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Reproduccion del ganado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

La determination de prenez es una de las principales herramientas de manejo en el Ganado de came. Le habilidad de determiner prenez proporciona al productor un medio de tomar sus decsiones de seleccion y descartarte en momentos decisivos, enfocando los recursos de la operacion en reporductores confi...


Aesthetic surgery for the Mestizo/Hispanic patient: special considerations.  


Mestizo patients, also known as Hispanic or Latino patients, are a growing ethnic group worldwide. Cosmetic procedures have become more accessible, and more patients are looking for procedures that will not only improve their facial features but also make them have a more youthful appearance. Mestizo facial characteristics are reviewed, and a stepwise approach to the aging Mestizo face is presented where nonsurgical and surgical options are discussed including midface-lifting techniques and short scar face-lifting procedures. PMID:20446210

Cobo, Roxana; García, Carlos A



Aspirations: The Ganado Primary School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes an elementary school curriculum implemented at the Ganado Primary School in Arizona. The curriculum is based on traditional Navajo teachings associated with the four cardinal directions. The goal is to help students live harmonious lives by developing a sound belief and value system, learning ways to make a living, learning…

Ganado Public Schools, AZ.


Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries

Sijia Wang; Nicolas Ray; Winston Rojas; Maria V. Parra; Gabriel Bedoya; Carla Gallo; Giovanni Poletti; Guido Mazzotti; Kim Hill; Ana M. Hurtado; Beatriz Camrena; Humberto Nicolini; William Klitz; Ramiro Barrantes; Julio A. Molina; Nelson B. Freimer; Maria Cátira Bortolini; Francisco M. Salzano; Maria L. Petzl-Erler; Luiza T. Tsuneto; José E. Dipierri; Emma L. Alfaro; Graciela Bailliet; Nestor O. Bianchi; Elena Llop; Francisco Rothhammer; Laurent Excoffier; Andrés Ruiz-Linares



Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is infrequent in Mexican mestizos.  


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequent leukemia in adults living in Western countries, and accounts for approximately 30% of adult leukemias. In a 15-year period in a single institution, we identified 19 patients with CLL in a group of 211 adults with leukemia (9% of adult leukemias). Of these 19 CLL patients, 8 had a Caucasian phenotype, 4 were born outside the country, and only 11 were Mexican mestizos. On the other hand, in a multicenter experience involving 1968 Mexican adults with leukemia, CLL represented 6.6% of the cases, a figure significantly lower than that reported in Caucasians (P < 0.01). CLL is the least frequent type of leukemia in Mexican mestizos, and this low prevalence may stem from the genetic origin of this racial group. The data also suggest a genetic predisposition of Caucasians to suffer from this disease. PMID:10407582

Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; Velázquez, B M; Apreza-Molina, M G; Pérez-Romano, B; Ruiz-Reyes, G; Ruiz-Argüelles, A



A great diversity of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA ancestry is present in the Mexican mestizo population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Mexican mestizo population. To examine the genetic diversity and matrilineal ancestry, the full mtDNA hypervariable regions I and II were sequenced in 270 unrelated mestizos from different regions of Mexico. A total of 202 different haplotypes were identified and the haplotype diversity was 0.9945. Amerindian haplotypes predominated in the

Mariano Guardado-Estrada; Eligia Juarez-Torres; Ingrid Medina-Martinez; Ana Wegier; Antonio Macías; Guillermo Gomez; Fernando Cruz-Talonia; Edgar Roman-Bassaure; Daniel Piñero; Susana Kofman-Alfaro; Jaime Berumen



75 FR 9114 - FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ganado, and Victoria, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications...SUMMARY: The staff grants a rulemaking petition filed...Channel 283A to Markham, Texas, as a second local service. The staff also grants a counterproposal filed...



Phenotype-genotype analysis of CYP2C19 in Colombian mestizo individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Omeprazole is metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme to 5-hydroxyomeprazole. CYP2C19 exhibits genetic polymorphisms responsible for the presence of poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and extensive metabolizers (EMs). The defective mutations of the enzyme and their frequencies change between different ethnic groups; however, the polymorphism of the CYP2C19 gene has not been studied in Colombian mestizos. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and phenotype status of CYP2C19 in Colombian mestizos, in order to contribute to the use of appropriate strategies of drug therapy for this population. Methods 189 subjects were genotyped using the multiplex SNaPshot technique and a subgroup of 44 individuals received 20 mg of omeprazole followed by blood collection at 3 hours to determine the omeprazole hydroxylation index by HPLC. Results 83.6%, 15.3% and 1.1% of the subjects were genotyped as EMs, IMs and PMs, respectively. The frequencies of the CYP2C29*1 and CYP2C19*2 alleles were 91.3% and 8.7% respectively whereas the *3, *4, *5, *6 and *8 alleles were not found. No discrepancies were found between the genotype and phenotype of CYP2C19. Conclusion The frequency of poor metabolizers (1.1%) in the Colombian mestizos included in this study is similar to that in Bolivian mestizos (1%) but lower than in Mexican-Americans (3.2%), West Mexicans (6%), Caucasians (5%) and African Americans (5.4%). The results of this study will be useful for drug dosage recommendations in Colombian mestizos.

Isaza, Carlos; Henao, Julieta; Martinez, Jose H Isaza; Arias, Juan C Sepulveda; Beltran, Leonardo



Distribution of TAP gene polymorphisms and extended MHC haplotypes in Mexican Mestizos and in Seri Indians from northwest Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the genetic structure is very useful for investigating the biological significance of polymorphism and may provide clues to understand population origins. We present TAP1\\/TAP2 gene analysis in the Seri indians from Sonora, and in Mestizos from the highlands of Mexico. Thirty-two Seri and 89 Mestizos were studied. TAP genes were typed using the ARMS-PCR technique. The most

S Balladares; C Alaez; J Pujol; C Duran; J L Navarro; C Gorodezky



Typing of Amerindian Kichwas and Mestizos from Ecuador with the SNP forID multiplex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 119 unrelated individuals from two of the major ethnic groups in Ecuador were typed for 49 of the autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNPforID 52plex using the SNapShot® assay. Of the above, 42 samples originated from Mestizos (an admixed population) and the remaining 77 were from Native Amerindian Kichwas. We obtained full SNP profiles in

Lena Poulsen; Claus Børsting; Carmen Tomas; Fabricio González-Andrade; Ramiro Lopez-Pulles; Jorge González-Solórzano; Niels Morling



Association of PPARG2 Pro12Ala variant with larger body mass index in Mestizo and Amerindian populations of Mexico.  


Previous studies have sought to associate the Pro12Ala variant of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARG2) gene with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity, with controversial results. We have determined the Pro12Ala variant frequency in 370 nondiabetic Mexican Mestizo subjects and in five Mexican Amerindian groups and have investigated its possible association with lipid metabolism, insulin serum levels, and obesity in three of these populations. Two independent case-control studies were conducted in 239 nondiabetic individuals: 135 case subjects (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) and 104 control subjects (BMI < 25 kg/m2). The PPARG2 Ala12 allele frequency was higher in most Amerindian populations (0.17 in Yaquis, 0.16 in Mazahuas, 0.16 in Mayans, and 0.20 in Triquis) than in Asians, African Americans, and Caucasians. The Pro12Ala and Ala12Ala (X12Ala) genotypes were significantly associated with greater BMI in Mexican Mestizos and in two Amerindian groups. X12Ala individuals had a higher risk of overweight or obesity than noncarriers in Mestizos (OR = 3.67; 95% CI, 1.42-9.48; p = 0.007) and in Yaquis plus Mazahuas (OR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.27-8.11; p = 0.013). Our results provide further support of the association between the PPARG2 Ala12 allele and risk of overweight or obesity in Mestizos and two Amerindian populations from Mexico. PMID:17985660

Canizales-Quinteros, S; Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Ortiz-López, M G; Rodríguez-Cruz, M; Villarreal-Molina, M T; Coral-Vázquez, R; Huertas-Vázquez, A; Hernández-Caballero, A; López-Alarcón, M; Brito-Zurita, O R; Domínguez-Banda, A; Martinez-Sánchez, L R; Canto-de Cetina, T; Vilchis-Dorantes, G; Rosas-Vargas, H; Granados-Silvestre, M A; Medeiros-Domingo, A; Menjivar, M; Tusié-Luna, M T



Genetic profile of the Ecuadorian Mestizo population (Ecuador—South America) by using the Power Plex ® 16 System Kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allele frequency data for the 15 STR systems and Amelogenine were determined in a population sample of healthy Mestizo unrelated individuals. All loci met Hardy–Weinberg expectations and the high discrimination power of combined system showed the forensic efficiency of these genetic markers. There is a lack of information on Ecuadorian population from a genetic point of view and therefore no

Fabricio González-Andrade; Dora Sánchez-Q; Begoña Mart??nez-Jarreta



Mitochondrial DNA studies show asymmetrical Amerindian admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations.  


The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by analyzing the markers defining the main (A, B, C, D) and minor (X) founder haplogroups in Native Americans, the principal African haplogroup (L), and additional generic markers present in Caucasian (I, J, K, H, T, U, V, W) and minor African lineages (L3). As part of an interdisciplinary research program (the Expedición Humana, furthered by the Universidad Javeriana and directed by J.E. Bernal V.), 159 Afro-Colombians from five populations in which they are the majority and 91 urban Mestizos were studied. No Amerindian haplogroups (A-D, X) were detected in 81% of the Afro-Colombians. In those samples with Amerindian lineages (average 18.8%, with a range from 10% to 43%), haplogroup B predominated. When analyzed for the presence of African haplotypes, Afro-Colombians showed an overall frequency of 35.8% for haplogroup L mtDNAs, although with broad differences between populations. A few Afro-Colombian samples (1.9%) had mutations that have not been described before, and might therefore be considered as previously unsampled African variants or as new mutations arising in the American continent. Conversely, in Mestizos less than 22% of their mtDNAs belonged to non-Amerindian lineages, of which most were likely to be West Eurasian in origin. Haplogroup L mtDNAs were found in only one Mestizo (1.1%), indicating that, if present, admixture with African women would bring in other, rarer African lineages. On the other hand, in an accompanying paper (Keyeux et al. 2002) we have shown that Amerindians from Colombia have experienced little or no matrilineal admixture with Caucasians or Africans. Taken together, these results are evidence of different patterns of past ethnic admixture among Africans, Amerindians, and Spaniards in the geographic region now encompassing Colombia, which is also reflected in much of the region's cultural diversity. PMID:12713143

Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Keyeux, Genoveva



Analysis of estrogen receptor alpha gene haplotype in Mexican mestizo patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee.  


The aim of this work was to test the association between estrogen receptor ? gene (ER?) polymorphism and primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in Mexican mestizo patients. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were patients >40 years of age, with a body mass index (BMI) ? 27 and radiologic score for OA of the knee of ?2 according to Kellgren-Lawrence scale, and controls were subjects >40 years age with a radiologic score <2. Two restriction fragment length polymorphisms, PvuII (T/C; rs2234693), and XbaI (A/G; rs9340799), of the ER? were analyzed. Allelic haplotypes were constructed and non-conditional logistic regression was developed to evaluate risk magnitude through odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence intervals (95% CI). Three different allelic haplotypes were identified: TA; CG, and CA. Unadjusted analysis of the haplotypes did not show significant associations; nonetheless, when data were adjusted for gender, age, and BMI, a significant decrease risk was observed for CG haplotype (OR [95% CI]) = 0.5 (0.3-0.9)] (P = 0.04). These results suggest that ER? gene CG haplotype could be associated with a reduced risk of primary knee OA in Mexican mestizo population. PMID:21445546

Borgonio-Cuadra, Verónica Marusa; González-Huerta, Celia; Duarte-Salazár, Carolina; de Los Ángeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cortés-González, Socorro; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio



"El Escalafon y el Doble Turno": An International Perspective on School Director Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"El Escalafon" is the process for appointing school directors and "el Doble Turno" is the double shift of morning and afternoon session in Mexican schools. These two concepts open the door to examine more general issues in the appointment of school directors and the structure of the school day. Director appointment and school time are rooted in…

Slater, Charles L.; Boone, Mike; Nelson, Sarah; De La Colina, Maria; Garcia, Elizabeth; Grimaldo, Leticia; Rico, Grace; Rodriguez, Sonia; Sirios, Cheryl; Womack, Damaris; Garduno, Jose Maria Garcia; Arriaga, Ruth



HLA-DRB1*0101 is associated with the genetic susceptibility to develop lichen planus in the Mexican Mestizo population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of lichen planus (LP) is still unknown and previous studies have found an association between LP and HLA-DR1,\\u000a DR2, DR3, DR9 and DR10 in different populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of the HLA-DRB1 alleles\\u000a in Mexican Mestizo patients with LP. The aim of this study was to determine the gene frequency of

P. Luis-Montoya; J. K. Yamamoto-Furusho; E. Vega-Memije; A. Rodríguez-Carreón; J. A. Ruiz-Morales; G. Vargas-Alarcón; L. Domínguez-Soto; J. Granados



The C677T Polymorphism of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Associated with Idiopathic Ischemic Stroke in the Young Mexican-Mestizo Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, this relation remains controversial. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and idiopathic ischemic stroke in the young Mexican-Mestizo population. Methods: One hundred seventy-eight

Irma Isordia-Salas; Fernando Barinagarrementería-Aldatz; Alfredo Leaños-Miranda; Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez; Jorge Vela-Ojeda; Jaime García-Chávez; Isabel Ibarra-González; Abraham Majluf-Cruz



Parental control over mate choice to prevent marriages with out-group members: a study among mestizos, Mixtecs, and Blacks in Mexico.  


The present research examined how a preference for influencing the mate choice of one's offspring is associated with opposition to out-group mating among parents from three ethnic groups in the Mexican state of Oaxaca: mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103), indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65), and blacks (n = 35). Nearly all of the men in this study were farmworkers or fishermen. Overall, the level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was higher than in Western populations, but lower than in Asian populations. Only among the Mixtecs were fathers more in favor of parental influence on the mate choice of children than mothers were. As predicted, opposition to out-group mating was an important predictor of preferred parental influence on mate choice, more so among fathers than among mothers, especially in the mestizo group-the group with the highest status. In addition, women, and especially mestizo women, expressed more opposition to out-group mating than men did. PMID:22875548

Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V; Dubbs, Shelli



Genetic admixture and diversity estimations in the Mexican Mestizo population from Mexico City using 15 STR polymorphic markers.  


The 15 AmpFlSTR Identifiler loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA were analyzed in a sample of 378 unrelated individuals from Mexico City, Mexico. Significant deviations from HW equilibrium in 14/15 STR loci alleles were not detected. The D18S51 locus had the highest power of discrimination (0.970). Genetic admixture estimations revealed a 69% of Amerindian, 26% of European and 5% of African contribution. Comparative analyses between Mexicans and other neighboring populations reveal significant differences in genetic diversity. Our results are important for future comparative genetic studies in different Latin American ethnic groups, particularly Mexican Mestizos and Amerindians. They should also be helpful in genetics, population evolution, forensic and paternity testing. PMID:19083813

Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Zuñiga, Joaquín; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Barquera, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Guillermo J; Sánchez-Arenas, Rosalinda; García-Peña, Maria Del Carmen; Granados, Julio; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto



The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the calcitonin gene with primary osteoarthritis of the knee in Mexican mestizo population.  


Primary osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disorder with several genetics factors involved. Calcitonin (CT) has been suggested to possess chondroprotective effects and could play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variations in or adjacent to the CT gene may be associated with primary OA of the knee in Mexican mestizo population. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms at the CT locus and OA of the knee in 107 cases and 106 controls. Cases were patients >40 years of age, with a body mass index (BMI) ?27 and a radiologic score for OA of the knee ?2. Controls were subjects >40 years of age with a radiologic score <2. Non-conditional logistic regression was developed to evaluate risk magnitude. The G allele and GT genotype frequencies of the G-706T polymorphism and the C allele and CC genotype of the C-778T polymorphism were significantly higher in patients with OA than in control subjects. The GG genotype of the G-706T was associated with lower risk of the development of OA of the knee. According to the results, the G-706T and the C-778T polymorphisms were related to the Cdx1 and Mzf1 transcription factor binding sites, respectively. Therefore, these could be related to regulation sequences in the CT gene promoter. In conclusion, G-706T and C-778T polymorphisms in the CT gene are significantly associated with the development of primary OA of the knee. PMID:23575548

Magaña, J J; Muñoz, B; Borgonio-Cuadra, V M; Razo-Estrada, C; González-Huerta, C; Cortés-González, S; Albores, A; Miranda-Duarte, A



Distribution of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Polymorphisms Associated with Poor Metabolizer Phenotype in Five Amerindian Groups and Western Mestizos from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background: The distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes allows inferring the potential risk for specific adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic effects in humans. This variability shows differences among human populations. The aim of this study was to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to a poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype in nonpreviously studied Amerindian groups and Mestizos (general admixed population) from Mexico. Methods: We detected by SNaPshot® different polymorphisms located in CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *6, *7, and *8) and CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *4 and *5) in western Mestizos (n=145) and five Amerindian groups from Mexico: Tarahumaras from the North (n=88); Purépechas from the Center (n=101); and Tojolabales (n=68), Tzotziles (n=88), and Tzeltales (n=20) from the Southeast. Genotypes were observed by capillary electrophoresis. The genetic relationships among these populations were estimated based on these genes. Results and Discussion: The wild-type allele (*1) of both genes was predominant in the Mexican populations studied. The most widely observed alleles were CYP2C19*2 (range, 0%–31%) and CYP2D6*4 (range, 1.2%–7.3%), whereas CYP2D6*3 was exclusively detected in Mestizos. Conversely, CYP2C19*4 and *5, as well as CYP2D6*3, *6, *7, and *8, were not observed in the majority of the Mexican populations. The Tarahumaras presented a high frequency of the allele CYP2C19*2 (31%) and of homozygotes *2/*2 (10.7%), which represent a high frequency of potentially PM phenotypes in this Amerindian group. The genetic distances showed high differentiation of Tarahumaras (principally for CYP2C19 gene). In general, a relative proximity was observed between most of the Amerindian, Mexican-Mestizo, and Latin-American populations. Conclusion: In general, the wild-type allele (*1) predominates in Mexican populations, outlining a relatively homogeneous distribution for CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The exception is the Tarahumara group that displays a potentially increased risk for adverse reactions to CYP2C19-metabolized drugs.

Salazar-Flores, Joel; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Martinez-Cortes, Gabriela; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Sosa-Macias, Martha; Munoz-Valle, Jose F.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Angelica; Roman, Raquel; Mendez, Jose L.; Barrera, Andres; Torres, Alfredo; Medina, Rafael



A COL2A1 gene polymorphism is related with advanced stages of osteoarthritis of the knee in Mexican Mestizo population.  


Primary osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease with several genetics factors involved. The COL2A1 gene is of particular interest because it encodes for the most abundant protein in articular cartilage. The aim was to evaluate the association of COL2A1 gene polymorphism with OA of the knee in Mexican Mestizo patients. A case-control study was conducted; cases comprised patients with a radiologic scoring > or = 2 and controls with a radiologic scoring <2. DNA was extracted from a peripheral blood sample, the polymorphic site of the COL2A1 gene was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the products were digested using PvuII restriction enzyme. For statistical analysis, a non-conditional logistic regression was developed. There were no associations among alleles in the overall sample, nevertheless, a significant association was found with p (Pp/pp) allele and OA of the knee grade 4 [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) 4.1 (1.2-14.6)] adjusted by gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). These results suggest an association of a COL2A1 gene polymorphism with advanced stages of OA of the knee in Mexican Mestizo population. PMID:19756630

Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; González-Huerta, Celia; Borgonio-Cuadra, Verónica Marusa; Duarte-Salazár, Carolina; Lara-Alvarado, Lorena; de los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cortés-González, Socorro; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio



Anti-malarials exert a protective effect while Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing SLE renal disease: data from a Latin-American cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the role of ethnicity and the use of anti-malarials (protective) on lupus renal disease. Methods. A nested case–control study (1:2 proportion, n?=?265 and 530) within GLADEL's (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort was carried out. The end-point was ACR renal criterion development after diagnosis. Cases and controls were matched for follow-up time (end-point or a comparable time, respectively). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable analyses. Additional analyses were done to determine if the protective effect of anti-malarials persisted after adjusting for intake-associated confounders. Results. Of the cases, 233 (87.9%) were women; their mean (s.d.) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years and their median (Q3–Q1 interquartile range) follow-up time for cases and controls was 8.3 months (Q3–Q1: 23.5); 56.6% of the cases and 74.3% of the controls were anti-malarial users. Mestizo ethnicity [odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48] and hypertension (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.38, 3.70) were independently associated with a higher risk of renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26, 0.58), older age at disease onset (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and female gender (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.99) were negatively associated with such occurrence. After adjusting for variables associated with their intake, the protective effect of anti-malarials on renal disease occurrence persisted (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25, 0.58). Conclusion. Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use protects patients from such an occurrence.

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Soriano, Enrique R.; Saurit, Veronica; Cavalcanti, Fernando S.; Guzman, Renato A.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sauza del Pozo, Maria J.; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Alva, Magaly; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.



JAG1 and COL1A1 polymorphisms and haplotypes in relation to bone mineral density variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo Women.  


Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD). One of the most important factors that influence BMD is the genetic contribution. The collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) and the JAGGED (JAG1) have been investigated in relation to BMD. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COL1A1, their haplotypes, and one SNP of JAG1 with BMD in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Seven hundred and fifty unrelated postmenopausal women were included. Risk factors were recorded and BMD was measured in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. Two SNPs in COL1A1 (rs1800012 and rs1107946) and one in JAG1 (rs2273061) were studied. Real-time PCR allelic discrimination was used for genotyping. The differences between the means of the BMDs according to genotype were analyzed with covariance. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r (2), and haplotype analysis of COL1A1 was conducted. Under a dominant model, the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1 showed an association with BMD of the lumbar spine (P?=?0.021). In addition, analysis of the haplotype of COL1A1 showed that the G-G haplotype presented a higher BMD in lumbar spine. We did not find an association between the s1107946 and rs2273061 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 and JAG1, respectively. Our results suggest that the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1, in addition to one haplotype, were significantly associated with BMD variation in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women. PMID:22174012

Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Espinosa, Leticia Cortes; López-Medina, Guillermo; Aguirre-García, María C; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia



Polymorphisms associated with the risk of lung cancer in a healthy Mexican Mestizo population: Application of the additive model for cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Mexico and worldwide. In the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of lung cancer cases in young people, which suggests an important role for genetic background in the etiology of this disease. In this study, we genetically characterized 16 polymorphisms in 12 low penetrance genes (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTPI, XRCC1, ERCC2, MGMT, CCND1 and TP53) in 382 healthy Mexican Mestizos as the first step in elucidating the genetic structure of this population and identifying high risk individuals. All of the genotypes analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but different degrees of linkage were observed for polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 and EPHX1 genes. The genetic variability of this population was distributed in six clusters that were defined based on their genetic characteristics. The use of a polygenic model to assess the additive effect of low penetrance risk alleles identified combinations of risk genotypes that could be useful in predicting a predisposition to lung cancer. Estimation of the level of genetic susceptibility showed that the individual calculated risk value (iCRV) ranged from 1 to 16, with a higher iCRV indicating a greater genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.

Perez-Morales, Rebeca; Mendez-Ramirez, Ignacio; Castro-Hernandez, Clementina; Martinez-Ramirez, Ollin C.; Gonsebatt, Maria Eugenia; Rubio, Julieta



Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766) with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin), distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers. Subjects and methods In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI), were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold. Results sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046) GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL), TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL), and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL), but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T>G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05) with inflammation markers and distribution of body fat storage (Pearson’s r = ?0.169 to ?0.465) were found. Conclusion In this study, we have suggested that the ADIPOQ +45G allele could be associated with distribution of body fat storage in obesity. On the other hand, as no association was observed between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene polymorphism and obesity, it cannot be concluded that the ADIPOQ +45G allele is responsible for the increase of adiponectin levels.

Guzman-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Chavarria-Avila, Efrain; Munoz-Valle, Jose-Francisco; Armas-Ramos, Laura-Elizabeth; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Aldrete, Maria Elena Aguilar; Oregon-Romero, Edith; Mercado, Monica Vazquez-Del; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa-Elena



Clan, Sage, and Sky: Indigenous, Hispano, and Mestizo Narratives of Learning in New Mexico Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities retain Native American and Latino college students at lower rates than other ethnic groups even when culturally based services, financial assistance, and support are provided. College teaching and conceptions of learning have yet to evolve on a widespread basis toward culturally diverse epistemologies and practice. This…

Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Ke, Fengfeng; Herrera, Felisha A.



Tolerancia al Calor en Becerros Mestizos ½ Senepol- y 5\\/8 Holstein 3 \\/8 Brahman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted to determine heat tolerance between crossbred ½ Senepol- (S-) and \\/ Holstein- \\/ Brah- man (HB). Differences between crossbred in trial 1, and cross- bred and ambient temperature (Ta: 25 and 34°C) in trial 2 were evaluated through rectal temperature (Tre), respiration rate (RR), heat tolerance index (HTC), coefficient of adaptability (CA), average daily gain (ADG),

Armando Quintero-Moreno; Derwin Calatayud; Julio Boscán; Nidia Rojas; Darwuin Arrieta; Roberto Palomares


Population data of nine STRs of Mexican-Mestizos from Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and thirteen individuals were PCR-typed for nine STR loci with the AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus PCR amplification kit, including the following autosomal STRs: D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820. Allele frequencies for each STR were estimated, and they were compared to other populations. Genotype distribution by locus and by two-loci combination was in agreement with

A Luna-Vazquez; G Vilchis-Dorantes; L. A Paez-Riberos; F Muñoz-Valle; A González-Martin; H Rangel-Villalobos



Mitochondrial DNA Studies Show Asymmetrical Amerindian Admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by

Clemencia Rodas; Nancy Gelvez; Genoveva Keyeux



Mitochondrial DNA Studies Show Asymmetrical Amerindian Admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these

Clemencia Rodas; Nancy Gelvez; Genoveva Keyeux



Control de Parasitos y de Insectos de Ganado Vacuno (Parasite and Insect Control in Cattle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Control of pests in cattle is involved and complicated, requiring a variety of treatment methods. The following eight pamphlets explain specific parasites and insects with possible cures. Controlling internal parasites using phenothizines which includes d...



Haplotype frequencies of the PowerPlex ® Y system in a Mexican-Mestizo population sample from Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PowerPlex® Y system including 11 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I\\/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis in 357 males from Mexico City. Haplotype frequency for this system was reported. The haplotype diversity was 99.56±0.04%, and gene diversity ranged from 51.4% for DYS393 to 92.5% for DYS385. AMOVA tests including previous reports from Mexico

A. Luna-Vázquez; G. Vilchis-Dorantes; M. O. Aguilar-Ruiz; A. Bautista-Rivas; A. Pérez-García; R. Orea-Ochoa; D. Villanueva-Hernández; J. F. Muñoz-Valle; H. Rangel-Villalobos




Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms identification has important applications in the study of molecular genetic diversity level in domestic animal species. For these studies, the mtDNA control region of maternally inherited, known as D>loop is of particular interest. This study aims to identify mitochondrial D>loop haplotypes throughPCR>RFLPsintwopopulationsoffighting>ca ttle.Sampleswerecollectedfromanimalhairfolliclesfromtwo Mexican fighting>bull herds (Los Encinos (ENC, n= 22) and Montecristo (MC, n= 37)).

Williams Arellano; Ana Maria Sifuentes Rincón; Gaspar Manuel Parra Bracamonte


Ganado Bovino Para Carne - Descorne, Castracion, Marcacion a Hierro, Marcas (Beef Cattle - Dehorning, Castrating, Branding and Marking).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complete and detailed instructions of several different methods used to dehorn, castrate, brand and mark cattle are discussed in full. Dehorning--The age of the cow is an important factor and will determine if the Caustic Soda method is applied (just a fe...

R. T. Clark A. L. Baker G. E. Whitmore




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background: Depression is the most frequent mental disorder in the world; its overall prevalence is about 8-12%. In Mexico, it has been calculated that 8.3% of the population aged 18-64 years has suffered this disorder along their lifetime. Disregarding country or culture, depression is two to three times more frequent in women than in men, more usual among separated

Jaime López Rodríguez; Marco Antonio; López Butrón; Blanca Estela; Vargas Terrez; Valerio Villamil Salcedo



Desarrollo y estandarizacion de pruebas de dõ´gitos dicoticos sencillos y dobles en lengua malaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single and double dichotic digit tests in Malay language were developed and standardized as an initial attempt to incorporate tests of auditory processing within the scope of audiology practice in Malaysia. Normative data under free recall, directed right-ear first, and directed left-ear first listening conditions were determined using 120 Malay children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old

Siti Z. Mukari; Robert W. Keith; Anne M. Tharpe; Cheryl D. Johnson


Purificación de la proteína transportadora de esteroides sexuales (SHBG) con un métodode doble cromatografía de afinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of sex hormone bindingglobulin(SHBG) with two affinity chromatography methods. The Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) transports steroids sex hormones, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) in the blood and regulates their access to target tissues. The obtention of a preparation of high purity of this protein is necessary for the development of analytical methods. The human serum albumin

Martha Deás Rodríguez; Celeste Arranz Calzado; Julio César; Rodríguez García; Miladyis García Luis; Roberto González Suárez



Calibration and testing of TESLA Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) using doble F6150 test instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phasor measurement unit (PMU) is an emerging technology in electric power systems which has many advantages in wide area disturbance analysis, protection and control. In order to utilize the benefits of this technology and to arrive at common way of representing, reporting and utilizing Phasor measurements, the IEEE standards committee revised the existing 1344 standard for synchrophasors and recently published

K. Narendra; Zhiying Zhang; B. Lackey; E. Khan



Cardiovascular health status among Caribbean Hispanics living in Northern Manhattan and Ecuadorian natives/mestizos in rural coastal Ecuador: a comparative study.  


Knowledge of cardiovascular health (CVH) status of a given population is mandatory to reduce the burden of vascular diseases in the region. We compared CVH of two distinct populations having similar ethnic backgrounds to understand the role of lifestyle and environment on their CVH, and to provide insights in the planning of cost-effective health strategies. CVH status was compared in two Hispanic populations living in Northern Manhattan and Atahualpa (rural coastal Ecuador) using the health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association. Both studies used similar definitions of CVH and similar inclusion criteria for participating subjects (age ?40 years, cardiovascular disease-free status, and living at their respective localities for ?3 months). The studied populations consisted of 1,617 Caribbean Hispanics living in Northern Manhattan (mean age 66 ± 9 years), and 616 Atahualpa residents (mean age 59 ± 13 years). Atahualpa residents had significantly better metrics than Caribbean Hispanics, with the exception of fasting glucose levels. Likewise, the odds for having 5-7 ideal metrics were also better in Atahualpa residents, irrespective of age. CVH is better in Atahualpa residents than in Caribbean Hispanics living in Northern Manhattan. These differences are likely related to a healthier lifestyle in a rural setting and provide insights for setting cardiovascular prevention priorities. PMID:23456686

Del Brutto, Oscar H; Dong, Chuanhui; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Del Brutto, Victor J; Sacco, Ralph L



Major histocompatibility complex and strong human leukocyte antigen–DRB1 and gender association with Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome in Mexican Mestizos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome (VKH) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder mediated by cytotoxic T cells targeting melanocytes antigen(s). A strong major histocompatibility complex (MHC) association with HLA-DRB1?04:05 has been demonstrated in different populations. We investigated the contribution of HLA–A?, –B?, –C?, –DRB1?, and –DQB1? genes, belonging to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), to the expression of VKH and we analyzed the influence

Carmen Aláez; Hilario Flores-A; Luz Elena Concha del Río; Andrea Munguía; Araceli Rodríguez; David García; Lourdes Arellanes; Clara Gorodezky


Polymorphisms in the promoter region of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and the HLA-DRB1 locus in Mexican Mestizo patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) gene is located within the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the short arm of the human sixth chromosome. Two polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNF-? gene (?308 and ?238) have been associated with the genetic susceptibility to develop ulcerative colitis in both Caucasian and Asian populations.The aim of

Jesús K. Yamamoto-Furusho; Luis F. Uscanga; Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón; José M. Rodr??guez-Pérez; Joaquin Zuñiga; Julio Granados




Microsoft Academic Search

La selección recurrente para aptitud combinatoria en cultivos autógamos (SRAC), aunque exitosa, enfrenta dificultades para ha- cer las cruzas y para obtener suficiente semilla de éstas. Además, las derivaciones de la respuesta a la SRAC (R) basadas en el mode- lo de dos alelos pueden no ser adecuadas si la población se formó con más de dos progenitores. El objetivo

Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; Autónoma Chapingo



High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity) and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do

David Cantú de León; Delia Pérez-Montiel; Verónica Villavicencio; Alejandro García Carranca; Alejandro Mohar Betancourt; Victor Acuña-Alonzo; Alberto López-Tello; Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón; Rodrigo Barquera; Neng Yu; Edmond J Yunis; Julio Granados



PET de doble fase con 18F-FDOPA como instrumento para la caracterización de tumores cerebrales  

Microsoft Academic Search

18F-FDOPA is an amino acid analogue used to evaluate presynaptic dopaminergic activity, which has aroused great interest in neuro-oncology. We have evaluated five 18F-FDOPA PET studies of patients referred for study of parkinsonian syndrome. Two subjects had previously treated high-grade brain tumors, one nonspecific brain injury, and 2 subjects presented unexpected tumoral lesions. For all lesions SUVmax, time to SUVmax

M. González-Forero; E. Prieto; I. Domínguez; C. Vigil; I. Peñuelas; J. Arbizu




Microsoft Academic Search

Currently almost all energy is provided by fossil fuels that increase greenhouse gas emissions contributing to global warming. These emissions can be reduced with the use of renewable energy produced from biomass such a livestock manure. The manure is raw material for production of electricity and thermal energy. Anaerobic digestion of waste can reduce emissions by capturing methane, a greenhouse

Bertha Alicia Rivas Lucero; Gabriel Zuniga Avila; Jorge Iram Saenz Solis; Sergio Guerrero Morales; Armando Segovia Lerma; Hugo Armando Morales Morales



Síntesis y evaluación de los ésteres de doble acción del ketorolaco y de la aspirina Synthesis and evaluation of dual acting esters of aspirin and ketorolac  

Microsoft Academic Search

To overcome the gastric toxicity of aspirin and ketorolac fi ve different N,N-disubstitutedaminoethyl ester derivatives for each were synthesized and evaluated. The intact esters were specially designed to satisfy the structural requirement for possessing the anticholinergic activity before cleavage. Besides blocking the acidic carboxyl group by esterifi cation this activity was incorporated into the synthesized esters with an expected additional



“Una Mujer Trabaja Doble Aquí”: Vignette-Based Focus Groups on Stress and Work for Latina Blue-Collar Women in Eastern North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple

Michele M. Easter; Laura A. Linnan; Margaret E. Bentley; Brenda M. DeVellis; Andrea Meier; Pamela Y. Frasier; Kristine S. Kelsey; Marci K. Campbell



Efectos genéticos directos y maternos del peso al destete en una población de ganado Cebú de Cuba Direct and maternal genetic effects for weaning weight in a Zebu beef cattle population in Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for weaning weight were estimated in a Zebu beef cattle population in Camagüey province, Cuba. Data for 20,151 calves born between 1988 and 2006 were used in six variants of the statistical animal model. Contemporary groups (year- herd-season-sex) were used as a common fixed effect, and a weaning age linear regression and dam age linear and quadratic regressions

Alejandro Palacios-Espinosa; José Luis Espinoza-Villavicencio; Danilo Guerra-Iglesias



The GLAD Project Evaluation Summary: 1994 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the Ganado Learning Arts Development Project (GLAD), a program implemented at the Ganado Primary School in Arizona. The school serves K-2 students from the Navajo reservation and emphasizes integration of traditional Navajo teachings and culture with Western knowledge. The report covers the following data: (1) student average…

Boloz, Sigmund A.


Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Segment Specifications--Tuba City via Mt. Elden, Phoenix; Keams Canyon, Second Mesa, Low Mountain; Phoenix, San Carlos, Bylas; Keams Canyon via Ganado Mesa, Ft. Defiance; Tuba City via Black Mesa, Ft. Defiance; and Budgetary Cost Information--Pinal Peak via San Xavier, Tucson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The communication links of five different segments of the Arizona TeleMedicine Network (a telecommunication system designed to provide health services for American Indians in rurally isolated areas) and budgetary cost information for Pinal Peak via San Xavier and Tucson are described in this document. The five communication links are identified…

Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.


Estimación del valor económico de la calidad del agua de un río mediante una doble aproximación: una aplicación de los principios económicos de la Directiva Marco del Agua  

Microsoft Academic Search

El principal objetivo de la Directiva Marco del Agua de la Unión Europea es logar un “buen estado†de las aguas europeas para el año 2015 mediante una combinación de diferentes medidas. En este estudio, dos métodos de preferencias declaradas, el método de valoración contingente y el método de ordenación contingente, han sido aplicados para obtener la valoración económica de

Salvador del Saz Salazar; Francesc Hernandez Sancho; Ramon Sala Garrido



Latin America's Racial Caste System: Salient Marketing Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American societies are structured in a fuzzy racial caste system. Whites are at the top. Next are individuals of mixed European and Indian or mixed European and African ancestry, the Mestizos and the Mulattos, respectively. At the bottom are the Indians and the blacks. Integral to this system is an overt preference for European appearance and, among many whites,

Rutilio Martinez


Cultural and ethical positioning: A teacher and his mazahua students reinvent the national curriculum in a Mexican rural school  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ethnographic description of the cultural and ethical positioning adopted by a mestizo teacher in his interactions with Mazahua (indigenous) students. The interaction shows how teacher and students get together in a process of shared reflection or situated learning (Lave & Wenger 2001) about the uses and effects produced by the application of modern technology. They do

Adriana Robles Valle



High Doses of Dexamethasone in Adult Patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHigh-dose dexamethasone (DXM) has been used in treatment of patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who are refractory to other treatments such as prednisone and splenectomy; nevertheless, different studies show variable success rates, this postulated as possibly being due to racial differences. The objective of this study was to determine DXM effectiveness at high doses in Mexican mestizo adult patients

Guillermo R Gutiérrez-Esp??ndola; Manuel R Morales-Polanco; Susana Guerrero-Rivera; Juan O Talavera; Elizabeth Sánchez-Valle; Enrique Gómez-Morales; Javier Pizzuto-Chávez



Education and Migration in Highland Ecuador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies education's relationship to migration by examining migratory patterns and educational characteristics of those who had moved and chosen not to move in three mestizo and two Indian communities. Shows that much variance in migration that appears to be explained by educational experiences is a product of preexistent background variables. (JHZ)

Preston, Rosemary



Historical Development of the Concept of the Multicultural Personality: A Mixed Ethnic Heritage Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Mestizo (mixed ethnic heritage) Civil Rights Movement in the United States can be divided into five phases: Pre-Civil Rights, Civil Rights, Bilingual-Multicultural Education, Political Conservatism, and the current period, an Assault on Civil Rights. The paper describes how a personal research career has been influenced by the different…

Ramirez, Manuel, III


Genetically Determined Amerindian Ancestry Correlates with Increased Frequency of Risk Alleles for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyze if genetically determined Amerindian ancestry predicts the increased presence of risk alleles of known susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms within 16 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a set of 804 Mestizo lupus patients and 667 Mestizo normal healthy controls. In addition, 347 admixture informative markers were genotyped. Individual ancestry proportions were determined using STRUCTURE. Association analysis was performed using PLINK, and correlation of the presence of risk alleles with ancestry was done using linear regression. Results A meta-analysis of the genetic association of the 16 SNPs across populations showed that TNFSF4, STAT4, PDCD1, ITGAM, and IRF5 were associated with lupus in a Hispanic-Mestizo cohort enriched for European and Amerindian ancestry. In addition, two SNPs within the MHC region, previously associated in a genome-wide association study in Europeans, were also associated in Mestizos. Using linear regression we predict an average increase of 2.34 risk alleles when comparing a lupus patient with 100% Amerindian ancestry to an SLE patient with 0% American Indian Ancestry (p<0.0001). SLE patients with 43% more Amerindian ancestry are predicted to carry one additional risk allele. Conclusion Amerindian ancestry increased the number of risk alleles for lupus.

Sanchez, E; Webb, R; Rasmussen, A.; Kelly, J.A; Riba, L.; Kaufman, K.M.; Garcia-de la Torre, I.; Moctezuma, J.F.; Maradiaga-Cecena, M.A.; Cardiel, M.; Acevedo, E.; Cucho-Venegas, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gamron, S.; Pons-Estel, B.A.; Vasconcelos, C.; Martin, J.; Tusie-Luna, T.; Harley, J.B.; Richardson, B.; Sawalha, A.H.; Alarcon-Riquelme, M.E.



Orphans of the americas: Why the existence of zambo societies has been denied  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much scholarship, in a number of different disciplines, has been devoted to the study of mulattos, and mestizos, but little\\u000a to zambos. This paper begins with an examination of efforts made in the American colonial period and then demonstrates how\\u000a internalized decisions made by Indians and African Americans worked against zambo societies.

Rhett S. Jones



Ethnic Succession in a Highland Chiapas Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the 1950s, ethnic relations in Tenejapa (Chiapas, Mexico) have shifted toward greater equality and less antagonism between formerly dominant mestizos and formerly dominated "indigenas" (Maya Indians). An important cause is the long-term promotion of indigenous education by a national agency, Instituto Nacional Indigenista, imparting to…

Whitmeyer, Joseph M.



Resist This! Embodying the Contradictory Positions and Collective Possibilities of Transformative Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth participatory action research (YPAR) and arts-informed approaches reflect a source of critical resistance at the intersection of theory and practice (praxis). Our discussion draws upon "Mestizo Arts & Activism" ("MAA"), a participatory action research collective made up of young people who focused their research on the educational rights of…

Quijada Cerecer, David Alberto; Cahill, Caitlin; Bradley, Matt



On Mexican National Character  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican authors have limited their discussions of national character to the mestizo population of the central plateau. Their analyses are overburdened with a self-denigra tive view of Mexican national character, stressing inferiority feelings stamped by the Conquest. More recently, Mexican psychoanalysts have focused on the Conquest and subsequent revolutionary upheavals as generators of conflict between the sexes, which they see

Michael Maccoby



Hybridity, memory and counter-memory: the short fiction of Sinai C. Hamada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores engagements with cultural memory in selected short fiction by the prominent Filipino-Japanese mestizo writer in English, Sinai C. Hamada (1912–1991). Hamada's earliest exposure to literature took the form of oral narratives, which ranged from folktales to community events told to him by his Igorot (Ibaloi) mother and maternal grandmother. In as much as his source is the

Anna Christie K. Villarba-Torres



¿Qué Es Racismo?: Awareness of Racism and Discrimination in Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In the national consciousness, Ecuador is a mestizo nation. However, it is also an ethnically diverse nation with sizable minorities of indigenous and Afrodescended peoples. In national surveys, there is also a considerable minority who self-identify as blanco (white). Although there is strong evidence of continuing discrimination and prejudice toward both indigenous and Afro-descended peoples, there is little public discussion

Kenneth J. Mijeski; Meagan M. Stark; Scott H. Beck



¿Qué Es Racismo?: Awareness of Racism and Discrimination in Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the national consciousness, Ecuador is a mestizo nation. However, it is also an ethnically diverse nation with sizable minorities of indigenous and Afrodescended peoples. In national surveys, there is also a considerable minority who self-identify as blanco (white). Although there is strong evidence of continuing discrimination and prejudice toward both indigenous and Afro-descended peoples, there is little public discussion

Kenneth J. Mijeski; Meagan M. Stark; Scott H. Beck



Resist This! Embodying the Contradictory Positions and Collective Possibilities of Transformative Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth participatory action research (YPAR) and arts-informed approaches reflect a source of critical resistance at the intersection of theory and practice (praxis). Our discussion draws upon "Mestizo Arts & Activism" ("MAA"), a participatory action research collective made up of young people who focused their research on the educational rights of…

Quijada Cerecer, David Alberto; Cahill, Caitlin; Bradley, Matt



Un caos perfecto: El cine de Emir Kusturica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desentrañar la vida de este cineasta, capaz de conv ertir el caos en perfección, es una tortura exquisita sólo para quien tenga en el c uerpo una sobredosis de él suficiente como para soportarla. Aunque su nombre ya está inserto en la historia del séptimo arte como el director que más premios ha ganado en el Festival de Cannes, el

Evelyn ERLIJ


The Sun is Shining in my Eyes: The Navajo Child Enters Kindergarten Expecting to Write and He Can.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ganado (Arizona) Primary School, located on the Navajo Reservation, instituted a successful English writing project for kindergarten children that illustrated that young children should be allowed and expected to develop as writers because they are capable of real writing. Teachers encouraged children to complete drawings and writings in…

Boloz, Sigmund A.; Jenness, Diana


When You Don't Know What's Important: Revitalizing Decision-Making in the Native American School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the Ganado Public School District (K-12, 1,650 students), in the northeast corner of the Navajo Reservation, an administrative retreat structure has been used for 4 years to promote the team management concept and maintain the District's formal direction. Building from a comprehensive needs assessment by and for the District's Navajo…

Boloz, Sigmund A.; Brutz, Ronald A.


Gangster in guerilla faceA transnational mirror of production between the USA and El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doble cara (double\\/two-faced) is a key trope in Salvadoran political folklore. It is a folk theory of mimesis, which attempts to `master the absent presence of the other' through a discourse of conspiracy. The term has a history in the US-funded Salvadoran civil war. In this article, I consider how doble cara has come to be deployed around a new

Elana Zilberg



Plant Management in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant Management in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. Plant management types currently practiced in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, México, were documented and analyzed based on\\u000a ethnobotanical studies conducted in 13 villages with six indigenous groups and Mestizo people. The information was organized\\u000a in a data base, and then detailed and guided to a consensus through six workshops carried out by ethnobotanists working

José Blancas; Alejandro Casas; Selene Rangel-Landa; Ana Moreno-Calles; Ignacio Torres; Edgar Pérez-Negrón; Leonor Solís; América Delgado-Lemus; Fabiola Parra; Yaaye Arellanes; Javier Caballero; Laura Cortés; Rafael Lira; Patricia Dávila



Association of narcolepsy-cataplexy with HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 in Mexican patients: A relationship between HLA and gender is suggested  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy-cataplexy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with recurrent episodes of irresistible sleep, cataplexy, hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Its aetiology is unknown, but it is positively associated with the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in all studied populations. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of HLA class II DRB1\\/DQB1 alleles with narcolepsy-cataplexy in Mexican Mestizo

Carmen Alaez; Ling Lin; Hilario Flores-A; Miriam Vazquez; Andrea Munguia; Emmanuel Mignot; Reyes Haro; Harry Baker; Clara Gorodezky



The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new, simple, quantitative technique for evaluating the relative usefulness of plants to people. The\\u000a technique is then compared to the quantitative approaches in ethnobotany that have been developed recently. Our technique\\u000a is used to calculate the importance of over 600 species of woody plants to non-indigenous mestizo people in Tambopata, Amazonian\\u000a Peru. Two general classes of

Oliver Phillips; Alwyn H. Gentry



“South to North increasing gradient of paternal European ancestry throughout the Mexican territory: Evidence of Y-linked short tandem repeats”  

Microsoft Academic Search

We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 Mestizos from five states: Aguascalientes (n=293), Jalisco (n=185), Guanajuato (n=168), Chiapas (n=170), and Yucatán (n=170). Powerplex-Y and AmpF?STR® Y-filer® kits were employed, offering a minimum haplotype diversity of 99.69% and 99.88%, respectively. The inclusion of additional Y-STR databases to the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico.

H. Rangel-Villalobos; J. Salazar-Flores; R. Dondiego; M. Anaya-Palafox; I. Nuño-Arana; L. M. Canseco-Ávila; G. Flores-Flores; O. Romero-Rentería; M. E. Morales-Vallejo; J. F. Muñoz-Valle; R. Rubi-Castellanos



Ethnic/Racial disparities in the fetal growth outcomes of Ecuadorian newborns.  


Size at birth is an important indicator of future infant morbidity and mortality. Ethnic/racial disparities in birth weight and other fetal growth outcomes are well documented for US and Canadian minority groups but not for those in Latin America. The study compared the growth outcomes of 1,227 full-term Ecuadorian newborns delivered by Afro-descendant and indigenous minority women with those of ethnic majority (mestizo) women. Minority newborns had higher risk for congenital microcephaly but no excess risk for low birth weight or stunted linear growth compared to mestizos. However, minority newborns were significantly heavier at birth, weighing an average of 3-5% more than mestizos. Afro-Ecuadorians newborns also were fatter. The risk profile of Ecuadorian ethnic groups for certain fetal growth outcomes differs from some of those reported for North American minorities. Further studies are needed to investigate the origins of these between-group differences and to develop ethnic specific interventions for adverse growth outcomes. PMID:22258699

Margaret Weigel, M; Sanchez, Maria Elena Caiza



Amerindian Helicobacter pylori Strains Go Extinct, as European Strains Expand Their Host Range  

PubMed Central

We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes) of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1), all from Spanish were European (hpEurope) and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination). The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts.

Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.; Perez, Maria E.; Bortolini, Maria C.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Pericchi, Luis R.; Zambrano-Guzman, Orlisbeth; Linz, Bodo




Microsoft Academic Search

Se evalu6 la sustituci6n de mafz por pul- Replacement of corn by dehydrated ci- pa de cftricos deshidratada en la dieta de ganado trus pulp on milk production and composition lechero, mediante la inclusi6n de 0, 15,30 Y 45% of crossbred Holstein in the humid tropics. A de la pulpa en el alimento balanceado. EI alimen- study was conducted to

Augusto Rojas-Bourrillon; Luis Gamboa; Milton Villareal



Beta 2 adrenergic receptor polymorphisms, at codons 16 and 27, and bronchodilator responses in adult Venezuelan asthmatic patients.  


BACKGROUND: One of the gene polymorphisms often studied in asthmatic patients is the ?2 adrenergic receptor (ADR?2). Even though in the Venezuelan Mestizo population there is a high incidence of asthma, there are no direct reports of ADR?2 gene polymorphism, and treatment response. The aim of this study was to assess, in this population, the gene frequency of ADR?2 polymorphisms at codons 16 Arg/Gly and 27 Gln/Glu, allergen sensitization, and its relationship to bronchodilator response. METHODS: Purified genomic DNA was obtained form 105 Mestizo asthmatic and 100 Mestizo healthy individuals from Venezuela. The two polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Patient sensitization to aeroallergens and their response to bronchodilatation were correlated. RESULTS: Significant differences between patients and controls were recorded in: 1) the prevalence of Arg/Arg at codon 16 (28.6% in patients vs. 47% in controls, P<0.01), 2) the frequency of heterozygotes Arg/Gly (55% in patients vs. 35% in controls, P<0.01). Conversely, no differences in polymorphism frequencies were found at codon 27. The haplotypes Arg/Gly-Gln/Gln were more common in patients than controls (P <0.01), whereas the Arg/Arg-Gln/Glu combination prevailed in the control group (P<0.01). The Arg/Gly and Gln/Glu genotypes were associated with better responses after salbutamol. The asthmatic homozygotes Arg/Arg have higher sensitivity to aeroallergens. CONCLUSION: The difference in Arg/Arg frequency between groups suggests that this could be a protective genotype although the asthmatic group had a higher sensitivity to aeroallergens. The asthmatic heterozygotes had better bronchodilatorresponses than the homozygotes. PMID:23128817

Larocca, Nancy; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny Valentina; Velasquez, Olga; Martin-Rojo, Joana; Talamo, Carlos; Garcia, Alexis; De Sanctis, Juan Bautista



La traducció catalana a l’exili. Una primera aproximació  

Microsoft Academic Search

La traducció catalana a l’exili no ha estat gaire estudiada, atès que la producció no és gaire abundosa i queda dispersa enmig d’un munt de tipologies i plataformes (quan no es presenta com a obra «original»): traduccions anònimes, dobles versions, autotraduccions, versions i adaptacions teatrals inèdites, traduccions «visibles» i «invisibles» a la premsa, traduccions premiades als Jocs Florals… Aquest article

Montserrat Bacardí



GALLARDO CASTILLO, M.J., Materiales ECTS de Derecho Administrativo (Casos prácticos con soluciones. Adaptado al EEES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior supone un desafío para el profesorado y los estudiantes; en este contexto de cambio, la obra de la profesora Gallardo Castillo se convierte en un manual de referencia para esta doble faceta de enseñanza y aprendizaje. El desarrollo de los conceptos e instituciones básicas del Derecho Administrativo queda ampliamente reflejado en cada uno de




Microsoft Academic Search

Internet ha surgido como un nuevo medio que se establece desde una doble perspectiva, como nuevo canal de distribución y como canal de comunicación. Desde este enfoque, permite que los consumidores tengan acceso ilimitado a cualquier información y tener un mayor control sobre la exposición a la publicidad, porque existe la posibilidad de seleccionar la cantidad de contenido comercial que

J. J. Blázquez Resino; A. Molina Collado; A. Esteban Talaya; D. Martín-Consuegra Navarro



On Postmodern Uses of Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

N HIS BEAUTIFUL book-long essay La llama doble - Amor y erotismo, published in 1993, the great Mexican thinker Octavio Paz explores the complex interaction between sex, eroticism and love - three close relatives yet so unlike each other that each needs a separate language to account for its own existence. The central metaphor of the book, most fittingly, is

Zygmunt Bauman



Los cronómetros, la luz y la transformación de coordenadas espacio-temporales  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. En este trabajo se obtienen las ecuaciones de transformación relativista para longitudes y tiempos, basándose en el hecho de que la medida de un intervalo temporal o espacial debe ser expresada por dos factores: valor y unidad de medida. Una técnica de doble subíndice permite distinguir en cuál sistema se hace la medida y a cuál sistema se refiere




Acompañamiento de la ciencia colombiana a las políticas públicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo analiza el acompañamiento que la investigación científica promovida por COLCIENCIAS ha realizado a las políticas públicas en Colombia, en especial las referidas al bienestar social. A través de un doble análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo, se evalúa la distribución y la cobertura temática de algunas de las investigaciones realizadas entre 1990 y 2002, en los diversos tópicos asociados con

Sergio Riaga; Ana María Villa; María Velasco



Efectos del desajuste educativo sobre el rendimient o de la escolaridad: Un análisis para el caso español  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar grado de adecuación entre educación y empleo en el mercado de trabajo español, centrándonos principalmente en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación y estudiando sus e fectos sobre los ingresos individuales. Más concretamente, se aborda el estud io del desajuste educativo desde una doble perspectiva: por una parte, se calculan los r endimientos privados

Inés P. Murillo Huertas; Marta Rahona López; Maria del Mar; Salinas Jiménez


Structural rhinoplasty in Latin American patients.  


Patients coming from Latin America are also known as mestizos or Hispanics. They are a combination of different ethnic groups where predominant facial features will vary depending on where the patient is coming from. A structural approach to the nose will be presented showing how techniques using sutures and grafts are used to reinforce and reconstruct existing structures achieving cosmetic long-term results. The surgical goal is to achieve a more defined looking nose that does not look overdone, is attractive, and retains ethnic characteristics. PMID:23761121

Cobo, Roxana



Genetic characterization of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, Mexico, and its relation to linguistic and geographic isolation.  


We used 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) to genetically characterize 361 individuals from 11 indigenous populations (Amuzgo, Chinanteco, Chontal, Huave, Mazateco, Mixe, Mixteco, Triqui, Zapoteco del Istmo, Zapoteco del Valle, and Zoque) from Oaxaca, Mexico. We also used previously published data from other Mexican peoples (Maya, Chol, Tepehua, Otomí, and Mestizos from northern and central Mexico) to delineate genetic relations, for a total of 541 individuals. Average heterozygosity (H) was lower in most populations from Oaxaca (range 0.687 in Zoque to 0.756 in Chontal) than values observed in Mestizo populations from Mexico (0.758 and 0.793 in central and northern Mestizo, respectively) but higher than values observed in other Amerindian populations from South America; the same relation was true for the number of alleles (n(a) ). We tested (using the software Structure) whether major geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow existed among the populations of Oaxaca and found that the populations appeared to constitute one or two genetic groups, suggesting that neither geographic location nor linguistics had an effect on the genetic structure of these culturally and linguistically highly diverse indigenous peoples. Moreover, we found a low but statistically significant between-population differentiation. In addition, the genetic structure of Oaxacan populations did not fit an isolation-by-distance model. Finally, using AMOVA and a Bayesian clustering approach, we did not detect significant geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow within Oaxaca. These results suggest that the indigenous communities of Oaxaca, although culturally isolated, can be genetically defined as a large, nearly panmictic population in which migration could be a more important population mechanism than genetic drift. Finally, compared with outgroups in Mexico (both indigenous peoples and Mestizos), three groups were apparent. Among them, only the Otomí population from Hidalgo has a different culture and language. PMID:21082910

Quinto-Cortés, Consuelo D; Arriola, Luis A; García-Hughes, Gianella; García-López, Rodrigo; Molina, Diana P; Flores, Margarita; Palacios, Rafael; Piñero, Daniel



Association of the calpain-10 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Mexican population.  


Variation in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) has been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in the Mexican American population of Starr County, Texas. We typed five polymorphisms in the calpain-10 gene (SNP-43, -43, -63, and -110 and Indel-19) to test for association with type 2 diabetes in 248 individuals representative of the mestizo population of Mexico City and Orizaba, Mexico including 134 patients with type 2 diabetes and 114 subjects with normal fasting blood glucose levels. We found a significant difference in SNP-44 allele and genotype frequencies between type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The rare allele at SNP-44 was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR)=2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.16-6.35, P=0.017). SNP-110, which is in perfect linkage disequilibrium with SNP-44, was also associated with type 2 diabetes. The SNP-43, Indel-19, and SNP-63 haplogenotype 112/121 associated with significantly increased risk (OR=2.16, 95% CI=1.31-3.57) of type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans was not associated with significantly increased in risk in Mexicans (OR=1.15, 95% CI=0.57-2.34). The results suggest that variation in CAPN10 affects risk of type 2 diabetes in the mestizo population of central Mexico (Mexico City and Orizaba) and in Mexican Americans (Starr County, Texas). PMID:14741193

del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Aurón-Gómez, Moisés; Ramírez, Erika; Velasco-Pérez, María Luisa; Ramírez-Silva, Alfredo; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco; Hanis, Craig L; Tsuchiya, Takafumi; Yoshiuchi, Issei; Cox, Nancy J; Bell, Graeme I



HLA polymorphism in a Guarani-Indian population from Paraguay and its usefulness for the Hispano-Indian admixture study in Paraguay.  


In this study we investigated the human leucocyte antigen-A (HLA-A), -B and DRB1 polymorphism of Native American population of Paraguay, the Guarani Indians. We found that the HLA variability consisted of 5 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 6 HLA-DRB1 groups of alleles and of several specific alleles (B*1504, B*3505, B*3912, B*4004, B*5104, DRB1*0411, DRB1*1413) common in other Native American populations. The comparison of the HLA polymorphism of the Guaranis from Paraguay with the «Mestizos» of Paraguay and the Spaniards showed that the «Mestizos» of Paraguay are genetically very distant from the Guarani Indians of Paraguay but much more close to the Spaniards. This can be explained, at least in part, by the history of the country. Our results are of importance in transplantation, in particular in the search for an unrelated donor for a Paraguayan patient requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:20670332

Benitez, O; Busson, M; Charron, D; Loiseau, P



Primary thrombophilia in Mexico IX: The Glycoprotein IIIa PLA1/A2 Polymorphism is Not Associated With the Sticky Platelet Syndrome Phenotype.  


Introduction: The sticky platelet syndrome (SPS) seems to be a common cause of thrombosis, although no molecular substrate to explain platelet hyperaggregability has been found. Objective: To analyze an association between the SPS phenotype and the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa PL(A1/A2) (human platelet antigen [HPA]-1a/b) gene polymorphism. Methods: Along an 18-month period, Mexican mestizo thrombophilic patients were prospectively accrued. The SPS phenotype was assessed by aggregometry, whereas a tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the PLA1 and PLA2 alleles. Results: A total of 95 individuals with SPS and 127 healthy donors were studied; in 11 of the donors and 16 of the patients with SPS the A2 allele of the GP IIb/IIIA was found, yielding a weak and nonsignificant association (odds ratio 2.14, 95% CI 0.94-4.85). Conclusion: In Mexican mestizo patients, the platelet GP IIIa PL(A1/A2) gene polymorphism does not lead to the SPS phenotype. PMID:22751911

Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J; Garcés-Eisele, Javier; Camacho-Alarcón, Cecilia; Reyes-Nuñez, Virginia; Moncada-González, Benjamin; Valdés-Tapia, Patricia; León-Montes, Nancy; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J



HLA characterization in adult asymptomatic cyst passers of Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar.  


The present work aimed at studying the possible association of HLA antigens with Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar asymptomatic infection in a Mexican mestizo population. A case-control design was selected for evaluation of the role of genetic markers in parasite infection. For this purpose the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR profiles of a population of asymptomatic E. histolytica/E. dispar adult cyst passers (cases) and a corresponding nonparasitized adult group (controls) followed for 12 months were identified. Entamoeba species were identified through zymodeme patterns and/or amplification of species-specific DNA sequences. A healthy, nonparasitized group of individuals was included as a control. Our results show that apparently, no specific HLA marker is associated with the asymptomatic cyst passers' condition. These findings have to be added to previous results in which, in contrast to a demonstrated association between HLA-DR3 and amebic liver abscess in Mexican mestizo adults and infants, no significant association with amebic rectocolitis was found. PMID:10494810

Valdez, E; del Carmen Martínez, M; Gómez, A; Cedillo, R; Arellano, J; Pérez, M E; Ramos, F; Morán, P; González, E; Valenzuela, O; Melendro, E I; Ramiro, M; Kretschmer, R; Muñoz, O; Ximénez, C



Central adiposity and mortality after first-ever acute ischemic stroke.  


Background: The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) may be a better adiposity measure than the body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the prognostic performance of WHtR in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: First, we compared WHtR and BMI as adiposity measures in 712 healthy adults by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis. Thereafter, baseline WHtR was analyzed as predictor of 12-month all-cause mortality in 821 Mexican mestizo adults with first-ever AIS by a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for baseline predictors. Results: In healthy individuals, WHtR correlated higher than BMI with total fat mass and showed a higher accuracy in identifying a high percentage of body fat (p < 0.01). In AIS patients a U-shaped relationship was observed between baseline WHtR and mortality (fatality rate 29.1%). On multivariate analysis, baseline WHtR ?0.300 or >0.800 independently predicted 12-month all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.04-3.51). BMI was not associated with mortality, tested either as continuous, binomial or stratified variable. Conclusion: WHtR is a modifiable risk factor that accurately demonstrates body fat excess. Extreme WHtR values were associated with increased 12-month all-cause mortality in Mexican mestizo patients with AIS. No survival advantage was found with high WHtR as the pragmatic indicator of obesity in this population. PMID:23860493

Chiquete, Erwin; Ruiz-Sandoval, José L; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; León-Jiménez, Carolina; Ruiz-Madrigal, Bertha; Martínez-López, Erika; Román, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo; Ramos, Alma; Cantú-Brito, Carlos



HLA haplotypes are associated with differential susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  


We explored a possible role of HLA class II genes in determining the susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection as well as in the development of chagasic heart disease in a rural mestizo population from Arequipa (Southern Peru). HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 polymorphisms were determined in 85 seropositive (asymptomatic, n=52; cardiomyopathic, n=33) and 87 seronegative individuals. We observed that the DRB1*14-DQB1*0301 haplotype correlates with not having T. cruzi infection in a highly endemic area (OR= 0.26 (0.124.63); Pc=0.01). This protective association is a dominant trait. We found no differences in the allelic or haplotypic distributions we examined between asymptomatic and cardiomyopathic patients in this population. Our data offer indirect but compelling evidence that polymorphism in HLA region is involved in a differential susceptibility to T. cruzi chronic infection. PMID:10777093

Nieto, A; Beraún, Y; Collado, M D; Caballero, A; Alonso, A; González, A; Martín, J



Hispanic counselors' race and accent and Euro Americans' universal-diverse orientation: a study of initial perceptions.  


This study examined Euro American participants' initial perceptions of male Hispanic counselors. Two hundred twelve college students evaluated male Hispanic counselors whose race was White, Mestizo (a mix of White European and Native American ancestry), or Black and who spoke English with or without a Spanish accent. The participants' perceptions were analyzed in the context of their scores on universal-diverse orientation, a new theory and measure of multicultural awareness (M. L. Miville et al., 1999). Results suggest that participants' perceptions of the Hispanic counselors as attractive, expert, and trustworthy, as well as their willingness to work with them in long-term therapy, were affected by the counselors' race and accent and by the participants' level of universal-diverse orientation. These results are discussed in the context of relevant literature, and recommendations for future research in this area are provided. PMID:10910533

Fuertes, J N; Gelso, C J



¿Qué es racismo?: awareness of racism and discrimination in Ecuador.  


In the national consciousness, Ecuador is a mestizo nation. However, it is also an ethnically diverse nation with sizable minorities of indigenous and Afrodescended peoples. In national surveys, there is also a considerable minority who self-identify as blanco (white). Although there is strong evidence of continuing discrimination and prejudice toward both indigenous and Afro-descended peoples, there is little public discussion or political action addressing such issues. The emergence of a powerful and resilient indigenous movement in the late 1980s gained international interest and acclaim in the 1990s, in part because of the peaceful mobilization efforts and effective bargaining tactics of the movement. However, indigenous leaders usually have not engaged in a discourse of racismo and/or discriminación. There has been much less social movement solidarity and activism among Afro-Ecuadorians, but their leaders commonly employ a discourse of racismo and discriminación. In August and September 2004, a survey of more than eight thousand adult Ecuadorians was conducted in regard to racism and related topics. In this research, we use several measures from this survey that focus on awareness of and sensitivity to issues of racism, prejudice, and discrimination. Self-identification of respondents enables us to contrast the responses of whites, mestizos, Indians, and Afro-Ecuadorians to the measures. Other independent variables of interest are level of education, the region in which the respondent resides, and whether the respondent lives in an urban or rural area. Regression results show differences among the ethnic groups in levels of awareness of racism, but more powerful predictors are level of education and rural residence. PMID:21751475

Beck, Scott H; Mijeski, Kenneth J; Stark, Meagan M



Tumour necrosis factor microsatellites and HLA-DRB1*, HLA-DQA1*, and HLA-DQB1* alleles in Peruvian patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To study the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and HLA and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) polymorphism in Peruvian mestizo patients in comparison with ethnically similar controls.?METHODS—Seventy nine patients with RA and 65 ethnically matched healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and TNF? and TNF? alleles using PCR amplification. Clinical severity was assessed as mild, moderate, or severe in 35 of the patients.?RESULTS—TNF?6 showed the strongest association with disease susceptibility. The TNF?6 allele was more common in patients than in controls (p<0.0076) and the proportion of patients with at least one copy of this allele was greater (p<0.015, relative risk 2.35). Among the HLA-DRB1* alleles with the shared epitope sequence, only the DRB1*1402 allele was significantly increased in patients compared with controls (p<0.0311), as was the proportion of patients with at least one copy of this allele (p<0.0232, relative risk 2.74). In contrast, the overall frequency of alleles with the shared epitope was not different in patients and controls. The haplotype HLA-DRB1*1402-DQB1*0301-DQA1*0401 was significantly more common in patients. TNF?6 was more common in patients whether or not they had this haplotype. None of the 11 patients lacking the TNF?6 allele had severe disease.?CONCLUSIONS—This study shows for the first time that TNF gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to RA in a non-white population. TNF?6 and HLA-DRB1*1402 independently conferred significantly increased risk in Peruvian mestizo patients.??

Castro, F; Acevedo, E; Ciusani, E; Angulo, J; Wollheim, F; Sandberg-Wollheim, M



Geology of 1. 7 GA ( ) Baldwin gneiss in the Baldwin Lake type area, San Bernardino Mountains, southern California  

SciTech Connect

Precambrian gneisses in the San Bernardino Mountains were first identified and described in the vicinity of Baldwin Lake by Guillou (1953). Five lithologic units mappable at 1:24,000 scale are recognized: biotite [+-] muscovite quartzofeldspathic gneiss, amphibolite, pyroxene metagabbro, augen gneiss, and biotite [+-] muscovite granitic gneiss. Baldwin gneiss with this L < S tectonite fabric is unconformably overlain by latest Proterozoic, upright, greenschist/hornfels facies quartzite (Big Bear Group). North and northeast of Baldwin Lake, the gneissic fabric is rotated toward the northwest, subparallel to the Doble fault. Along this fault, Baldwin gneiss is structurally underlain by overturned Paleozoic quartzite and marble (Zabriskie Quartzite and Carrara Formation). Regional relations suggest that the Doble fault is a northeast-directed basement thrust fault of pre-Late Cretaceous age, and may be contemporaneous with late Paleozoic deformation and metamorphism of Paleozoic rocks further west in the range. Field relations suggest that Baldwin gneiss in its type area largely retains Proterozoic fabrics and mineral assemblages, despite marginal Phanerozoic reworking. Silver (1971) reported a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1,730 Ma for Baldwin augen ( ) gneiss, from an unknown locality, and Miller and Morton (1980) reported Late Cretaceous mica K-Ar ages from a sample of augen gneiss. Preliminary Pb isotopic ratios in galena, feldspar and whole rock samples of Baldwin gneiss, and feldspars in Mesozoic plutons suggest isotopic affinity to the Mojave crustal province of Wooden and Miller (1990).

Barth, A.P. (Indiana/Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Geology); Ehlig, P.L. (California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Wooden, J.L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))



Developmental changes in the understanding of generics  

PubMed Central

Generic sentences (such as “Birds lay eggs” ) are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about novel animals and questioned about their properties, using generic and non-generic questions. Three primary findings emerged. First, both children and adults distinguished generic from non-generic reference, interpreting generics as referring to kinds. Thus, under certain contexts children and adults accepted that “Dobles have claws” even when all the dobles in the available context were clawless. Second, adults further distinguished properties that are inborn from those that are acquired. Inborn properties were judged to be predicated of a generic kind, even when all available instances have lost the property, but this was not the case for acquired properties. Third, children did not distinguish inborn from acquired properties. These data suggest the existence of developmental changes in conceptual or semantic understanding, and are interpreted in light of recent theories of psychological essentialism.

Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul



Spotlight: Costa Rica.  


3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning. PMID:12321532



Marcos Zapata's "Last Supper": a feast of European religion and Andean culture.  


In Marcos Zapata's 1753 painting of the Last Supper in Cuzco, Peru, Christian symbolism is filtered through Andean cultural tradition. Zapata was a late member of the Cuzco School of Painting, a group comprised of few European immigrants and handfuls of mestizo and Indian artists. The painters in Cuzco learned mostly from prints of European paintings, and their style tends to blend local culture into the traditional painting of their conquistadors. Imagery was the most successful tool used by the Spaniards in their quest to Christianize the Andean population. By teaching locals to paint Christian subjects, they were able to infuse Christianity into Andean traditions. Zapata's rendering of the Last Supper utilizes this cultural blending while staying true to the Christian symbolism within the subject. Instead of the traditional lamb, Zapata's Last Supper features a platter of cuy, or guinea pig, an Andean delicacy stocked with protein as well as cultural significance. Cuy was traditionally a sacrificial animal at Inca agricultural festivals and in this way it offers poignant parallel to the lamb, as a traditional Christian sacrificial animal. PMID:21568039

Zendt, Christina



Nonlinear Analysis of Time Series in Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical study of large scale genomic data has turned out to be a very important tool in population genetics. Quantitative methods are essential to understand and implement association studies in the biomedical and health sciences. Nevertheless, the characterization of recently admixed populations has been an elusive problem due to the presence of a number of complex phenomena. For example, linkage disequilibrium structures are thought to be more complex than their non-recently admixed population counterparts, presenting the so-called ancestry blocks, admixed regions that are not yet smoothed by the effect of genetic recombination. In order to distinguish characteristic features for various populations we have implemented several methods, some of them borrowed or adapted from the analysis of nonlinear time series in statistical physics and quantitative physiology. We calculate the main fractal dimensions (Kolmogorov's capacity, information dimension and correlation dimension, usually named, D0, D1 and D2). We also have made detrended fluctuation analysis and information based similarity index calculations for the probability distribution of correlations of linkage disequilibrium coefficient of six recently admixed (mestizo) populations within the Mexican Genome Diversity Project [1] and for the non-recently admixed populations in the International HapMap Project [2]. Nonlinear correlations showed up as a consequence of internal structure within the haplotype distributions. The analysis of these correlations as well as the scope and limitations of these procedures within the biomedical sciences are discussed.

Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Estrada-Gil, Jesús K.; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernández-López, J. Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jiménez-Sánchez, Gerardo



Low frequency of common LRRK2 mutations in Mexican patients with Parkinson's disease.  


Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) account for as much as 5-6% of familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and 1-2% of sporadic PD. These mutations represent the most frequent cause of autosomal dominant PD, particularly in certain ethnic groups. In this first report concerning LRRK2 mutations in Mexican-mestizos, we screened 319 consecutive PD patients (186 males; 133 females; mean age at onset: 52.4 years) for LRRK2 mutations in exons 31 and 41 and for the mutation in exon 35, which produces the Y1699C substitution. Three (0.94%) patients, two with sporadic PD and one with familial PD (disease mean age at onset, 53.3 years), were heterozygous for LRRK2 mutations. Of these three, two patients had one of two different mutations in exon 31 (R1441G and R1441H, respectively); the other patient carried the G2019S mutation in exon 41. The Y1699C mutation was absent from this PD sample. Four additional subjects, unaffected relatives of one PD patient with a mutation in LRRK2, were subsequently genetically tested. None of the three LRRK2 mutations identified was present in 200 neurologically healthy Mexican control individuals. These findings have important implications for molecular testing of LRRK2 mutations in Mexican PD patients. PMID:20727385

Yescas, Petra; López, Marisol; Monroy, Nancy; Boll, Marie-Catherine; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Rodríguez, Ulises; Ochoa, Adriana; Alonso, María Elisa



VNN1 Gene Expression Levels and the G-137T Polymorphism Are Associated with HDL-C Levels in Mexican Prepubertal Children  

PubMed Central

Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P?=?2.9 × 10?5), decreased HDL-C levels (??=??6.19, P?=?0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (??=?0.48, P?=?0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r?=?0.220; P?=?0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r?=??0.225; P?=?0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls.

Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramirez, Hugo; Leon-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Lopez-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sanchez-Munoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel



Ultrabiomicroscopic-Histopathologic Correlations in Individuals with Autosomal Dominant Congenital Microcoria: Three-Generation Family Report  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital microcoria (CMC) is due to a maldevelopment of the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris, with a pupil diameter of less than 2 mm. It is associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma and myopia. We report on a three-generation Mexican-Mestizo family with CMC. The eldest member's iris biopsy proved muscle anomalies. Further, we analyzed novel ultrasound biomicroscopy findings in the family members who did not require surgery. Patients and Methods A 62-year-old woman, her 41-year-old son and her 9-year-old grandson affected with microcoria since birth, documented by clinical examination and ultrasound biomicroscopy. The eldest member underwent phacoemulsification, and a biopsy of the iris and the anterior capsule of the lens was taken. Results Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the CMC diagnosis showing iris thinning and a pupil diameter of less than 2 mm. Histopathology of the iris showed a significant reduction of smooth muscle cells, but no alterations of the anterior lens capsule. Discussion Although CMC is a rare disorder, which is due to a maldevelopment of the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris, it could be associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma and myopia; therefore, precise diagnosis is required. Ultrasound biomicroscopy could be a great option to confirm the disorder.

Ramirez-Miranda, Arturo; Paulin-Huerta, Juan M.; Chavez-Mondragon, Eduardo; Islas-de la Vega, Gilberto; Rodriguez-Reyes, Abelardo



Facial soft tissue thickness of Colombian adults.  


Facial reconstruction is a widely used technique in forensic sciences to identify human bone remains and, for such, it is necessary to be aware of the values of facial soft tissue thickness characteristic for each population group. In Colombia, no conclusive values exist regarding facial soft tissue thickness for populations of mixed racial origin that also consider the nutritional state. The study used images from 30 live subjects from both genders, 26 males and four females, age range from 18 to 35 years, The images were obtained through cone beam computed tomography in mestizo population from the city of Cali (Colombia), taken in sitting position and 0.3 mm resolution. The height and weight of all subjects were determined and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Seventeen facial thicknesses were measured over the corresponding anatomical landmarks of the skull. No significant difference was found associated to gender for most anatomical landmarks. However, where differences were found, these were mainly located on the anatomical landmarks of the medial line and particularly with greater value among males. Differences were observed in thicknesses for Colombian population when compared to other studies. The values of facial thickness characterize the Colombian population of mixed racial origin and permit greater approximation in facial reconstructions with forensic purposes. PMID:23587676

Perlaza Ruiz, Néstor Alonso



The healing practices of a Peruvian shaman.  


The use of psychotropic plants among the mestizo population of the northwestern Amazon has already been the subject of some research. However, the field is far from fully investigated. Practitioners locally known by the name of "vegetalistas" or simply "maestros" have preserved considerable knowledge of plant lore, and still today contribute substantially to the health care of both rural and urban population. The present paper is based on field work with one particular such practitioner, Don Emilio Andrade Gómez, a 65-year-old shaman who lives in the vicinity of Iquitos (3 degrees 50S 73 degrees 15W), northeastern Peru. Some of the basic ideas of his cosmovision are presented. Special attention is given to the concept of "doctor" or "plant teacher", applied to certain plants which are supposed to "teach medicine", if the appropriate conditions of isolation and diet are observed. Some of these plants are added to the hallucinogenic beverage known in the region by the Quéchua name ayahuasca, made from the stem of Banisteriopsis species, and one or several additives. During the period of isolation the spirits of these plants teach the initiate certain melodies or "icaros" that he will later use when practising his shamanistic activities. During field work in 1981 and 1982 the author collected various specimens of "plant teachers", part of which have now been identified, and are also presented. PMID:6387284

Luna, L E



Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.  


Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 Mestizo populations. PMID:19962926

Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar



[From the mechanical complexity in biology].  


From the mechanical complexity in biology. Through history, each century has brought new discoveries and beliefs that have resulted in different perspectives to study life organisms. In this essay, 1 define three periods: in the first, organisms were studied in the context of their environment, in the second, on the basis of physical and chemical laws, and on the third, systemically. My analysis starts with primitive humans, continues to Aristoteles and Newton, Lamarck and Darwin, the DNA doble helix discovery, and the beginnings of reduccionism in science. I propose that life is paradigmatical, that it obeys physical and chemical laws but cannot be explained by them I review the systemic theory, autopoiesis, discipative structures and non- linear dynamics. 1 propose that the deterministic, lineal and quantitative paradigm of nature are not the only way to study nature and invite the reader to explore the complexity paradigm. PMID:18624253

Uribe, Libia Herrero





Honduras is a country with an area of 68,000 square miles, with considerable mountainous terrain, and a subtropical but variable climate. It has a population of 4.4 million people and an annual growth rate of 3.1%. The ethnic make up is 90% mestizo, a mixture of Indian and European, with others consisting of Arab, African, oriental, and Indians. The main religion is Catholic with a fast growing Protestant minority, and the language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 60/1000 and life expectancy is 63 years. The work force is mainly agricultural 63%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, and construction 3%. The government is a democratic constitutional republic established in 1821. The budget is $1,334 million with 7% used for defense, and the gross national product is $4.4 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.5%. Despite being poor and underdeveloped, natural resources include arable land, hydro- electric power, and considerable forest, marine, and mineral resources. Agriculture products include coffee, bananas, citrus fruit, corn, beans, and livestock. The major industries are textiles, cement, wood products, cigars and foodstuffs. Unemployment is over 15% and underemployment is estimated over 40% with the literacy rate at only 60%. In the last few years with US aid the economy has grown 3.8% a year assisted by mining, construction and the service sectors. Honduras must undertake major economic reforms to gain longterm growth and stability since it has large fiscal and trade deficits, a large public bureaucracy, poorly run state enterprises and overvalued exchange rate. PMID:12178019



von Willebrand's disease in Mexico: a pilot study.  


von Willebrand's disease (VWD) is the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. For a long time, it has been said that VWD was absent in some countries due to ethnical differences. Information about the prevalence of VWD in Mexico remains unclear, owing largely to poor awareness and diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this study was to objectively diagnose VWD in a cohort of highly selected Mexican patients with a chronic history of bleeding. Mexican Mestizos were recruited between July 2010 and August 2011. Included were 133 adult and paediatric patients with a high suspicion of VWD. Fifty-three were diagnosed with VWD: 47 (88.7%) with type 1 VWD, four (7.5%) with type 2a VWD and two (3.8%) with type 3 VWD. Mean age for female patients was 19.5 years (range 3-44 years) and 18.5 years (range 4-63 years) for male patients. Mean age at start of bleeding symptoms was 8.8 years (range 1-61). The most frequent clinical symptoms were epistaxis (84.9%), ecchymosis (79.2%), haematomas (71.7%), gum bleeds (62.3%) and petechia (50.9%). Severe transoperative or postoperative bleeding was found in 17 patients (32.1%). Twenty-six women at childbearing age had a history of abnormal gynaecological bleeding. Our results clearly demonstrate the presence of VWD in Mexican and underscore the importance of a more detailed description of VWD. Efforts to increase the awareness and diagnosis of VWD could help in better identification of patients with bleeding disorders and lead to early, appropriate management with safe and efficacious therapies such as desmopressin and plasma concentrates. PMID:22989112

Majluf-Cruz, A; Velez-Ruelas, M A; Gonzalez-Avila, A I; Garcia-Chávez, J; Berges, A; Lopez-Santiago, N; Monroy-Garcia, R; Moreno-Hernandez, M; Corona-De La Peña, N; Alvarado-Moreno, J A; Isordia-Salas, I; Hernandez Juarez, J





The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038





Honduras has an area of 112,088 square km or 43,277 square miles with a population of 4.8 million in 1991 of whom 90% are mestizos. Literacy is 68%, the infant mortality rate is 60/1000, and life expectancy is 63 years. After independence from Spain in 1821 the Central American Federation collapsed in 1938. There have been 300 internal rebellions since independence. With an inadequate economic infrastructure, sociopolitical integration has been fragile. In 1982 the Suazo government relied on US support to face the economic recession, the threat posed by the Marxist government in Nicaragua, and civil war in El Salvador. USAID sponsored ambitious social and economic projects. A peaceful transfer of power between civilian presidents occurred in 1986 despite an electoral quirk. In 1990 President Callejas introduced reforms to reduce the deficit, and to stimulate investments and exports. After initial higher inflation and low growth in 1990 and 1991, modest progress is forecast for 1992 and 1993. The powerful military has been kept in check, and human rights have been better protected. The country is among the poorest in Latin America with underemployment of 30-40% and a mostly agricultural economy. The 1990 reforms of deregulation of prices, liberalization of trade, less protectionism, and export orientation is expected to produce longterm benefits not only in agriculture but also in manufacturing. The US is the primary trading partner, and the main direct foreign investor (fruits, refining, and mining). The slash-and-burn agricultural cultivation has created environmental destruction, and as a sign of public awareness the armed forces have engaged in reforestation and fighting forest fires. PMID:12178036



Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges.  


Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that is prominent in the ethnomedicine and shamanism of indigenous Amazonian tribes. Its unique pharmacology depends on the oral activity of the hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which results from inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by beta-carboline alkaloids. MAO is the enzyme that normally degrades DMT in the liver and gut. Ayahuasca has long been integrated into mestizo folk medicine in the northwest Amazon. In Brazil, it is used as a sacrament by several syncretic churches. Some of these organizations have incorporated in the United States. The recreational and religious use of ayahuasca in the United States, as well as "ayahuasca tourism" in the Amazon, is increasing. The current legal status of ayahuasca or its source plants in the United States is unclear, although DMT is a Schedule I controlled substance. One ayahuasca church has received favorable rulings in 2 federal courts in response to its petition to the Department of Justice for the right to use ayahuasca under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. A biomedical study of one of the churches, the Uñiao do Vegetal (UDV), indicated that ayahuasca may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of alcoholism, substance abuse, and possibly other disorders. Clinical studies conducted in Spain have demonstrated that ayahuasca can be used safely in normal healthy adults, but have done little to clarify its potential therapeutic uses. Because of ayahuasca's ill-defined legal status and variable botanical and chemical composition, clinical investigations in the United States, ideally under an approved Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol, are complicated by both regulatory and methodological issues. This article provides an overview of ayahuasca and discusses some of the challenges that must be overcome before it can be clinically investigated in the United States. PMID:15163593

McKenna, Dennis J



Lactobacillus species isolated from vaginal secretions of healthy and bacterial vaginosis-intermediate Mexican women: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus jensenii, L. iners, L. crispatus and L. gasseri are the most frequently occurring lactobacilli in the vagina. However, the native species vary widely according to the studied population. The present study was performed to genetically determine the identity of Lactobacillus strains present in the vaginal discharge of healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) intermediate Mexican women. Methods In a prospective study, 31 strains preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus species were isolated from 21 samples collected from 105 non-pregnant Mexican women. The samples were classified into groups according to the Nugent score criteria proposed for detection of BV: normal (N), intermediate (I) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). We examined the isolates using culture-based methods as well as molecular analysis of the V1–V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence analysis was performed to reject clones. Results Clinical isolates (25/31) were classified into four groups based on sequencing and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene: L. acidophilus (14/25), L. reuteri (6/25), L. casei (4/25) and L. buchneri (1/25). The remaining six isolates were presumptively identified as Enterococcus species. Within the L. acidophilus group, L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated species, followed by L. jensenii and L. crispatus. L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. brevis were also isolated, and were placed in the L. reuteri, L. casei and L. buchneri groups, respectively. ERIC profile analysis showed intraspecific variability amongst the L. gasseri and L. fermentum species. Conclusions These findings agree with previous studies showing that L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii are consistently present in the healthy vaginal ecosystem. Additional species or phylotypes were detected in the vaginal microbiota of the non-pregnant Mexican (Hispanic-mestizo) population, and thus, these results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonisation and richness in this particular population.



Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Are Associated with Essential Hypertension and Increased ACE Enzyme Levels in Mexican Individuals  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels. Methods Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5? exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes. Results Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363) were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA), H2 (GGATG), H3 (AGATG), and H4 (AGACA). Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR?=?0.77, P?=?0.023 and OR?=?1.41, P?=?0.004 respectively). According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR?=?2.0; P?=?0.002 and OR?=?2.09; P?=?0.011, respectively). Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1) as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P?=?0.0048). Conclusion The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the “GGATG” haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels.

Martinez-Rodriguez, Nancy; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Vallejo, Maite; Del-Valle-Mondragon, Leonardo; Ramirez-Bello, Julian; Valladares, Adan; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto



E-cadherin expression in sporadic gastric cancer from Mexico: exon 8 and 9 deletions are infrequent events associated with poor survival.  


Aberrant expression and mutation of E-cadherin is frequent in gastric carcinoma (GC) especially of the diffuse type. The frequency of CDH1 (gene encoding E-cadherin) mutation in populations with high incidence of diffuse GC and its prognostic significance is unknown. One hundred seventy-seven gastrectomies from Mexican mestizo patients with intestinal (53), mixed (55), or diffuse (69) GC were included. In addition, 101 endoscopic biopsies from patients with GC not subjected to surgery were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry against wild-type E-cadherin (clone 36) and against 2 mutation-specific antibodies (MSA) recognizing mutant CDH1 lacking exon-8 (del 8) or exon-9 (del 9) were performed. Staining was correlated with histotype, tumor node metastasis stage, and follow-up. Abnormal or absent E-cadherin expression (clone 36) was identified in 84% GC, predominantly in diffuse or mixed tumors (P = 0.004) in advanced stages (P = 0.003). No survival differences at 1 and 2 years were observed among patients showing normal, abnormal, or absent wild type E-cadherin expression. Overall reactivity with the MSA was observed in 10 (5.6%) patients who were treated with surgery. In 140 patients, dead from the disease or alive with the disease, the survival at 1 and 2 years was 37% versus 17% and 14% versus 0 for patients without and with del 8/9 positivity, respectively (log rank P = 0.01). Biopsies from patients with inoperable-GC (101) rendered 5 (4.95%) with del 8 or 9 immunoreactivity. Abnormal E-cadherin expression is frequent in GC. However, exon 8 or 9 deletions were observed in only 5.3% tumors in this series from Mexico, at a lower rate than previously published, but associated with a worse prognosis. PMID:15712179

Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Dominguez-Fonseca, Claudia; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Vargas, Roberto; Reyes-Gutierrez, Edgardo; Green, Dan; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Luber, Birgit; Busch, Raymonde; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Becker, Ingrid; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko



SCN4B-Encoded Sodium Channel ?4 Subunit in Congenital Long-QT Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is potentially lethal secondary to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and is caused predominantly by mutations in genes that encode cardiac ion channels. Nearly 25% of patients remain without a genetic diagnosis, and genes that encode cardiac channel regulatory proteins represent attractive candidates. Voltage-gated sodium channels have a pore-forming ?-subunit associated with 1 or more auxiliary ?-subunits. Four different ?-subunits have been described. All are detectable in cardiac tissue, but none have yet been linked to any heritable arrhythmia syndrome. Methods and Results We present a case of a 21-month-old Mexican-mestizo female with intermittent 2:1 atrioventricular block and a corrected QT interval of 712 ms. Comprehensive open reading frame/splice mutational analysis of the 9 established LQTS-susceptibility genes proved negative, and complete mutational analysis of the 4 Nav?-subunits revealed a L179F (C535T) missense mutation in SCN4B that cosegregated properly throughout a 3-generation pedigree and was absent in 800 reference alleles. After this discovery, SCN4B was analyzed in 262 genotype-negative LQTS patients (96% white), but no further mutations were found. L179F was engineered by site-directed mutagenesis and heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells that contained the stably expressed SCN5A-encoded sodium channel ?-subunit (hNaV1.5). Compared with the wild-type, L179F-?4 caused an 8-fold (compared with SCN5A alone) and 3-fold (compared with SCN5A + WT-?4) increase in late sodium current consistent with the molecular/electrophysiological phenotype previously shown for LQTS-associated mutations. Conclusions We provide the seminal report of SCN4B-encoded Nav?4 as a novel LQT3-susceptibility gene.

Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Kaku, Toshihiko; Tester, David J.; Iturralde-Torres, Pedro; Itty, Ajit; Ye, Bin; Valdivia, Carmen; Ueda, Kazuo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusie-Luna, Maria Teresa; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Ackerman, Michael J.



PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de ? s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.




Panama has an area of 29,762 square miles, with a population of 2,274 million. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is tropical. The ethnic groups consist of mestizo 79% West Indian 14%, white 10%, and Indian 6%. The religions are Roman Catholic 93% and Protestant 6% and the official language is Spanish with 14% using English. There is 6 years of mandatory primary schooling and the literacy rate is 87.1%. The infant mortality rate is 25.6/1000 and life expectancy is 72.1 years. The work force of 770,000 has 26.6% in agriculture, 27.9% in government, 16% in commerce, 10.5% manufacturing, 5.3% in finance, canal 2.4% and utilities 1.4%. The government was a military dictatorship established in 1903 and a constitution was created in 1972 and revised in 1983. A president and 2 vice presidents, a legislative assembly with 67 members and a supreme court now make up the government. There are 9 provinces and 1 Indian territory and the major political parties are the Panamenista, Democratic Revolutionary, Christian Democratic, Labor, Republican, Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement and many other small parties. The economy has a gross national product of over 5 billion dollars and has a growth rate of .47% in 1987, with an inflation rate of 1.1% in 1985. National resources consist of timber, seafood, and copper ore. Agriculture products are bananas, corn, sugar, rice, coffee, shrimp, timber, vegetables, and cattle. There is 24% agricultural land, 20% forest land and industries include food and drink processing, metal working, petroleum products, chemicals, paper, printing, mining, sugar refining, clothing, furniture, and construction. Exports consist of bananas 21%, shrimp 21%, coffee 9%, sugar 6%, clothing 4%, and other 39%. During the colonial period Panama was ruled by Spain and won independence in 1821 and joined Columbia. In 1903 Panama proclaimed independence and made a treaty with the US to build the canal. PMID:12178029



Women and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lessons from the seventies and hopes for the future.  


The early implicit assumptions that industrialization or, generally, modernization should automatically improve the condition of women have been challenged more and more by research and statistical data. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the theory which held that the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups of Indian and African descent into the national Hispanic or Portuguese cultures implied an improvement in the condition of women has been challenged through ethnographic and historical research. Women in closed corporate communities may have higher status, greater participation in authority, and more support from their children than those in open mestizo communities, where excessive alcohol consumption and abusive sexual relations form an integral part of the psychosocial complex of "machismo." New research has dealt with the forced integration of black women and Indian women, as concubines of the dominant white men, as a mechanism of "mestizaje," i.e., mixing of the population, against which women had no legal or "de facto" defense. Such abuse of women, masked by racial and cultural prejudice, continues in many backward rural areas in Latin America. In discussions of the peasantry and of rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, women had been largely ignored because agriculture was conceptualized as an exclusively male activity. This androcentric view is reflected in census categories that make the component of women's labor in agriculture invisible or unimportant. Consequently, the statistical percentages have always been unrealistically low in most countries. Detailed observations and surveys conducted during the last decade have shown, to the contrary, that peasant women work longer hours than men and are more liable to increase their time and work load to offset pauperization. The research of Deere and Leon (Colombia) as well as that of other women in different countries of the region confirms that women's subordination precedes capitalism and is further used by this system of production for its only ends. Priorities in the Western feminist movements in the 1970s have been equal pay for equal work and sexual and psychological autonomy. In the 3rd world the priorities have been the right to adequate employment and to primary services such as schools, drinking water, housing, and medical services. The main strategy for women in Latin America and the Caribbean has been to participate alongside men in political movements seeking to attain national sovereignty or to challenge economic inequalities, both internally and internationally, as a precondition to the setting up of women's demands as a gender group. The research makes it clear that dependent capitalist development brings an added burden of poverty and subordination to women. Strategies to advance women must be assessed within their particular context. PMID:12279573

Arizpe, L



Land cover changes in the Bosawas region of Nicaragua: 1986-1995/1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BOSAWAS Natural Resource Reserve of Nicaragua was established in 1991, in order to protect a portion of the remaining tropical rain forest and to promote the sustainable use of the region's resources. Information required to effectively manage the Reserve includes the extents and locations of present land covers, as well as recent land cover changes. Land cover of 1986 and 1995/96 were identified from remotely sensed images acquired by a number of sensors, including Landsat MSS and TM, SPOT HRV and NOAA AVHRR. This information was input into a geographic information system (GIS) database to conduct the change analysis, as well as to assess the current soil erosion problem and identify land covers within the management use zones that comprise the Reserve. These zones include indigenous land use zones and Saslaya National Park. Results reveal that the land cover of the region was determined by the political and economic changes that were occurring in the country. During the 1980's the country was in the midst of a civil war, which disrupted agricultural production and displaced many of the region's inhabitants. The result was that much of the agricultural land in isolated areas was abandoned. Following the cessation of hostilities in 1990, the region experienced a large influx of mestizo settlers seeking lands to occupy. Despite these incursions and the return of the indigenous peoples to the region, a large portion of the Reserve remains forested. Land cover changes identified during the study period include deforestation, reconversion of fallow lands, reforestation and forest degradation. Analysis of the land covers within the management use zones reveals that the Reserve does contain a large forest core area, with buffer zones surrounding this core, except in the northeast. The conservation zones and Saslaya National Park were entirely covered with forest, while most of the deforestation occurred in areas zoned for agriculture. Results also reveal that few areas currently pose a significant soil erosion risk, but that may change in the future as a large portion of the study area contains slopes greater than eight percent.

Smith, Jonathan Henry


Epidemiology of acute hepatitis in the Stann Creek District of Belize, Central America.  


Hepatitis is common in the Stann Creek District of southern Belize. To determine the etiologies, incidence, and potential risk factors for acute jaundice, we conducted active surveillance for cases. Cases of jaundice diagnosed by a physician within the previous 6 weeks were enrolled. Evaluation included a questionnaire and laboratory tests for hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, a blood film for malaria, and a serologic test for syphilis. Etiologies of jaundice among 62 evaluable patients included acute hepatitis A, 6 (9.7%), acute hepatitis B, 49 (79.0%), hepatitis non-A-E, 2 (3.2%), and malaria, 5 (8.1%). There were no cases of acute hepatitis E. One patient each with antibody to hepatitis C and D were detected. The annualized incidence of hepatitis A was 0.26 per 1,000. All cases of hepatitis A were in children 4-16 years of age. The annualized incidence of hepatitis B, 2.17 per 1,000, was highest in adults aged 15-44 years (4.4 per 1,000) and was higher in men (36 cases; 3.09 per 1,000) than women (13 cases; 1.19 per 1,000). Four (31%) of the women with hepatitis B were pregnant. The annualized incidence was significantly higher in Mestizo (6.18 per 1000) and Maya (6.79 per 1,000) than Garifuna (0.38 per 1,000) or Creole (0.36 per 1,000). Persons with hepatitis B were significantly more likely to be born outside of Belize (82%), had been in Belize < 5 years (73%), and lived and worked in rural areas (96%) than was the general population. Of those > or = 14 years of age with hepatitis B, only 36% were married. Few persons admitted to transfusions, tattoos, IV drug use, multiple sexual partners, visiting prostitutes, or sexually transmitted diseases. Only 1 of 49 had a reactive test for syphilis. Six patients were hospitalized (including 3 with acute hepatitis B and one with hepatitis A), and none to our knowledge died. Acute hepatitis B is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in the Stann Creek District, but the modes of transmission remain obscure. Infants, women attending prenatal clinics, and new workers are potential targets for immunization with hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:11693876

Bryan, J P; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Gloria, R; Kishore, G M; Tillett, W; Engle, R; Tsarev, S; Cruess, D; Purcell, R H



Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas  

PubMed Central

Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat allele were identical by descent and that the geographic distribution of this allele had not been influenced by natural selection. To investigate whether these assumptions are satisfied, we genotyped 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms across ?500 kilobases (kb) around D9S1120 in 21 Native American and Western Beringian populations and 54 other worldwide populations. All chromosomes with the 9-repeat allele share the same haplotypic background in the vicinity of D9S1120, suggesting that all sampled copies of the 9-repeat allele are identical by descent. Ninety-one percent of these chromosomes share the same 76.26 kb haplotype, which we call the “American Modal Haplotype” (AMH). Three observations lead us to conclude that the high frequency and widespread distribution of the 9-repeat allele are unlikely to be the result of positive selection: 1) aside from its association with the 9-repeat allele, the AMH does not have a high frequency in the Americas, 2) the AMH is not unusually long for its frequency compared with other haplotypes in the Americas, and 3) in Latin American mestizo populations, the proportion of Native American ancestry at D9S1120 is not unusual compared with that observed at other genomewide microsatellites. Using a new method for estimating the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all sampled copies of an allele on the basis of an estimate of the length of the genealogy descended from the MRCA, we calculate the mean time to the MRCA of the 9-repeat allele to be between 7,325 and 39,900 years, depending on the demographic model used. The results support the hypothesis that all modern Native Americans and Western Beringians trace a large portion of their ancestry to a single founding population that may have been isolated from other Asian populations prior to expanding into the Americas.

Schroeder, Kari B.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Crawford, Michael H.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Boca, Simina M.; Conrad, Donald F.; Tito, Raul Y.; Osipova, Ludmilla P.; Tarskaia, Larissa A.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Smith, David G.; Rosenberg, Noah A.



Haplotypic background of a private allele at high frequency in the Americas.  


Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat allele were identical by descent and that the geographic distribution of this allele had not been influenced by natural selection. To investigate whether these assumptions are satisfied, we genotyped 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms across approximately 500 kilobases (kb) around D9S1120 in 21 Native American and Western Beringian populations and 54 other worldwide populations. All chromosomes with the 9-repeat allele share the same haplotypic background in the vicinity of D9S1120, suggesting that all sampled copies of the 9-repeat allele are identical by descent. Ninety-one percent of these chromosomes share the same 76.26 kb haplotype, which we call the "American Modal Haplotype" (AMH). Three observations lead us to conclude that the high frequency and widespread distribution of the 9-repeat allele are unlikely to be the result of positive selection: 1) aside from its association with the 9-repeat allele, the AMH does not have a high frequency in the Americas, 2) the AMH is not unusually long for its frequency compared with other haplotypes in the Americas, and 3) in Latin American mestizo populations, the proportion of Native American ancestry at D9S1120 is not unusual compared with that observed at other genomewide microsatellites. Using a new method for estimating the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all sampled copies of an allele on the basis of an estimate of the length of the genealogy descended from the MRCA, we calculate the mean time to the MRCA of the 9-repeat allele to be between 7,325 and 39,900 years, depending on the demographic model used. The results support the hypothesis that all modern Native Americans and Western Beringians trace a large portion of their ancestry to a single founding population that may have been isolated from other Asian populations prior to expanding into the Americas. PMID:19221006

Schroeder, Kari B; Jakobsson, Mattias; Crawford, Michael H; Schurr, Theodore G; Boca, Simina M; Conrad, Donald F; Tito, Raul Y; Osipova, Ludmilla P; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Zhadanov, Sergey I; Wall, Jeffrey D; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Malhi, Ripan S; Smith, David G; Rosenberg, Noah A



HLA complex-linked heat shock protein genes and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes, HSPA1L, HSPA1A, and HSPA1B, are located within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class III region. HSPs act as stress signals and regulate natural killer cell response to cancer. HSP70 gene polymorphisms show disease associations partly due to their linkage disequilibrium with HLA alleles. To systematically evaluate their associations with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we examined the three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2227956 (T493M) in HSPA1L, rs1043618 in HSPA1A 5?UTR, and rs1061581 (Q351Q) in HSPA1B by TaqMan assays or polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 114 ALL cases and 414 controls from Wales (UK), in 100 Mexican Mestizo ALL cases and 253 controls belonging to the same ethnic group, and in a panel of 82 HLA-typed reference cell line samples. Homozygosity for HSPA1B rs1061581 minor allele G was associated with protection (odds ratio (OR)?=?0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.16–0.78; P?=?0.007) with gene-dosage effect (additive model) reaching significance (P?=?0.0001) in the Welsh case–control group. This association was replicated in the second case–control group from Mexico (OR (recessive model)?=?0.49, 95% CI?=?0.24–0.96; P?=?0.03), and the pooled analysis yielded a strong association (Mantel–Haenszel OR?=?0.43, 95% CI?=?0.27–0.69, P?=?0.0004). The association was stronger in males in each group and in the pooled analysis. A three-SNP haplotype including the major allele A of rs1061581 showed a highly significant increase in Welsh cases compared with respective controls (6.7% vs 1.8%; P?=?0.0003) due to the difference between male cases and controls. The protective allele of rs1061581 occurred more frequently on the HLA-DRB3 haplotypes (especially DRB1*03) in the cell line panel, but the HSPA1B association was independent from the HLA-DRB4 association previously detected in the same case–control group from Wales (adjusted P?=?0.001). Given the cancer promoting roles played by HSPs intracellularly as well as roles in immune surveillance when expressed on the cell surface and the known correlations between expression levels and the HSP polymorphisms, these results are likely to indicate a primary association and warrant detailed assessment in childhood ALL development.

Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Davis, Charronne F.; Gorodezky, Clara; Alaez, Carmen



Kidney disease in Paraguay.  


Paraguay is a landlocked country located in South America with a total population of 5,884,491. Most of the population (95%) is mestizo, a mixture of Spanish and American/Indian races. The total number of indigenous people in the country has increased from 38,703 in 1981 to 85,674 in 2002. The gross domestic product per capita was US $932.00 annually per person in the year 2002. Between 1992 and 1997, there were 380 patients on chronic dialysis in Paraguay and 75 patients received renal transplants, mostly living-related. The prevalence of renal replacement therapy was 87 patients per million, and the incidence of renal disease continues to rise. Seventy percent of cases of ESRD are of unknown etiology and 15% have diabetes-related renal disease. Only citizens covered by the employee's national health insurance have complete coverage for dialysis and transplantation. The remainder of the population has to apply to public hospitals when the need for hemodialysis arises. At such hospitals, they can receive hemodialysis coverage from the National Institute of Nephrology or from other medical foundations to obtain entrance to these programs. They must otherwise use their own resources to pay for treatment. Seventy percent of patients on chronic dialysis turn to public hospitals for treatment. Hospital hemodialysis is the method most widely used. Home dialysis is rarely performed and there are very few programs for ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Thus, a large number of patients are not able to enter chronic dialysis programs. In a recent survey of 4655 ill children registered, the distribution of main renal disease was acute glomerulonephritis in 42 cases (9 per 1000), nephrotic syndrome in 40 cases (8.5 per 1000), systemic lupus erythematosis in 28 cases (6 per 1000), and hematuria alone in 11 cases (2.3 per 1000). In ambulatory pediatric practice, urinary tract infection is the leading reason for seeking medical advice. Two thirds of such cases are associated with urinary tract anomalies. Children with ESRD are able to enter hemodialysis programs, but there are not sufficient resources to transplant them. Over 60% of the children with ESRD are hospitalized with terminal renal failure; malformations of the urinary tract are the usual cause. One study of 9880 adults aged 18 to 74 years reported that 39.1% of the women and 26.8% of the men examined were found to have hypertension. Almost half who were found to have raised blood pressure in this study were not previously known to have hypertension. In another cross-sectional study of the urban and suburban mestizo population of Asuncion among patients between 20 and 74 years of age, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 6.5%, impaired glucose tolerance 13.5%, hypertension 17%, and obesity 31.6%. Extrapolating from this data, we can assume that 178,000 patients with hypertension in Paraguay need medical treatment. To face the problem of growing numbers of patients with end-stage renal failure, it is necessary to carry out basic epidemiologic research to detect and quantify cases early in the course of disease, and thus propose treatments designed to slow the progress of the disease. Without this type of data, it would be difficult to establish an efficient action plan for improving the development of the treatment of renal disease. Thus, we are recommending the establishment of early detection and treatment campaigns for chronic renal disease, especially in individuals at risk. It is also desirable to promote renal transplantation using related live donors. We need to cooperate with government authorities to increase the insurance coverage of patients on chronic dialysis and find the most practical ways to establish long-term dialysis programs. A major question that is hard to answer in practice is whether there should be universal insurance for dialysis and transplantation for all who need it from the outset, as opposed to implementation in successive stages, which gives priority to only a minority of the population; which could be better adapted to our financial pos

Santa Cruz, Francisco; Cabrera, Walter; Barreto, Susana; Mayor, María Magdalena; Báez, Diana




PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia.

Silvia, Mejia-Arango; Clemente, y Zuniga-Gil



Secondary syphilis in cali, Colombia: new concepts in disease pathogenesis.  


Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18-68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer > or = 1 : 4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5-240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study. PMID:20502522

Cruz, Adriana R; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V; Ramirez, Lady G; Duque, Jorge E; Aristizabal, Gloria E; Fiel-Gan, Mary D; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L; Radolf, Justin D; Salazar, Juan C





Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile. PMID:12177976



Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18–68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer ?1?4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5–240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study.

Cruz, Adriana R.; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Duque, Jorge E.; Aristizabal, Gloria E.; Fiel-Gan, Mary D.; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.



Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.  


Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other countries in the region. In 1981, 1 million of the countrys, residents were foreign born. The oil industry attracted many immigrants, and illegal immigration is a serious problem. 41% of the population is under 15 years of age, the birth rate is 33-37, the death rate is 5, the infant mortality rate is 39, and life expectancy is 69 years. Average household size is 5.28. Family life is highly unstable. 32% of the couples are in informal unions, and these couples account for 52% of all births. 20% of the households are headed by low income women. The total fertility rate was 6.7 in 1961 and is currently 4.3. There are 3.2 million housing units, and 800,000 of these are classified as inadequate. 65% of the population is mestizo, 20% is European, and the remaining 15% are from various other countries or members of indigenous groups. The population is predominantly Catholic. The literacy rate is 83%; however, 71% of the males and 84% of the females in rural areas are illiterate. 31.5% of the population is in the labor force, and 27.5% of the labor force is female. 20% of the labor force is in the service sector and many of these work in the overgrown government bureaucracy. Only 15% of the labor force is engaged in the primary sector. 37% of the residents of Caracas and 80% of the country's rural residents live below the poverty level. PMID:12313690

Hakkert, R



A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau de l'État s'est appliqué à développer une stratégie sur deux plans. Tout d'abord, des études hydrogéologiques de base et des modèles mathématiques d'écoulement et de transport de nappe ont été réalisés à partir d'un suivi d'ensemble des puits existants et d'une révision générale du contexte géologique de l'État. Ensuite, on a soutenu une structure de participation des usagers de l'eau aux actions de gestion de l'eau, à partir de la dissémination de l'information pour la mise en place de projets pilotes efficaces d'utilisation de l'eau, avec des aides financières, techniques et politiques de l'État. Simultanément, un effort coordonné en vue de l'achèvement de l'enregistrement des usagers de l'eau a été fait avec l'autorité fédérale, en même temps que d'autres mesures de soutien, telles que des programmes de formation et des campagnes de surveillance. Cet article présente une vue d'ensemble des réalisations de projets et des défis. Resumen El Estado de Guanajuato, situado en el centro de México, ocupa menos del 2% de la superficie del país. Tiene casi 17.000 pozos profundos, de los cuales se extrae cerca de 4.000 hm3/a, lo que supone un exceso de 1.000 hm3/a respecto a la recarga anual. Puesto que el agua es administrada a nivel federal en México, el gobierno del Estado afronta el reto de asegurar el desarrollo de la población sin disponer de medios formales de intervención. Dadas las limitaciones para aplicar políticas y medidas reguladoras, el programa del agua en el Estado tiene como objetivo principal la implantación de una doble estrategia. Por un lado, desarrollar estudios hidrogeológicos básicos y modelos matemáticos de flujo y transporte de los acuíferos, basándose en una campaña exhaustiva de pozos existentes y en una revisión del marco geológico del Estado. Por otro lado, promover-con soporte financiero, técnico y político-una estructura de participación de los usuarios en las acciones de gestión, incluyendo desde la difusión de la información hasta la implantación de proyectos piloto para un uso

Sandoval, Ricardo