levels of plasma homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of many health conditions influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this study was to provide the geographical distribution of folate pathway genetic polymorphisms in Mexico and the comparison with the reported frequencies in different continental populations. This study included the analysis of the genotypic frequencies of eight polymorphisms in genes of the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway in 1,350 Mestizo and Amerindian subjects from different regions in Mexico and 836 individuals from European, African and Asian populations of the 1,000 Genomes Project. In Mexican Mestizo and Amerindian populations, the MTHFR C677T risk genotype (TT) was highly prevalent (frequency: 25 and 57 %, respectively). In Mestizos, the frequency showed clear regional variation related to ancestry; the Guerrero subpopulation with the highest Amerindian contribution had the highest TT frequency (33 %). The MTHFD1 G1958A AA risk genotype was also enriched in Mexican Mestizos and Amerindians (frequency: 34 and 58 %, respectively), whereas in African and Asian ancestry populations the frequency for AA was low (~4 %). All together risk genotypes showed regional differences, and Sonora had significantly different genetic frequencies compared with the other regions (P value <0.05). Our study illustrates differential geographical distribution of the risk variants in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway relative to ethnic background. This work supports that certain areas of the world have increased needs for folic acid and vitamin B supplementation, and this information needs to be considered in public health guidelines and eventually policies. PMID:25106483

  18. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Phillips; Alwyn H. Gentry

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new, simple, quantitative technique for evaluating the relative usefulness of plants to people. The\\u000a technique is then compared to the quantitative approaches in ethnobotany that have been developed recently. Our technique\\u000a is used to calculate the importance of over 600 species of woody plants to non-indigenous mestizo people in Tambopata, Amazonian\\u000a Peru. Two general classes of

  19. Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Padoch; J. Chota Inuma; W. DE JONG; J. Unruh

    1985-01-01

    Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system practiced by non-tribal ‘Mestizo’ farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption, and for a regional market. The

  20. Resist this! Embodying the contradictory positions and collective possibilities of transformative resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Alberto Quijada Cerecer; Caitlin Cahill; Matt Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) and arts-informed approaches reflect a source of critical resistance at the intersection of theory and practice (praxis). Our discussion draws upon Mestizo Arts & Activism (MAA), a participatory action research collective made up of young people who focused their research on the educational rights of undocumented students (http\\/\\/educatexcambio.blogspot.com\\/); coupled with the emotional and economic impacts

  1. Mast cells in the human lung at high altitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Heath

    1992-01-01

    Mast cell densities in the lung were measured in five native highlanders of La Paz (3600 m) and in one lowlander dying from\\u000a high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) at 3440 m. Two of the highlanders were mestizos with normal pulmonary arteries and the\\u000a others were Aymara Indians with muscular remodelling of their pulmonary vasculature. The aim of the investigation was to

  2. Distribution of ADH 2 and ALDH2 genotypes in different populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Goedde; D. P. Agarwal; G. Fritze; D. Meier-Tackmann; S. Singh; G. Beckmann; K. Bhatia; L. Z. Chen; B. Fang; R. Lisker; Y. K. Paik; F. Rothhammer; N. Saha; B. Segal; L. M. Srivastava; A. Czeizel

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of the human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH2, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH2, genotypes in 21 different populations comprising Mongoloids, Caucasoids, and Negroids was determined by hybridization of the amplified genomic DNA with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Whereas the frequency of the ADH12allele was found to be relatively high in the Caucasoids, Mexican Mestizos, Brazilian Indios, Swedish Lapps, Papua New Guineans

  3. HLA-E polymorphism in Amerindians from Mexico (Mazatecans), Colombia (Wayu) and Chile (Mapuches): evolution of MHC-E gene.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Serrano-Vela, J I; Reguera, R; Martinez-Laso, J; Silvera-Redondo, C; Granados, J; Moscoso, J

    2007-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a nonclassical class I (Ib) gene with a restricted polymorphism. Only eight DNA alleles and three proteins of this gene have been described and their frequencies analyzed in Caucasian, Oriental, Asian Indian, and Negroid populations. In the present study, HLA-E polymorphism has been analyzed in six Amerindian and Mestizo populations from North and South America and compared with previously described populations. HLA-E*0101 is the most frequent allele found in all populations except in Afrocolombian and Wayu Amerindians, in which blood group analyses show a high admixture with Caucasian and African populations. Mazatecan and Mapuche (two Amerindian groups from North and South America, respectively) presented similar HLA-E frequencies, whereas Wayu Indians are more similar to the Afrocolombian population. The Mexican and Colombian Mestizo show similar allele frequencies to Amerindians with high frequencies of HLA-E*0101 and HLA-E*010302 alleles. Also, frequencies in Negroids and Asian Indians present a similar distribution of HLA-E alleles. These data are in agreement with worldwide restricted polymorphism of HLA-E because no new allele was detected in the six populations studied. The allelic frequencies show differences among Caucasian, Oriental, Mestizo and Indian populations. Ape major histocompatibility complex-E allelism is also very restricted: common chimpanzee (one allele); bonobo (two alleles); gorilla (two alleles); orangutan (one allele); rhesus monkey (eight alleles); cynomolgus monkey (two alleles); and green monkey (two alleles). PMID:17445187

  4. The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Verónica; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, José L.; de la Torre, Ignacio García; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gómez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, María J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined. PMID:22941567

  5. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima. PMID:25671664

  6. Effects of Ethnic Attributes on the Quality of Family Planning Services in Lima, Peru: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J.; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0·7% (p = 0·23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima. PMID:25671664

  7. Association of HMOX1 and NQO1 Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome Components.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Córdova, Emilio J; Rosillo-Salazar, Oscar; García-Ortíz, Humberto; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Salas-Labadía, Consuelo; Orozco, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is among the most important public health problems worldwide, and is recognized as a major risk factor for various illnesses, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as part of MetS aetiology. The heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) genes are crucial mediators of cellular defence against oxidative stress. In the present study, we analysed the associations of HMOX1 (GT)n and NQO1 C609T polymorphisms with MetS and its components. Our study population comprised 735 Mexican Mestizos unrelated volunteers recruited from different tertiary health institutions from Mexico City. In order to know the HMOX1 (GT)n and NQO1 C609T allele frequencies in Amerindians, we included a population of 241 Amerindian native speakers. Their clinical and demographic data were recorded. The HMOX1 (GT)n polymorphism was genotyped using PCR and fluorescence technology. NQO1 C609T polymorphism genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes. Short allele (<25 GT repeats) of the HMOX1 polymorphism was associated with high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the T allele of the NQO1 C609T polymorphism was associated with increased triglyceride levels and decreased HDL-c levels, but only in individuals with MetS. This is the first study to analyse the association between MetS and genes involved in oxidative stress among Mexican Mestizos. Our data suggest that polymorphisms of HMOX1 and NQO1 genes are associated with a high risk of metabolic disorders, including high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-c levels in Mexican Mestizo individuals. PMID:25933176

  8. The GLADEL multinational Latin American prospective inception cohort of 1,214 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: ethnic and disease heterogeneity among "Hispanics".

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Catoggio, Luis J; Cardiel, Mario H; Soriano, Enrique R; Gentiletti, Silvana; Villa, Antonio R; Abadi, Isaac; Caeiro, Francisco; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Alarcón-Segovia, Donato

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory manifestations and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may vary in different populations. A prospective multinational inception cohort should prove useful in identifying the influence of ethnicity on the clinical characteristics of SLE. We therefore analyzed clinical, laboratory, and prognostic variables in Latin American SLE patients with disease of recent onset who were entered into a prospective cohort, and compared these variables in the cohort's 3 major ethnic groups. Thirty-four centers from 9 Latin American countries participated by randomly incorporating SLE patients within 2 years of diagnosis into a standardized database. Participating centers were selected for their expertise in diagnosing and managing SLE. We were then able to evaluate prospectively socioeconomic variables, ethnicity, type of medical care, clinical and laboratory features, disease activity, damage, and mortality at each site. A coordinating center controlled the quality of the information submitted. Of the 1,214 SLE patients included in the cohort, 537 were mestizos, 507 were white, and 152 were African-Latin American (ALA). (There were also small numbers of pure Amerindian and oriental individuals.) Significant differences were found between them in socioeconomic characteristics, type of care, and level of education favoring whites. Mestizos and ALA were younger at onset. Delay to diagnosis and disease duration was shorter in ALA. Fever was more frequent in whites; discoid lesions in ALA; renal disease and lymphopenia in mestizos and ALA. Although we found differences in background variables between ethnic groups from different countries, mestizos from 2 distant countries (Argentina and Mexico) were clinically akin and showed similar differences to whites. Mortality was associated with lower education, poor medical coverage, and shorter follow-up. In an exploratory model nonwhite ethnicity was associated with renal disease and lymphopenia, damage, and cumulative American College of Rheumatology criteria. These differences in clinical, prognostic, socioeconomic, educational, and access to medical care features in Latin American lupus patients of 3 major ethnic groups from 9 different countries may have an impact on the patients' disease. "Hispanics," as they have come to be generically termed on the basis of language, actually constitute a markedly heterogeneous group of subjects. PMID:14747764

  9. Autosomal STR genetic variation in negroid Chocó and Bogotá populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Bravo; M. A. Moreno; J. J. Builes; A. Salas; M. V. Lareu; A. Carracedo

    2001-01-01

    Genetic data for eight autosomal STRs were obtained from two different population samples from Colombia: the European Mestizo\\u000a population of Bogotá and the African descent population of the Chocó region. The STRs were analysed in a multiplex system\\u000a that includes the STR markers CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, VWA, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539 and D5S818. Separation of the fragments and\\u000a fluorescent detection was

  10. La educación en habilidades psicosociales desde la orientación educativa: pautas para su implementación en el contexto de la formación profesional inicial en las universidades pedagógicas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neosotis Carbonell Lahera

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda la necesidad de educar en habilidades psicosociales a los estudiantes que se preparan en las Universidades Pedagógicas y contribuir al perfeccionamiento de su formación profesional inicial, pretendiendo con una doble intencionalidad pedagógica el desarrollo de estas destrezas para el crecimiento personal de estos a la vez que propicien el ejercicio de la orientación educativa en los

  11. Formation initiale, orientations et diplômes de 1985 à 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Poulet-Coulibando; Sébastien Durier

    2004-01-01

    [spa] Formación inicial, orientaciones y diplomas de 1985 a 2002 . . El nivel de estudios de los jóvenes franceses ha progresado mucho entre 1985 y 1995 y se ha estabilizado estos últimos años. Los diplomados de la enseñanza superior son el doble en 1996 de lo que eran en 1985 y representan en 2001 casi el 38 % de

  12. 47. S.A.R. #2 PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENT OF HOUSING FOR 800 HORSEPOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. S.A.R. #2 PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENT OF HOUSING FOR 800 HORSEPOWER WATER WHEEL UNIT, JUNE 7, 1904. TRACED ON SEPT. 6, 1911 BY E.P., FROM ABNER DOBLE CO'S. BLUE PRINT NO. 1663. SCE drawing no. 4611. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN ECONOMIA Y DERECHO % DoctoresCategoría Nº Profesores Nº interino 5 1 CAMPUS FUENLABRADA CURSO 1 ASIGNATURA DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Guinea Fernández, David Rafael Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho

  14. Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN CRIMINOLOGIA Y DERECHO % DoctoresCategoría Nº Profesores Universitaria interino 2 0 CAMPUS VICÁLVARO CURSO 1 ASIGNATURA DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Díaz Pardo, Gloria Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho

  15. Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN CONTABILIDAD Y FINANZAS Y DERECHO % DoctoresCategoría Nº, Ana María Si DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Martín Azcano, Eva Mª Si DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL I Derecho Público I y Ciencia Política Derecho Constitucional Cancio Álvarez, María Dolores

  16. Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN ADMON Y DIRECCION DE EMPRESAS Y DERECHO % Doctores DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Guinea Fernández, David Rafael Si DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL I Derecho Público I y Ciencia Política Derecho Constitucional Triguero

  17. Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN DERECHO Y CIENCIA POLITICA Y GESTION PUBLICA % Doctores interino 3 0 CAMPUS VICÁLVARO CURSO 1 ASIGNATURA DEPARTAMENTO AREA NOMBRE_COMPLETO DOCTOR DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Díaz Pardo, Gloria Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Priego

  18. Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN DERECHO Y RELACIONES LABORALES Y RECURSOS HUMANOS., Lenguaje, Cultura y Artes Filosofía Barraca Mairal, Javier Si DERECHO CIVIL I Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Díaz Pardo, Gloria Si DERECHO CIVIL II Derecho Privado Derecho Civil Pereña Vicente, Montserrat Si

  19. A Reply? A Response to Penny Thompson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doble, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Penny Thompson's "reply" to the author's article (Doble, 2005) briefly tells readers that for an answer to some of the author's queries, readers may turn to her book; for the rest, she proposes to take "the argument" further. One of the problems with her earlier article was that it had no discernible argument, so it is not easy to see how it may…

  20. La responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE) en Europa: la apuesta por un nuevo modelo de empresa. Una revisión crítica desde la ética empresarial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsa González Esteban; Vicente Domingo García Marzá

    2006-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene un doble objetivo. Por una parte, poner de manifiesto el desarrollo del discurso europeo respecto a la necesidad de asunción de valores y principios sociales y medioambientales en la gestión y dirección de las empresas con la finalidad de alcanzar altas cotas de competitividad y de cohesión social. Por otra parte, ofrecer un modelo de Responsabilidad

  1. September 1, 2002 / Vol. 27, No. 17 / OPTICS LETTERS 1537 Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics

    E-print Network

    Bifano, Thomas

    for adaptive optics in the human eye Nathan Doble Center for Visual Science, 274 Meliora Hall, University instrumentation equipped with adaptive optics offers the possibility of rapid and automated cor- rection the widespread implementation of adaptive optics is the cost of the wave-front corrector, such as a deformable

  2. 25. Credit JTL. Detail of unit 4 (installed 190607) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Credit JTL. Detail of unit 4 (installed 1906-07) showing single overhund Doble water wheel, with air duct and 2000 kVA Westinghouse generator in background. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. Oficina de Promocin rea institucional

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    CFGS de Mallorca, los días 12 y 19 de abril. Participación: 4.278 estudiantes. c. Mayores de 25, 40 y 45 años, el día 29 de abril, con 212 participantes (Mallorca, Menorca y Ibiza y Formentera). d personas (Mallorca, Menorca e Ibiza y Formentera). e. Dobles titulaciones, el día 16 de mayo, con la

  4. Lista de alumnos por tribunales (actualizado 21-7-2014) Informacin para los alumnos

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    , Salvador Elaboración de productos periodísticos con apoyo documental. El uso de las fuentes para reportajes. José Luis Rodríguez Grado en Periodismo Fuenlabrada 05321552-L Barranco García, Andrea Puedes ser tú. La solidaridad como consecuencia de la crisis en Madrid. José Luis Martín Sáez Doble Grado en

  5. De la jurisdicción administrativa a la jurisdicción de lo contencioso administrativo: ¿un viaje de ida y vuelta?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Fernando Ospina Garzón

    El tomo V de la serie de Derecho Administrativo es un estudio de Derecho comparado galo-colombiano que emprende una doble labor de desmitificación: tanto de los falsos orígenes revolucionarios de la jurisdicción administrativa francesa y de la presunta verdad de los postulados que históricamente han justificado la existencia de un juez especial como de la supuesta calcada influencia francesa en

  6. IX Festival del Sur - Encuentro Teatral Tres Continentes (Agüimes, Gran Canaria)

    E-print Network

    Má rquez Montes, Carmen

    1997-04-01

    doble moral es de gran actualidad. Clapso optó por la comedia con Soy lo prohibido, un espectáculo con ritmo de music-hall dirigido por Ismael Reyes y en el que Carolina Alcaide, Lili Quintana y Carmen Sánchez 168 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW hacen...

  7. Efectos de las variaciones en el tiempo de trabajo sobre la ocupación adolescente y juvenil en el sector industrial: un análisis regional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ángel Luis Martin Roman; Alfonso Moral de Blas

    2002-01-01

    RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo es doble. En primer lugar, se pretende hacer una racionalización teórica de los efectos de las modificaciones del tiempo de trabajo sobre el empleo. En segundo lugar, se lleva a cabo un análisis empírico de estas ideas sobre la ocupación laboral de los grupos de menor edad: adolescentes y jóvenes. El motivo de analizar

  8. ElElElEl sssseeeeccccrrrreeeettttoooo ddddeeeellll CCCCaaaammmmppppoooo ddddeeee HHHHiiiieeeelllloooo

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    destino de su viaje, de no ser por el temor de agotar a su montura. A espaldas del jinete, sobre la grupa a dudas, los víveres necesarios para realizar aquel viaje largo y arriesgado, sin que el mensajero tuviera que perder un tiempo precioso buscando reponer sus provisiones. Un rifle de doble cañón, sujeto a la

  9. LOS MÚSICOS DE TECLA EN TIEMPOS DE FELIPE II: VIAJE ENTRE LO ALDEANO Y LO CORTESANO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Jambou

    1998-01-01

    En el presente artículo el autor enfoca un doble estudio sociológico de los organistas\\/músicos de tecla durante el reinado de Felippe II: el de los organistas de pueblo y el de los de la Corte. Basado en fuentes primeras y focalizado en el centro de España, el ensayo sugiere que Felipe II y las autoridades eclesiásticas tuvieron una \\

  10. UNIVERSIDAD AUTNOMA DE MADRID CENTRO DE MICRO-ANLISIS DE MATERIALES

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    . Mientras que para realizar el barrido del haz, dispone de un doble deflector magnético (plano X-Y). Las, y, z. El programa diseñado deberá mandar las órdenes necesarias al deflector magnético para conectado a la muestra). La desviación en el haz producida por el deflector magnético depende del tipo de

  11. Normalización contable de la banca española en los inicios de la industrialización

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Bernal Llorens; Juan Pedro Sánchez Ballesta

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es doble: en primer lugar, partiendo de todos los balances publicados por los bancos de emisión en la Gaceta de Madrid durante el periodo 1848-1868, proponer una metodología contable para obtener un modelo de balance normalizado externo aplicable a la banca de emisión durante esta etapa del desarrollo del sistema financiero español; en segundo lugar,

  12. Comunicación: Contabilidad y desarrollo económico. El papel de los modelos contables de predicción. especial referencia a las NIC´s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Tua

    2009-01-01

    La Contabilidad ha ejercido, a lo largo de la historia, un notable papel en el Desarrollo Económico. Partiendo de tan importante elemento de reflexión, este trabajo plantea una doble pregunta: ¿cuáles han sido los cambios conceptuales experimentados en la Contabilidad en las últimas décadas?. Y, por otro lado, ¿cuáles deben de ser las características a introducir o a potenciar para

  13. Ciclo de vida del VIH Enlace y fusin: El VIH empieza su ciclo de vida

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    inversa convierte la cadena simple del ARN vírico en cadena doble de ADN vírico. Integración: El nuevo ADN integrasa "esconde" el ADN vírico dentro del propio ADN de la célula anfitriona. El ADN del VIH integrado se­800­448­0440. En Internet www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/infoSIDA. mayo del 2005 1 Human DNA HIV DNA ARN del VIH ADN del VIH

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: A genomic medicine approach

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world. PMID:24966588

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: a genomic medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo

    2014-06-21

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world. PMID:24966588

  16. Childhood systemic lupus erythematosus in Latin America. The GLADEL experience in 230 children.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Gómez, L A; Uribe Uribe, O; Osio Uribe, O; Grisales Romero, H; Cardiel, M H; Wojdyla, D; Pons-Estel, B A; Catoggio, Luis J; Soriano, Enrique R; Imamura, Patricia M; Manni, Jorge A; Grimaudo, Sebastián; Sarano, Judith; Maldonado-Cocco, José A; Arriola, Maria S; Gómez, Graciela; García, Mercedes A; Marcos, Ana Inés; Marcos, Juan Carlos; Scherbarth, Hugo R; Marino, Pilar C; Motta, Estela L; Drenkard, Cristina; Gamron, Susana; Buliubasich, Sandra; Onetti, Carlos M; Caeiro, Francisco; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Saurit, Verónica; Gentiletti, Silvana; Quagliatto, Norberto; Gentiletti, Alberto A; Machado, Daniel; Abdala, Marcelo; Palatnik, Simón; Berbotto, Guillermo A; Battagliotti, Carlos A; Sato, Emilia; Sella, Elaine M C; Souza, AlexandreW S; Costallat, Lilian T Lavras; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Coimbra, Ibsen Bellini; Borba Neto, Eduardo Ferreira; Bonfá, Eloisa; Tavares, João Carlos; Brenol; Xavier, Ricardo; Mucenic, Tamara; Cavalcanti, Fernando de Souza; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Da Silva, Nilzio Antonio; de O e Silva, Ana Carolina; Pacheco, Tatiana Ferracine; Molina-Restrepo, José Fernando; Molina-López, Javier; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Iglesias-Rodríguez, Antonio; Egea-Bermejo, Eduardo; Guzmán-Moreno, Renato A; Restrepo-Suárez, José F; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Reyes-Llerena, Gil Alberto; Massardo, Loreto; Gareca, Néstor; Jacobelli, Sergio; Neira, Oscar J; Guzmán, Leonardo R; Garcia-Kutzbach, Abraham; Castellanos, Claudia; Cajas, Erwin; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Barile-Fabris, Leonor A; Miranda-Limón, Juan Manuel; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Silveira, Luis H; De La Torre, Ignacio García; Orozco-Barocio, Gerardo; Estrada-Contreras, Magali L; del Pozo, Maria Josefina Sauza; Aranda Baca, Laura E; Quezada, Adelfia Urenda; Huerta-Yáñez, Guillermo F; Acevedo-Vásquez, Eduardo M; Alfaro-Lozano, José Luis; Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M; Segami, Maria Inés; Chung, Cecilia P; Alva-Linares, Magaly; Abadi, Isaac; Chacón-Díaz, Rosa; Al Snih Al Snih, Soham; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H; Vivas, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate disease characteristics of childhood onset SLE in Latin America and to compare this information with an adult population in the same cohort of GLADEL. A protocol was designed as a multicenter, multinational, inception cohort of lupus patients to evaluate demographic, clinical, laboratory and serological variables, as well as classification criteria, disease activity, organ damage and mortality. Descriptive statistics, chi square, Fisher's exact test, Student's t test and multiple logistic regression were used to compare childhood and adult onset SLE. 230 patients were <18 years and 884 were adult SLE patients. Malar rash, fever, oral ulcers, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia and some neurologic manifestations were more prevalent in children (p<0.05). On the other hand, myalgias, Sjögren's syndrome and cranial nerve involvement were more frequently seen in adults (p<0.05). Afro-Latin-American children had a higher prevalence of fever, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. White and mestizo children had a higher prevalence of malar rash. Mestizo children had a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular disease and cranial nerve involvement. Children met SLE ACR criteria earlier with higher mean values than adults (p: 0.001). They also had higher disease activity scores (p: 0.01), whereas adults had greater disease damage (p: 0.02). In Latin America, childhood onset SLE seems to be a more severe disease than adults. Some differences can be detected among ethnic groups. PMID:18539716

  17. Analysis of ERCC1 and ERCC2 gene variants in osteosarcoma, colorectal and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    GÓMEZ-DÍAZ, BENJAMÍN; DE LA LUZ AYALA-MADRIGAL, MARÍA; GUTIÉRREZ-ANGULO, MELVA; VALLE-SOLIS, AURA ERAZO; LINARES-GONZÁLEZ, LUIS MIGUEL; GONZÁLEZ-GUZMÁN, ROBERTO; CRUZ-GUILLÉN, DAVID; CEDEÑO-GARCIDUEÑAS, ANA LILIA; CANTO, PATRICIA; LÓPEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, LUZ BERENICE

    2015-01-01

    The Asn118Asn (rs11615) variant in the ERCC1 gene, and the Lys751Gln (rs13181) and Asp312Asn (rs1799793) variants in the ERCC2 gene have been associated with the development of varied types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to test for any association between the ERCC1 and ERCC2 gene variants and three different types of cancer in Mexican-mestizo patients. Patients and their respective controls were formed into three groups: The osteosarcoma group, with 28 patients and 97 controls; the colorectal group, with 108 patients and 119 controls; and the breast cancer group, with 71 patients and 74 controls. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using a ?2 test. Only one SNP (rs1799793) was found to be associated with breast cancer. This is the first study analyzing the SNPs in ERCC1 and ERCC2 genes and the susceptibility to cancer in Mexican-mestizo patients with osteosarcoma, and colorectal and breast cancer. PMID:25789018

  18. The ?174G/C and ?572G/C Interleukin 6 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zavaleta-Muñiz, S. A.; Martín-Márquez, B. T.; Gonzalez-Lopez, L.; Gonzalez-Montoya, N. G.; Díaz-Toscano, M. L.; Ponce-Guarneros, J. M.; Ruiz-Padilla, A. J.; Mercado, M. Vázquez-Del; Maldonado-González, M.; Fafutis-Morris, M.; Flores-Martínez, S. E.; Martínez-García, E. A.; Gamez-Nava, J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. There is a lack of information about the genotype frequencies of IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexicans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo with RA. Methods. We included 137 patients with RA and 102 healthy controls. Patients were assessed for clinical characteristics. IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. Allele and genotype frequencies and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were computed. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed to identify the risk for RA associated with the presence of GG genotype in comparison with the GC or CC genotypes. Results. The genotype ?174GG occurred at a higher frequency in cases and controls (77.4% versus 78.4%, P = 0.845). We found similar results for the genotype ?572GG (54% in patients versus 60.8% in controls, P = 0.295). Conclusions. This is the first study to evaluate the association of ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms of the IL-6 gene with RA in Mexican mestizo patients. These two polymorphisms were not associated with RA in the studied sample. Additional studies are required to evaluate if these IL-6 polymorphisms have relevance to the development of more severe disease. PMID:24223608

  19. Project Selection - Record Keeping (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    nutrici?n quiz?s quiera seleccionar proyectos de jardiner?a o avicultura. Un miembro que tiene un proyecto de ganader?a podr?a seleccionar un proyecto relacionado con la producci?n de alimentos o concentrados para ganado. Los j?venes que realizan... proyectos de nutrici?n podr?an seleccionar otros proyectos en el ?rea de salud o preparaci?n de alimentos. Las actividades de los proyectos son el componente principal de la experiencia que adquieren los miembros de 4-H y de su desenvolvimiento...

  20. Clearing Debris from Land (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    McFarland, Mark L.

    2007-10-08

    madera que contenga clavos u otras piezas de metal que podr?an lastimar el ganado. ? Equipo disponible: Puede utilizar sierras el?ctricas, tractores, m?qui- nas excavadoras y camiones para mover los ?rboles ca?dos. Si s?lo tiene acceso a equipos de... forestal experimentado debe indicar cu?l es la madera que puede salvarse. Podr?a necesitar contar con equipo espe- cializado para despejar eficientemente ?reas de gran extensi?n. Remoci?n de escombros Puede optar entre diferentes m?todos para la remoci...

  1. Understanding Forage Intake in Range Animals (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.

    2001-09-10

    influencia el en su nivel de consumo de forraje. En el tracto digestivo de los caballos, la fermentaci?n (descomposici?n de materiales por microorganismos) ocurre en una dilataci?n o agrandamiento del intestino. Debido a que no existen barreras f?sicas, el... gestaci?n, cuando el consumo del ganado en general decli- na. Existen dos teor?as para explicar este efecto: primero, el incremento en el tama?o del feto puede desplazar el rumen y reducir su capacidad, y segundo, el incremento en los niveles de estr...

  2. Texas Rice, Volume VII, Number 4

    E-print Network

    stages. Next on the tour is Dr. Anna McClung speaking about varietial improvement progress and potential releases. The USDA-ARS and Texas A&M breeding programs conduct yield trials at Beaumont, Eagle Lake, and Ganado to assess how experimental.... During June, we kickoff the first of two annual field days. The Eagle Lake Field Day is scheduled for June 26. This year’s field tour speakers include Anna McClung who will discuss the USDA/ARS varietal development program in Arkansas and Texas, Garry...

  3. Geographical clustering of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection in Honduras.

    PubMed Central

    de Rivera, I L; Amador, L; Mourra, S; Li, Z; Rasheed, S

    1995-01-01

    Geographical clustering of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection has been identified in the nonmestizo communities in several cities along the Atlantic coast of Honduras. Of the 2,651 serum samples tested, 122 samples were repeatedly reactive for HTLV-1 antibodies in two different enzyme immunoassays and 3 were indeterminate. These sera did not react in the HTLV-2-specific antibody tests. The presence of HTLV-1 antibodies was confirmed by HTLV-1 immunoblots or Western blots (immunoblots), and the infection was verified by the detection of HTLV-1-specific genetic sequences in the cellular DNA by PCR. Genomic DNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was first tested with generic primers and probes that identified both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Next, all DNA samples that showed HTLV reactivity were tested by PCR with specific primers and probes that distinguished HTLV-1 sequences from those of HTLV-2. Our results indicate that only HTLV-1 infection was present in the blood of both mestizo and nonmestizo residents of 15 cities in the Republic of Honduras. The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in the nonmestizo population was 8.1% (95% confidence limit, 6.6 to 9.7%). The mestizo population residing in the same geographical vicinities showed a HTLV-1 antibodies in 0.5% of serum samples tested (95% confidence limit, 0.6 to 1.7%), indicating a significantly greater prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in the nonmestizo population than in the mestizo ethnic groups living in Honduras (P = 0.0001). Since no HTLV-2 antibody reactivity or HTLV-2-specific genetic sequences were detected by PCR with different primers and probes, it was concluded that HTLV-2 infection was not present in the Honduran population groups we tested. Our study also suggested an endemic nature for this virus because there was no difference in the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 antibodies in the nonmestizo community living in the coastal towns of Honduras between 1989 and 1993. This is the first report of HTLV-1 cluster identification in Honduras, Central America. PMID:8576361

  4. Ethnicity, Social Support, and Depression Among Elderly Chilean People.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena P; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; De Roda, Ana Barrón López; Astray, Andrés Arias

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Various dimensions of social support were considered: structural elements, functional social support according to source, and community participation. The results show the existence of significant differences in the characteristics and dimensions of social support depending on sex, ethnicity, and marital status. Further, the central role of the family group is observed for both Aymara and nonindigenous elderly people. The hierarchical regression models obtained result in notable differences in the role of the structural, functional, and community elements of support in explaining depression for the ethnic groups considered. PMID:25175789

  5. Population pharmacogenetics of Ibero-Latinoamerican populations (MESTIFAR 2014).

    PubMed

    Sosa-Macias, Martha; Moya, Graciela E; LLerena, Adrián; Ramírez, Ronald; Terán, Enrique; Peñas-LLedó, Eva M; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Acosta, Hildaura

    2015-05-01

    MESTIFAR 2014 28-30 November 2014, Panama City, Panama The CEIBA consortium was created within the Ibero-American network of Pharmacogenetics (RIBEF) to study population pharmacogenetics. The current status of these initiatives and results of the MESTIFAR project were analyzed in Panama, 28-30 November 2014. The MESTIFAR project focused on studying CYPs genetic polymorphisms in populations of different ethnic origin. So far, more than 6000 healthy volunteers have been evaluated, making this one of the largest population pharmacogenomic studies worldwide. Three symposia were organized, 'Pharmacogenetics of indigenous and mestizos populations and its clinical implications', 'Methodological innovation in pharmacogenetics and its application in health', and 'General discussion and concluding remarks', about mechanisms and proposals for training, diffusion of pharmacogenetics for Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking health professionals, and 'bench to bedside' pilot projects. PMID:25929854

  6. Effect of ZNF217 gene polymorphisms on colorectal cancer development in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Ramírez, R; Gutiérrez-Angulo, M; Magaña, M T; Moreno-Ortiz, J M; Partida-Pérez, M; Muñiz-Mendoza, R; Peregrina-Sandoval, J; Suárez-Villanueva, A S; Centeno-Flores, M; Maciel-Gutiérrez, V M; Cabrales-Vazquez, E; Ayala-Madrigal, M L

    2015-01-01

    The ZNF217 gene, a potential oncogene amplified and overexpressed in several cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC), acts as a transcription factor that activates or represses target genes. The polymorphisms rs16998248 (T>A) and rs35720349 (C>T) in coronary artery disease have been associated with reduced expression of ZNF217. In this study, we analyzed the 2 polymorphisms in Mexican patients with CRC. Genotyping of rs16998248 and rs35720349 sites was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 203 Mexican Mestizos, 101 CRC patients, and 102 healthy blood donors. Although no statistical differences regarding genotype and allele frequencies of ZNF217 polymorphisms were observed (P > 0.05), linkage disequilibrium was significant in CRC patients (r(2) = 0.39, P < 0.0001), as a result of reduced AC haplotype frequency. Thus, the AC haplotype may protect against CRC. PMID:25729968

  7. Identification of genetic variants in the TNF promoter associated with COPD secondary to tobacco smoking and its severity

    PubMed Central

    Reséndiz-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Sansores, Raúl H; Hernández-Zenteno, Rafael de Jesús; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilber; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Camarena, Angel; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease that arises in response to noxious particles or gases. Associations of genetic polymorphisms in TNF have been reported in Asians and Caucasians, but not in Mestizo populations. A case-control study was conducted in two stages: in the first stage, patients with COPD (COPD group, n=165) and smokers without disease (SNC group, n=165) were included and the TNF promoter sequence was determined using direct sequencing. In the second stage, the identified polymorphisms were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in COPD (n=260) and SNC (n=506). In the first stage, 11 different sets of “contig” alignments were determined, of which contig 10 was found to be associated with susceptibility (P=5.0E-04, OR [odds ratio] =3.64) and contig 1 with Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) greater grade (P=1.0E-02, OR =3.82). The single nucleotide polymorphisms found in this region were individually identified; the GA genotypes of rs1800629 (P=0.038, OR =2.07), rs56036015 (P=0.0082, OR =3.18), and rs361525 (P=1.0E-02, OR =4.220) were higher in the COPD group vs the SNC group; after second-stage validation, rs1800629 (P=6.00E-03, OR =2.26) and rs56036015 (P=1.10E-03, OR =2.54) are maintained. There are genetic variants in the TNF promoter associated with increased risk of COPD secondary to smoking and with a higher GOLD grade in the Mexican Mestizo population. PMID:26170653

  8. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  9. Five Summers of Mexican Theatre

    E-print Network

    Burgess, Ronald D.

    1997-04-01

    the play and announced proudly on the marquee. Even though Maria Elena Aura was new to Mexican drama, she had three plays in theatres. El hogar de la serpiente, in the Teatro Estudio Galerías, is a hyper-realistic view of two teenage brothers who live... at the situation of teenagers with a different eye than that which led to so many long-suffering-teens plays of a decade or two ago. Aura's Doble filo was more centered, although the night I went, I was in the smallest audience of the summer: ten of us...

  10. Cooking with Non-fat Dry Milk (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    base de las manos. Doble ligeramente la masa y repita la operaci?n hasta que haya amasado 10 veces la masa. Preparado por Jenna Anding, Profesora Asociada y Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por Agri...Life Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension Service est?n disponibles para todas las personas, sin...

  11. Four-dimensional double singular oscillator

    E-print Network

    Mara Petrosyan

    2007-08-23

    The Schr\\"odinger equation for the four-dimensional double singular oscillator is separable in Eulerian, doble polar and spheroidal coordinates in ${\\rm I R}^4$. It is shown that the coefficients for the expansion of double polar basis in terms of the Eulerian basis can be expressed through the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the group SU(2) analytically continued to real values of their arguments. The coefficients for the expansions of the spheroidal basis in terms of the Eulerian and double polar bases are proved to satisfy three-term recursion relations.

  12. Presencia de Alexandro Jodorowsky en el teatro mexicano de los sesentas, sus conceptos dramáticos y la evolución de su teatro

    E-print Network

    Del-Rí o Reyes, Marcela

    1999-10-01

    inicia su carrera como director teatral, atraído, tal vez, por las palabras 56 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW de Artaud, quien en el prefacio de su libro El teatro y su doble confiesa su fascinación por México, donde "el mundo está en perpetua... a México en 1960. El teatro en México en aquel año no se había abierto a la vanguardia, a pesar de los esfuerzos de algunas individualidades y de grupos renovadores que existieron desde principios del siglo. Y si los textos vanguardistas fueron...

  13. La Usina del Lenguaje: Teoría de la Poesía Neobarroca 

    E-print Network

    De Cuba, Pablo A.

    2013-08-08

    ruptura, en la tensi?n y en la distensi?n. Roland Barthes sostuvo que: Al escritor no le est? dado elegir su escritura en una especie de arsenal intemporal de formas literarias. Bajo la presi?n de la Historia y de la Tradici?n se establecen las... posibles escrituras de un escritor dado: hay una Historia de Escritura; pero esa Historia es doble: en el momento en que la Historia general propone ?o impone? una nueva problem?tica del lenguaje literario, la escritura permanece todav?a llena del...

  14. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning. PMID:12321532

  15. Haplotype distribution of class II MHC genes in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bekker-Mendez, C; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Vargas-Alarcón, G; Ize-Ludlow, D; Alcocer-Varela, J; Granados, J

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the association of the DQA1*0501 allele in the susceptibility to develop systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Mexicans. Frequencies of generic MHC Class II genes (HLA-DR, DQA and DQB1) were determined by DNA typing in 58 Mexican mestizo SLE patients and 96 ethnically matched controls. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. The DQA1*0501 allele was found to be in linkage disequillibrium with H LA-DR3, DR11, and DR14. This explains the lack of association with the allele alone, and the evident strong association of SLE with the [HLA-DR3-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201] and [HLA-DR1-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501] haplotypes. It was also found a significant decrease (protection) of the [HLA-DR8-DQA1*0401-DQB1*0402] haplotype which is known to be a characteristic haplotype among the indigenous population of Mexico. These data shows that the susceptibility to SLE in Mexicans is more strongly influenced by the MHC haplotypes than by single alleles. The suggestion that these genes do not act alone but in combination, makes the identification of haplotypes mandatory. PMID:9808402

  16. Coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II among the Wayuu Indians from the Guajira Region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Due?as-Barajas, E; Bernal, J E; Vaught, D R; Briceño, I; Durán, C; Yanagihara, R; Gajdusek, D C

    1992-11-01

    High prevalences of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection have been found recently among certain Amerindian groups in North, Central, and South America. To determine if the Amerindians of Colombia are similarly affected, 523 sera, collected between 1987 and 1990 from nine culturally distinct Indian groups from widely separated regions, were tested for IgG antibodies against HTLV-I/II using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. In addition, 243 sera from five non-Indian (black) and mixed-Indian (mestizo) populations were studied. Of the 766 individuals tested, 44 were ELISA positive, but of these, only four were Western blot positive. Three of the individuals confirmed positive by Western blot were infected with HTLV-II and one was infected with HTLV-I, as determined by differential ELISA. All four seropositive individuals belonged to a group of 62 Wayuu Indians, giving overall HTLV-I and HTLV-II seroprevalences of 1.6% and 4.8%, respectively. The coexistence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II in this Amerindian group provides an opportunity to study the factors governing transmission of these retroviruses. PMID:1489574

  17. Diversity and genetic structure analysis of three Amazonian Amerindian populations of Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Yamid; Arias B, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the departments of the Vaupés and Guaviare, in southeastern Colombia, in a transitional area between Amazonia and the eastern plains, inhabit indigenous groups belonging to the Tukanoan (East) and Guahiban linguistic families. Although some studies have dealt with the culture and the cosmology description of these groups, little research has been done on the biological diversity and genetic relationships of such groups. Objective: To estimate the diversity, the structure, and the genetic relationships of one Guahiban and two Tukanoan groups of the Colombian Amazonian region. Methods: Samples were collected (n = 106) from unrelated individuals belonging to the Vaupés native indigenous communities. The DNA was extracted and nine autosomal microsatellites were typed. Several measures of diversity, FST, pairwise FST, and population differentiation between groups were calculated. Finally, it was estimated the genetic distances of the groups studied in relation with other Amazonian, Andean and Central American indigenous people. Results: 1. The genetic diversity found stands within the range of other Amazonian populations, whereas compared to the mestizo and afro-descendant Colombian populations, such diversity showed to be lower. 2. The structure and population differentiation tests showed two clusters; one consisting of the Vaupés Tukanoan and Guaviare Tukanoan groups, and a second one formed by the Guayabero. 3. Tukanoan groups are found to be closer related to the Brazilian Amazonian populations than to the Guayabero. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the Guayabero group from Guaviare, are genetically differentiated from those Tukanoan groups of the Vaupés and Guaviare. PMID:24893054

  18. A new mutation of the PCNT gene in a Colombian patient with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a syndrome characterized by the presence of intrauterine growth restriction, post-natal growth deficiency and microcephaly. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is the most distinctive syndrome in this group of entities. Individuals affected by this disease present at an adult height of less than 100cm, a post-pubertal head circumference of 40cm or less, mild mental retardation, an outgoing personality and bone dysplasia. Case presentation We report the first case of a five-year-old Colombian boy of mixed race ancestry (mestizo), with clinical features of microcephaly, prominent and narrow nose, arched palate, amelogenesis imperfecta, short stature, tall and narrow pelvis, disproportionate shortening of fore-arms and legs, and mild coxa vara. Analysis of the PCNT gene by sequencing showed the presence of a nucleotide change in exon 10, c. 1468C>T, evidencing a new mutation not reported in the literature for microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism. Conclusion The new mutation identified in this case could be associated with the severity of the phenotypic expression of the disease, resulting in the extreme short stature of the patient. Further studies are required to reach an explanation that can justify such findings, and it is vital to emphasize the importance of detection and follow-up by the epidemiological surveillance groups in birth defects and rare diseases. PMID:24928221

  19. Fecal microbiota imbalance in Mexican children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mejía-León, María Esther; Petrosino, Joseph F; Ajami, Nadim Jose; Domínguez-Bello, María Gloria; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota affecting the gut barrier could be triggering Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the second most frequent autoimmune disease in childhood. This study compared the structure of the fecal microbiota in 29 mestizo children aged 7-18 years, including 8 T1D at onset, 13 T1D after 2 years treatment, and 8 healthy controls. Clinical information was collected, predisposing haplotypes were determined; the fecal DNA was extracted, the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified and 454-pyrosequenced. The newly diagnosed T1D cases had high levels of the genus Bacteroides (p < 0.004), whereas the control group had a gut microbiota dominated by Prevotella. Children with T1D treated for ?2 years had levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella compared to those of the control group. The gut microbiota of newly diagnosed T1D cases is altered, but whether it is involved in disease causation or is a consequence of host selection remains unclear. PMID:24448554

  20. Lack of Association of the Polymorphisms IL-17A (?197G/A) and IL-17F (+7488A/G) with Multibacillary Leprosy in Mexican Patients

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-Tilch, Mónica; Estrada-García, Iris; Granados, Julio; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Ramos-Payan, Rosalio; Pérez-Suárez, Thalía Gabriela; Salazar, Ma. Isabel; Pérez-Lucas, Riky Luis; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Torres-Carrillo, Nora Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the intracellular acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium leprae; it has been determined that genetic factors of the host play an important role in the disease susceptibility. Thus, in this case-control study, we evaluated the possible association between the IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs and susceptibility to leprosy disease in Mexican population. Methods. Seventy-five leprosy patients and sixty-nine control subjects were included. Both SNPs were genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results. We found nonsignificant differences in genotype and allele frequencies related to IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs in MB as well as subclinical forms of leprosy disease versus healthy individuals. Conclusions. Since the sample size is not large enough, it is difficult to sustain an association of susceptibility to leprosy with genotypes or allele frequencies of IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780), suggesting that IL-17 polymorphisms have no significant role in the genetic susceptibility to development of this disease in the Mexican Mestizo population. PMID:25431761

  1. Lupus in Latin-American patients: lessons from the GLADEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, G J; Catoggio, L J; Cardiel, M H; Bonfa, E; Caeiro, F; Sato, E; Massardo, L; Molina-Restrepo, J F; Toledano, M Guibert; Barile-Fabris, L A; Amigo, M C; Acevedo-Vásquez, E M; Abadi, I; Wojdyla, D; Alarcón-Riquelme, M E; Alarcón, G S; Pons-Estel, B A

    2015-05-01

    The need for comprehensive published epidemiologic and clinical data from Latin American systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients motivated the late Dr Alarcón-Segovia and other Latin American professionals taking care of these patients to spearhead the creation of the G: rupo L: atino A: mericano D: e E: studio del L: upus (GLADEL) cohort in 1997. This inception cohort recruited a total of 1480 multiethnic (Mestizo, African-Latin American (ALA), Caucasian and other) SLE patients diagnosed within two years from the time of enrollment from 34 Latin American centers with expertise in the diagnosis and management of this disease. In addition to the initial 2004 description of the cohort, GLADEL has contributed to improving our knowledge about the course and outcome of lupus in patients from this part of the Americas. The major findings from this cohort are highlighted in this review. They have had important clinical implications for the adequate care of SLE patients both in Latin America and worldwide where these patients may have emigrated. PMID:25697768

  2. American Indians without Tribes in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Liebler, Carolyn; Zacher, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, most aspects of ethnicity are tightly associated with the person's tribal origins. Language, history, foods, land, and traditions differ among the hundreds of tribes indigenous to the United States. With this in mind, we ask why almost one million American Indians failed to respond to the tribal affiliation part of the Census 2000 race question. We investigate four hypotheses about why one-third of multiracial American Indians and one-sixth of single-race American Indians did not write any response to the tribal affiliation question: (1) survey item non-response which undermines all fill-in-the-blank questions, (2) a non-salient tribal identity, (3) a genealogy-based affiliation, and (4) a mestizo identity which does not require a tribe. We use multivariate logistic regression models and high-density restricted-use Census 2000 data. We find support for the first two hypotheses and note that predictors differ substantially for single-race versus multiple-race American Indians. PMID:25346556

  3. Ethnobotanical Knowledge Is Vastly Under-Documented in Northwestern South America

    PubMed Central

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Balslev, Henrik; Macía, Manuel J.

    2014-01-01

    A main objective of ethnobotany is to document traditional knowledge about plants before it disappears. However, little is known about the coverage of past ethnobotanical studies and thus about how well the existing literature covers the overall traditional knowledge of different human groups. To bridge this gap, we investigated ethnobotanical data-collecting efforts across four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), three ecoregions (Amazon, Andes, Chocó), and several human groups (including Amerindians, mestizos, and Afro-Americans). We used palms (Arecaceae) as our model group because of their usefulness and pervasiveness in the ethnobotanical literature. We carried out a large number of field interviews (n?=?2201) to determine the coverage and quality of palm ethnobotanical data in the existing ethnobotanical literature (n?=?255) published over the past 60 years. In our fieldwork in 68 communities, we collected 87,886 use reports and documented 2262 different palm uses and 140 useful palm species. We demonstrate that traditional knowledge on palm uses is vastly under-documented across ecoregions, countries, and human groups. We suggest that the use of standardized data-collecting protocols in wide-ranging ethnobotanical fieldwork is a promising approach for filling critical information gaps. Our work contributes to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and emphasizes the need for signatory nations to the Convention on Biological Diversity to respond to these information gaps. Given our findings, we hope to stimulate the formulation of clear plans to systematically document ethnobotanical knowledge in northwestern South America and elsewhere before it vanishes. PMID:24416449

  4. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    PubMed

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility. PMID:25241484

  5. Marcos Zapata's "Last Supper": a feast of European religion and Andean culture.

    PubMed

    Zendt, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In Marcos Zapata's 1753 painting of the Last Supper in Cuzco, Peru, Christian symbolism is filtered through Andean cultural tradition. Zapata was a late member of the Cuzco School of Painting, a group comprised of few European immigrants and handfuls of mestizo and Indian artists. The painters in Cuzco learned mostly from prints of European paintings, and their style tends to blend local culture into the traditional painting of their conquistadors. Imagery was the most successful tool used by the Spaniards in their quest to Christianize the Andean population. By teaching locals to paint Christian subjects, they were able to infuse Christianity into Andean traditions. Zapata's rendering of the Last Supper utilizes this cultural blending while staying true to the Christian symbolism within the subject. Instead of the traditional lamb, Zapata's Last Supper features a platter of cuy, or guinea pig, an Andean delicacy stocked with protein as well as cultural significance. Cuy was traditionally a sacrificial animal at Inca agricultural festivals and in this way it offers poignant parallel to the lamb, as a traditional Christian sacrificial animal. PMID:21568039

  6. Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans. PMID:24388653

  7. El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    The Central American republic of El Salvador lies on the Pacific with a south coast between Guatemala and Honduras. The climate rises from tropical maritime along the coast to subtropical hill and valley strip to a mountainous interior. The population consists of 98% Mestizo and 10% Indian, totaling 5.1 million, growing at 2.4 annually. Literacy varies from 40-60%; the infant mortality rate is 71/1000, and the life expectancy is 63-66 years. The economy is based on agricultural products as coffee, sugar and cotton and light industry such as textiles and petroleum refining, but due to political unrest, the 1986 earthquake, and fluctuating commodity prices, inflation runs about 36% and the per capita income is $700. El Salvador takes pride in its independence since 1821, but its history is marked by revolutions and control of government, military and ecclesiastical power by "the fourteen families." The current democratic government, considered to be the result of a fair election, is undertaking land reform and participates in the Central American peace process. PMID:12177956

  8. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQB1, and -DRB1,3,4,5 allele and haplotype frequencies in the Costa Rica Central Valley Population and its relationship to worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Bolaños, Esteban; Maldonado-Torres, Hazael; Dimitriu, Oana; Hoddinott, Michael A; Fowles, Finnuala; Shah, Anila; Orlich-Pérez, Priscilla; McWhinnie, Alasdair J; Alfaro-Bourrouet, Wilbert; Buján-Boza, Willem; Little, Ann-Margaret; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Madrigal, J Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is the most polymorphic in humans. Its allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies vary significantly among different populations. Molecular typing data on HLA are necessary for the development of stem cell donor registries, cord blood banks, HLA-disease association studies, and anthropology studies. The Costa Rica Central Valley Population (CCVP) is the major population in this country. No previous study has characterized HLA frequencies in this population. Allele group and haplotype frequencies of HLA genes in the CCVP were determined by means of molecular typing in a sample of 130 unrelated blood donors from one of the country's major hospitals. A comparison between these frequencies and those of 126 populations worldwide was also carried out. A minimum variance dendrogram based on squared Euclidean distances was constructed to assess the relationship between the CCVP sample and populations from all over the world. Allele group and haplotype frequencies observed in this study are consistent with a profile of a dynamic and diverse population, with a hybrid ethnic origin, predominantly Caucasian-Amerindian. Results showed that populations genetically closest to the CCVP are a Mestizo urban population from Venezuela, and another one from Guadalajara, Mexico. PMID:20937338

  9. Análisis fotométrico-espectroscópico de un par de binarias en NGC 3532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L.; González, J. F.

    Presentamos el informe de avance de un proyecto que apunta a la determinación de masas y radios de precisión en estrellas tempranas de cúmulos abiertos mediante el análisis fotométrico-espectroscópico de sistemas binarios detached con baja rotación. Con ello se pretende determinar el estado evolutivo de estas estrellas y confrontar su estructura con modelos estelares teóricos con distinto grado de ``overshooting". Los primeros objetos seleccionados son dos sistemas binarios de espectros dobles (BDA27 y BDA363) detectados en el cúmulo NGC 3532. Presentamos la órbita espectroscópica obtenida para la binaria eclipsante BDA27, para la cual obtuvimos un período de 4.29 días y una razón de masas q=0.62. Derivamos sus parámetros absolutos preliminares usando nuestra curva de velocidad y datos fotométricos existentes en la literatura, y presentamos estimas del alcance de nuestros resultados una vez que hayamos completado nuestras observaciones con nuevas curvas de luz.

  10. Bedrock and surficial geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles is the result of a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This map provides geologic information useful for range management, plant and animal studies, flood control, water resource investigations, and natural hazards associated with sand-dune mobility. The map provides connectivity to the regional geologic framework of the Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 314 km2 (123 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°37'30" to 35°30' N., long 109°45' to 110° W. The quadrangles lie within the southern Colorado Plateau geologic province and within the northeastern portion of the Hopi Buttes (Tsézhin Bií). Large ephemeral drainages, Pueblo Colorado Wash and Steamboat Wash, originate north of the map area on the Defiance Plateau and Balakai Mesa respectively. Elevations range from 1,930 m (6,330 ft) at the top of Satan Butte to about 1,787 m (5,860 ft) at Pueblo Colorado Wash where it exits the southwest corner of the Greasewood quadrangle. The only settlement within the map area is Greasewood, Arizona, on the north side of Pueblo Colorado Wash. Navajo Highway 15 crosses both quadrangles and joins State Highway 264 northwest of Ganado. Unimproved dirt roads provide access to remote parts of the Navajo Reservation.

  11. Association of narcolepsy-cataplexy with HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 in Mexican patients: A relationship between HLA and gender is suggested

    PubMed Central

    Alaez, Carmen; Lin, Ling; Flores-A, Hilario; Vazquez, Miriam; Munguia, Andrea; Mignot, Emmanuel; Haro, Reyes; Baker, Harry; Gorodezky, Clara

    2008-01-01

    Background Narcolepsy-cataplexy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with recurrent episodes of irresistible sleep, cataplexy, hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Its aetiology is unknown, but it is positively associated with the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in all studied populations. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of HLA class II DRB1/DQB1 alleles with narcolepsy-cataplexy in Mexican Mestizo patients. Methods This is a case-control study of consecutive patients and ethnically matched controls. We included 32 patients diagnosed with typical narcolepsy-cataplexy, of the National Institute of Neurology, of the Institute of Psychiatry and at the Center of Narcolepsy at Stanford University. As healthy controls, 203 Mexican Mestizos were included. DRB1 alleles were identified using sequence based typing. A PCR-SSOP reverse dot blot was used for DQB1 typing. Allele frequency was calculated by direct counting and the significance of the differences was assessed using the Yates Chi square. Odds ratio and confidence intervals were evaluated. Results HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 8.2; pc < 0.0001) and DQB1*0602 (OR = 8.4; pc < 0.0001) were found positively associated with narcolepsy. When deleting DQB1*0602+ patients from the analysis, DQB1*0301 was also found increased (OR = 2.7; p = 0.035; pc = NS). DQB1*0602/DQB1*0301 genotype was present in 15.6% of the cases (OR = 11.5; p = 0.00035), conferring a high risk. DRB1*0407 (OR = 0.2; p = 0.016 pc = NS) and DQB1*0302(OR = 0.4; p = 0.017, pc = NS) were found decreased in the patients. The gender stratification analysis showed a higher risk in females carrying DRB1*1501 (OR = 15.8, pc < 0.0001) and DQB1*0602 (OR = 19.8, pc < 0.0001) than in males (OR = 5.0 for both alleles; p = 0.012, pc = NS for DRB1 & p = 0.0012, pc = 0.017 for DQB1). The susceptibility alleles found in Mexicans with narcolepsy are also present in Japanese and Caucasians; DRB1*04 linked protection has also been shown in Koreans. A stronger HLA association is suggested in females, in accordance with the sexual dimorphism claimed previously. Conclusion This knowledge may contribute to a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis in different populations. The evaluation of the risk to develop narcolepsy-cataplexy in carriers of the described alleles/genotypes may also be possible. A larger sample should be analysed in Mexican and in other Hispanic patients to confirm these results. PMID:18706091

  12. Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

  13. Honduras.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Honduras has an area of 112,088 square km or 43,277 square miles with a population of 4.8 million in 1991 of whom 90% are mestizos. Literacy is 68%, the infant mortality rate is 60/1000, and life expectancy is 63 years. After independence from Spain in 1821 the Central American Federation collapsed in 1938. There have been 300 internal rebellions since independence. With an inadequate economic infrastructure, sociopolitical integration has been fragile. In 1982 the Suazo government relied on US support to face the economic recession, the threat posed by the Marxist government in Nicaragua, and civil war in El Salvador. USAID sponsored ambitious social and economic projects. A peaceful transfer of power between civilian presidents occurred in 1986 despite an electoral quirk. In 1990 President Callejas introduced reforms to reduce the deficit, and to stimulate investments and exports. After initial higher inflation and low growth in 1990 and 1991, modest progress is forecast for 1992 and 1993. The powerful military has been kept in check, and human rights have been better protected. The country is among the poorest in Latin America with underemployment of 30-40% and a mostly agricultural economy. The 1990 reforms of deregulation of prices, liberalization of trade, less protectionism, and export orientation is expected to produce longterm benefits not only in agriculture but also in manufacturing. The US is the primary trading partner, and the main direct foreign investor (fruits, refining, and mining). The slash-and-burn agricultural cultivation has created environmental destruction, and as a sign of public awareness the armed forces have engaged in reforestation and fighting forest fires. PMID:12178036

  14. Carbohydrate intake modulates the effect of the ABCA1-R230C variant on HDL cholesterol concentrations in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; González-Barrios, Juan A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha E; Yañez-Velazco, Lucia B; Bernal-Alcantara, Demetrio A; Villa, Antonio R; Antuna-Puente, Barbara; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Merino-García, José L; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde N; Carnevale, Alessandra

    2012-02-01

    The R230C variant of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene has been consistently associated with decreased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in several studies in the Mexican mestizo population. However, information on how diet composition modifies the effect of the ABCA1-R230C variant on HDL-C concentrations is very scarce. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the effect of ABCA1-R230C on HDL-C concentrations is modulated by dietary factors in a nationwide population sample of 3591 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted by the State's Employees' Social Security and Social Services Institute. All participants answered a validated questionnaire to assess health status and weekly food consumption. Fasting blood samples were drawn for biochemical analysis and DNA extraction, and the ABCA1-R230C variant was genotyped using TaqMan assays. Statistical analyses consisted of simple linear and multiple regression modeling adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The overall C risk allele frequency was 9.3% and the variant was significantly associated with low HDL-C concentrations in both sexes. A significant negative correlation between carbohydrate consumption and HDL-C concentrations was observed in women bearing the R230C variant (P = 0.021) and a significant gene-diet interaction was found only in premenopausal women (P = 0.037). In conclusion, the effect of the ABCA1-R230C gene variant on HDL-C concentrations is modulated by carbohydrate intake in premenopausal women. This finding may help design optimized dietary interventions according to sex and ABCA1-R230C genotype. PMID:22190032

  15. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus forests in the area. PMID:24597704

  16. Expression of interleukin (IL)-19 and IL-24 in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Camarillo, G; Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Granados, J; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K

    2014-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-19 and IL-24 belong to the IL-20 subfamily, and are involved in host defence against bacteria and fungi, tissue remodelling and wound healing. Nevertheless, no previous studies have explored their expression in Mexican mestizo patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study was to characterize and to enumerate peripheral and tissue IL-19- and IL-24-producing cells, as well as gene expression in patients with IBD with regard to its clinical activity. We studied a total of 77 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 36 Crohn's disease (CD) and 33 patients as control group (without endoscopic evidence of intestinal inflammation). Gene expression was measured by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein expression was detected in biopsies by immunohistochemistry and in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry. IL-19 and IL-24 gene expression was elevated significantly in patients with active IBD?versus the inactive disease and non-inflammatory control groups (P?

  17. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: multimodal treatment results

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Zaki Antonio Taissoun; Granados-García, Martín; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Guerrero-Huerta, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Pedraza, Antonio; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Meneses-García, Abelardo; Ordoñez-Mosquera, Juliana María

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare and lethal disease. It accounts for 1–2% of thyroid malignancies, but specific mortality is higher than 90%. It is an aggressive locoregional disease with a high metastatic capacity. There is no agreement with regards to the best treatment. We analysed the results of treatment in a mestizo population treated in the National Cancer Institute (Mexico). Methods We reviewed 1,581 files of thyroid carcinomas; of these, 29 (1.83%) had anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Demographic variables, clinical manifestations, tumour characteristics, and treatments were analysed. Results The median age was 64.5 ± 13.2 years. Females were more affected (female/male ratio: 2.6:1); 21 cases occurred in women (72.4%), and eight in males (27.6%). The most common manifestations were neck enlargement (93.10%) and hoarseness (71.31%). The median tumour size was 8 cm (range: 4–20 cm). The percentage of cases which presented in clinical stage IVA was 10.3%, with 62.1% presenting in clinical stage IVb and 27.6% presenting in clinical stage VIc. Complete resection (R0) (p = 0.05), radiation doses of higher than 33.1 Gy (p = 0.04), and multimodal therapy were associated with better survival. Surgery plus radiotherapy with or without systemic treatment (p = 0.006). The median overall survival was 119 days (IC 95%, 36.3–201.6). Six-month, one-year and two-year survival was 37.9%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is associated with better survival but is very difficult to achieve due to aggressive biological behaviour. Multimodal therapy is associated with better survival and a better quality of life. There is a need for more effective systemic treatments as extensive surgical resections have little overall benefit in highly invasive and metastatic disease. PMID:25114721

  18. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038

  19. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  20. Panama.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    Panama's territory is 77,381 square km or 29,762 square miles with a population of 2.4 million of whom 70% are mestizos or mixed Spanish and Indian. Literacy is 87%, infant mortality is 22/1000, and life expectancy is 72 years. Panama was part of the Spanish empire from 1538 to 1821. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia, and afterwards signed a treaty with the US to build a canal 10 miles wide. The existing 52-mile lock canal was completed in 1914. From the 1960s pressure mounted to renegotiate the treaty that was eventually accomplished in 1977. In 1989 the Noriega regime called elections and lost, but it did not accept the results, and continued repression until it was ousted by a 1989 US military action. Noriega surrendered and was indicted for drug trafficking. The economy was in disrepair after mismanagement and US sanctions. During 1990-91 the economy started to recover with the return of capital to banks, increase of exports and construction, and the decrease of government deficit and unemployment. The gross domestic product grew 3.45 in 1990 and 9.3% in 1991 with a low level of inflation. Government policies were proposed to stimulate foreign private investment, improve market conditions, and reduce tariffs and price controls. In 1992 the Endara government signed agreements with international financial institutions on credit that entailed tax, social security, and public investment reforms. The unemployment rate decreased from 35% in 1989 to 16% by 1992. The revenues from the canal have to be sustained, therefore the Panama Canal Commission approved a $200-million project to widen it over the next 20 years. PMID:12178035

  1. Peru.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations. PMID:12178073

  2. Honduras.

    PubMed

    1989-09-01

    Honduras is a country with an area of 68,000 square miles, with considerable mountainous terrain, and a subtropical but variable climate. It has a population of 4.4 million people and an annual growth rate of 3.1%. The ethnic make up is 90% mestizo, a mixture of Indian and European, with others consisting of Arab, African, oriental, and Indians. The main religion is Catholic with a fast growing Protestant minority, and the language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 60/1000 and life expectancy is 63 years. The work force is mainly agricultural 63%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, and construction 3%. The government is a democratic constitutional republic established in 1821. The budget is $1,334 million with 7% used for defense, and the gross national product is $4.4 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.5%. Despite being poor and underdeveloped, natural resources include arable land, hydro- electric power, and considerable forest, marine, and mineral resources. Agriculture products include coffee, bananas, citrus fruit, corn, beans, and livestock. The major industries are textiles, cement, wood products, cigars and foodstuffs. Unemployment is over 15% and underemployment is estimated over 40% with the literacy rate at only 60%. In the last few years with US aid the economy has grown 3.8% a year assisted by mining, construction and the service sectors. Honduras must undertake major economic reforms to gain longterm growth and stability since it has large fiscal and trade deficits, a large public bureaucracy, poorly run state enterprises and overvalued exchange rate. PMID:12178019

  3. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  4. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de ? s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

  5. Genotype frequencies of polymorphic GSTM1, GSTT1, and cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 in Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Montero, Regina; Araujo, Antonio; Carranza, Paloma; Mejía-Loza, Vanessa; Serrano, Luis; Albores, Arnulfo; Salinas, Juan E; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael

    2007-06-01

    The genotype frequencies of three metabolic polymorphisms were determined in a sample of a typical community in central Mexico. CYP1A1*3, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms were studied in 150 donors born in Mexico and with Mexican ascendants; with respect to ethnicity the subjects can be considered Mestizos. PCR reactions were used to amplify specific fragments of the selected genes from genomic DNA. An unexpected 56.7% frequency of the CYP1A1*3 allele (which depends on the presence of a Val residue in the 462 position of the enzyme, instead of Ile) was found, the highest described for open populations of different ethnic origins (i.e., Caucasian, Asian, African, or African American). The GSTM1 null genotype was found with a frequency of 42.6%, which is not different from other ethnicities, whereas the GSTT1 null genotype had a frequency of 9.3%, one of the lowest described for any ethnic group but comparable to the frequency found in India (9.7%). The frequency of the combined genotype CYP1A1*3/*3 and the GSTM1 null allele is one of the highest observed to date (or perhaps the highest): 13.7% among all the ethnicities studied, including Caucasians and Asians, whereas the combination of CYP1A1*3/*3 with the GSTT1 null allele reached only 2.8%. The GSTM1 null allele combined with the GSTT1 null allele, on the other hand, has one of the lowest frequencies described, 4.24%, comparable to the frequencies found in African Americans and Indians. Finally, the combined CYP1A1*3/*3, GSTM1 null allele, and GSTT1 null allele genotype could not be found in the sample studied; it is assumed that the frequency of carriers of these combined genotypes is less than 1%. CYP1A1*3 and CYP1A1*2 polymorphisms were also evaluated in 50 residents in a community of northern Mexico; the CYP1A1*3 frequency was 54%, similar to that found in the other community studied, and the CYP1A1*2 frequency was 40%, which is high compared to Caucasians and Asians but comparable to the frequency found in Japanese and lower than the frequency found in Mapuche Indians. Haplotype frequencies for these CYP1A1 polymorphisms were estimated, and a linkage disequilibrium value (D) of 0.137 was calculated. PMID:18078203

  6. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65?±?2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and the Ocellated Turkey were extremely important for local hunters, representing around 40% of total prey taken. Final considerations Our results suggest that hunting is frequent in our study areas. Low human densities allow low hunting pressure on most game species and favor conservation of the tropical forest. We suggest that co-management may help regulating hunting, prioritizing cultural practices of sustainable use and conservation for benefiting local users and animal populations. PMID:23031274

  7. Panama.

    PubMed

    1989-06-01

    Panama has an area of 29,762 square miles, with a population of 2,274 million. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is tropical. The ethnic groups consist of mestizo 79% West Indian 14%, white 10%, and Indian 6%. The religions are Roman Catholic 93% and Protestant 6% and the official language is Spanish with 14% using English. There is 6 years of mandatory primary schooling and the literacy rate is 87.1%. The infant mortality rate is 25.6/1000 and life expectancy is 72.1 years. The work force of 770,000 has 26.6% in agriculture, 27.9% in government, 16% in commerce, 10.5% manufacturing, 5.3% in finance, canal 2.4% and utilities 1.4%. The government was a military dictatorship established in 1903 and a constitution was created in 1972 and revised in 1983. A president and 2 vice presidents, a legislative assembly with 67 members and a supreme court now make up the government. There are 9 provinces and 1 Indian territory and the major political parties are the Panamenista, Democratic Revolutionary, Christian Democratic, Labor, Republican, Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement and many other small parties. The economy has a gross national product of over 5 billion dollars and has a growth rate of .47% in 1987, with an inflation rate of 1.1% in 1985. National resources consist of timber, seafood, and copper ore. Agriculture products are bananas, corn, sugar, rice, coffee, shrimp, timber, vegetables, and cattle. There is 24% agricultural land, 20% forest land and industries include food and drink processing, metal working, petroleum products, chemicals, paper, printing, mining, sugar refining, clothing, furniture, and construction. Exports consist of bananas 21%, shrimp 21%, coffee 9%, sugar 6%, clothing 4%, and other 39%. During the colonial period Panama was ruled by Spain and won independence in 1821 and joined Columbia. In 1903 Panama proclaimed independence and made a treaty with the US to build the canal. PMID:12178029

  8. [Mangrove dynamics in the Cispata lagoon system (Colombian Caribbean) during last 900 years].

    PubMed

    Castaño, Ana; Urrego, Ligia; Bernal, Gladys

    2010-12-01

    The lagoon complex of Cispatá (old Sinú river delta) located at the Northwestern coast of the Colombian Caribbean, encloses one of the biggest mangrove areas in this region. This area has changed during the last 330 years because of several environmental and climatic causes, mainly changes in the position of the delta (Sinú River), which is the main freshwater source in this area, and sea level rise. We hypothesized that the climatic and geomorphologic dynamics has caused changes in the extension and composition of mangrove vegetation, especially during last 150 years. The dynamics of mangroves during the last 900 years was reconstructed based on the changes in the stratigraphy, pollen record, calcite concentrations (CaCO3) and C/N ratio, along two sediment cores from La Flotante and Navio lagoons, located in Cispatá complex. The age model was built based on lineal interpolation of 210Pb ages and changes in granulometry. Establishment and expansion of mangrove forests during the last 900 years were related to fluviomarine dynamics in the area and the lagoon formation. During the period encompassed between 1064 and 1762 A.D., the Mestizos spit was formed when marine conditions predominated in the surroundings of La Flotante Lagoon. At the site of Navío, a river dominated lagoon, terrigenous conditions dominated since 1830. Although the colonization of herbaceous pioneer vegetation started between 1142 and 1331 A.D., mangrove colonization only took place since 1717 A.D. Mangrove colonization was a result of the delta progradation. In 1849 A.D. the Sinú river delta migrated to the Cispatá bay. The eustatic sea level rise, the increase in river discharges and sedimentation rates produced the establishment of mangrove forests dominated by Rhizophora since 1849. Since 1900 a marine intrusion was recorded in both lagoons. In 1938, the migration of the delta toward its actual location in Tinajones gave place to the formation of the present lagoon system and to the expansion of mangrove forests, which reflects the balance between the high alluvial sediment input and the current sea level rise as has been recorded in similar ecosystems. PMID:21250481

  9. Keywords to Recruit Spanish- and English-Speaking Participants: Evidence From an Online Postpartum Depression Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The English-speaking sample was also diverse with most participants residing in regions of Asia and Africa. Spanish-speaking participants were significantly more likely to be of Latino ethnic background, not married, completed fewer years of formal education, and were more likely to have accessed the Internet for depression information (P<.001). Conclusions The Internet is an effective method for reaching an international sample of pregnant women interested in online interventions to manage changes in their mood during the perinatal period. To increase efficiency, Internet advertisements need to be monitored and tailored to reflect the target population’s conceptualization of health issues being studied. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00816725; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00816725 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6LumonjZP). PMID:24407163

  10. Women and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lessons from the seventies and hopes for the future.

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1982-01-01

    The early implicit assumptions that industrialization or, generally, modernization should automatically improve the condition of women have been challenged more and more by research and statistical data. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the theory which held that the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups of Indian and African descent into the national Hispanic or Portuguese cultures implied an improvement in the condition of women has been challenged through ethnographic and historical research. Women in closed corporate communities may have higher status, greater participation in authority, and more support from their children than those in open mestizo communities, where excessive alcohol consumption and abusive sexual relations form an integral part of the psychosocial complex of "machismo." New research has dealt with the forced integration of black women and Indian women, as concubines of the dominant white men, as a mechanism of "mestizaje," i.e., mixing of the population, against which women had no legal or "de facto" defense. Such abuse of women, masked by racial and cultural prejudice, continues in many backward rural areas in Latin America. In discussions of the peasantry and of rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, women had been largely ignored because agriculture was conceptualized as an exclusively male activity. This androcentric view is reflected in census categories that make the component of women's labor in agriculture invisible or unimportant. Consequently, the statistical percentages have always been unrealistically low in most countries. Detailed observations and surveys conducted during the last decade have shown, to the contrary, that peasant women work longer hours than men and are more liable to increase their time and work load to offset pauperization. The research of Deere and Leon (Colombia) as well as that of other women in different countries of the region confirms that women's subordination precedes capitalism and is further used by this system of production for its only ends. Priorities in the Western feminist movements in the 1970s have been equal pay for equal work and sexual and psychological autonomy. In the 3rd world the priorities have been the right to adequate employment and to primary services such as schools, drinking water, housing, and medical services. The main strategy for women in Latin America and the Caribbean has been to participate alongside men in political movements seeking to attain national sovereignty or to challenge economic inequalities, both internally and internationally, as a precondition to the setting up of women's demands as a gender group. The research makes it clear that dependent capitalist development brings an added burden of poverty and subordination to women. Strategies to advance women must be assessed within their particular context. PMID:12279573

  11. HLA Class I and II Blocks Are Associated to Susceptibility, Clinical Subtypes and Autoantibodies in Mexican Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana S.; Mercado-Velázquez, Pamela; Yu, Neng; Alosco, Sharon; Ohashi, Marina; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Zúñiga, Joaquin; Yunis, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism studies in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) have yielded variable results. These studies need to consider the genetic admixture of the studied population. Here we used our previously reported definition of genetic admixture of Mexicans using HLA class I and II DNA blocks to map genetic susceptibility to develop SSc and its complications. Methods We included 159 patients from a cohort of Mexican Mestizo SSc patients. We performed clinical evaluation, obtained SSc-associated antibodies, and determined HLA class I and class II alleles using sequence-based, high-resolution techniques to evaluate the contribution of these genes to SSc susceptibility, their correlation with the clinical and autoantibody profile and the prevalence of Amerindian, Caucasian and African alleles, blocks and haplotypes in this population. Results Our study revealed that class I block HLA-C*12:03-B*18:01 was important to map susceptibility to diffuse cutaneous (dc) SSc, HLA-C*07:01-B*08:01 block to map the susceptibility role of HLA-B*08:01 to develop SSc, and the C*07:02-B*39:05 and C*07:02-B*39:06 blocks to map the protective role of C*07:02 in SSc. We also confirmed previous associations of HLA-DRB1*11:04 and –DRB1*01 to susceptibility to develop SSc. Importantly, we mapped the protective role of DQB1*03:01 using three Amerindian blocks. We also found a significant association for the presence of anti-Topoisomerase I antibody with HLA-DQB1*04:02, present in an Amerindian block (DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02), and we found several alleles associated to internal organ damage. The admixture estimations revealed a lower proportion of the Amerindian genetic component among SSc patients. Conclusion This is the first report of the diversity of HLA class I and II alleles and haplotypes Mexican patients with SSc. Our findings suggest that HLA class I and class II genes contribute to the protection and susceptibility to develop SSc and its different clinical presentations as well as different autoantibody profiles in Mexicans. PMID:25993664

  12. Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nicaragua is on the following: geography; the people and history; government and polictical conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Nicaragua. Nicaragua's population is 2.9 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3% (1981). The infant mortality rate is 37/1000; life expectancy is 56 years. Most Nicaraguans are mestizo, a mix of European and Indian. Smaller ethnic groups also are recognizable. A large black minority of Jamaican origin is concentrated on the Caribbean coast, although migration to Managua is on the rise. Nicaragua borders Costa Rica to the south and El Salvador--across the Gulf of Fonseca--and Honduras to the north. The climate is tropical. About 40% of the population are urban; most live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands region. On July 19, 1979 the Government of National Reconstruction formed in exile as a coalition of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) and civic leaders, stepped into the power vacuum left by the Somoza government's collapse. The GRN was organized into a 5-member junta, the 19 member Council of Ministers, and the 33 member quasi legislative National Council. The GRN's July 19 Declaration of San Jose, promising a democratically elected government and an equitable pluralistic society, met with strong popular support. Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly are guaranteed by the declaration, yet the GRN's efforts at promoting political freedom have been less successful than its efforts at economic equity. At different times, the GRN has restricted operation of opposition newspapers on national security grounds, banned individual foreign films on political grounds, attempted to reduce the role of the Roman Catholic Church and tried to reduce the traditional autonomy of the national university. The country's resources are primarily agricultural. Some estimates indicate that 70% of Nicaragua's territory is usable for agriculture of livestock, though much is underutilized. Currently, more than half the country is covered in forest. The forest industry collapsed since it was nationalized, although its potential remains. Nicaragua's industrial sector is still small but grew rapidly following the formation of the Central American Common Market. Nicaragua's current economic problems stem from continued tension between the private sector and the revolutionary government, which has discouraged private investment. The GRN is committed to maintaining ties with all nations while espousing a policy of nonalignment. The FSLN has converted and expanded the military. The US has contributed $128 million in economic aid to Nicaragua. Nicaraguan support for the Salvadoran insurgents resulted in a US presidential determination in April 1981 to suspend US aid to Nicaragua. PMID:12178081

  13. El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year period, human rights violations were tremendous. The war eroded the country's position as the most industrialized nation in Central America. As the 1990, there were still 150,000 landless, whom the government is committed to help in the transfer of land required by the peace accords. PMID:12178053

  14. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  15. Distribution of stable isotopes in arid storms . II. A double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, Alexander; Dody, Avraham; Adar, Eilon M.; Borisov, Viacheslav; Geyh, Mebus

    A new mathematical method based on a double-component model of kinematic wave flow and approach assesses the dynamic isotopic distribution in arid rain storms and runoff. This model describes the transport and ?18O evolution of rainfall to overland flow and runoff in an arid rocky watershed with uniformly distributed shallow depression storage. The problem was solved numerically. The model was calibrated using a set of temporal discharge and ?18O distribution data for rainfall and runoff collected on a small rocky watershed at the Sede Boker Experimental Site, Israel. Simulation of a reliable result with respect to observation was obtained after parameter adjustment by trial and error. Sensitivity analysis and model application were performed. The model is sensitive to changes in parameters characterizing the depression storage zones. The model reflects the effect of the isotopic memory in the water within the depression storage between sequential rain spells. The use of the double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport provides an appropriate qualitative and quantitative fitting between computed and observed ?18O distribution in runoff. RésuméUne nouvelle méthode mathématique basée sur un modèle à double composante d'écoulement et de transport par une onde cinématique a été développée pour évaluer la distribution dynamique en isotopes dans les précipitations et dans l'écoulement en région aride. Ce modèle décrit le transport et les variations des ?18O de la pluie vers le ruissellement et l'écoulement de surface dans un bassin aride rocheux où le stockage se fait dans des dépressions peu profondes uniformément réparties. Le problème a été résolu numériquement. Le modèle a été calibré au moyen d'une chronique de débits et d'une distribution des ?18O dans la pluie et dans l'écoulement de surface sur un petit bassin versant rocheux du site expérimental de Sede Boker (Israël). La simulation d'un résultat crédible par rapport aux observations a été obtenu après un ajustement des paramètres par une méthode d'essais et d'erreurs. L'analyse de sensibilité et l'application du modèle ont ensuite été réalisés. Le modèle est plutôt sensible aux changements des paramètres caractérisant les zones de stockage dans les dépressions. Le modèle rend compte de l'effet de mémoire isotopique dans l'eau dans le stockage des dépressions entre les événements séquentiels de pluie. L'utilisation d'un modèle à double composante d'écoulement et de transport par onde cinématique permet un ajustement qualitatif et quantitatif adapté entre les distributions des ?18O calculées et observées dans l'écoulement de surface. Resumen Un nuevo método matemático basado en un modelo de doble componente de onda cinemática de flujo y transporte permite caracterizar la distribución isotópica dinámica de las tormentas en zonas áridas y la escorrentía. Este modelo describe el transporte y la evolución del ?18O en la lluvia, flujo superficial y escorrentía en una cuenca rocosa de clima árido con detención superficial distribuida uniformemente. El modelo se calibró numéricamente utilizando un conjunto de datos de descarga temporal y de distribución de ?18O para lluvia y escorrentía recogida en una pequeña cuenca rocosa en el Centro de Experimentación de Sede Boker, Israel. Se obtuvo un buen ajuste a los datos tras un ajuste de parámetros mediante prueba y error. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad que indicó que el modelo resulta ser bastante sensible a cambios en los parámetros que caracterizan las zonas de baja detención superficial. El modelo también refleja el efecto de la memoria isotópica en el agua de estas zonas de detención entre los distintos periodos de lluvias. El uso de un modelo de doble componente de onda cinemática de flujo y transporte proporciona un buen ajuste cualitativo y cuantitativo entre los datos medidos y calculados de ?18O en la escorrentía.

  16. Reacciones de intercambio de carga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, L. F.

    Se discute la validez de diversas metodologías y su aplicación al estudio de procesos de intercambio de carga electrónico entre iones y blancos atómicos y moleculares. Para energías de impacto entre 0.05 y 5 eV / amu se emplea el método cuántico de la Coordenada de Reacción Común (CRC). A mayores energías, se utiliza el método semiclásico iconal con un desarrollo de la función de onda dinámica en estados moleculares adiabáticos, modificados con un factor de traslación común (FTC). Estos estados pueden obtenerse con cálculos ab initio o empleando potenciales modelo. Cuando la ionización compite con la transferencia de carga, la inclusión de pseudoestados en estos desarrollos permite calcular simultáneamente las secciones eficaces de ambos procesos. Otra técnica utilizada es el método estadístico CTMC. En el tratamiento de colisiones ión-molécula (diatómica) contrastamos la aplicabilidad de distintos métodos, desde la llamada aproximación Franck-Condon hasta un desarrollo en estados vibrónicos, pasando por la aproximación súbita vibro-rotacional, obteniéndose secciones eficaces de captura electrónica total y a estados individuales, así como secciones de excitación vibracional a estados ligados y del continuo (disociación). En todos los casos es necesario calcular superficies de energía y los correspondientes acoplamientos dinámicos entre los estados. La aplicación de estos métodos permite determinar el grado de contaminación de los haces por estados metaestables en un experimento dado, el cambio en los resultados con diferentes isótopos, la importancia de procesos de doble captura, seguida de explosión culombiana, todo ello con precisión comparable a la de medidas experimentales, para sistemas de interés en distintos tipos de plasmas.

  17. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P < 0.0001). Other elements were unchanged between conditions. Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P < 0.0001), indicative of increased B12 activity. Conclusions: Long-term intermittent hypoxia increases brain cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

  18. Chile.

    PubMed

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile. PMID:12177976

  19. Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Adriana R.; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Duque, Jorge E.; Aristizabal, Gloria E.; Fiel-Gan, Mary D.; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18–68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer ?1?4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5–240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study. PMID:20502522

  20. Tropical dry-forest mammals of Palo Verde: Ecology and conservation in a changing landscape

    E-print Network

    Stoner, Kathryn E.; Timm, Robert M.

    2004-02-01

    More than 114 species of mammals originally were present in Costa Rica’s tropical dry forest, and perhaps 110 species are still found there today. Bats are the most diverse group, with more than 66 species, followed by 11 species of rodents, 7 species of marsupials, 6 species in the weasel family, 5 species of cats, 3 species in the raccoon family, 3 species of primates, 3 species of artiodactyls, 2 species of canids, 2 species of xenarthrans (edentates), 1 rabbit, and 1 tapir. Costa Rica has no endemic dry forest mammals. The species that have been extirpated from this region were either highly prized game species that have been eliminated by overhunting (white-lipped peccaries) or were specialists that either feed on specific foods or have very specific habitat requirements that have been eliminated by habitat destruction. In Costa Rica 10 of the 13 mammal species recognized as endangered and 7 of the 14 found in reduced populations are found within tropical dry forest habitat. Mammals that inhabit tropical dry forest areas must be capable of dealing with high temperatures, low precipitation in the dry season, and large fluctuations in the availability of food resources during the year. Most mammals of the dry forest can be characterized as resident generalists that shift their diets in order to utilize seasonally available food resources; as resident specialists that forage on insects, seeds, or fruit and nectar; or as migrants that occupy dry forests only seasonally and move to other habitats during periods of low food availability in their foraging area in search of food sources in other areas. Bats, some of which serve as pollinators and seed dispersers, are important components of the dry forest fauna. Some species of bats change habitats within the dry forest or migrate into and out of the dry forest seasonally. Hunting has been, and continues to be, an important threat to most large mammals in dry forest habitats. As early as 1880, large numbers of deer skins were exported from Costa Rica to Europe, the majority of which came from Guanacaste. Illegal poaching is still a serious problem in the protected areas of Guanacaste. Throughout Mesoamerica, deforestation to create pastures and, in recent years, for crop cultivation has negatively affected many populations of tropical dry forest mammals. Approximately 50% of the 250,000 ha area in the lower Tempisque Basin had been deforested by 1956 and by 1970 most of the dry forest had been converted into pastureland. The spread of introduced African grasses and seasonal fires have continued to eliminate mature dry forest in northern Costa Rica in the last decades. Contamination by pesticides from agricultural fields has become a serious threat to the mammalian fauna in the region. The use of cattle as a management tool also threatens the mammalian fauna in tropical dry forest due to their affect on the natural vegetation. Cattle were reintroduced into Parque Nacional Palo Verde in the 1980s in an attempt to control the rapidly expanding cattails in the marsh, which were eliminating habitat for aquatic birds. However, cattle have been ineffective at controlling cattails, and overgrazing of tree seedlings has hindered regeneration of the forest because cattle graze selectively on seedlings of native species. The mammals of the tropical dry forest are among the most poorly known of any of the bioclimatic life zones. Conservation measures for this endangered fauna should include expanded research, training and educational programs for park personnel, economic alternatives, and sustainable development. In addition, efforts should be made for the creation of additional protected areas with buffer zones and for the development of natural regeneration programs.... efecto en la vegetación natural. Un ejemplo de esto es la reintroducción de ganado en el Parque Nacional Palo Verde en 1980 con el fin de controlar Typha en la laguna, las cuales estaban eliminando hábitat para las aves acuáticas. Sin embargo, no se...

  1. Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. We used a modified before–after control–impact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year study. We located 59 and 185 nests before and after development, respectively, of a 201 MW wind energy facility in Greater Prairie-Chicken nesting habitat and assessed nest site selection and nest survival relative to proximity to wind energy infrastructure and habitat conditions. Proximity to turbines did not negatively affect nest site selection (? = 0.03, 95% CI = ?1.2–1.3) or nest survival (? = ?0.3, 95% CI = ?0.6–0.1). Instead, nest site selection and survival were strongly related to vegetative cover and other local conditions determined by management for cattle production. Integration of our project results with previous reports of behavioral avoidance of oil and gas facilities by other species of prairie grouse suggests new avenues for research to mitigate impacts of energy development. Efectos del Desarrollo de la Energía Eólica sobre la Ecología de Anidación de Gallinas de la Gran Pradera en Pastizales Fragmentados Resumen Se calcula que la energía eólica aportará el 20% de las necesidades energéticas de los Estados Unidos para el 2030, pero nuevos sitios para el desarrollo de energía renovable pueden traslaparse con hábitats importantes de poblaciones declinantes de aves de pastizal. La gallina de la Gran Pradera (Tympanuchus cupido) es una especie de ave obligada de pastizal que se pronostica responderá negativamente al desarrollo energético. Usamos un diseño ADCI modificado para probar los impactos del desarrollo de la energía eólica sobre la ecología reproductiva de las gallinas en un estudio de 5 años. Ubicamos 59 y 185 nidos antes y después del desarrollo, respectivamente, de una instalación de energía eólica de 201 MW en el hábitat de anidación de las gallinas y estudiamos la selección de sitio de anidación y la supervivencia de nidos en relación con la proximidad a la infraestructura y las condiciones de hábitat. La proximidad con las turbinas no afectó negativamente a la selección de sitios de anidación (? = -0.3, 95% CI = -0.6–0.1). En su lugar, la selección de sitios de anidación y la supervivencia estuvieron fuertemente relacionadas con la cobertura vegetal y otras condiciones locales determinadas por el manejo de la producción de ganado. La integración de los resultados de nuestro proyecto con reportes previos de la evitación conductual de instalaciones de petróleo y gas por otras especies de pastizales sugiere nuevas vías para que la investigación mitigue los impactos del desarrollo energético. PMID:24628394

  2. Nonthermal Radiation Processes in Interplanetary Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chian, A. C. L.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la interacci6n de haces de electrones energeticos con plasmas interplanetarios, se excitan ondas intensas de Langmuir debido a inestabilidad del haz de plasma. Las ondas Langmuir a su vez interaccio nan con fluctuaciones de densidad de baja frecuencia para producir radiaciones. Si la longitud de las ondas de Langmujr exceden las condicio nes del umbral, se puede efectuar la conversi5n de modo no lineal a on- das electromagneticas a traves de inestabilidades parametricas. As se puede excitar en un plasma inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas impulsadas por ondas intensas de Langmuir: (1) inestabilidades de decaimiento/fusi5n electromagnetica impulsadas por una bomba de Lang- muir que viaja; (2) inestabilidades dobles electromagneticas de decai- miento/fusi5n impulsadas por dos bombas de Langrnuir directamente opues- tas; y (3) inestabilidades de dos corrientes oscilatorias electromagne- ticas impulsadas por dos bombas de Langmuir de corrientes contrarias. Se concluye que las inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas in- ducidas por las ondas de Langmuir son las fuentes posibles de radiacio- nes no termicas en plasmas interplanetarios. ABSTRACT: Nonthermal radio emissions near the local electron plasma frequency have been detected in various regions of interplanetary plasmas: solar wind, upstream of planetary bow shock, and heliopause. Energetic electron beams accelerated by solar flares, planetary bow shocks, and the terminal shock of heliosphere provide the energy source for these radio emissions. Thus, it is expected that similar nonthermal radiation processes may be responsible for the generation of these radio emissions. As energetic electron beams interact with interplanetary plasmas, intense Langmuir waves are excited due to a beam-plasma instability. The Langmuir waves then interact with low-frequency density fluctuations to produce radiations near the local electron plasma frequency. If Langmuir waves are of sufficiently large amplitude to exceed the thresfiold conditions, nonlinear mode conversion electromagnetic waves can be effected through parametric instabilities. A number of electromagnetic parametric instabilities driven by intense Langmuir waves can be excited in a plasma: (1) electromagnetic decay/fusion instabilities driven by a traveling Langmuir pump; (2) double electromagnetic decay/fusion instabilities driven by two oppositely directed Langmuir pumps; and (3) electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instabilities driven by two counterstreaming Langmuir pumps. It is concluded that the electromagnetic parametric instabilities induced by Langmuir waves are likely sources of nonthermal radiations in interplanetary plasmas. Keq ( : INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM - PLASMAS

  3. Panama.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    Panama's population characteristics, geographical features, communication system, history, government, economy, current political situation, and foreign relations are briefly described. Ethnically, Panama's population of 2,001,000 (1984) is 70% mestizo, 14% West Indian, 10% white, and 6% Indian. 93% of the population is Roman Catholic, and the official language is Spanish. The school enrollment rate is close to 100% at the primary level and 65% at the secondary level. The literacy rate is 93.7% for urban residents and 61.8% for rural residents. The infant mortality rate is 20.1, and life expectancy is 71 years. Panama is a hilly and mountainous country, and the eastern region is covered by tropical forests. In 1519, the Spanish established the old city of Panama near the isthmus, i.e., the narrowest section (52 miles) of the country separating the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, and between then and 1670s, the isthmus played a vital role in the movement of gold and silver from the New World to Spain. Ships from the western side of South American sailed to the western side of the isthmus. Their contents were unloaded, hauled across the isthmus, and reloaded on ships bound for Spain. In 1982 Panama won its independence from Spain and the following year voluntarily became a part of the Republic of Greater Colombia. Since the early 1860s, the idea of building a canal through the isthmus was entertained by various groups, and in the late 1800s a Frenchman unsuccessfully attempted the task. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia after Colombia refused to sign a treaty to allow the US to construct a canal. Panama, as an independent nation, then signed the Hay/Bunau-Varilla Treaty with the US. The treaty gave the US the right to build a canal. Panama retained sovereignty over the canal zone, i.e., a 5 mile area on each side of the canal, but the US was given all the rights in the area normally exercised by a sovereign power. The treaty was resented by the Panamaian public, and the government sought for many years to renegotiate the treaty. Riots against the US in 1964 finally lead to renegotiation and the signing of new canal treaties in 1977. The new treaties became effective in October 1979. Under the terms of the treaty, Panama resumed control of the canal zone in 1979. The US will continue to operate the canal and retain primary responsibility for defending the canal through 1999; however, Panama, during the 1979-99 period, will gradually increase its control over the operation and defense of the canal, and in 1999 will assume full responsibility for operating the canal. Both countries are pledged to maintain the neutrality of the canal indefinitely. Each year, until 1999, Panama will receive a yearly annuity of US$10 million, US$.30 on each ton transiting the canal, and a contingency payment of up to US$10 million. Between 1903-68 Panama was controlled by a conservative and commercially oriented oligarchy. In 1968, the National Guard removed the president and instituted a junta government under the control of Brigdier General Torrijos Herrera. Between 1972-78 Torrijos was given extraordinary executive powers. The junta promoted economic policies favoring the rural areas and the lower and middle income groups. In 1978 a National Assembly was elected and in 1983 a new constitution was adopted. The constitution provides for an elected legislature, an elected president, and a judicial branch. In 1984, the current president, Nicolas Ardito Barletta, was elected on a coalition slate. Panama developed as an urban, service, and commercial economy due to its position as a transit point between the east and west. Half of the urban population resides in the metropolitan areas surrounding the canal. The country also has a large international banking community. The agricultural sector is small and poorly developed. (Abstract Truncated) PMID:12178112