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Last update: August 15, 2014.

A Reply to Peter Doble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peter Doble has recently made his opinions on an article written by the author (Thompson, 2004a). Several of the points Doble raised were addressed in the author's book "Whatever Happened to Religious Education?" (Thompson, 2004b). In this article, the author addresses the points made by Doble in response to her article. The author contends how…

Thompson, Penny



Educational Program Status Report. Ganado Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared as background information for a future long-range comprehensive plan, this status study was done to determine the scope and nature of the current educational program and facilities in the four schools operated by the Ganado Public School District. To accomplish the project, the staff of consultants followed a 5-part procedure: (1)…

Tonigan, Richard F.


Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehu?n and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = ?0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity.

Delgadillo Guzman, Dealmy; Marchat Marchau, Laurence Annie; Reyes, Jose L.; Loera Castaneda, Veronica; Sosa Macias, Martha; Garcia Vivas, Jessica; Asseff, Ismael Lares



51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, switchboard with overhead field rheostat (above). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


Tumor necrosis factor haplotype diversity in Mestizo and native populations of Mexico.  


The so-called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) block includes the TNFA, lymphotoxin alpha and beta (LTA and LTB) genes with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and microsatellites with an allele frequency that exhibits interpopulation variability. To date, no reports have included both SNPs and microsatellites at the TNF block to study Mestizo or Amerindian populations from Mexico. In this study, samples of five Mexican Mestizo populations (Durango, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, and Tierra Blanca) and four native-Mexican populations (North Lacandonians, South Lacandonians, Tepehuanos, and Yaquis) were genotyped for two SNPs (LTA+252A>G and TNFA-308G>A) and four microsatellites (TNFa, d, e, and f), to analyze the genetic substructure of the Mexican population. Allele and haplotype frequencies, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and interpopulation genetic relationships were calculated. There was significant LD along almost all of the TNF block but the lowest D' values were observed for the TNFf-TNFd pair. Mestizos showed higher allele and haplotype diversity than did natives. The genetic differentiation level was reduced among Mestizos; however, a slightly, but significant genetic substructure was observed between northern and southern Mexican Mestizos. Among the Amerindian populations, the genetic differentiation level was significantly elevated, particularly in both North and South Lacandonians. Furthermore, among Southern Lacandonians, inhabitants of Lacanja town were the most differentiated from all the Mexicans analyzed. The data presented here will serve as a reference for further population and epidemiological studies including these TNF polymorphisms in the Mexican population. PMID:24517517

Castro-Martínez, X H; Leal-Cortés, C; Flores-Martínez, S E; García-Zapién, A G; Sánchez-Corona, J; Portilla-de Buen, E; Gómez-Espinel, I; Zamora-Ginez, I; Pérez-Fuentes, R; Islas-Andrade, S; Revilla-Monsalve, C; Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Mendoza-Carrera, F



Maternal admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on mtDNA haplogroups.  


The maternal ancestry (mtDNA) has important applications in different research fields, such as evolution, epidemiology, identification, and human population history. This is particularly interesting in Mestizos, which constitute the main population in Mexico (?93%) resulting from post-Columbian admixture between Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves, principally. Consequently, we conducted minisequencing analysis (SNaPshot) of 11 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 742 Mestizos of 10 populations from different regions in Mexico. The predominant maternal ancestry was Native American (92.9%), including Haplogroups A, B, C, and D (47, 23.7, 15.9, and 6.2%, respectively). Conversely, European and African ancestries were less frequent (5.3 and 1.9%, respectively). The main characteristics of the maternal lineages observed in Mexican-Mestizos comprised the following: 1) contrasting geographic gradient of Haplogroups A and C; 2) increase of European lineages toward the Northwest; 3) low or absent, but homogeneous, African ancestry throughout the Mexican territory; 4) maternal lineages in Mestizos roughly represent the genetic makeup of the surrounding Amerindian groups, particularly toward the Southeast, but not in the North and West; 5) continuity over time of the geographic distribution of Amerindian lineages in Mayas; and 6) low but significant maternal population structure (FST ?=?2.8%; P?=?0.0000). The average ancestry obtained from uniparental systems (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) in Mexican-Mestizos was correlated with previous ancestry estimates based on autosomal systems (genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats). Finally, the comparison of paternal and maternal lineages provided additional information concerning the gender bias admixture, mating patterns, and population structure in Mestizos throughout the Mexican territory. PMID:23754474

Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Haro-Guerrero, Javier; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Velarde-Félix, Jésus S; Muñoz-Valle, José F; López-Casamichana, Mavil; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Canseco-Avila, Luis M; Bravi, Claudio M; López-Armenta, Mauro; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor



Distribution of Y chromosomal STRs loci in Mayan and Mestizo populations from Guatemala.  


In this study, a sample of 225 Guatemalan males, comprising 115 Mestizo-Guatemalan and 110 Mayan-Guatemalan, was typed for 17 Y-short tandem repeats (STRs) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA_H4.1 and DYS385a/b). The haplotype diversity (H=1) and discrimination capacity (96.86%) were calculated. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated a low but significant interpopulation differentiation when compared with the results obtained when we confront the Mestizo and Mayan populations with the European populations. Furthermore, the genetic variability and differences among the American, African, Asian, and European populations were analyzed with the software Statistica 9.1. In addition, the genetic distances were also calculated using other published data. Reynolds and Slatkin?s genetic distance was visualized using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. All the analysis performed locates the Mayan population next to the Native American population, while Guatemalan-Mestizo population was found to be between these populations and the European population, similar to other Mestizo one. The implementation of the estimation of individual ancestry proportions of the whole population sample showed the presence of two well-differentiated population groups. PMID:21565570

Martínez-González, Luis J; Saiz, María; Alvarez-Cubero, María J; Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Alvarez, Juan C; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Lorente, José A



An ethnobotanical study of the traditional medicine of the Mestizo people of Suni Miraño, Loreto, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the ethnobotany of Mestizos in Suni Miraño in 1994 documented 60 plant species used for medicinal purposes. Some cultural data on traditional healing and etiology were also collected. Of these 60 species, 31 were submitted to antibacterial and antifungal assays in the presence and absence of UV light and a number of species were shown to be active.

E. M. Jovel; J. Cabanillas; G. H. N. Towers



47. Credit JE. Housing of one of the Doble rotors, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Credit JE. Housing of one of the Doble rotors, cooling ducts, governor, and gate valve. (JE, v. 25 1910 p. 121). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


75 FR 9114 - FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications...substitutes Channel 284C3 for Channel 236C3 at Victoria, Texas, and modifies the license for Station KVIC(FM), Victoria, to specify operation on Channel...



Evaluation of forensic and anthropological potential of D9S1120 in Mestizos and Amerindian populations from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Aim To carry out a deeper forensic and anthropological evaluation of the short tandem repeat (STR) D9S1120 in five Mestizo populations and eight Amerindian groups from Mexico. Methods We amplified the STR D9S1120 based on primers and conditions described by Phillips et al, followed by capillary electrophoresis in the genetic analyzer ABI Prism 310. Genotypes were analyzed with the GeneMapper ID software. In each population we estimated statistical parameters of forensic importance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosity and FST-values were compared with those previously obtained with nine STRs of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS-STRs). Results Amerindian and Mestizo populations showed high frequencies of the allele 9 and 16, respectively. Population structure analysis (AMOVA) showed a significant differentiation between Amerindian groups (FST?=?2.81%; P?Mestizos (FST?=?0.44%; P?=?0.187). D9S1120 showed less genetic diversity but better population differentiation estimates than CODIS-STRs between Amerindian groups and between Amerindians and Mestizos, but not between Mestizo groups. Conclusion This study evaluated the ability of D9S1120 to be used for human identification purposes and demonstrated its anthropological potential to differentiate Mestizos and Amerindian populations.

Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Viviana M; Botello-Ruiz, Miriam; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Martinez-Cortes, Gabriela; Munoz-Valle, Jose F; Phillips, Christopher



Mexican mestizo population sub-structure: effects on genetic and forensic statistical parameters.  


Since Mexican mestizos are an admixed population, it is necessary to determine the effects that the substructure of the population has on genetic and forensic parameters. With this aim, a study was performed with 15 STR loci (CODIS plus D2S1338 and D19S433) on 1,640 unrelated Mexican mestizos. We determine allele and genotypic frequencies observing departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectation (12 out of 15 loci, with an excess of homozygotes, Fis > 0), as well as pairs of loci in an apparent linkage disequilibrium (13 of 92 loci). We conducted a test for genetic population stratification, the results show that the Mexican mestizo population is substructured into three subgroups, which are in HW and linkage equilibrium. The combination of the 15 loci in the whole population has high forensic efficiency with the capacity to genetically discriminate one individual in one quintillion (1/10(18)). Our data potentially validates the use of these 15 STR loci to establish forensic identity and parentage testing for legal purposes, and offers a powerful tool for genetic variation analysis. However, given that the population is stratified, we highly recommend applying a correction with the inbreeding coefficient in calculations of paternity and forensic studies to avoid erroneous assumptions. PMID:22983890

Noris, Gino; Santana, Carla; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; de Lourdes Munoz, María; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Magaña, Jonathan J; Granados, Julio; Quezada, Rosa; Revilla, María Cristina; Martínez-Salas, Sergio; Xihuitl, Salvador; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S; Gómez, Rocío



Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican demography approximates the present-day ancestry of Mestizos throughout the territory of Mexico.  


Over the last 500 years, admixture among Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans, principally, has come to shape the present-day gene pool of Mexicans, particularly Mestizos, who represent about 93% of the total Mexican population. In this work, we analyze the genetic data of 13 combined DNA index system-short tandem repeats (CODIS-STRs) in 1,984 unrelated Mestizos representing 10 population samples from different regions of Mexico, namely North, West, Central, and Southeast. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test demonstrated low but significant differentiation among Mestizos from different regions (F(ST) = 0.34%; P = 0.0000). Although the spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) predicted clustering Mestizo populations into four well-delimited groups, the main differentiation was observed between Northwest when compared with Central and Southeast regions. In addition, we included analysis of individuals of Amerindian (Purepechas), European (Huelva, Spain), and African (Fang) origin. Thus, STRUCTURE analysis was performed identifying three well-differentiated ancestral populations (k = 3). STRUCTURE results and admixture estimations by means of LEADMIX software in Mestizo populations demonstrated genetic heterogeneity or asymmetric admixture throughout Mexico, displaying an increasing North-to-South gradient of Amerindian ancestry, and vice versa regarding the European component. Interestingly, this distribution of Amerindian ancestry roughly reflects pre-Hispanic Native-population density, particularly toward the Mesoamerican area. The forensic, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:19140185

Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; González-Martín, Antonio; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Anaya-Palafox, Manuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor



Admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on paternal lineages.  


In the nonrecombining region of the Y-chromosome, there are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) that establish haplogroups with particular geographical origins (European, African, Native American, etc.). The complex process of admixture that gave rise to the majority of the current Mexican population (~93%), known as Mestizos, can be examined with Y-SNPs to establish their paternal ancestry and population structure. We analyzed 18 Y-SNPs in 659 individuals from 10 Mexican-Mestizo populations from different regions of the country. In the total population sample, paternal ancestry was predominately European (64.9%), followed by Native American (30.8%) and African (4.2%). However, the European ancestry was prevalent in the north and west (66.7-95%) and, conversely, Native American ancestry increased in the center and southeast (37-50%), whereas the African ancestry was low and relatively homogeneous (0-8.8%). Although this paternal landscape concurs with previous studies based on genome-wide SNPs and autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), this pattern contrasts with the maternal ancestry, mainly of Native American origin, based on maternal lineages haplogroups. In agreement with historical records, these results confirm a strong gender-biased admixture history between European males and Native American females that gave rise to Mexican-Mestizos. Finally, pairwise comparisons and analysis of molecular variance tests demonstrated significant population structure (F(ST)=4.68%; P<0.00005), delimiting clusters that were geographically defined as the following: north-west, center-south and southeast. PMID:22832385

Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Laura Gabriela; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Rodríguez-Loya, Carmen; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Muñoz-Valle, José Franciso; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor



Distribution of apolipoprotein E alleles in coras and huicholes from Nayarit and Nahuas and Mestizos from Veracruz, Mexico.  


We report allele frequencies for the most common polymorphism of the APOE gene in Mexican individuals from two regions not previously described: Coras and Huicholes from Nayarit, and Nahuas and mestizos from Veracruz. We also report APOE allele frequencies for inhabitants of Mexico City. These descriptive data underscore the allelic heterogeneity for this particular locus in Mexico. PMID:16715842

Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos S; González-Sobrino, Blanca Zoila; Gómez-Sanchez, Ariadna; Martínez Rueda, Hortencia; Chávez-Eakle, Rosa Aurora; Serrano Sánchez, Carlos



Population structure and paternal admixture landscape on present-day Mexican-Mestizos revealed by Y-STR haplotypes.  


Mestizos currently represent most of the Mexican population (>90%); they are defined as individuals born in the country having a Spanish-derived last name, with family antecedents of Mexican ancestors back at least to the third generation. Mestizos are result of 500 years of admixture mainly among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves. Consequently, a complex genetic pattern has been generated throughout the country that has been scarcely studied from the paternal point of view. This fact is important, taking into account that gene flow toward the New World comprised largely males. We analyzed the population structure and paternal admixture of present-day Mexican-Mestizo populations based on Y-STRs. We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 males from five states: Aguascalientes (n = 293); Jalisco (n = 185); Guanajuato (n = 168); Chiapas (n = 170); and Yucatán (n = 170). AmpFlSTR Y-filer and Powerplex-Y(R) kits were used. Inclusion of North and Central Y-STR databases in the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico. Results confirmed the population differentiation gradient previously noted in Mestizos with SNPs and autosomal STRs throughout the Mexican territory: European ancestry increments to the Northwest and, correspondingly, Amerindian ancestry increments to the Center and Southeast. In addition, SAMOVA test and Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis autocorrelogram plot suggested preferential gene flow of males with neighboring populations in agreement with the isolation-by-distance model. Results are important for disease-risk studies (principally male-related) and for human identification purposes, because Y-STR databases are not available on the majority of Mexican-Mestizo populations. PMID:19967759

Salazar-Flores, J; Dondiego-Aldape, R; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Nuño-Arana, I; Canseco-Avila, L M; Flores-Flores, G; Morales-Vallejo, M E; Barojas-Pérez, N; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Campos-Gutiérrez, R; Rangel-Villalobos, H



Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, mestizo communities’s ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro–Wilk’s W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Results Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4–6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0–0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women’s and men’s knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student’s test, T15 = 4.8, p < 0.001). Occupation, gender and age were statistically significant associated to ethnobotanical knowledge (p < 0.05), whereas income, education level, and place of origin were not. Conclusion This research improves our understanding of the socio-economic activities associated with the intracultural distribution of ethnobotanical knowledge among mestizo Mexican communities. It also provides information on plant resources and habitats and how local peasants value them. This information could help in the development of proposals to improve biocultural conservation and strengthen traditional knowledge systems for effective forest management.



Genetic admixture in three mexican mestizo populations based on D1S80 and HLA-DQA1 Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares genetic polymorphisms at the D1S80 and HLA-DQA1 loci in three Mexican Mestizo populations from three large states (Nuevo Leon, Jalisco, and the Federal District). Allele frequency distributions are relatively homogenous in the three samples; only the Federal District population shows minor differences of the HLA-DQA1 allele frequencies compared with the other two. In terms of genetic composition,

Ricardo M. Cerda-Flores; Maria C. Villalobos-Torres; Leticia O. Barajas; Fernando Rivas; Angel Carracedo; Yixi Zhong; Sara A. Barton; Ranajit Chakraborty



PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.  


The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ?40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7 %, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4 % in normal weight, 19.9 % in overweight and 24.5 % in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations. PMID:24691744

Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel



49. DOBLE BUCKETS ON PELTON WHEEL. EEC print no. GC0100148, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. DOBLE BUCKETS ON PELTON WHEEL. EEC print no. G-C-01-00148, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA


Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location.

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vasquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, Jose L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, Maria I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.



A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Ganado].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

Biglin, J. E.; And Others


(AC)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in 5' beta-globin gene in native and Mestizo Mexican populations.  


Repeated sequences are dispersed along the human genome. These sequences are useful as markers in diagnosis of inherited diseases, in forensic medicine, and in tracking the origin and evolution of human populations. The (AC)n repeated element is the most frequent in the human genome. In this paper, the (AC)n repeated element located in the 5' flanking region of the beta-globin gene was studied by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Four ethnic Mexican groups (Mixteca, Nahua, Otomí, Purépecha) and a Mestizo population were analyzed. We observed three alleles, A [(AC)16, B [(AC)14], and C [(AC)18], with a frequency of between 68.2% and 86.9%, 13.1% and 18.2%, and 6.7% and 13.7%, respectively. Allele C was present only in Purépecha and Mestizo groups. The absence of this allele in the other ethnic groups studied suggests that there is low genetic admixture of Purépecha and that this is a relatively isolated population. However, it could be that the C allele occurs in low frequencies in the other groups as a result of small sample sizes. The (AC)n repeat polymorphism in the beta-globin gene has not been previously studied in Amerindian populations. PMID:11804203

Peñaloza, R; Delgado, P; Arenas, D; Barrientos, C; Buentello, L; Loeza, F; Salamanca, F



22. Credit PG&E. View of the Doble water wheel housing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Credit PG&E. View of the Doble water wheel housing and the 3000 kVA generator installed in 1926 to replace (original) units 1,2 and 3. Photo 10 November 1927. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


The C677T Polymorphism of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Associated with Idiopathic Ischemic Stroke in the Young Mexican-Mestizo Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, this relation remains controversial. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and idiopathic ischemic stroke in the young Mexican-Mestizo population. Methods: One hundred seventy-eight

Irma Isordia-Salas; Fernando Barinagarrementería-Aldatz; Alfredo Leaños-Miranda; Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez; Jorge Vela-Ojeda; Jaime García-Chávez; Isabel Ibarra-González; Abraham Majluf-Cruz



Analysis of polymorphisms in interleukin-10, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo women with pre-eclampsia.  


Due to the fact that studies seeking associations of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine genes with pre-eclampsia (PE) have not always been consistent in different population analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between rs1800896 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), rs1800795 of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 2 of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as gene-gene interactions between these three polymorphisms with the presence of PE in Mexican-Mestizo women and one Amerindian population from México (Maya). A case-control study was performed where 411 pre-eclamptic cases and 613 controls were genotyped. For the rs1800896 of IL-10 and rs1800795 of IL-6, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination and for the VNTR of IL-1Ra, PCR. Allele frequency differences were assessed by Chi-squared test; logistic regression was used to test for associations; a gene-gene interaction was conducted. Genotypic and allelic distribution of the polymorphisms was similar in our population. The estimated of the gene-gene interaction between the polymorphisms did not differ significantly. However, we observed important differences in the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the three polymorphisms analyzed between Mestiza-Mexicanas and Maya-Mestizo women. In conclusion, we did not find an association between polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1Ra and PE in Mexican-Mestizo and Maya-Mestizo women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene-gene interaction in women with PE. PMID:23013217

Valencia Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Romero Arauz, Juan Fernando; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Coronel, Agustín; Carlos Falcón, Juan; Hernández Rivera, Jaime; Ibarra, Roberto; Polanco Reyes, Lucila; Canto, Patricia



Analysis of Polymorphisms in Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo Women with Pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

Due to the fact that studies seeking associations of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine genes with pre-eclampsia (PE) have not always been consistent in different population analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between rs1800896 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), rs1800795 of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 2 of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as gene–gene interactions between these three polymorphisms with the presence of PE in Mexican-Mestizo women and one Amerindian population from México (Maya). A case–control study was performed where 411 pre-eclamptic cases and 613 controls were genotyped. For the rs1800896 of IL-10 and rs1800795 of IL-6, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination and for the VNTR of IL-1Ra, PCR. Allele frequency differences were assessed by Chi-squared test; logistic regression was used to test for associations; a gene–gene interaction was conducted. Genotypic and allelic distribution of the polymorphisms was similar in our population. The estimated of the gene–gene interaction between the polymorphisms did not differ significantly. However, we observed important differences in the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the three polymorphisms analyzed between Mestiza-Mexicanas and Maya-Mestizo women. In conclusion, we did not find an association between polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1Ra and PE in Mexican-Mestizo and Maya-Mestizo women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene–gene interaction in women with PE.

Valencia Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Romero Arauz, Juan Fernando; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon Mauricio; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Coronel, Agustin; Carlos Falcon, Juan; Hernandez Rivera, Jaime; Ibarra, Roberto; Polanco Reyes, Lucila



Genotyping by"cold single-strand conformation polymorphism" of the UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism in Mexican mestizos.  


Since no data have previously been reported concerning both the (TA) n polymorphism at the promoter of the UGT1A1 gene in the Mexican population and the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) for the detection of such polymorphism, genotyping by SSCP in 375 G-6-PD normal (Group A) and 81 G-6-PD-deficient (Group B) mestizos belonging to 14 states was carried out. Allele frequencies for (TA)6 and (TA)7 repeats were 0.654 and 0.334, respectively, in Group A and 0.685 and 0.315 in Group B; in the former group, the (TA)5 allele was also observed with a frequency of 0.012. The frequencies of the genotype (TA)7/(TA)7 were 10.1% (Group A) and 8.6% (Group B). The (TA)7/(TA)8 genotype was also observed in a patient with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Due to the importance of its potential medical implications, the observed high frequency (10%) of the (TA)7/(TA)7 genotype is stressed. Genotyping by SSCP of the (TA) n polymorphism is an adequate methodological option. PMID:11987245

Arámbula, Eliakym; Vaca, Gerardo



P2X7 and NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo patients with pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Several studies have suggested that genetic factors may affect susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the specific genes involved have not yet been fully characterized. NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 and P2X7 genes have been linked to increased risk for tuberculosis in some African and Asiatic populations. To explore the potential role of these genes in the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in a Mexican mestizo population, we evaluated the association of D543N and 3?-UTR polymorphisms in NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 and ? 762 and A1513C polymorphisms in P2X7 genes with the risk for tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genomic DNA followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and allelic-specific PCR was employed. We found no significant differences in allelic frequency in NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 gene polymorphisms in 94 patients with tuberculosis compared to 100 healthy contacts. Similarly, no significant association of the P2X7?762 gene polymorphism with tuberculosis was detected. In contrast, the P2X7 A1513C polymorphism was associated significantly with tuberculosis (P= 0·02, odds ratio = 5·28, 95% CI, 0·99–37·69), an association that had not been reported previously. However, when the function of P2X7 was assessed by an l-selectin loss assay, we did not find significant differences in patients compared to healthy contacts or between PPD+ and PPD– control individuals. This study further supports the complex role of P2X7 gene in host regulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and demonstrates that different associations of gene polymorphisms and tuberculosis are found in distinct racial populations.

Nino-Moreno, P; Portales-Perez, D; Hernandez-Castro, B; Portales-Cervantes, L; Flores-Meraz, V; Baranda, L; Gomez-Gomez, A; Acuna-Alonzo, V; Granados, J; Gonzalez-Amaro, R



Distribution of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Polymorphisms Associated with Poor Metabolizer Phenotype in Five Amerindian Groups and Western Mestizos from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background: The distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes allows inferring the potential risk for specific adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic effects in humans. This variability shows differences among human populations. The aim of this study was to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to a poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype in nonpreviously studied Amerindian groups and Mestizos (general admixed population) from Mexico. Methods: We detected by SNaPshot® different polymorphisms located in CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *6, *7, and *8) and CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *4 and *5) in western Mestizos (n=145) and five Amerindian groups from Mexico: Tarahumaras from the North (n=88); Purépechas from the Center (n=101); and Tojolabales (n=68), Tzotziles (n=88), and Tzeltales (n=20) from the Southeast. Genotypes were observed by capillary electrophoresis. The genetic relationships among these populations were estimated based on these genes. Results and Discussion: The wild-type allele (*1) of both genes was predominant in the Mexican populations studied. The most widely observed alleles were CYP2C19*2 (range, 0%–31%) and CYP2D6*4 (range, 1.2%–7.3%), whereas CYP2D6*3 was exclusively detected in Mestizos. Conversely, CYP2C19*4 and *5, as well as CYP2D6*3, *6, *7, and *8, were not observed in the majority of the Mexican populations. The Tarahumaras presented a high frequency of the allele CYP2C19*2 (31%) and of homozygotes *2/*2 (10.7%), which represent a high frequency of potentially PM phenotypes in this Amerindian group. The genetic distances showed high differentiation of Tarahumaras (principally for CYP2C19 gene). In general, a relative proximity was observed between most of the Amerindian, Mexican-Mestizo, and Latin-American populations. Conclusion: In general, the wild-type allele (*1) predominates in Mexican populations, outlining a relatively homogeneous distribution for CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The exception is the Tarahumara group that displays a potentially increased risk for adverse reactions to CYP2C19-metabolized drugs.

Salazar-Flores, Joel; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Martinez-Cortes, Gabriela; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Sosa-Macias, Martha; Munoz-Valle, Jose F.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Angelica; Roman, Raquel; Mendez, Jose L.; Barrera, Andres; Torres, Alfredo; Medina, Rafael



Anti-malarials exert a protective effect while Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing SLE renal disease: data from a Latin-American cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the role of ethnicity and the use of anti-malarials (protective) on lupus renal disease. Methods. A nested case–control study (1:2 proportion, n?=?265 and 530) within GLADEL's (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort was carried out. The end-point was ACR renal criterion development after diagnosis. Cases and controls were matched for follow-up time (end-point or a comparable time, respectively). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable analyses. Additional analyses were done to determine if the protective effect of anti-malarials persisted after adjusting for intake-associated confounders. Results. Of the cases, 233 (87.9%) were women; their mean (s.d.) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years and their median (Q3–Q1 interquartile range) follow-up time for cases and controls was 8.3 months (Q3–Q1: 23.5); 56.6% of the cases and 74.3% of the controls were anti-malarial users. Mestizo ethnicity [odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48] and hypertension (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.38, 3.70) were independently associated with a higher risk of renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26, 0.58), older age at disease onset (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and female gender (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.99) were negatively associated with such occurrence. After adjusting for variables associated with their intake, the protective effect of anti-malarials on renal disease occurrence persisted (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25, 0.58). Conclusion. Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use protects patients from such an occurrence.

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Soriano, Enrique R.; Saurit, Veronica; Cavalcanti, Fernando S.; Guzman, Renato A.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sauza del Pozo, Maria J.; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Alva, Magaly; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.



Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in Ecuadorian Mestizo and Spaniard populations: a comparative study.  


This study was designed to investigate the potential differences between Spaniards and Ecuadorian Mestizo people regarding CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. DNA from 282 Spaniard and 297 Ecuadorian subjects were analyzed by either a previously reported pyrosequencing method (CY2C8*3, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3) or a nested PCR technique (CYP2C19*17). Whereas CYP2C19*17 allele distribution was higher in Ecuadorians than in Spaniards (P < 0.001) and the frequency of CYP2C19*3 was similar in these two populations (P > 0.05), the other allelic variants were detected at significantly lower frequencies in Ecuadorians than in Spaniards (P < 0.05). According to the diplotype distributions, the prevalence of the presumed CYP2C9 and CYP2C8 extensive metabolizers was higher in Ecuadorians than in Spaniards (P < 0.05). Individuals genotyped CYP2C19*1/*17 and *17/*17 who were considered as ultrarapid metabolizers were overrepresented in Ecuadorians in relation to Spaniards (P < 0.001). By contrast, among Ecuadorians no poor metabolizers (PMs) of either CYP2C8 or CYP2C9 were found and only two individuals were CYP2C19 PMs. These data are compatible with a higher CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 activity in Mestizo Ecuadorians as opposed to Spaniards, which could imply differences in dosage requirements for drugs metabolized by these cytochromes and should also be considered in allele-disease association studies. PMID:24430292

Vicente, Jorge; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Soriano, Antonia; Fanlo, Ana; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Sinués, Blanca



Analysis of Polymorphisms in Genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1) Associated with Hypertension, Thrombophilia and Oxidative Stress in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of M?xico  

PubMed Central

Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using ?2 tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups.

Juarez-Velazquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodriguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velazquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordonez-Razo, Rosa Maria; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon Mauricio



Galaxias con núcleo doble. III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed new spectroscopic and photometric observations of late type galaxies with double nuclei and without previous studies. The subsample, constituted by double nuclei galaxies without tidal tails, was selected from the Double Nuclei Galaxies Preliminary Catalog (Gimeno, Díaz & Carranza 1999) and the observations were performed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. We report and discuss specially the results for ESO 416-G06, ESO 381-IG23 and Fairal 58. In all cases the secondary nucleus presents bluer color indexes than the main nucleus and also larger H? equivalent widths. These objects follow the trend of smaller radial velocity differences when smaller are the separations between both nuclei; this correlation was observed in previous works (e.g. Gimeno, Díaz & Carranza 1998). The general picture is consistent with the scenario of star formation enhanced by the capture of a minor or satellite galaxy.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.


Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations and haplotypes in Mexican Mestizos.  


In a screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in 1985 unrelated male subjects from the general population (Groups A and B) belonging to four states of the Pacific coast, 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects were detected. Screening for mutations at the G-6-PD gene by PCR-restriction enzyme in these 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects as well as in 14 G-6-PD-deficient patients with hemolytic anemia belonging to several states of Mexico showed two common G-6-PD variants: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (19 cases) and G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (9 cases). In 7 individuals the mutations responsible for the enzyme deficiency remain to be determined. Furthermore, four silent polymorphic sites at the G-6-PD gene (PvuII, PstI, 1311, and NlaIII) were investigated in the 28 individuals with G-6-PD A- variants and in 137 G-6-PD normal subjects. As expected, only 10 different haplotypes were observed. To date, in our project aiming to determine the molecular basis of G-6-PD deficiency in Mexico, 60 unrelated G-6-PD-deficient Mexican males-25 in previous studies and 35 in the present work-have been studied. More than 75% of these individuals are from states of the Pacific coast (Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas). The results show that although G-6-PD deficiency is heterogeneous at the DNA level in Mexico, only three polymorphic variants have been observed: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (36 cases), G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (13 cases), and G-6-PD Seattle(844C) (2 cases). G-6-PD A- variants are relatively distributed homogeneously and both variants explain 82% of the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency. The variant G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) represents 73% of the G-6-PD A- alleles. Our data also show that the variant G-6-PD A-(376G/968C)-which has been observed in Mexico in the context of two different haplotypes-is more common than previously supposed. The three polymorphic variants that we observed in Mexico are on the same haplotypes as found in subjects from Africa, the Canary Islands, and Spain. PMID:11042039

Arámbula, E; Aguilar L, J C; Vaca, G



[Polymorphisms of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 in Mexican mestizos].  


The frequency of heterochromatic polymorphisms on C-banded chromosomes 1, 9 and 16 in two inter-racial Mexican populations was analyzed. Secondary constriction (qh) regions were classified according to a semi-quantitative procedure which showed to be simple and convenient. We compare our results with those in other populations. PMID:8337542

Armendares, S; Buentello, L; Gaona, O; Salamanca, F; Mutchinick, O



Catálogo de galaxias con núcleo doble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through systematic inspection of the publications in extragalactic astronomy and galaxy catalogs, we compiled a first list of spiral galaxies with double or multiple nucleus, confirmed and candidates (about 150 objects). This list includes, in its preliminar form, basic data on each object (Names, Coordinates, Redshift, Abs.Mag.B, Major and Minor Axes, Nuclei Separation, IR Properties, Comments, etc.) and for nuclei with apparent separations larger than 1'', it seems complete up to z = 0.0015. This allows us to analize the possible correlations between the geometric and photometric parameters of the double nuclei and the host galaxies, some of which are important, e.g.: nuclei separation vs. absolute magnitude and vs. host galaxy diameter; star formation rate vs. nuclei separation. We also find common global infrared an optical photometric properties that are beeing analized in order to check the validity of some models of galaxies captures and mergers. A subsample of southern objects included in this catalog is beeing observed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station and, up to date, we have performed BVRI photometry and spectroscopy of twelve double or multiple nuclei galaxies.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.


Control de las Garrapatas del Ganado Vacuno (Cattle Tick Control).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infestation of domestic livestock by ticks is the most expensive parasite problem of animal production. Ticks cause very serious lesions themselves, and transmit diseases caused by protozoans, virus, and bacteria, causing double damage to the animal. Tick...



Doble o Más: Doblar o Triplicar Una Receta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Escoja una receta para doblarla (o triplicarla, cuadruplicarla, o partirla). Enseñe la receta a todo el grupo y pregúnteles: Cuánto vamos a necesitar para incrementar la receta para que todos puedan comer? Cómo lo saben? Una vez el grupo ha decidido cómo modificar la receta, asigne un ingrediente para incrementar y medir. A medida que los chicos deciden cómo hacerlo, exploran fracciones, multiplicación, y suma. Pruebe esta actividad con comida, una ârecetaâ para combinar pinturas para conseguir determinados colores, o para hacer masilla para modelar. Disponible en formato web, en formato pdf, y en inglés.




The Spanish Influence on the Mestizo Folk Dance of Yucatan, Veracruz, and Jalisco, Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Folk dances from three regions of Mexico (Yucatan, Veracruz, and Jalisco) are examined. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which these folk dances reflect the history and cultural attitudes of the Mexican people and, particularly, on the influence of Spanish culture and history on Mexican folk dances. For the dances of each of these areas,…

Trujillo, Lawrence Alan


[Detección de Mycoplasma canadense y Mycoplasma californicum en ganado lechero de Argentina].  


Different species of Mycoplasma can affect bovine cattle, causing several diseases. PCR sequencing and further analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region have shown a significant interspecies variability among Mollicutes. Sixteen suspected isolates of Mycoplasma spp. obtained from milk samples from dairy herds were amplified (16S-23S rRNA ITS region). Fourteen out of those 16 suspected Mycoplasma spp. isolates were PCR-positive. To confirm the identity of Mycoplasma bovis, these 14 isolates were tested by another species-specific PCR. Seven of the isolates rendered a positive result. The products of 16S-23S rRNA ITS PCR from one isolate that was identified as M. bovis and from two other isolates, identified as non- M. bovis were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. The three sequences (A, B and C) showed 100% similarity with M. bovis, Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum respectively. PMID:25011595

Tamiozzo, Pablo J; Estanguet, Abel A; Maito, Julia; Tirante, Liliana; Pol, Martin; Giraudo, José A



Control de Parasitos y de Insectos de Ganado Vacuno (Parasite and Insect Control in Cattle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Control of pests in cattle is involved and complicated, requiring a variety of treatment methods. The following eight pamphlets explain specific parasites and insects with possible cures. Controlling internal parasites using phenothizines which includes d...



Population data and mutation rate of nine Y-STRs in a mestizo Mexican population from Guadalajara, Jalisco, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine Y-STR (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS446, DYS447, DYS448, DYS456 and DYS458) were analyzed in a male sample of 285 unrelated individuals from Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. The haplotype diversity (0.996) and discrimination capacity (0.986) were calculated. A family study of around 200 father\\/son pairs and among 1828 meiosis showed five mutational events. All mutations were single step. The overall mutation

Jorge Ramón Padilla-Gutiérrez; Yeminia Valle; Antonio Quintero-Ramos; Guillermo Hernández; Katya Rodarte; Roc?´o Ortiz; Norma Olivares; Fernando Rivas



Doble abordaje para el tratamiento del rinofi ma. Reporte de un caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinophyma, a word derived from the Greek rhino-nose and phyma-growth, is a deforming and progressive disease characterized by the thickening of the skin of the nose, hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, occlusion of the ducts with formation of cysts and a certain degree of fi brosis. Diverse factors for the development of rhinophyma have been proposed, such as vitamin defi

Yanko Castro Govea; Hernán Chacón Martínez; Sergio Pérez Porras; Salvador Ángel García; Rafael Orlando; Vallejo Estrella



Ganado Lechero. Primera Parte: La Crianza de la Becerra (Milch Cattle. Part 1: Nursing and the Yearling).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet covers cattle terminology, required activities for the first and second year, breeds of milk cattle, breed associations, selection of the breed, feeding the yearling, teaching it to drink, dehorning, health, and growth.

J. M. L. Acosta B. S. Herrero



"Growing Series" of partial albino Hopi Female age 10-16, Ganado, Arizona (anthropometry, dental charts, and photographs)( page 5 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Hereditary Disorders   Race and Ethnicity



Criollo, mestizo, mulato, LatiNegro, ind?gena, white, or black? The US Hispanic/Latino population and multiple responses in the 2000 census.  

PubMed Central

Current dialogues on changes in collecting race and ethnicity data have not considered the complexity of tabulating multiple race responses among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic identification--and its public reporting--among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is embedded in dynamic social factors. Ignoring these factors leads to significant problems in interpreting data and understanding the relationship of race, ethnicity, and health among Hispanics/Latinos. In the flurry of activity to resolve challenges posed by multiple race responses, we must remember the larger issue that looms in the foreground--the lack of adequate estimates of mortality and health conditions affecting Hispanics/Latinos. The implications are deemed important because Hispanics/Latinos will become the largest minority group in the United States within the next decade.

Amaro, H; Zambrana, R E



On the dynamics of a double cluster system and the clusters h and X Persei (Spanish Title: La dinámica de un sistema doble de cúmulos y el cúmulo doble en Perseo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation we attempt to determine whether h and X Persei are physically related. An attempt in this direction is made by examining the dynamical consequences of the proximity of the two clusters. We find that the real distance between the centers of the clusters is around 17 parsecs.

P. Pismis



POLIMORFISMO GENÉTICO DE LA KAPPA-CASEÍNA EN GANADO CRIOLLO LIMONERO Genetic Polymorphism of Kappa-Casein in Creole Limonero Bovine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the polymorphism of CSN3 gen in Limonero Creole breed, blood samples were collected from 163 male and female individuals, with which characterization through RFLP-PCR was conducted. Results showed that genotypic fre- quencies were 0.11, 0.56 and 0.33 for AA, AB and BB, respec- tively. Allelic frequencies were 0.39 and 0.61 for allele A and B, accordingly.

Inioska Rojas; José Aranguren-Méndez; María Portillo; Yenen Villasmil-Ontiveros; Emiro Valbuena; Xomaira Rincón; Gloria Contreras; Luis Yañez


The (G>A) rs11573191 Polymorphism of PLA2G5 Gene Is Associated with Premature Coronary Artery Disease in the Mexican Mestizo Population: The Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease Mexican Study  

PubMed Central

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disorder that results from an excessive inflammatory response. Secretory phospholipase A2-V (sPLA2-V) encoded by PLA2G5 gene promotes diverse proinflammatory processes. The aim of the present study was to analyze if PLA2G5 gene polymorphisms are associated with premature CAD. Three PLA2G5 polymorphisms (rs11573187, rs2148911, and rs11573191) were analyzed in 707 patients with premature CAD and 749 healthy controls. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. Under dominant, recessive, and additive models, the rs11573191 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of premature CAD (OR = 1.51, Pdom = 3.5 × 10?3; OR = 2.95, Prec = 0.023; OR = 1.51, Padd = 1.2 × 10?3). According to the informatics software, this polymorphism had a functional effect modifying the affinity of the sequence by the MZF1 transcription factor. PLA2G5 polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium and the CGA haplotype was associated with increased risk of premature CAD (OR = 1.49, P = 0.0023) and with hypertension in these patients (OR = 1.75, P = 0.0072). Our results demonstrate the association of the PLA2G5 rs11573191 polymorphism with premature CAD. In our study, it was possible to distinguish one haplotype associated with increased risk of premature CAD and hypertension.

Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Alvarez-Leon, Edith; Angeles-Martinez, Javier; Soto, Maria Elena; Monroy-Munoz, Irma; Juarez, Juan Gabriel; Sanchez-Ramirez, Carlos Jerges; Ramirez-Bello, Julian; Ramirez-Fuentes, Silvestre; Fragoso, Jose Manuel



Estimación de tendencias genéticas e interacción genotipo x ambiente en ganado lechero de Costa Rica Genetic trends, genotype-environment interaction and inbreeding in Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle from Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic trends for 305-d milk yield, genotype-environment interaction and inbreeding levels were evaluated in Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) dairy cattle populations in Costa Rica. Heritability and repeatability for 305-d milk yield were estimated with a statistical model that included the fixed effect of herd-year-season and the random effects of herd-sire interaction, permanent environment and animal. Heritability estimates were 0.19±0.021

Bernardo Vargas Leitóna; Gabriela Gamboa Zeledóna


Evaluación de un sistema de enfriamiento aplicado en el periodo seco de ganado lechero durante el verano Evaluation of a cooling system used in the dry period of dairy cattle in summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine some physiological responses 60 d prepartum and production responses postpartum to a cooling system in summer, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to two groups: one group with (n=12) and a second group without (n=12) cooling. Cooled cows showed a lower (P<0.05) respiration rate (77.5 vs 83.7 breaths\\/min) and rectal temperature (39.1 vs 39.3 °C) in

Leonel Avendaño Reyes; Francisco Daniel Álvarez Valenzuela; Abelardo Correa Calderón


16 de Septiembre, 1810 Module. Secondary Level. [16 of September, 1810 Module. Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independence for Mexico took 11 years to achieve. Before its independence Mexico was ruled by Spain and had a basic caste system of indios, mestizos, criollos, and gachupines. The gachupines and criollos ruled the government and exploited the indios and mestizos. When the criollos became dissatisfied with being secondary to the gachupines, they…

Crystal City Independent School District, TX.


El Dia de la Raza Module. Secondary Level. [The Day of the Race Module. Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"El Dia de la Raza", considered the birthday of the mestizo, is the topic of this unit for the secondary level. As unit objectives, the students are to demonstrate (1) their comprehension by stating 3 major areas of contributions the Indians and the Spaniards gave the mestizo culture and (2) their concept of mestizaje by participating in oral…

Herrera, Gloria; Lizcano, Jeanette


Dual Exchange Markets versus Exclusive Forward Exchange Rate Support (Double marché des changes ou soutien exclusif des taux de change à terme) (Los mercados cambiarios dobles y el apoyo exclusivo al tipo de cambio a plazo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two mechanisms of official intervention in the foreign exchange market that provide a stable exchange market accessible to traders while insulating the money supply and reserves by the inducement of capital inflows (outflows) equal to the trade deficit (surplus). The first policy involves the establishment of a dual exchange market, giving official support exclusively to the commercial

William H. L. Day



Dual Markets: The Case of the Syrian Arab Republic (Double marché des changes: le cas de la République arabe syrienne) (Mercados dobles: El caso de la República Arabe Siria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article surveys the performance of the dual exchange market and its contribution to Syria's overall balance of payments position during the period 1964-71. An econometric model is developed, with explanatory functions for the demand and supply of foreign exchange, together with a function explaining the rate-setting behavior of the Syrian authorities. The model is applied to one major period

Paul M. Dickie; David B. Noursi



Dual Exchange Markets and Other Remedies for Disruptive Capital Flows (Doubles marchés et autres remèdes aux mouvements perturbateurs de capitaux) (Mercados cambiarios dobles y otros remedios para los flujos de capital perturbadores)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, various policy instruments at the disposal of national governments for dealing with the problem of disruptive international capital flows or, more generally, the problem of temporary and reversible payments imbalances, are passed in review. The instruments examined include (1) separate (dual) exchange markets for capital and current transactions, (2) taxes and subsidies affecting capital transactions or income

J. Marcus Fleming



The Multinational Andean Genetic and Health Program. IX. Gene frequencies and rare variants of 20 serum proteins and erythrocyte enzymes in the Aymara of Chile.  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic variants at 22 genetic loci in the Aymara, mestizo, and Spanish populations of northern Chile are presented, and their possible role in adaptation to hypoxic environments are discussed. Some apparently unique variants were found. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Ferrell, R E; Bertin, T; Barton, S A; Rothhammer, F; Schull, W J



Distribution of paraoxonase PON1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican populations. Its role in the lipid profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraoxonase gene polymorphisms (PON1-55 and PON1-192) were determined in four Mexican populations (Mestizos, Nahuas, Teenek and Mayos) belonging to different ethnic groups. The role of these polymorphisms in the lipid profile in the Mestizo group was also analyzed. PON1 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison among Mexican populations showed increased frequencies of PON1-55 L allele

Ricardo Gamboa; José Zamora; José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez; José Manuel Fragoso; Guillermo Cardoso; Carlos Posadas-Romero; Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón



Supporting Emergent Literacy Is Everyone's Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the reading program at Ganado Primary School (selected as exemplary at the 1993 annual International Reading Association convention), part of a schoolwide literate environment that encourages children to become self-actualizing and self-assured learners. (SR)

Boloz, Sigmund A.; Muri, Donna H.



Completing the Circle: Nursing Education in the Navajo Nation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the baccalaureate nursing program for Native Americans in Ganado, Arizona. Closed in 1951, it is reopening with an emphasis on community health. The program, run by Northern Arizona University, is the first school of nursing for Native Americans. (JOW)

Upvall, Michele J.



Resist This! Embodying the Contradictory Positions and Collective Possibilities of Transformative Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth participatory action research (YPAR) and arts-informed approaches reflect a source of critical resistance at the intersection of theory and practice (praxis). Our discussion draws upon "Mestizo Arts & Activism" ("MAA"), a participatory action research collective made up of young people who focused their research on the educational rights of…

Quijada Cerecer, David Alberto; Cahill, Caitlin; Bradley, Matt



Effect of an episode of severe malnutrition and age on lactose absorption by recovered infants and children1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which the ability to absorb lactose can be regained after recovery from an acute episode of severe malnutrition is in doubt. Lactase activity was indirectly assessed by means of a standard lactose tolerance test (2 g lactose per kilogram of body weight) in 71 Peruvian Mestizo infants and children (age 5 to 55 months) who had suffered

Joanne Leslie; William C. MacLean; George G. Graham


Mayan culture: Beyond boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social categories “Maya” and “mestizo” have been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. This article examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. It shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the

Peter Hervik



Polimorfismos del cromosoma Y humano en poblaciones de la región norte del Perú Polymorphisms of the human Y chromosome in populations from northern Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\/T, fue mayor en la población Aguaruna de Yamayakat (97%), disminuyendo en mestizos de Moche (73%), Santiago de Chuco (53%) y Trujillo (33%); por otro lado, el grado de mestizaje fue mayor en las poblaciones nor-occidentales. Los haplótipos más frecuentes fueron YAP - \\/C\\/24 en Trujillo (47%) y YAP - \\/T\\/24 en Santiago de Chuco (23%). La diversidad haplotípica en

Néstor Carbajal-Caballero; Susy Núñez; Milenka Narvaiza; Carlos Aguirre; Carlos Villanueva; Juan Muro; Luis Rodríguez-Delfín


Influence of School and Environment on Selective Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects were 943 mestizo and Quechua Indian children aged five and six years who lived in jungle villages near Lanas and in slum settlements in Lima, Peru. Some six year olds attended school and others did not. The children were tested with a task that assessed memory for central and incidental features of drawings. (JMB)

Wilkinson, Alex; And Others



Growth of Children from Extremely Poor Families. (PE-612.65-G739).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to characterize the growth pattern of a group of children belonging to 115 very poor, primarily mestizo Peruvian families living in the peripheral slums of Lima, all of whom had at least one child who had been hospitalized for...

G. G. Graham



Schooling, Environment and Cognitive Development: A Cross-Cultural Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the influence of schooling and environment on young children's memory and cognitive skills. Subjects were five- and six-year-old Mestizo and Quechua Indian children living in jungle villages or city slums in Peru. Samples of upper-middle-class children in Lima and poor children in Detroit were also tested. (JMB)

Stevenson, Harold W.; And Others



Genetically Determined Amerindian Ancestry Correlates with Increased Frequency of Risk Alleles for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyze if genetically determined Amerindian ancestry predicts the increased presence of risk alleles of known susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms within 16 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a set of 804 Mestizo lupus patients and 667 Mestizo normal healthy controls. In addition, 347 admixture informative markers were genotyped. Individual ancestry proportions were determined using STRUCTURE. Association analysis was performed using PLINK, and correlation of the presence of risk alleles with ancestry was done using linear regression. Results A meta-analysis of the genetic association of the 16 SNPs across populations showed that TNFSF4, STAT4, PDCD1, ITGAM, and IRF5 were associated with lupus in a Hispanic-Mestizo cohort enriched for European and Amerindian ancestry. In addition, two SNPs within the MHC region, previously associated in a genome-wide association study in Europeans, were also associated in Mestizos. Using linear regression we predict an average increase of 2.34 risk alleles when comparing a lupus patient with 100% Amerindian ancestry to an SLE patient with 0% American Indian Ancestry (p<0.0001). SLE patients with 43% more Amerindian ancestry are predicted to carry one additional risk allele. Conclusion Amerindian ancestry increased the number of risk alleles for lupus.

Sanchez, E; Webb, R; Rasmussen, A.; Kelly, J.A; Riba, L.; Kaufman, K.M.; Garcia-de la Torre, I.; Moctezuma, J.F.; Maradiaga-Cecena, M.A.; Cardiel, M.; Acevedo, E.; Cucho-Venegas, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gamron, S.; Pons-Estel, B.A.; Vasconcelos, C.; Martin, J.; Tusie-Luna, T.; Harley, J.B.; Richardson, B.; Sawalha, A.H.; Alarcon-Riquelme, M.E.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Revitalizing Hispanic and Native American Communities: Four Examples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes locally controlled economic development strategies used by Native American and Hispanic cooperatives and organizations: Ganados del Valle, Madera Forest Products Association, Seventh Generation Fund, and Ramah Navajo Weavers Association. Discusses the issues of cultural and economic survival in isolated rural communities. (SV)

Robinson, Paul; And Others



A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Window Rock].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

Biglin, J. E.; And Others


A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Chinle].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

Biglin, J. E.; And Others


A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Tuba City].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

Biglin, J. E.; And Others


A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Kayenta].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

Biglin, J. E.; And Others


A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Keams Canyon].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

Biglin, J. E.; And Others


Development of an Indian - Operated Health System through the Process of Interim Management by a Non-Local Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a locally run health system on the Navajo Indian reservation in Ganado, Arizona is described. Project HOPE assumed responsibility for a 45-bed hospital on the reservation in June 1969, with the understanding that within five years that ...

G. E. Kauffman J. I. Hudson



Human genetics. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits.  


Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; del Rio Navarro, Blanca; London, Stephanie J; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D



Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in Mexican patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Genetic factors implied on its onset and severity may include genes located within the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles with the clinical disease patterns of UC in Mexican Mestizo patients. High-resolution

Jesús K Yamamoto-Furusho; Luis F Uscanga; Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón; Jorge A Ruiz-Morales; Lorena Higuera; Teresa Cutiño; José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez; Cynthia Villarreal-Garza; Julio Granados



The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new, simple, quantitative technique for evaluating the relative usefulness of plants to people. The\\u000a technique is then compared to the quantitative approaches in ethnobotany that have been developed recently. Our technique\\u000a is used to calculate the importance of over 600 species of woody plants to non-indigenous mestizo people in Tambopata, Amazonian\\u000a Peru. Two general classes of

Oliver Phillips; Alwyn H. Gentry



Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system practiced by non-tribal ‘Mestizo’ farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption, and for a regional market. The

C. Padoch; J. Chota Inuma; W. DE JONG; J. Unruh



Actinic prurigo.  


Actinic prurigo is a chronic photodermatosis with onset in childhood or before 20 years of age. It is most prevalent in Amerindians and Latin American mestizos, although it has been reported worldwide. Patients present with photodistributed, erythematous excoriated papules, cheilitis, and conjunctivitis. There is strong association with human leukocyte antigen DR4, especially the DRB1*0407 subtype. Treatment consists of photoprotection and the use of thalidomide. PMID:24891055

Valbuena, Martha C; Muvdi, Sandra; Lim, Henry W



Kidney disease in Paraguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney disease in Paraguay. Paraguay is a landlocked country located in South America with a total population of 5,884,491. Most of the population (95%) is mestizo, a mixture of Spanish and American\\/Indian races. The total number of indigenous people in the country has increased from 38,703 in 1981 to 85,674 in 2002. The gross domestic product per capita was US




Metabolic effects of the contraceptive skin patch and subdermal contraceptive implant in Mexican women: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The contraceptive skin patch (CSP) accepted by the U.S. FDA in 2001 includes ethinylestradiol and norelgestromine, whereas the subdermal contraceptive implant (SCI) has etonogestrel and is also approved by the FDA. In Mexico, both are now widely used for contraception but their effects on Mexican population are unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate if these treatments induce metabolic changes in a sample of indigenous and mestizo Mexican women. Methods An observational, prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study of women between 18 and 35 years of age assigned to CSP or SCI. We performed several laboratory tests: clinical chemistry, lipid profile, and liver and thyroid function tests. Also, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, IGF-1, leptin, adiponectin, and C reactive protein were assayed. Results Sixty-two women were enrolled, 25 used CSP (0 indigenous; 25 mestizos) and 37 used SCI (18 indigenous; 19 mestizos). Clinical symptoms were relatively more frequent in the SCI group. Thirty-four contraceptive users gained weight without other clinical significant changes. After 4 months of treatment, significant changes were found in some biochemical parameters in both treatment groups. Most were clinically irrelevant. Interestingly, the percentage of users with an abnormal atherogenic index diminished from 75% to 41.6% after follow-up. Conclusions The CSP slightly modified the metabolic variables. Most changes were nonsignificant, whereas for SCI users changes were more evident and perhaps beneficial. Results of this attempt to evaluate the effects of contraceptives in mestizo and native-American populations show that clinical symptoms are frequent in Mexican users of CSP and SCI. Although these medications may affect some metabolic variables, these changes seem clinically irrelevant. Induction of abnormalities in other physiological pathways cannot be ruled out.



Reconstructing the population history of Nicaragua by means of mtDNA, Y-chromosome STRs, and autosomal STR markers.  


Before the arrival of the Spaniards in Nicaragua, diverse Native American groups inhabited the territory. In colonial times, Native Nicaraguan populations interacted with Europeans and slaves from Africa. To ascertain the extent of this genetic admixture and provide genetic evidence about the origin of the Nicaraguan ancestors, we analyzed the mitochondrial control region (HVSI and HVSII), 17 Y chromosome STRs, and 15 autosomal STRs in 165 Mestizo individuals from Nicaragua. To carry out interpopulation comparisons, HVSI sequences from 29 American populations were compiled from the literature. The results reveal a close relationship between Oto-manguean, Uto-Aztecan, Mayan groups from Mexico, and a Chibchan group to Nicaraguan lineages. The Native American contribution to present-day Nicaraguan Mestizos accounts for most of the maternal lineages, whereas the majority of Nicaraguan Y chromosome haplogroups can be traced back to a West Eurasian origin. Pairwise Fst distances based on Y-STRs between Nicaragua and European, African and Native American populations show that Nicaragua is much closer to Europeans than the other populations. Additionally, admixture proportions based on autosomal STRs indicate a predominantly Spanish contribution. Our study reveals that the Nicaraguan Mestizo population harbors a high proportion of European male and Native American female substrate. Finally, the amount of African ancestry is also interesting, probably because of the contribution of Spanish conquerors with North African genetic traces or that of West African slaves. PMID:20721944

Nuñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Sosa, Cecilia; Casalod, Yolanda; Ge, Jianye; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña



Amerindian Helicobacter pylori Strains Go Extinct, as European Strains Expand Their Host Range  

PubMed Central

We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes) of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1), all from Spanish were European (hpEurope) and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination). The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts.

Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.; Perez, Maria E.; Bortolini, Maria C.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Pericchi, Luis R.; Zambrano-Guzman, Orlisbeth; Linz, Bodo



Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children.

Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Lopez-Contreras, Blanca; Gutierrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rio-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Perez, Francisco; Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La tripanosomosis 1 transmitida por la mosca tse-tsé es una enfermedad compleja producida por varias especies de protozoos parásitos del género Trypanosoma, transmitida cíclicamente por el género Glossina (mosca tse-tsé). Esta enfermedad puede afectar a varias especies de mamíferos pero, desde el punto de vista económico, la tripanosomosis trasmitida por la mosca tse-tsé, es especialmente importante en el ganado



The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined.

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Veronica; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, Jose L.; de la Torre, Ignacio Garcia; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gomez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, Maria J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.



Relationship between genotypes of the Duffy blood groups and malarial infection in different ethnic groups of Choco, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy-) confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. Studies carried out in pursuing this direction in Colombia are scarce. Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities of La Italia (Chocó) and malarial infection. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with malaria. Sample size: Afro-Colombians 73; Amerindian (Emberá) 74, and Mestizo, 171. The presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene was studied by PCR and RFLP to help identify changes to T-46C and A131G which originate the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C and G/G, G/A, A/A. Results: Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% of cases with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% due to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated with ethnicity (p= 0.003). Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotypes were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas the other diplotypes were infected with either of the species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0.90-1.00, among Afro-Colombians this was 0.50, the same as with the C allele and with an absence of heterozygous. At locus 131, the maximum frequency of the G allele was 0.30 in Amerindians and the maximum of the A allele was 0.69 in Afro-Colombians. Conclusions: In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, there was a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+) but this was not observed with the P. vivax infection. P. vivax was ruled out in all FY- individuals.

Vega, Jorge; Ramirez, Jose L; Bedoya, Gabriel; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda



Genetic mutations in early-onset Parkinson's disease Mexican patients: molecular testing implications.  


Mutations in PARK2, PINK1, and DJ-1 have been associated with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the prevalence of sequence and structural mutations in these three main recessive genes in Mexican Mestizo patients. The complete sequences of these three genes were analyzed by homo/heteroduplex DNA formation and direct sequencing; exon dosage was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and real-time PCR in 127 patients belonging to 122 families and 120 healthy Mexican Mestizo controls. All individuals had been previously screened for the three most common LRRK2 mutations. The presence of two mutations in compound heterozygous or homozygous genotypes was found in 16 unrelated patients, 10 had mutations in PARK2, six in PINK1, and none in DJ-1. Two PARK2-PINK1 and one PARK2-LRRK2 digenic cases were observed. Novel mutations were identified in PARK2 and PINK1 genes, including PINK1 duplication for the first time. Exon dosage deletions were the most frequent mutations in PARK2 (mainly in exons 9 and 12), followed by those in PINK1. The high prevalence of heterozygous mutations in PARK2 (12.3%) and the novel heterozygous and homozygous point mutations in PINK1 observed in familial and sporadic cases from various states of Mexico support the concept that single heterozygous mutations in recessive Parkinson's disease genes play a pathogenic role. These data have important implications for genetic counseling of Mexican Mestizo patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease. The presence of digenic inheritance underscores the importance of studying several genes in this disease. A step-ordered strategy for molecular diagnosis is proposed. PMID:24677602

Monroy-Jaramillo, Nancy; Guerrero-Camacho, Jorge Luis; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Boll-Woehrlen, Marie-Catherine; Yescas-Gómez, Petra; Alonso-Vilatela, María Elisa; López-López, Marisol



Mujeres Latinas--Santas y Marquesas.  


This presidential address is a conceptualization and application of psychohistorical and mestizo psychology frameworks to address gender and ethnic identity conflicts for contemporary Latinas. Connections are made between historical and cultural icons and Latina literature of the 21st century with protagonists who give voice to the struggles of acculturated and self-empowered women. Spanish terms are used to communicate and give emphasis to the Latino landscape. The article comes to conclusion with personal reflections about María Morales de Zaldívar, or Mamá, the author's grandmother, who embodies the santa y marquesa life script. PMID:12416317

Arredondo, Patricia



Actinic prurigo. The possible etiologic role of an amino acid in the diet.  


Actinic prurigo is a chronic skin disease commonly associated with cheilitis and conjunctivitis. This peculiar disorder, with ethnic, genetic, environmental, clinical and histological features, represents an abnormal reaction to sunlight. It occurs in American Indians of Canada, United States and most frequently in Latin America where it involves not only indigents but also the mixed ancestry (Mestizo) population. In analogy to what is well known about pellagra, a disease also with solar influence and a deficient intake of tryptophan or niacin in diet, it is our hypothesis that actinic prurigo patients develop their disease due to, among other factors, a diet poor in proteins. PMID:8231981

Magaña-García, M; Magaña, M



Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.  


Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L



EE.UU.China: Los ecos de la cumbre Bush-Hu  

Microsoft Academic Search

China se muestra cada vez más segura de sí misma en su actuar internacional. No se trata solo de poder económico. A diferencia de EE.UU., cuyos valores han perdido credibilidad en razón de un proselitismo militarizado y de acentuado doble rasero, su influencia va creciendo y ello provoca rivalidades estratégicas de profundo calado cuando aumentan por doquier las tensiones originadas

Xulio Rios


Elaboració de seqüències didàctiques. Les aplicacions de la Física i la Química en la Meteorologia  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’elaboració de seqüències didàctiques ens permet assolir un doble objectiu: l’autofor-mació del professorat (individualment o en grup) i l’aplicació de nous mètodes d’en-senyament de les ciències innovadors. Tot plegat amb la finalitat d’afavorir l’interès gene-ral envers les Ciències de la Naturalesa.

Dolors Vidal i Segarra



A Reply? A Response to Penny Thompson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Penny Thompson's "reply" to the author's article (Doble, 2005) briefly tells readers that for an answer to some of the author's queries, readers may turn to her book; for the rest, she proposes to take "the argument" further. One of the problems with her earlier article was that it had no discernible argument, so it is not easy to see how it may…

Doble, Peter



25. Credit JTL. Detail of unit 4 (installed 190607) showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Credit JTL. Detail of unit 4 (installed 1906-07) showing single overhund Doble water wheel, with air duct and 2000 kVA Westinghouse generator in background. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


Indicadores de sustentabilidad ambiental en la gestión de espacios verdes. Parque urbano Monte Calvario, Tandil, Argentina1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Los espacios verdes de las ciudades y particularmente los parques urbanos representan sistemas ambientales que cumplen con un doble rol, social y ecológico, en donde es posible evaluar las condiciones de sustentabilidad am- biental urbana. En tal sentido, proponemos un conjunto de indicadores destinados a evaluar en forma integral las condiciones de sustentabilidad del parque urbano Monte Calvario de



Primary thrombophilia in Mexico III: A prospective study of the sticky platelet syndrome.  


During an 18-month period, 10 consecutive Mexican mestizos with a dinical marker associated with a primary hypercoagulable state were studied. The assessment of the sticky platelet syndrome (SPS) was done by the method described by Mammen. In addition, the activated protein C resistance phenotype, coagulation protein C activity and antigen, coagulation protein S, antithrombin III, plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, IgG and IgM isotypes of anti-phospholipid antibodies, homocysteine levels, the factor V gene Leiden mutation, the 677 C->T mutation in the 5,10-methylen-tetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR), and the G20210A polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene were studied. Six patients with the SPS were identified: only one displayed this as the single thrombophilic abnormality; in five others, additional thrombosis-prone conditions were found: heterozygosity for the MTHFR 677 gene mutation in five cases; and, in one case each, heterozygosity for the factor V Leiden mutation, heterozygosity for the factor II G20210A mutation, and antiphospholipid antibodies in another. Four of the six patients had a family history of thrombophilia. All patients were treated with aspirin and no new vasoocclusive episodes have been recorded. SPS in not an infrequent finding in Mexican mestizo thrombophilic patients and may contribute to thrombophilia. PMID:12361206

Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J; López-Martínez, Briceida; Cruz-Cruz, Donají; Esparza-Silva, Lucía; Reyes-Aulis, Ma Belén



Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among school-age children in the Stann Creek District of Belize, Central America.  


Adults in the Stann Creek District of Belize have a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but the age of onset of these infections is unclear. We conducted a seroprevalence study of hepatitis B markers among Stann Creek school-age children to provide information for planning a hepatitis B vaccine program. The overall prevalence in 587 students was high for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) (43.3%) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (7.7%). There was marked variation of anti-HBc by school and by the predominant ethnic groups attending those schools. Maya had the highest prevalence (76%), followed by Mestizo (50%), Garifuna (37%), and Creole (25%). Children less than nine years of age attending the rural primary schools (mostly Mayan and Mestizo) had significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBc than did children attending the urban primary school (mostly Garifuna and Creole) (P < 0.05). Anti-HBc was found in 42% and 36% of students at the two high schools. Of the five schools tested, only at the urban primary school did anti-HBc positivity increase with age. Based on an analysis of the cost of serologic screening before immunization compared with mass vaccination, preimmunization serologic screening resulted in vaccine program cost savings in four of the five schools. Because most children in the rural areas contract hepatitis B before entering school, immunization against HBV should be integrated into the routine infant immunization program. PMID:8916807

Chamberlin, J; Bryan, J P; Jones, D L; Reyes, L; Hakre, S



Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: A genomic medicine approach  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world.

Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo



The -174G/C and -572G/C Interleukin 6 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. There is a lack of information about the genotype frequencies of IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexicans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo with RA. Methods. We included 137 patients with RA and 102 healthy controls. Patients were assessed for clinical characteristics. IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. Allele and genotype frequencies and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were computed. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed to identify the risk for RA associated with the presence of GG genotype in comparison with the GC or CC genotypes. Results. The genotype ?174GG occurred at a higher frequency in cases and controls (77.4% versus 78.4%, P = 0.845). We found similar results for the genotype ?572GG (54% in patients versus 60.8% in controls, P = 0.295). Conclusions. This is the first study to evaluate the association of ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms of the IL-6 gene with RA in Mexican mestizo patients. These two polymorphisms were not associated with RA in the studied sample. Additional studies are required to evaluate if these IL-6 polymorphisms have relevance to the development of more severe disease.

Zavaleta-Muniz, S. A.; Martin-Marquez, B. T.; Gonzalez-Lopez, L.; Gonzalez-Montoya, N. G.; Diaz-Toscano, M. L.; Ponce-Guarneros, J. M.; Ruiz-Padilla, A. J.; Mercado, M. Vazquez-Del; Maldonado-Gonzalez, M.; Fafutis-Morris, M.; Flores-Martinez, S. E.; Martinez-Garcia, E. A.; Gamez-Nava, J. I.



Genetic variation of 15 autosomal microsatellite loci in a Nayarit population (Mexico).  


Fifteen STRs are studied to determine the allele frequencies' distribution and to evaluate the homogeneity of Nayarit populations. This study allows the identification of forensic efficiency parameters to be used in forensic genetics and to explore the genetic similarities between Nayarit and the neighboring countries such as Mexico, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Honduras, Bolivia and Costa Rica. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, expected heterozygosity, matching probability, and power of discrimination, were calculated in the Nayarit population. We found that with respect to the studied markers, Nayarit genetic structure is homogeneous. In this study, it is established that Nayarit is genetically similar to the South American Mestizo population. The distribution of a set of these 15 STRs was analyzed with other South American populations as well as in the extensive set of neighboring populations from the literature (USA, Europe and Africa). We found significant differences exist between the isolated populations (Huastecos, Otomi from Sierra Madre and from Ixmiquilpan Valley) and Mestizo populations. Statistical analysis supports that Americans actual inhabitants and Europeans are genetically similar, while Africans and isolated populations from South America have more genetic differences. PMID:21944851

Alvarez-Cubero, M J; Martinez-Gonzalez, L J; Virgen-Ponce, D; Delgado-Najar, E A; Moscoso-Caloca, G H; Alvarez, J C; Lorente, J A



Mast cells in the human lung at high altitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mast cell densities in the lung were measured in five native highlanders of La Paz (3600 m) and in one lowlander dying from high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) at 3440 m. Two of the highlanders were mestizos with normal pulmonary arteries and the others were Aymara Indians with muscular remodelling of their pulmonary vasculature. The aim of the investigation was to determine if accumulation of mast cells in the lung at high altitude (HA) is related to alveolar hypoxia alone, to a combination of hypoxia and muscularization of the pulmonary arterial tree, or to oedema of the lung. The lungs of four lowlanders were used as normoxic controls. The results showed that the mast cell density of the two Mestizos was in the normal range of lowlanders (0.6-8.8 cells/mm2). In the Aymara Indians the mast cell counts were raised (25.6-26.0 cells/mm2). In the lowlander dying from HAPO the mast cell count was greatly raised to 70.1 cells/mm2 lung tissue. The results show that in native highlanders an accumulation of mast cells in the lung is not related to hypoxia alone but to a combination of hypoxia and muscular remodelling of the pulmonary arteries. However, the most potent cause of increased mast cell density in the lung at high altitude appears to be high-altitude pulmonary oedema.

Heath, Donald



Low prevalence of most frequent pathogenic variants of six PARK genes in sporadic Parkinson's disease.  


Genetic variants that confer susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD) show unbalanced distribution among different populations; genetic predisposition to either familial or sporadic forms of PD in Mexican-mestizo population has not been comprehensively studied. The aim of the present study was to analyze genetic variants in six PARK genes in PD patients. In total 381 individuals (173 patients, 208 controls) were genotyped for p.Gly2019Ser and p.Gly2385Arg variants of LRRK2. The p.Gly2019Ser variant was present in two patients and one healthy control; the p.Gly2385Arg variant was not found. In a subgroup of early-onset PD (EOPD), MLPA analysis was done for PARKIN (PARK2), PINK1 (PARK6), DJ-1 (PARK7), LRRK2 (PARK8), SNCA (PARK1/4) and ATP13A2 (PARK9). We found a heterozygous deletion of exon 2 in PARK2 in the youngest patient of the early-onset group, who showed limited response to antiparkinsonian therapy. Although the changes Gly2019Ser and Gly2385Arg of LRRK2 are associated with PD in different populations; they may be a rare cause of PD in our population. Novel population-specific variants may underlie PD susceptibility in Mexican mestizos. Our study suggests that the heterozygous deletion of exon 2 in the PARK2 gene is a risk factor for EOPD. PMID:24729340

García, S; López-Hernández, L B; Suarez-Cuenca, J A; Solano-Rojas, M; Gallegos-Arreola, M P; Gama-Moreno, O; Valdez-Anguiano, P; Canto, P; Dávila-Maldonado, L; Cuevas-García, C F; Coral-Vázquez, R M



Helminthiasis and cultural change in the Peruvian rainforest.  


The objective of this study was to identify the impact of cultural and ecological change on intestinal helminth infections in traditional indigenous communities in the Peruvian rainforest and to identify the ways of transmission of helminth eggs. A remote indigenous settlement was compared with a more developed mestizo town. Stool specimens as well as soil, dust, air and water were examined for Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. A significantly lower infection intensity of Ascaris and Trichuris could be demonstrated for the traditional Indian community. Here the hygienic conditions were found to be better than in the town. The mestizo teacher and his family, who had come from the town to the Indian settlement, showed poorer hygienic standards and higher levels of Ascaris and Trichuris egg excretion than the Indian dwellers. The distribution of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs in the soil, house dust and in the air suggests that the contaminated dust from defaecation sites was distributed through the whole community by feet, animals (chickens) and wind. It was observed that many traditional habits that contributed to the good hygiene of the native population were being abandoned in the process of cultural change. PMID:1560477

Kroeger, A; Schulz, S; Witte, B; Skewes-Ramm, R; Etzler, A



Blood groups and red cell acid phosphatase types in a Mixteca population resident in Mexico City.  


Several blood groups, ABO, Rh, Ss, Fy, Jk, and red cell acid phosphatase (ACP) types were studied in a native Mixteca population that has resided in Mexico City since 1950. Gene frequencies were obtained and used to establish admixture estimates with blacks and whites. The subjects came from three different geographical areas: High Mixteca, Low Mixteca, and Coast Mixteca. All frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The difference in the ABO frequencies was statistically significant when subjects from the three areas were compared simultaneously. Rh frequencies differed only between the High and the Low Mixteca populations. The ACP frequencies were similar between the Low Mixteca population and a previously reported Mestizo population. However, there were significant differences between the High Mixteca group and a Mestizo population, all the subjects being from Oaxaca. This is the first report of Ss, Fy, Jk, and ACP frequencies in a Mixteca population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:525-529, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533972

Buentello, L.; García, P.; Lisker, R.; Salamanca, F.; Peñaloza, R.



East Asian genotypes of Helicobacter pylori strains in Amerindians provide evidence for its ancient human carriage  

PubMed Central

Phylogenies of indigenous microbes have been used as surrogates for the origins of the hosts that carry them. Conversely, polymorphisms may be used to date the spread of a microbial species when information about their host populations is available. Therefore, we examined polymorphisms in Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonize the human stomach, to test the hypothesis that they have been ancient inhabitants of humans. Three H. pylori loci that previously have been shown to have phylogeographic affinity have been analyzed for two populations with different ethnic origins from Venezuela. In a group of Amerindian subjects from Amazonia, East Asian H. pylori genotypes were present for each of the loci examined but were absent in a mestizo population from Caracas. These findings provide evidence that H. pylori has been present in humans at least since ancestors of Amerindians migrated from Asia more than 11,000 years ago.

Ghose, Chandrabali; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria-Gloria; Pride, David T.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Blaser, Martin J.



Diagnosis and treatment of actinic prurigo.  


Actinic prurigo (AP) is an idiopathic photodermatosis that affects mainly the mestizo population in Latin America. It has an early onset, a slight predominance in women, and affects the sun-exposed areas of the skin, causing erythematous papules and lichenified plaques secondary to intense and chronic pruritus. Lesions can be induced by both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB). An association with several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles has been reported. AP is unique among all photodermatoses in its remarkable response to thalidomide. In the past the microscopic features of AP have been considered as nonspecific; however, the constant finding of dense lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates and the immunogenetic features of AP support the existence of an immunologic mechanism in its pathogenesis. PMID:12919125

Hojyo-Tomoka, María-Teresa; Vega-Memije, María-Elisa; Cortes-Franco, Roberto; Domínguez-Soto, Luciano



The conjunctivitis of solar (actinic) prurigo.  


Solar (actinic) prurigo (SP) is an abnormal reaction to sunlight that affects mostly the Indian and mestizo populations of America, and is well known in Canada and the United States. It is quite common in Mexico, Central, and South America, although rare in Europe. It usually starts in childhood in both sexes and in about 30-50% of cases involves the oral and ocular mucosa. In this study we present the clinical and histopathologic conjunctival findings in 11 of 105 children with SP. Clinically the most important features were photophobia, some degree of pterygium, and pinguecula, hyperemia, Trantas' dots, hyaline exudate, and follicles. Histopathologically the changes were epithelial, such as epidermoid metaplasia and absence of goblet cells, and stromal changes, which were the most diagnostically relevant. These consisted of lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, usually with eosinophils, melanosis, and solar elastosis. We believe this constellation of criteria will be useful for a better characterization of SP. PMID:11123772

Magaña, M; Mendez, Y; Rodriguez, A; Mascott, M



[Social profile of the black population in Brazil: implications for the nursing profession].  


The discussion about the inequality conditions in which black population lives in Brazil, has been disguised by today's economical conjuncture which apparently sets with no restrictions the white, black and mestizos in absolute destitution conditions. Considered unracist, entitled by 'Folha de Sao Paulo/Datafolha' as Kind Racist, Brazil has being instituting way of living among races whose discrimination is expressed by the lack of opportunity and access to consumption services. This way, the insertion of the black in Brazilian society after slavery abolition is our study object. This bibliographical discusses social indicators aiming at describing this population strategies in conquering a social space. This study shows up the difficulties faced by this populational group regarding to its insertions to the work market as determinant factor to its social rising. We have included black male and female as citizens which compose the labor force in Nursing. PMID:10765335

Jezuino, A L



Gene frequencies and admixture estimates in a Mexico City population.  


Five hundred and ten students of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México were tested to determine the distribution of ABO, MN, Rr-Hr blood groups, and serum haptoglobin, albumin, and Factor Bf types. Based on the results we found that the proportion of Indian and White genes are of 56.16 and 43.84%, respectively in the dihybrid model and 2.93, 56.22, and 40.85% for Blacks, Indians, and Whites in the trihybrid one. The present study reveals a higher proportion of Indian genes in the Mexico City population than estimated in previous publications. Reasons why the present results apply to a much larger group of Mexico City mestizos than the previous ones are given. PMID:3099584

Lisker, R; Perez-Briceño, R; Granados, J; Babinsky, V; de Rubens, J; Armendares, S; Buentello, L



Tumour necrosis factor microsatellites and HLA-DRB1*, HLA-DQA1*, and HLA-DQB1* alleles in Peruvian patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To study the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and HLA and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) polymorphism in Peruvian mestizo patients in comparison with ethnically similar controls.?METHODS—Seventy nine patients with RA and 65 ethnically matched healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and TNF? and TNF? alleles using PCR amplification. Clinical severity was assessed as mild, moderate, or severe in 35 of the patients.?RESULTS—TNF?6 showed the strongest association with disease susceptibility. The TNF?6 allele was more common in patients than in controls (p<0.0076) and the proportion of patients with at least one copy of this allele was greater (p<0.015, relative risk 2.35). Among the HLA-DRB1* alleles with the shared epitope sequence, only the DRB1*1402 allele was significantly increased in patients compared with controls (p<0.0311), as was the proportion of patients with at least one copy of this allele (p<0.0232, relative risk 2.74). In contrast, the overall frequency of alleles with the shared epitope was not different in patients and controls. The haplotype HLA-DRB1*1402-DQB1*0301-DQA1*0401 was significantly more common in patients. TNF?6 was more common in patients whether or not they had this haplotype. None of the 11 patients lacking the TNF?6 allele had severe disease.?CONCLUSIONS—This study shows for the first time that TNF gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to RA in a non-white population. TNF?6 and HLA-DRB1*1402 independently conferred significantly increased risk in Peruvian mestizo patients.??

Castro, F; Acevedo, E; Ciusani, E; Angulo, J; Wollheim, F; Sandberg-Wollheim, M



Genetic difference between Europeans and Indians: tissue and blood types.  


When Columbus reached America, the continent probably was inhabited by 15 to 30 million natives. Mexico now has 68 different Indian tribes classified from a linguistic point of view; 5 million people speaking different languages are registered. However, the Mexican population is mainly composed of Mestizos (95%), who have a triracial admixture of Caucasian genes coming from the Spanish conquerors, black genes from the African slaves brought by the Spaniards to America, and an Oriental gene-pool derived from the natives. The admixture started around 1500, but at present it may be very difficult to distinguish phenotypically one group from another, and the Mestizos from the Indians. Therefore, polymorphic systems like the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or several blood markers are very valuable tools and crucial elements to trace human migrations, to define degree of admixture, and to explore the impact of genetics on the epidemiology of the different populations. The distribution of blood group systems throughout western Europe is very homogeneous. In contrast, in the Mongolian the A2 subgroup and the S allele almost disappear compared with European Caucasian. Although homogeneity also exists in Orientals, several groups have a very particular pattern, such as the Senoi from Malay, the Tharons from Burma and the Ainu from Japan. We analyzed four Mexican Indian tribes, and as in Amerindians group 0 is extremely high, almost all are kappa; Fya is increased as in Mongolians, and Dia is an Oriental and Amerindian marker. The distribution of Lu and Kp suggests that the environment might have influenced the variability of these antigens found in Indians.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1483573

Gorodezky, C



Direct effects of cattle on grassland birds in Canada.  


Effects of grazing on grassland birds are generally thought to be indirect, through alteration of vegetation structure; however, livestock can also affect nest survival directly through trampling and other disturbances (e.g., livestock-induced abandonment). We extracted data on nest fates from 18 grazing studies conducted in Canada. We used these data to assess rates of nest destruction by cattle among 9 ecoregions and between seasonal and rotational grazing systems. Overall, few nests were destroyed by cattle (average 1.5% of 9132 nests). Nest destruction was positively correlated with grazing pressure (i.e., stocking rate or grazing intensity), but nest survival was higher in more heavily grazed areas for some species. Because rates of destruction of grassland bird nests by cattle are low in Canada, management efforts to reduce such destruction may not be of ecological or economic value in Canada. Efectos Directos del Ganado sobre las Aves de Pastizales en Canadá PMID:24617945

Bleho, Barbara I; Koper, Nicola; Machtans, Craig S



Susceptibility to advanced age-related macular degeneration and alleles of complement factor H, complement factor B, complement component 2, complement component 3, and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes in a Mexican population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the association of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)–high risk alleles of the complement factor H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement component 2 (C2), complement component 3 (C3), and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) genes in a Mexican population for the first time. Methods Genotyping was performed for the Y402H variant of CFH, for the L9H, R32Q, and K565E variants of CFB, the E318D variant of C2, the A69S variant of ARMS2, and the R102G variant of C3 in 159 Mexican mestizo patients at advanced stages of AMD, i.e., CARMS (Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System) grade 4 or 5. The frequency of these variants was also investigated in a group of 152 control subjects without AMD. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes, and genotyping was performed using PCR followed by direct sequencing. Allele-specific restriction enzyme digestion was used to detect the R102G polymorphism in C3. Results There were significant differences in the allelic distribution between the two groups for CFH Y402H (p=1×10?5), ARMS A69S (p=4×10?7), and CFB R32Q (p=0.01). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) obtained for the risk alleles of these three variants were 3.8 (2.4–5.9), 3.04 (2.2–4.3), and 2.5 (1.1–5.7), respectively. Haplotype analysis including the two most significantly associated alleles (CFH Y402H and ARMS A69S) indicated that the C-T combination conferred an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 6.9 (3.2–14.8). The exposed attributable risk for this particular haplotype was 85.5%. Conclusions This is the first case-control investigation of AMD–high risk alleles in a Latino population. Our results support that CFH, ARMS2, and CFB AMD-risk alleles are consistently associated with the disease, even in ethnic groups with a complex admixture of ancestral populations such as Mexican mestizos.

Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Gabriela; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Pompa-Mera, Ericka N.; Graue-Wiechers, Federico; Bekker-Mendez, Carolina; Ayala-Ramirez, Raul; Quezada, Carlos; Rodriguez-Loaiza, Jose L.



Isolation and partial characterization of halotolerant lactic acid bacteria from two Mexican cheeses.  


Isolated strains of halotolerant or halophilic lactic acid bacteria (HALAB) from Cotija and doble crema cheeses were identified and partially characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods, and their technological abilities were studied in order to test their potential use as dairy starter components. Humidity, a(w), pH, and salt concentration of cheeses were determined. Genotypic diversity was evaluated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. Molecular identification and phylogenetic reconstructions based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were performed. Additional technological abilities such as salt tolerance, acidifying, and proteolytic and lipolytic activities were also investigated. The differences among strains reflected the biodiversity of HALAB in both types of cheeses. Lactobacillus acidipiscis, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Weissella thailandensis, and Lactobacillus pentosus from Cotija cheese, and L. acidipiscis, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus farciminis, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus from doble crema cheese were identified based on 16S rRNA. Quantitative and qualitative assessments showed strains of T. halophilus and L. plantarum to be proteolytic, along with E. faecium, L. farciminis, and L. pentosus to a lesser extent. Lipolytic activity could be demonstrated in strains of E. faecium, L. pentosus, L. plantarum, and T. halophilus. Strains belonging to the species L. pentosus, L. plantarum, and E. faecium were able to acidify the milk media. This study evidences the presence of HALAB that may play a role in the ripening of cheeses. PMID:21327742

Morales, Fredy; Morales, Jesús I; Hernández, César H; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto



[Incorporation of an intercultural approach in the Peruvian health care system: the vertical birth method].  


Peru has a large indigenous population (40% of the total), made of 72 distinct groups. These peoples are at a great disadvantage compared to the mestizos and other groups that are more closely connected with the dominant culture. The political and economic inequality and inequities are particularly stark with regard to health conditions. National policy and plans have not considered the indigenous peoples' values and identity, nor their right to self-determination and control of their land and resources, and even less so, their health knowledge and practices, inasmuch western 'modern medicine' has been imposed upon them by the dominant culture. Since 1992, as a result of international forums and academia, as well as a growing movement in Peru to acknowledge the value of cultural diversity and the rights of indigenous peoples, Government proposals, initiatives, and programs were undertaken to incorporate and empower cultural contributions and traditional practices in a way that would not only benefit the indigenous, but also enrich, through various intercultural venues, the stock of cultural traditions and ethnic roots of the greater Peruvian society. This article explores specifically how these intercultural strategies have been rolled out in health care to institutionalize the vertical birth method in rural, predominantly indigenous, communities, and endeavors to assess the decrease in maternal mortality, as well as the difficulties encountered, and mostly overcome, by expressing multiculturalism in the health field. PMID:20107687

Nureña, César R



Genetic and environmental determinants of the susceptibility of Amerindian derived populations for having hypertriglyceridemia.  


Here, we discuss potential explanations for the higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in populations with an Amerindian background. Although environmental factors are the triggers, the search for the ethnic related factors that explain the increased susceptibility of the Amerindians is a promising area for research. The study of the genetics of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanic populations faces several challenges. Ethnicity could be a major confounding variable to prove genetic associations. Despite that, the study of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanics has resulted in significant contributions. Two GWAS reports have exclusively included Mexican mestizos. Fifty percent of the associations reported in Caucasians could be generalized to the Mexicans, but in many cases the Mexican lead SNP was different than that reported in Europeans. Both reports included new associations with apo B or triglycerides concentrations. The frequency of susceptibility alleles in Mexicans is higher than that found in Europeans for several of the genes with the greatest effect on triglycerides levels. An example is the SNP rs964184 in APOA5. The same trend was observed for ANGPTL3 and TIMD4 variants. In summary, we postulate that the study of the genetic determinants of hypertriglyceridemia in Amerindian populations which have major changes in their lifestyle, may prove to be a great resource to identify new genes and pathways associated with hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24768220

Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi



Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.  


Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. PMID:24799516

Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel



Forensic parameters for 15 STRs in eight Amerindian populations from the north and west of Mexico.  


Allele frequency distributions for 15 STR loci (AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit) were estimated in 825 volunteers of the following eight Mexican-Amerindian populations from two geographical regions: (1) North: Tarahumara (204), Mayo (45), Seri (28), and Guarijío (17); (2) Northwest: Tepehuano (123), Mexicanero (84), Cora (85), and Huichol (239). Genotype frequency distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all 15 STRs, excepting for two loci (D13S317 and FGA) in the Huichol population. The power of discrimination and power of exclusion values were both larger than 0.99999. These STR databases will support the correct interpreting of DNA profiles in paternity testing and forensic cases in Mexican-Amerindian groups from these regions, until know poorly studied. Genetic distances and pairwise comparisons were estimated between populations. A significant genetic differentiation was observed between these Mexican-Amerindian groups (F(ST)=3.43%; p=0.0000) that was 10 times larger than the observed between Mestizos (F(ST)=0.34%), which represent most of the Mexican population (~90%). This result was in agreement with the incapability to cluster these Native American populations by geographic criteria. Pre-Colombian descriptions of Aridoamerica, including the North region of Mexico, suggest genetic drift effects to explain this noticeable population differentiation of Mexican-Amerindian groups. PMID:23473913

Rangel-Villalobos, H; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; Salazar-Flores, J; Martínez-Cortez, G; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Galaviz-Hernández, C; Lazalde-Ramos, B P; Sosa-Macías, M



Loss of cytochrome P450 17A1 protein expression in a 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase-deficient 46,XY female caused by two novel mutations in the CYP17A1 gene.  


17alpha-Hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by mutations in the CYP17A1 gene. This condition shows considerable clinical and biochemical variation. Molecular characterization of novel mutations in the CYP17A1 gene and detailed study of their structural, enzymatic, and clinical consequences are required to fully understand enzyme behavior. Here, we present the first molecular characterization of two novel mutations in CYP17A1 in a 15-year-old female Mexican mestizo 46,XY female with primary amenorrhea and lack of pubertal development and severe hypertension that manifested only after surgery. A complete clinical and biochemical evaluation was compatible with 17OHD. Structural anomalies in the CYP17A1 gene were discovered by direct automated sequencing, which revealed a novel compound heterozygous K110X/R362H mutation that leads to a complete lack of enzyme activity. Immunohistochemical analyses performed to determine protein expression and localization showed that cytochrome P450 17A1 was completely absent in the patient's testicular tissue. Studies of novel mutations, such as those described here, provide important information that allows us to better understand the effect of a given mutation on enzyme function and to observe the impact of the mutation on clinical phenotype. PMID:19728179

Nájera, Nayelli; Garibay, Nayely; Pastrana, Yadira; Palma, Icela; Peña, Yolanda-Rocio; Pérez, Javier; Coyote, Ninel; Hidalgo, Alberto; Kofman-Alfaro, Susana; Queipo, Gloria



A new mutation of the PCNT gene in a Colombian patient with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a syndrome characterized by the presence of intrauterine growth restriction, post-natal growth deficiency and microcephaly. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is the most distinctive syndrome in this group of entities. Individuals affected by this disease present at an adult height of less than 100cm, a post-pubertal head circumference of 40cm or less, mild mental retardation, an outgoing personality and bone dysplasia. Case presentation We report the first case of a five-year-old Colombian boy of mixed race ancestry (mestizo), with clinical features of microcephaly, prominent and narrow nose, arched palate, amelogenesis imperfecta, short stature, tall and narrow pelvis, disproportionate shortening of fore-arms and legs, and mild coxa vara. Analysis of the PCNT gene by sequencing showed the presence of a nucleotide change in exon 10, c. 1468C>T, evidencing a new mutation not reported in the literature for microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism. Conclusion The new mutation identified in this case could be associated with the severity of the phenotypic expression of the disease, resulting in the extreme short stature of the patient. Further studies are required to reach an explanation that can justify such findings, and it is vital to emphasize the importance of detection and follow-up by the epidemiological surveillance groups in birth defects and rare diseases.



Status of intestinal parasite infections in inhabitants of Palmar, Guayas Province, Ecuador.  


Status of intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections was surveyed in mestizo population living in rural parish of Palmar and its nearby recintos(villages). Three of the surveyed villages were at the Pacific coast and 5 villages were in inner pasture land, located about 100 km west of Guayaquil, the second largest city in Ecuador. One stool sample was examined by one cellophane thick smear for helminth ova and one direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine solution for protozoan cysts. Of 325 persons examined, 66.1% were positive for any ova or cyst. The positive rates were: 18.1% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 19.4% for Trichuris trichiura, 0.6% for hookworm, 3.7% for Hymenolepsis nana, 1.8% for Taenia sp., 19.4% for Entamoeba histolytica, 28.6% for Entamoeba coli, 5.5% for Endolimax nana, 1.5% for Iodamoeba buetschlii, 11.1% for Giardia lamblia and 0.6% for Chilomastix mesnili. Poor supply of potable water was considered the main cause of high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections. PMID:2271503

Cho, S Y; Kim, J H; Park, S H





Uruguay is a country of 176,000 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 96% are literate. Independence was gained on August 25, 1825. The terrain consists of plains and low hills, with a climate which is temperate. Spanish is spoken by White, Mestizo, and Black ethnic groups who are variously non-professing or of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 69-75 years. GDP is $11.3 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $3600. The country's natural resources include arable land, hydroelectric potential, gold, granite, and marble. Beef, wool, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat processing, would and hides, textiles, shoes, handbags, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, and petroleum refining are areas of economic production. Fuels, chemical, machinery, and metals are imported, and meat, wool, hides, leather and wool products, fish, rice and furs are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country. PMID:12178048



Diversity and genetic structure analysis of three Amazonian Amerindian populations of Colombia.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the departments of the Vaupés and Guaviare, in southeastern Colombia, in a transitional area between Amazonia and the eastern plains, inhabit indigenous groups belonging to the Tukanoan (East) and Guahiban linguistic families. Although some studies have dealt with the culture and the cosmology description of these groups, little research has been done on the biological diversity and genetic relationships of such groups. Objective: To estimate the diversity, the structure, and the genetic relationships of one Guahiban and two Tukanoan groups of the Colombian Amazonian region. Methods: Samples were collected (n = 106) from unrelated individuals belonging to the Vaupés native indigenous communities. The DNA was extracted and nine autosomal microsatellites were typed. Several measures of diversity, FST, pairwise FST, and population differentiation between groups were calculated. Finally, it was estimated the genetic distances of the groups studied in relation with other Amazonian, Andean and Central American indigenous people. Results: 1. The genetic diversity found stands within the range of other Amazonian populations, whereas compared to the mestizo and afro-descendant Colombian populations, such diversity showed to be lower. 2. The structure and population differentiation tests showed two clusters; one consisting of the Vaupés Tukanoan and Guaviare Tukanoan groups, and a second one formed by the Guayabero. 3. Tukanoan groups are found to be closer related to the Brazilian Amazonian populations than to the Guayabero. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the Guayabero group from Guaviare, are genetically differentiated from those Tukanoan groups of the Vaupés and Guaviare.

Braga, Yamid; Arias B, Leonardo



Primary thrombophilia in Mexico. V. A comprehensive prospective study indicates that most cases are multifactorial.  


Over a 36-month period, 46 consecutive Mexican mestizos with a clinical marker associated with a primary hypercoagulable state were prospectively assessed by searching for the sticky platelet syndrome (SPS), the activated protein C resistance (aPCR) phenotype, coagulation protein C activity and antigen, coagulation protein S, antithrombin III, plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, IgG and IgM isotypes of antiphospholipid antibodies, homocysteine levels, the factor V gene Leiden, Cambridge, Hong Kong, and Liverpool mutations, the 677 C-->T mutation in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR), and the G20210A polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene. Of the 46 consecutive patients prospectively accrued in the study, only 12 (26%) were males, the median age being 38 years (range 10-63 years). In only four individuals (8%) could we not record any abnormality. In 5/42 patients with abnormal results (12%), a single abnormality was recorded, whereas in the remaining 37, two to five co-existing abnormalities were identified. We found 22 (48%) patients with the SPS, 11 (24%) with the aPCR phenotype, 5 (11%) with the factor V Leiden mutation, 7 (15%) with the prothrombin gene mutation, 29 (63%) with the MTHFR gene mutation, 11 (24%) with the factor V HR2 haplotype, 11 (24%) with antiphospholipid antibodies, 4 (9%) with PS deficiency, 6 (13%) with PC deficiency, one with the FV Hong Kong mutation, and one with AT-III deficiency. The results are consonant with the idea that most cases of thrombophilia in Mexico are multifactorial. PMID:15609280

Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J; López-Martínez, Briceida; Valdés-Tapia, Patricia; Gómez-Rangel, J David; Reyes-Núñez, Virginia; Garcés-Eisele, Javier



Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Are Associated with Essential Hypertension and Increased ACE Enzyme Levels in Mexican Individuals  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels. Methods Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5? exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes. Results Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363) were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA), H2 (GGATG), H3 (AGATG), and H4 (AGACA). Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR?=?0.77, P?=?0.023 and OR?=?1.41, P?=?0.004 respectively). According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR?=?2.0; P?=?0.002 and OR?=?2.09; P?=?0.011, respectively). Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1) as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P?=?0.0048). Conclusion The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the “GGATG” haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels.

Martinez-Rodriguez, Nancy; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Vallejo, Maite; Del-Valle-Mondragon, Leonardo; Ramirez-Bello, Julian; Valladares, Adan; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto



Disease Severity in Patients Infected with Leishmania mexicana Relates to IL-1?  

PubMed Central

Leishmania mexicana can cause both localized (LCL) and diffuse (DCL) cutaneous leishmaniasis, yet little is known about factors regulating disease severity in these patients. We analyzed if the disease was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1? (?511), CXCL8 (?251) and/or the inhibitor IL-1RA (+2018) in 58 Mexican mestizo patients with LCL, 6 with DCL and 123 control cases. Additionally, we analyzed the in vitro production of IL-1? by monocytes, the expression of this cytokine in sera of these patients, as well as the tissue distribution of IL-1? and the number of parasites in lesions of LCL and DCL patients. Our results show a significant difference in the distribution of IL-1? (?511 C/T) genotypes between patients and controls (heterozygous OR), with respect to the reference group CC, which was estimated with a value of 3.23, 95% CI?=?(1.2, 8.7) and p-value?=?0.0167), indicating that IL-1? (?511 C/T) represents a variable influencing the risk to develop the disease in patients infected with Leishmania mexicana. Additionally, an increased in vitro production of IL-1? by monocytes and an increased serum expression of the cytokine correlated with the severity of the disease, since it was significantly higher in DCL patients heavily infected with Leishmania mexicana. The distribution of IL-1? in lesions also varied according to the number of parasites harbored in the tissues: in heavily infected LCL patients and in all DCL patients, the cytokine was scattered diffusely throughout the lesion. In contrast, in LCL patients with lower numbers of parasites in the lesions, IL-1? was confined to the cells. These data suggest that IL-1? possibly is a key player determining the severity of the disease in DCL patients. The analysis of polymorphisms in CXCL8 and IL-1RA showed no differences between patients with different disease severities or between patients and controls.

Fernandez-Figueroa, Edith A.; Rangel-Escareno, Claudia; Espinosa-Mateos, Valeria; Carrillo-Sanchez, Karol; Salaiza-Suazo, Norma; Carrada-Figueroa, Georgina; March-Mifsut, Santiago; Becker, Ingeborg



Full-Exon Pyrosequencing Screening of BRCA Germline Mutations in Mexican Women with Inherited Breast and Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Hereditary breast cancer comprises 10% of all breast cancers. The most prevalent genes causing this pathology are BRCA1 and BRCA2 (breast cancer early onset 1 and 2), which also predispose to other cancers. Despite the outstanding relevance of genetic screening of BRCA deleterious variants in patients with a history of familial cancer, this practice is not common in Latin American public institutions. In this work we assessed mutations in the entire exonic and splice-site regions of BRCA in 39 patients with breast and ovarian cancer and with familial history of breast cancer or with clinical features suggestive for BRCA mutations by massive parallel pyrosequencing. First we evaluated the method with controls and found 41–485 reads per sequence in BRCA pathogenic mutations. Negative controls did not show deleterious variants, confirming the suitability of the approach. In patients diagnosed with cancer we found 4 novel deleterious mutations (c.2805_2808delAGAT and c.3124_3133delAGCAATATTA in BRCA1; c.2639_2640delTG and c.5114_5117delTAAA in BRCA2). The prevalence of BRCA mutations in these patients was 10.2%. Moreover, we discovered 16 variants with unknown clinical significance (11 in exons and 5 in introns); 4 were predicted as possibly pathogenic by in silico analyses, and 3 have not been described previously. This study illustrates how massive pyrosequencing technology can be applied to screen for BRCA mutations in the whole exonic and splice regions in patients with suspected BRCA-related cancers. This is the first effort to analyse the mutational status of BRCA genes on a Mexican-mestizo population by means of pyrosequencing.

Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa Maria; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Vidal-Millan, Silvia; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantu, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos



The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus forests in the area.



Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin 20 (IL-20) in patients with ulcerative colitis.  


Interleukin (IL)-20 belongs to the IL-10 family and is a potent immunomodulatory cytokine with implications for pathogenesis in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The interleukin 20 gene is located within a 200kb region of q31-32 locus of chromosome 1. No previous studies have reported this novel association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and IL-20 polymorphisms. In the present work, we evaluated the role of IL-20 gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for UC. Three polymorphisms of IL-20 gene (rs2981573, rs2232360, rs1518108) were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays on an ABI Prism 7900 HT Fast Real-Time PCR system in a group of 198 Mexican Mestizo patients with UC and 698 ethnically matched healthy unrelated individuals with no family history of UC. We found significant decreased frequencies of two IL-20 genotypes: GG (rs2981573) [10.6% vs. 17.6%, p=0.017, OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.93] and GG (rs2232360) [10.6% vs. 17.6%, p=0.017, OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.93] in UC patients as compared to healthy controls. No significant differences of gene frequencies were found between UC patients and healthy controls in the rs1518108 polymorphism. In the subgroup analysis, no differences were found between the IL-20 genotypes and the clinical characteristics of UC. The results suggest that the GG genotypes of the IL-20 polymorphisms (rs2981573 and rs2232360) might have an important role in the development of UC in the Mexican population. PMID:23183096

Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; De-León-Rendón, Jorge L; de la Torre, Monica García; Alvarez-León, Edith; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto



Heterogeneity of apolipoprotein E polymorphism in different Mexican populations.  


Mexico has approximately 100 million inhabitants. Most of the urban Mexican population has been considered mestizo (Indian and Spanish descent), whereas the Indian population predominates in rural areas and small towns in the countryside. In this study we analyzed the apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism in Guadalajara (the second largest metropolitan area of Mexico) and its surrounding areas, two adjoining states (Nayarit and Durango), and an Indian town (Huichol Indians) from western Mexico. APOE*3 was the most common allele, and APOE*3/*3 was the most common genotype in all populations studied. Guadalajara revealed the highest frequency of the APOE*2 allele (7.8%); the frequency decreased in the rural area (4.4%), followed by Nayarit (1.6%), and was absent in Durango and in the Huichols. On the contrary, the lowest frequency of the APOE*4 allele was in Guadalajara (8.4%); the frequency increased in the rural area (9.3%), in Nayarit and Durango (11.5% and 11.7%), and reached a high frequency in the Huichol Indians (28%). The distribution of the APOE allele in the western population of Mexico is similar to those described in Mexican American migrants living in the United States but is different from those populations living in Mexico City. This study shows the heterogeneity of the Mexican population, where the frequency of the APOE*2 allele is higher in Guadalajara than in other urban areas of Mexico and is similar to frequencies described in the Caucasian population. On the contrary, the Huichols revealed the highest frequency of the APOE*4 allele in Mexico and in the Americas. This information could be useful for the study of dyslipidemias associated with chronic diseases and as markers of ethnic variation in the Americas. PMID:16900882

Aceves, Dolores; Ruiz, Bertha; Nuño, Patricia; Roman, Sonia; Zepeda, Eloy; Panduro, Arturo



Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges.  


Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that is prominent in the ethnomedicine and shamanism of indigenous Amazonian tribes. Its unique pharmacology depends on the oral activity of the hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which results from inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by beta-carboline alkaloids. MAO is the enzyme that normally degrades DMT in the liver and gut. Ayahuasca has long been integrated into mestizo folk medicine in the northwest Amazon. In Brazil, it is used as a sacrament by several syncretic churches. Some of these organizations have incorporated in the United States. The recreational and religious use of ayahuasca in the United States, as well as "ayahuasca tourism" in the Amazon, is increasing. The current legal status of ayahuasca or its source plants in the United States is unclear, although DMT is a Schedule I controlled substance. One ayahuasca church has received favorable rulings in 2 federal courts in response to its petition to the Department of Justice for the right to use ayahuasca under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. A biomedical study of one of the churches, the Uñiao do Vegetal (UDV), indicated that ayahuasca may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of alcoholism, substance abuse, and possibly other disorders. Clinical studies conducted in Spain have demonstrated that ayahuasca can be used safely in normal healthy adults, but have done little to clarify its potential therapeutic uses. Because of ayahuasca's ill-defined legal status and variable botanical and chemical composition, clinical investigations in the United States, ideally under an approved Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol, are complicated by both regulatory and methodological issues. This article provides an overview of ayahuasca and discusses some of the challenges that must be overcome before it can be clinically investigated in the United States. PMID:15163593

McKenna, Dennis J



A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10?11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.

Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hunemeier, Tabita; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Ortiz-Lopez, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramirez, Hugo; Leon-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramirez-Jimenez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Angeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, Jose; Cedillo-Barron, Leticia; Gomez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodriguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Catira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel



Expression of interleukin (IL)-19 and IL-24 in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a cross-sectional study.  


Interleukin (IL)-19 and IL-24 belong to the IL-20 subfamily, and are involved in host defence against bacteria and fungi, tissue remodelling and wound healing. Nevertheless, no previous studies have explored their expression in Mexican mestizo patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study was to characterize and to enumerate peripheral and tissue IL-19- and IL-24-producing cells, as well as gene expression in patients with IBD with regard to its clinical activity. We studied a total of 77 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 36 Crohn's disease (CD) and 33 patients as control group (without endoscopic evidence of intestinal inflammation). Gene expression was measured by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein expression was detected in biopsies by immunohistochemistry and in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry. IL-19 and IL-24 gene expression was elevated significantly in patients with active IBD?versus the inactive disease and non-inflammatory control groups (P?

Fonseca-Camarillo, G; Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Granados, J; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K



Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma seroprevalence Mexican population.  


There are conflicting reports concerning the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia in humans. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, residence place, and ethnicity were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of T. gondii IgG antibodies and for the presence of T. gondii IgM antibodies. Schizophrenic patients attended a public psychiatric hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and the control group consisted of individuals of the general population of the same city. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were also obtained. Both the seroprevalence and the level of T.gondii IgG antibodies were higher in schizophrenic patients (10/50; 20%) than in control subjects (8/150; 5.3%) (OR=4.44; 95% CI: 1.49-13.37; P=0.003). The IgG T. gondii levels higher than 150 IU/ml were more frequently observed in patients than in controls (10% versus 2%, respectively; P=0.02). One (50%) of the two patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia and none of the controls had T. gondii IgM antibodies (P=0.01). T. gondii seropositivity was significantly higher in patients with a history of cleaning cat excrement (P=0.005), and suffering from simple schizophrenia (ICD-10 classification: F20.6) (P=0.03) than patients without these characteristics. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was also significantly higher in patients with simple schizophrenia (F20.6) than in those with paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0) (P=0.02). This study provides elements to clarify the controversial information on the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. PMID:21292026

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Urbina-Álvarez, Jesús David; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Torres-Castorena, Alejandro; Molotla-de-León, Gabriel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Dubey, Jitender P





The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052



Lactobacillus species isolated from vaginal secretions of healthy and bacterial vaginosis-intermediate Mexican women: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus jensenii, L. iners, L. crispatus and L. gasseri are the most frequently occurring lactobacilli in the vagina. However, the native species vary widely according to the studied population. The present study was performed to genetically determine the identity of Lactobacillus strains present in the vaginal discharge of healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) intermediate Mexican women. Methods In a prospective study, 31 strains preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus species were isolated from 21 samples collected from 105 non-pregnant Mexican women. The samples were classified into groups according to the Nugent score criteria proposed for detection of BV: normal (N), intermediate (I) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). We examined the isolates using culture-based methods as well as molecular analysis of the V1–V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence analysis was performed to reject clones. Results Clinical isolates (25/31) were classified into four groups based on sequencing and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene: L. acidophilus (14/25), L. reuteri (6/25), L. casei (4/25) and L. buchneri (1/25). The remaining six isolates were presumptively identified as Enterococcus species. Within the L. acidophilus group, L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated species, followed by L. jensenii and L. crispatus. L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. brevis were also isolated, and were placed in the L. reuteri, L. casei and L. buchneri groups, respectively. ERIC profile analysis showed intraspecific variability amongst the L. gasseri and L. fermentum species. Conclusions These findings agree with previous studies showing that L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii are consistently present in the healthy vaginal ecosystem. Additional species or phylotypes were detected in the vaginal microbiota of the non-pregnant Mexican (Hispanic-mestizo) population, and thus, these results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonisation and richness in this particular population.



Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. Methods: This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. Results: The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Conclusions: Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population.

Rodriguez Sanchez, Diego Alejandro



Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase: Expressing Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Disease--A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aim. To characterise and enumerate IDO+ cells, Tregs, and T cell subsets in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) with regard to their clinical activity. Methods. Ten active UC (aUC), 10 inactive UC (iUC), 6 aCD, and 8 iCD patients and 10 healthy individuals were included in the study. Circulating Foxp3-, IDO-, IL-17A-, IL-4-, IFN-?-, and IL-10-expressing CD4+ T cells were quantitated by flow cytometry. Interleukin-17-expressing cells, CD25+/Foxp3+ Tregs, and CD123+/IDO+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells were evaluated in intestinal biopsies from 10 aUC, 6 aCD, and 10 noninflamed tissues. Results. All CD4+ T subsets were increased in aIBD patients compared with healthy donors. Meanwhile, frequency of CD8?+/CD16+/IDO+, CD8?+/CD56+/IDO+, CD8?+/CD80+/IDO+, CD8?+/CD123+/IDO+ large granular nonlymphoid cells, and CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells was higher in aIBD patients versus healthy donors or iIBD patients. Tissue IL-17A+ cells were present in higher amounts in aIBD versus noninflamed controls. IDO- and Foxp3-expressing cells were increased in aUC versus aCD patients and noninflamed tissues. Conclusions. The findings represent an original work in Mexican Mestizo patients with IBD. It shows that Tregs and IDO-expressing cells are increased with regard to disease activity. These cells could significantly shape inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology, severity, and tolerance loss.

Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Fonseca-Camarillo, Gabriela; Lima, Guadalupe; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesus K.



Interethnic differences in the relevance of CYP2C9 genotype and environmental factors for diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain.  


The aims of this study were to evaluate the diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain and its relation to ethnicity, CYP2C9 genotypes and environmental factors. Diclofenac hydroxylation capacity (concentration ratios of diclofenac/metabolites in 8-h urine) was studied in 160 Cuban (classified as 76 Cuban-Whites-CWs and 84 Cuban-Mestizos-CMs) and 148 Spaniard (SPs) healthy volunteers. Diclofenac and its main metabolites, 4'-hydroxy (OH), 3'-OH and 5-OH diclofenac, and CYP2C9*2 to *6 and *8 alleles were also determined in 132 and 128 CWs and CMs, respectively. Gender, tobacco, caffeine and ethanol consumption were also evaluated. The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher in CMs (0.72±0.25) than in CWs (0.64±0.20; P<0.05) and SPs (0.57±0.26; P<0.001). The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher (P<0.05) in subjects with CYP2C9*1/*3 (0.77±0.19; n=22) and CYP2C9*1/*8 (0.93±0.33; n=4) genotypes than with CYP2C9*1/*1 (0.65±0.24; n=90). Environmental factors did not seem to influence the diclofenac metabolism in these populations. The present findings show for the first time interethnic differences between Hispanic groups in urinary diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratios, and the relevance of CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*8 alleles. PMID:23959274

Llerena, A; Alvarez, M; Dorado, P; González, I; Peñas-LLedó, E; Pérez, B; Cobaleda, J; Calzadilla, L R



Moléculas orgánicas no-rígidas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se destaca la importancia del estudio espectroscópico ab initio de una serie de moléculas no-rígidas detectadas en el medio interestelar (acetona, dimetil-eter, etanol, metanol, metilamina, ldots), así como los últimos avances del desarrollo de la metodología para el tratamiento teórico de estas especies. Se describe, a modo de ejemplo, el análisis del espectro roto-torsional de la molécula de glicoaldehido que ha sido recientemente detectada en el centro Galáctico Sagitario B2 (N) [1]. Esta especie presenta dos movimientos de gran amplitud que interaccionan, descansan en el Infrarrojo Lejano y le confiere propiedades no-rígidas. La molécula puede existir en posiciones cis y trans y presenta cinco confórmeros estables, tres de simetría Cs (I, II y IV) y un doble mínimo trans de simetría C1 (III) . La conformación favorita, I, presenta simetría Cs y se estabiliza por la formación de un puente de hidrógeno entre los grupos OH y C=O. Los mínimos secundarios II, III, y IV se han determinado a 1278.2 cm-1 (trans, Cs), 1298.8 cm-1 (trans, C1) y 1865.2 cm-1 (cis, Cs) con cálculos MP4/cc-pVQZ que incluyen sustituciones triples. Para determinar que vibraciones interaccionan con las torsiones, se ha realizado un análisis armónico en los mínimos. Las frecuencias fundamentales armónicas correspondientes al mínimo I se han calculado en 213.4 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 425.7 cm-1 (torsión OH). Es de esperar que tan sólo dos vibraciones, la flexión del grupo C-C-O y el aleteo del hidrógeno del grupo aldehídico puedan desplazar el espectro torsional de la molécula aislada. Para determinar el espectro torsional, se ha determinado la superficie de potencial en dos dimensiones mediante el cálculo ab initio de las geometrías y energías de 74 conformaciones seleccionadas. Estas últimas se han ajustado a un doble serie de Fourier. A partir de la PES y de los parámetros cinéticos del Hamiltoniano vibracional se han obtenido frecuencias e intensidades. Las frecuencias fundamentales se han calculado en 208.0 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 349.9 cm-1 (torsión OH). Se discute el método de cálculo que se ha empleado para la clasificación de los niveles. Los niveles rotacionales se han determinado empleando el método desarrollado para el estudio del ácido acético [2]. Se emplean la base de funciones rotacionales de [3]. A partir de los niveles se han determinado las constantes rotacionales y las constantes de distorsión centrífuga que se comparan con las experimentales de Herbst et al [3].

Senent Díez, M. L.


Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65?±?2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and the Ocellated Turkey were extremely important for local hunters, representing around 40% of total prey taken. Final considerations Our results suggest that hunting is frequent in our study areas. Low human densities allow low hunting pressure on most game species and favor conservation of the tropical forest. We suggest that co-management may help regulating hunting, prioritizing cultural practices of sustainable use and conservation for benefiting local users and animal populations.



Keywords to Recruit Spanish- and English-Speaking Participants: Evidence From an Online Postpartum Depression Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The English-speaking sample was also diverse with most participants residing in regions of Asia and Africa. Spanish-speaking participants were significantly more likely to be of Latino ethnic background, not married, completed fewer years of formal education, and were more likely to have accessed the Internet for depression information (P<.001). Conclusions The Internet is an effective method for reaching an international sample of pregnant women interested in online interventions to manage changes in their mood during the perinatal period. To increase efficiency, Internet advertisements need to be monitored and tailored to reflect the target population’s conceptualization of health issues being studied. Trial Registration NCT00816725; (Archived by WebCite at

Kelman, Alex R; Munoz, Ricardo F



Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hyperviscosity in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and acquired von Willebrand disease: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acquired von Willebrand disease is initiated by autoantibodies and hyperviscosity syndrome caused by a massive polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Acquired von Willebrand disease associated with autoimmune disease in addition to pulmonary hypertension during emergency room presentation is a rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case reported in the literature treated with success; the first one was reported in 1987. Case presentation A 28-year-old mestizo man with a 3-year history of inflammatory arthritis was admitted to our hospital. An overlap of rheumatoid arthritis with systemic lupus erythematosus was suspected; therefore methotrexate was initiated, and later changed to leflunomide because of liver toxicity. Prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin times were normal (11/10.4 seconds; 1.2; 31.1/26.9 seconds, respectively), von Willebrand factor activity was observed with low ristocetin cofactor at 33.6UI/dL, high von Willebrand factor antigen >200UI/dL, and a low von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor to von Willebrand factor antigen ratio. He was admitted to the emergency room with a 24-hour evolution of progressive dyspnea, cough, thoracic pain, and palpitations, 104 beats/min, 60/40 mmHg, temperature of 38°C, pulse oximetric saturation 88% and 30 breaths/minute. Cold, pale and mottled skin was also observed. He was then transferred to the intensive care unit. The placement of a pulmonary artery catheter was made. The initial patterns showed a precapillary pulmonary hypertension; acute pulmonary embolism was the first choice for diagnosis. Pulmonary angiography was conducted, and when no clot was discovered, pulmonary artery hypertension associated with connective tissue disease was considered. Serum protein electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a massive polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and no paraproteinemia or monoclonal cell population was found from the electrophoretic pattern of the patient’s plasma. Hypergammaglobulinemia was the cause of hyperviscosity syndrome associated with autoantibodies. Three sessions of plasma exchange therapy were made, and clinical improvement was observed. He was then discharged from the intensive care unit and hospital, respectively. He is now attended by an external consult and has no respiratory symptomatology. Conclusions Hyperviscosity syndrome with pulmonary arterial hypertension presentation in a patient with acquired von Willebrand disease in an autoimmune context is a rare condition that can be treated successfully with plasmapheresis and critical care support.



Women and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lessons from the seventies and hopes for the future.  


The early implicit assumptions that industrialization or, generally, modernization should automatically improve the condition of women have been challenged more and more by research and statistical data. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the theory which held that the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups of Indian and African descent into the national Hispanic or Portuguese cultures implied an improvement in the condition of women has been challenged through ethnographic and historical research. Women in closed corporate communities may have higher status, greater participation in authority, and more support from their children than those in open mestizo communities, where excessive alcohol consumption and abusive sexual relations form an integral part of the psychosocial complex of "machismo." New research has dealt with the forced integration of black women and Indian women, as concubines of the dominant white men, as a mechanism of "mestizaje," i.e., mixing of the population, against which women had no legal or "de facto" defense. Such abuse of women, masked by racial and cultural prejudice, continues in many backward rural areas in Latin America. In discussions of the peasantry and of rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, women had been largely ignored because agriculture was conceptualized as an exclusively male activity. This androcentric view is reflected in census categories that make the component of women's labor in agriculture invisible or unimportant. Consequently, the statistical percentages have always been unrealistically low in most countries. Detailed observations and surveys conducted during the last decade have shown, to the contrary, that peasant women work longer hours than men and are more liable to increase their time and work load to offset pauperization. The research of Deere and Leon (Colombia) as well as that of other women in different countries of the region confirms that women's subordination precedes capitalism and is further used by this system of production for its only ends. Priorities in the Western feminist movements in the 1970s have been equal pay for equal work and sexual and psychological autonomy. In the 3rd world the priorities have been the right to adequate employment and to primary services such as schools, drinking water, housing, and medical services. The main strategy for women in Latin America and the Caribbean has been to participate alongside men in political movements seeking to attain national sovereignty or to challenge economic inequalities, both internally and internationally, as a precondition to the setting up of women's demands as a gender group. The research makes it clear that dependent capitalist development brings an added burden of poverty and subordination to women. Strategies to advance women must be assessed within their particular context. PMID:12279573

Arizpe, L



Chemical Composition and Atmosphere Parameters of the Double-Mode Cepheid U Tra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four high-resolution spectra of the doble-mode Cepheid U TrA have been obtained during its pulsational period. For the first time, we obtained accurate atmosphere parameters and the chemical abundance of a number of elements, in particular ofsodium, magnesium, and aluminium. We estimated the mean Teff = 6085±29 K, log g = 2.00±0.15, and Vt = 3.90±0.25 kms -1 . A deficit of carbon ([C=H] = -0.35±0.23 dex), overabundance of both sodium ([Na=H] = +0.15±0.25 dex) and aluminium ([Al=H]= +0.30±0.32 dex) are typical for Cepheids passing through the first dredge-up phase. The abundance of iron ([Fe=H] = +0.01±0.15 dex) is very close to the solar one. Moreover, we find that ?-elements, those of Fe-group, as well as "light"- and "heavy"-, s- and rprocess elements, all of them have abundances close to solar values, too, excepting maybe several elements with slight enhance or deficit.

Usenko, I. A.; Knyazev, A. Yu.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.


La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en Espa?a: estudio europeo POMONA-II  

PubMed Central

Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población.

Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutierrez-Colosia, Mencia Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramon; Martorell, Almudena; Gonzalez-Gordon, Rodrigo G.; Merida-Gutierrez, M. Reyes; Angel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodriguez, Alicia; Garcia-Gutierrez, Juan C.; Perez-Vicente, Amado; Garcia-Ibanez, Jose; Aguilera-Ines, Francisco



[Personal experience in colonoscopy and polypectomy].  


The purpose of this presentation is to point out the importance of this new diagnosis and treatment method, recently incorporated. The studies were done with the Fibroscope F9-A with doble channel, equipped with an desection smear for polipectomies and an extracting forceps. The patients arrive with their intestine perfectly cleaned with classical methods. This detail is most important for the polipectomies. If the local conditions aren't the desired, presence of bowels or barium of an previous enema, we postpone both, examination and polipectomy, because those are causes of false diagnosis in the first case or eventual accidents in the second condition. Regarding this, we had an performing doing a biopsy in an stenosing neoplasm of the sigmoid colon. We believe it convenient to prevent this complication, to reduce the air pressure before performing the biopsy. Of the 160 patients examinated, 54 had no patology, 32 had polips and of this group 4 had multiple poliposis, 4 had association with diverticulosis and 3 associated with neoplasm. (4 were neoplasm, 10 stenosis without mucous lesions, 1 villous adenoma, 1 megacolon and 1 rectitis). We made 12 polipectomies, 10 with the conventional technique and 2 associated with surgery. We had no accidents and one of them was an early stage of colon cancer. PMID:742324

Baccaro, J C; González, B




PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia.

Silvia, Mejia-Arango; Clemente, y Zuniga-Gil



Nonthermal Radiation Processes in Interplanetary Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RESUMEN. En la interacci6n de haces de electrones energeticos con plasmas interplanetarios, se excitan ondas intensas de Langmuir debido a inestabilidad del haz de plasma. Las ondas Langmuir a su vez interaccio nan con fluctuaciones de densidad de baja frecuencia para producir radiaciones. Si la longitud de las ondas de Langmujr exceden las condicio nes del umbral, se puede efectuar la conversi5n de modo no lineal a on- das electromagneticas a traves de inestabilidades parametricas. As se puede excitar en un plasma inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas impulsadas por ondas intensas de Langmuir: (1) inestabilidades de decaimiento/fusi5n electromagnetica impulsadas por una bomba de Lang- muir que viaja; (2) inestabilidades dobles electromagneticas de decai- miento/fusi5n impulsadas por dos bombas de Langrnuir directamente opues- tas; y (3) inestabilidades de dos corrientes oscilatorias electromagne- ticas impulsadas por dos bombas de Langmuir de corrientes contrarias. Se concluye que las inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas in- ducidas por las ondas de Langmuir son las fuentes posibles de radiacio- nes no termicas en plasmas interplanetarios. ABSTRACT: Nonthermal radio emissions near the local electron plasma frequency have been detected in various regions of interplanetary plasmas: solar wind, upstream of planetary bow shock, and heliopause. Energetic electron beams accelerated by solar flares, planetary bow shocks, and the terminal shock of heliosphere provide the energy source for these radio emissions. Thus, it is expected that similar nonthermal radiation processes may be responsible for the generation of these radio emissions. As energetic electron beams interact with interplanetary plasmas, intense Langmuir waves are excited due to a beam-plasma instability. The Langmuir waves then interact with low-frequency density fluctuations to produce radiations near the local electron plasma frequency. If Langmuir waves are of sufficiently large amplitude to exceed the thresfiold conditions, nonlinear mode conversion electromagnetic waves can be effected through parametric instabilities. A number of electromagnetic parametric instabilities driven by intense Langmuir waves can be excited in a plasma: (1) electromagnetic decay/fusion instabilities driven by a traveling Langmuir pump; (2) double electromagnetic decay/fusion instabilities driven by two oppositely directed Langmuir pumps; and (3) electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instabilities driven by two counterstreaming Langmuir pumps. It is concluded that the electromagnetic parametric instabilities induced by Langmuir waves are likely sources of nonthermal radiations in interplanetary plasmas. Keq ( : INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM - PLASMAS

Chian, A. C. L.



Two new ways of mapping sea ice thickness using ocean waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TWO NEW METHODS OF MAPPING SEA ICE THICKNESS USING OCEAN WAVES. P. Wadhams (1,2), Martin Doble (1,2) and F. Parmiggiani (3) (1) Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK. (2) Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 06234 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France (2) ISAC-CNR, Bologna, Italy Two new methods of mapping ice thickness have been recently developed and tested, both making use of the dispersion relation of ocean waves in ice of radically different types. In frazil-pancake ice, a young ice type in which cakes less than 5 m across float in a suspension of individual ice crystals, the propagation of waves has been successfully modelled by treating the ice layer as a highly viscous fluid. The model predicts a shortening of wavelengths within the ice. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of successive SAR subscenes to track the directional spectrum of a wave field as it enters an ice edge shows that waves do indeed shorten within the ice, and the change has been successfully used to predict the thickness of the frazil-pancake layer. Concurrent shipborne sampling in the Antarctic has shown that the method is accurate, and we now propose its use throughout the important frazil-pancake regimes in the world ocean (Antarctic circumpolar ice edge zone, Greenland Sea, Bering Sea and others). A radically different type of dispersion occurs when ocean waves enter the continuous icefields of the central Arctic, when they couple with the elastic ice cover to propagate as a flexural-gravity wave. A two-axis tiltmeter array has been used to measure the resulting change in the dispersion relation for long ocean swell (15-30 s) originating from storms in the Greenland Sea. The dispersion relation is slightly different from swell in the open ocean, so if two such arrays are placed a substantial distance (100s of km) apart and used to observe the changing wave period of arrivals from a given storm, the time delay between the arrival of the same frequency at two sites gives the dispersion, and hence the modal ice thickness along the great circle route connecting the arrays. The two quite different methods thus share the use of ocean wave dispersion to infer sea ice thickness.

Wadhams, P.



[Benefits of decumanum phlebodium intake on the muscle damage in the response to intense physical exercise in sedentary subjects].  


Introducción: El ejercicio intenso provoca un daño muscular inflamatorio que, en sujetos sedentarios provoca un aumento del riesgo cardiovascular. El Phlebodium decumanum (PD) ha evidenciado efectos inmunomoduladores protectores frente a ese daño en los deportistas. Para conocer los efectos del PD en una población sedentaria frente al ejercicio excéntrico, y como modelo del daño muscular inflamatorio. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental, doble ciego, multigrupo, randomizado, con un grupo experimental (n = 17) al que se le administró una formulación de PD (3,6 g/sujeto distribuidos en 9 dosis de 400 mg desde el día pretest), y un grupo control (n = 16) que tomó sustancia placebo. Se realizaron dos ergoespirometrías en tapiz rodante a cada participante: una previa al estudio (protocolo de Bruce modificado) para descartar signos de isquemia durante el esfuerzo y valorar el VO2max; la segunda, aplicando un protocolo excéntrico (14% de desnivel descendente), durante 10 minutos en estado estable a una intensidad entre 70-80% del VO2max individual, como protocolo experimental. Se efectuaron comparaciones intragrupo e intergrupo del porcentaje de cambio pre-postesfuerzo en variables sanguíneas y de funcionalidad muscular. Resultados: El estudio evidencia aumentos significativos de enzimas musculares MG, CPK y LDH en los dos grupos de estudio, sin cambios para la TncI, siendo significativamente menores en el grupo al que se le administró PD. Se observaron reducciones significativas de los test funcionales SJ, CMJ en ambos grupos, lo que mostró un apreciable menor descenso en el grupo PD. Se apreció una reducción del índice elástico y de la dinamomentría manual solo en el grupo control, aunque las diferencias con el grupo PD no alcanzaron una significación estadística. Conclusiones: El protocolo del ejercicio excéntrico en el presente estudio ha inducido daños musculoesqueléticos y en la funcionalidad muscular, que han resultado significativamente menores en el grupo PD, al mostrar los efectos protectores del Phlebodium Decumanum en tratamientos cortos, frente al daño muscular también en el esfuerzo agudo. PMID:24972482

Vargas Corzo, M C; Aguilar Cordero, M J; De Teresa Galván, C; Segura Millán, D; Miranda Leon, M T; Castillo Rueda, G; Guisado Barrilao, R-



Application example: Preliminary Results of ISOLA use to find moment tensor solutions and centroid depth applied to aftershocks of Mw=8.8 February 27 2010, Maule Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We selected seven aftershocks from Maule earthquake between 33.5°S to 35°S from May to September to find single source inversion. The data were provided by XY Chile Ramp Experiment* which was deployed after great Maule earthquake. Waveform data are from 13 broad band stations chosen from the 58 broad band stations deployed by IRIS-PASCAL from April to September 2010. Stations are placed above the normal subduction section south of ~33.5°S. Events were located with an iterative software called Hypocenter using one dimensional local model, obtained above for the forearc region between 33°S to 35°S. We used ISOLA which is a fortran code with a Matlab interface to obtain moment tensors solutions, optimum position and time of the subevents. Values depth obtained by a grid search of centroid position show range values which are compatibles with the interplate seismogenic zone. Double-Couple focal mechanism solutions (Figure 1) show 4 thrust events which can be associated with that zone. However, only one of them has strike, dip and rake of 358°, 27° and 101 respectively, appropriate to be expected for interplate seismogenic zone. On the other hand, the other 3 events show strike and normal double-couple focal mechanism solutions (Figure 1). This last topic makes association to those events to the contact of the Nazca and South American plate difficult. Nevertheless, in a first stage, their depths may allow possibility of an origin there. * The facilities of the IRIS Data Management System, and specifically the IRIS Data Management Center, were used for access to waveform, metadata or products required in this study. The IRIS DMS is funded through the National Science Foundation and specifically the GEO Directorate through the Instrumentation and Facilities Program of the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement EAR-0552316. Some activities of are supported by the National Science Foundation EarthScope Program under Cooperative Agreement EAR-0733069. Figure 1. Doble-Couple focal mechanisms solutions from Moment Tensor Inversion using ISOLA. Triangles show broad band stations used in this work from IRIS-PASSCAL.

Nacif, S. V.; Sanchez, M. A.



Improved binary and ternary nanostructured photocatalysts for gas phase detoxification of toluene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photocatalysis using nanocrystalline materials with enhanced catalytic properties under ultraviolet (UV) or visible light has the potential for becoming one of the leading processes for the abatement of environmental problems. This work is focused on the study of the synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic application of nanocrystalline binary and ternary oxide catalysts. These nanostructured materials were synthesized by conventional sol-gel preparation methods, by inverse micelles, and by incipient wetness impregnation. The photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, FTIR, UV-Visible, and Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM. The addition of silica to titania reduces anatase crystallite size, increases surface area, and modifies surface acidity. The photocatalytic results demonstrate that 7.5% sol-gel based catalysts are more active than the Degussa catalysts (P25 TiO2, and 8% SiO 2-TiO2) using UV or Visible light on a catalyst mass basis. The photocatalytic activity using UV light is four times higher than the photocatalytic activity using visible light. The photocatalytic activity of the WO3-TiO2 binary oxide catalysts was higher than P25 TiO2 and Degussa 8% SiO 2-TiO2 under UV or visible light, and depended strongly on the tungsten content. The addition of WO3 into the anatase crystal structure of titania may potentially affect the photocatalytic activity by several factors such as: increasing the absorption capacity in the visible region, presence of surface W sites enhancing oxygen activation, changing the surface acidity, increasing the surface area, and improving the surface trapping of electron and holes before recombination. The results for the photocatalytic oxidation of toluene demonstrate that the addition of a third metal oxide does not improve the photocatalytic activity significantly in comparison with the binary oxides. The addition of Fe 2O3 reduces the activity of the catalyst. All the samples prepared by the sol-gel method have less rutile than P25 TiO2. The intensity of the peaks associated to the anatase crystal phase decreased with an increase in the Si or W content. Loading the Degussa and sol-gel catalysts with 2.5% MoS2 improves the photocatalytic performance for the toluene oxidation. The MoS2 was synthesized using an inverse micelle method and loaded on to the catalysts by incipient wetness impregnation. Doping the Degussa catalysts with MoS 2 dobles the initial activity relative to the unloaded catalysts. The MoS2 impregnated Degussa catalysts enhance the applicability of the visible light for the photocatalytic oxidation of toluene. Loading the 12.4% WO3-TiO2 sol-gel sample with 2.5% MoS2 increases the activity for the toluene oxidation using UV or visible light for the photocatalytic process. When MoS2 is loaded on a sample of 31.9% WO3-TiO2 no significant improvement of the activity occurred. All the MoS2 impregnated catalysts deactivate slower than the unloaded catalysts.

Mendez Roman, Rafael


Dual-porosity modeling of groundwater recharge: testing a quick calibration using in situ moisture measurements, Areuse River Delta, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method for calibrating the dual-porosity MACRO model via in situ TDR measurements during a brief infiltration run (2.8 h) is proposed with the aim of estimating local groundwater recharge (GR). The recharge was modeled firstly by considering the entire 3 m of unsaturated soil, and secondly by considering only the topsoil to the zero-flux plane (0-0.70 m). The modeled recharge was compared against the GR obtained from field measurements. Measured GR was 313 mm during a 1-year period (15 October 1990-15 October 1991). The best simulation results were obtained when considering the entire unsaturated soil under equilibrium conditions excluding the macropore flow effect (330 mm), whereas under non-equilibrium conditions GR was overestimated (378 mm). Sensitivity analyses showed that the investigation of the topsoil is sufficient in estimating local GR in this case, since the water stored below this depth appears to be below the typical rooting depth of the vegetation and is not available for evapotranspiration. The modeled recharge under equilibrium conditions for the 0.7-m-topsoil layer was found to be 364 mm, which is in acceptable agreement with measurements. Une méthode simple pour la calibration du modèle à double porosité MACRO par des mesures TDR in situ durant un bref essai d'infiltration (2.8 h) a été proposée pour l'estimation locale de la recharge de la nappe (RN). La RN a été d'abord simulée en tenant compte de toute la zone non saturée (3 m) et ensuite, en considérant uniquement la couverture du sol entre zéro et le plan du flux nul (0.70 m). La RN simulée a été comparée à la RN observée. La RN mesurée durant une année (15 octobre 1990-15 octobre 1991) était de 313 mm. Les meilleures simulations ont été obtenues en tenant compte de toute la zone non saturée sous les conditions d'équilibre excluant le flux préférentiel (330 mm). Sous les conditions de non équilibre, la RN a été surestimée (378 mm). Les analyses de sensitivité ont montré que l'investigation de la couverture du sol est suffisante pour l'estimation locale de la RN du fait que l'eau traversant le plan du flux nul se trouverait sous la zone des racines et échapperait à l'évapotranspiration. La RN simulée sur les 0.70 m du sol sous les conditions d'équilibre était de 364 mm, ce qui est comparable aux mesures. Se propone un método sencillo para calibrar el modelo de doble porosidad "MACRO" mediante medidas in-situ obtenidas por TDR durante un breve ensayo de infiltración (2,8 horas), con el objetivo de estimar la recarga local al acuífero. Ésta ha sido modelada de dos formas: considerando los 3 m de suelo no saturado y empleando sólo desde la capa superior hasta el plano de flujo nulo (de 0 a 0,70 m). Se compara la recarga modelada con la recarga local medida en campo, la cual fue de 313 mm durante un ciclo anual (del 15 de octubre de 1990 al 15 de octubre de 1991). Las mejores simulaciones corresponden a la hipótesis de columna entera no saturada en condiciones de equilibrio, excluyendo el efecto de macroporos (valor de 330 mm), mientras que el resultado obtenido para condiciones de no equilibrio en la recarga local está sobreestimado (378 mm). Los análisis de sensibilidad muestran que la investigación del horizonte superior del suelo es suficiente para estimar la recarga local en este caso, ya que el agua almacenada por debajo de esta profundidad parece estar fuera del alcance típico de las raíces de la vegetación y no puede ser evapotranspirada. La recarga modelada en condiciones de equilibrio para la capa superior de 0,70 m de espesor es de 364 mm, valor aceptable respecto a las medidas.

Alaoui, Abdallah; Eugster, Werner


A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau de l'État s'est appliqué à développer une stratégie sur deux plans. Tout d'abord, des études hydrogéologiques de base et des modèles mathématiques d'écoulement et de transport de nappe ont été réalisés à partir d'un suivi d'ensemble des puits existants et d'une révision générale du contexte géologique de l'État. Ensuite, on a soutenu une structure de participation des usagers de l'eau aux actions de gestion de l'eau, à partir de la dissémination de l'information pour la mise en place de projets pilotes efficaces d'utilisation de l'eau, avec des aides financières, techniques et politiques de l'État. Simultanément, un effort coordonné en vue de l'achèvement de l'enregistrement des usagers de l'eau a été fait avec l'autorité fédérale, en même temps que d'autres mesures de soutien, telles que des programmes de formation et des campagnes de surveillance. Cet article présente une vue d'ensemble des réalisations de projets et des défis. Resumen El Estado de Guanajuato, situado en el centro de México, ocupa menos del 2% de la superficie del país. Tiene casi 17.000 pozos profundos, de los cuales se extrae cerca de 4.000 hm3/a, lo que supone un exceso de 1.000 hm3/a respecto a la recarga anual. Puesto que el agua es administrada a nivel federal en México, el gobierno del Estado afronta el reto de asegurar el desarrollo de la población sin disponer de medios formales de intervención. Dadas las limitaciones para aplicar políticas y medidas reguladoras, el programa del agua en el Estado tiene como objetivo principal la implantación de una doble estrategia. Por un lado, desarrollar estudios hidrogeológicos básicos y modelos matemáticos de flujo y transporte de los acuíferos, basándose en una campaña exhaustiva de pozos existentes y en una revisión del marco geológico del Estado. Por otro lado, promover-con soporte financiero, técnico y político-una estructura de participación de los usuarios en las acciones de gestión, incluyendo desde la difusión de la información hasta la implantación de proyectos piloto para un uso

Sandoval, Ricardo