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Aesthetic surgery for the Mestizo/Hispanic patient: special considerations.  


Mestizo patients, also known as Hispanic or Latino patients, are a growing ethnic group worldwide. Cosmetic procedures have become more accessible, and more patients are looking for procedures that will not only improve their facial features but also make them have a more youthful appearance. Mestizo facial characteristics are reviewed, and a stepwise approach to the aging Mestizo face is presented where nonsurgical and surgical options are discussed including midface-lifting techniques and short scar face-lifting procedures. PMID:20446210

Cobo, Roxana; García, Carlos A



Galaxias australes con núcleo doble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.


Leptin levels and nutritional status of indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo subjects in Durango, Mexico.  


The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = -0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity. PMID:24825928

Guzmán, Dealmy Delgadillo; Marchau, Laurence Annie Marchat; Reyes, José L; Castañeda, Verónica Loera; Macías, Martha Sosa; Vivas, Jessica García; Asseff, Ismael Lares



51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, switchboard with overhead field rheostat (above). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


47. Credit JE. Housing of one of the Doble rotors, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Credit JE. Housing of one of the Doble rotors, cooling ducts, governor, and gate valve. (JE, v. 25 1910 p. 121). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.  


Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. PMID:25137143

Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V



Doble jornada escolar y calidad de la educación en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La calidad de la educación es uno de los principales determinantes del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo. El objetivo fundamental del presente documento es evaluar si la doble jornada escolar tiene efectos negativos sobre la calidad de la educación en Colombia. Para esto se estima el efecto local promedio del tratamiento a partir de regresiones con variables instrumentales. Los resultados

Leonardo Bonilla M



Doble jornada escolar y calidad de la educación en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La calidad de la educación es uno de los principales determinantes del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo. El principal objetivo del presente documento es evaluar si la doble jornada escolar tiene efectos negativos sobre la calidad de la educación en Colombia. Para esto se estima el efecto local promedio del tratamiento a partir de regresiones con variables instrumentales. Los resultados

Leonardo Bonilla Mejía




E-print Network

Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Web AIII 006 EAS Evolución y Adaptación del Software AIII 006 IA Inteligencia[Escribir texto] DOBLE GRADO INGENIERÍA INFORMÁTICA - INGENIERÍA DEL SOFTWARE Coordinador Informática - Ingeniería de Software 1er Semestre (Aulario III - Aula 002) Claves y profesores Clave

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Dos casos de intoxicación por contaminación de maíz con Datura stramonium en ganado vacuno  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Recientemente hemos observado dos intoxicaciones en ganado vacuno lechero, en granjas de Cataluña, debidas a la ingestión de estramonio (Datura stramonium). La planta había sido en ambos casos erróneamente recolectada junto con el maíz empleado para la alimentación de los animales. El cuadro fue leve y, básicamente, cursó con problemas digestivos y descenso en la producción lechera, y remitió

Bofill FX; Bofill J



Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, mestizo communities’s ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro–Wilk’s W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Results Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4–6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0–0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women’s and men’s knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student’s test, T15 = 4.8, p < 0.001). Occupation, gender and age were statistically significant associated to ethnobotanical knowledge (p < 0.05), whereas income, education level, and place of origin were not. Conclusion This research improves our understanding of the socio-economic activities associated with the intracultural distribution of ethnobotanical knowledge among mestizo Mexican communities. It also provides information on plant resources and habitats and how local peasants value them. This information could help in the development of proposals to improve biocultural conservation and strengthen traditional knowledge systems for effective forest management. PMID:24467777



A Comparative Analysis of Mestizo and Indigenous Mayan Young Women in Guatemala: Attitudes and Knowledge of Sexual Reproduction and Health among Members of Children International's Youth Health Corps  

E-print Network

Children International’s Youth Health Corps Program uses Peer Education techniques to teach impoverished adolescents about Sexual Health and Reproduction. In the Youth Health Corps in Guatemala, both rural indigenous Maya youth and urban mestizo...

Trapp, Sarah Casement



PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.  


The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ? 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations. PMID:24691744

Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel



Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.  


Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (?2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively. PMID:25435058

Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H



Contribution of Common Genetic Variation to the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Mexican Mestizo Population  

PubMed Central

Several studies have identified nearly 40 different type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci, mainly in European populations, but few of them have been evaluated in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which 24 common genetic variants previously associated with type 2 diabetes are associated in Mexican Mestizos. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes (KCNJ11, PPARG, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A/2B, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, ARHGEF11, JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, FTO, TSPAN8/LGR5, KCNQ1, THADA, ADAMTS9, NOTCH2, NXPH1, RORA, UBQLNL, and RALGPS2) were genotyped in Mexican Mestizos. A case-control association study comprising 1,027 type 2 diabetic individuals and 990 control individuals was conducted. To account for population stratification, a panel of 104 ancestry-informative markers was analyzed. Association to type 2 diabetes was found for rs13266634 (SLC30A8), rs7923837 (HHEX), rs10811661 (CDKN2A/2B), rs4402960 (IGF2BP2), rs12779790 (CDC123/CAMK1D), and rs2237892 (KCNQ1). In addition, rs7754840 (CDKAL1) was associated in the nonobese type 2 diabetic subgroup, and for rs7903146 (TCF7L2), association was observed for early-onset type 2 diabetes. Lack of association for the rest of the variants may have resulted from insufficient power to detect smaller allele effects. PMID:22923468

Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Paola; Ordóñez-Sánchez, María Luisa; Rodríguez-Guillén, Rosario; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Guerra-García, María Teresa; Guillén-Pineda, Luz Elizabeth; Choudhry, Shweta; del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Escobedo-Aguirre, Fernando; Parra, Adalberto; Lerman-Garber, Israel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa



49. DOBLE BUCKETS ON PELTON WHEEL. EEC print no. GC0100148, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. DOBLE BUCKETS ON PELTON WHEEL. EEC print no. G-C-01-00148, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA


El Que No Tiene Dingo, Tiene Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)

Rosa, Andrew Juan



Genotype frequencies of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 in Native and Mestizo populations from Mexico, potential impact for coumarin dosing.  


The collection of pharmacogenetic variants in Mexican populations remains incomplete, thus, we aimed to characterize the genotype frequency of 11 SNP on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 in more than one-thousand individuals, and to explore their potential impact on coumarin dosing. In natives, genotype frequencies indicate that over 92% would reflect an extensive metabolism. For Mestizo populations, the proportion of CYP2C9 extensive (79%), intermediate (20.0%) and poor metabolizers (1.0%) was significantly different from that of natives, and varied among the different states of Mexico. Genotype frequencies of 7 SNP on VKORC1, were more homogenously distributed among natives and Mestizos. VKORC1 haplotype analysis revealed that most natives can be grouped into haplotypes H1 or H7-H8, while Mestizos showed a wider frequency distribution for other haplotypes. Our observations confirm previous reports on the genotype distribution of major CYP2C9 alleles, and contribute to the collection of genotype frequencies on relevant VKORC1 variants. PMID:25560189

Villegas-Torres, Beatriz; Sánchez-Girón, Francisco; Jaramillo-Villafuerte, Karla; Soberón, Xavier; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa



"El Escalafon y el Doble Turno": An International Perspective on School Director Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"El Escalafon" is the process for appointing school directors and "el Doble Turno" is the double shift of morning and afternoon session in Mexican schools. These two concepts open the door to examine more general issues in the appointment of school directors and the structure of the school day. Director appointment and school time are rooted in…

Slater, Charles L.; Boone, Mike; Nelson, Sarah; De La Colina, Maria; Garcia, Elizabeth; Grimaldo, Leticia; Rico, Grace; Rodriguez, Sonia; Sirios, Cheryl; Womack, Damaris; Garduno, Jose Maria Garcia; Arriaga, Ruth



22. Credit PG&E. View of the Doble water wheel housing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Credit PG&E. View of the Doble water wheel housing and the 3000 kVA generator installed in 1926 to replace (original) units 1,2 and 3. Photo 10 November 1927. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 Alpha and the Vitamin D Receptor in Mexican Mestizo Patients with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Several conditions, such as occupational activities, gender, age, and obesity, have been associated with IDD. However, the development of this disease has strong genetic determinants. In this study, we explore the possible association between rs1800587 (c.-949C>T) of interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and rs2228570 (c.2T>V) and rs731236 (c.1056T>C) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the development of IDD in northwestern Mexican Mestizo population. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by age and gender: patients with symptomatic lumbar IDD (n = 100) and subjects with normal lumbar-spine MRI-scans (n = 100). Distribution of the mutated alleles in patients and controls was 27.0% versus 28.0% (P = 0.455) for T of rs1800587 (IL1A); 53.0% versus 58.0% (P = 0.183) for V of rs2228570 (VDR); and 18.0% versus 21.0% (P = 0.262) for C of rs731236 (VDR). Our results showed no association between the studied polymorphisms and IDD in this population. This is the first report on the contribution of gene polymorphisms on IDD in a Mexican population. PMID:25506053

Cervin Serrano, Salvador; González Villareal, Dalia; Aguilar-Medina, Maribel; Romero-Navarro, Jose Guillermo; Romero Quintana, Jose Geovanni; Arámbula Meraz, Eliakym; Osuna Ramírez, Ignacio; Picos-Cárdenas, Veronica; Granados, Julio; Estrada-García, Iris; Sánchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío



Distribution of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Polymorphisms Associated with Poor Metabolizer Phenotype in Five Amerindian Groups and Western Mestizos from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background: The distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes allows inferring the potential risk for specific adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic effects in humans. This variability shows differences among human populations. The aim of this study was to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to a poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype in nonpreviously studied Amerindian groups and Mestizos (general admixed population) from Mexico. Methods: We detected by SNaPshot® different polymorphisms located in CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *6, *7, and *8) and CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *4 and *5) in western Mestizos (n=145) and five Amerindian groups from Mexico: Tarahumaras from the North (n=88); Purépechas from the Center (n=101); and Tojolabales (n=68), Tzotziles (n=88), and Tzeltales (n=20) from the Southeast. Genotypes were observed by capillary electrophoresis. The genetic relationships among these populations were estimated based on these genes. Results and Discussion: The wild-type allele (*1) of both genes was predominant in the Mexican populations studied. The most widely observed alleles were CYP2C19*2 (range, 0%–31%) and CYP2D6*4 (range, 1.2%–7.3%), whereas CYP2D6*3 was exclusively detected in Mestizos. Conversely, CYP2C19*4 and *5, as well as CYP2D6*3, *6, *7, and *8, were not observed in the majority of the Mexican populations. The Tarahumaras presented a high frequency of the allele CYP2C19*2 (31%) and of homozygotes *2/*2 (10.7%), which represent a high frequency of potentially PM phenotypes in this Amerindian group. The genetic distances showed high differentiation of Tarahumaras (principally for CYP2C19 gene). In general, a relative proximity was observed between most of the Amerindian, Mexican-Mestizo, and Latin-American populations. Conclusion: In general, the wild-type allele (*1) predominates in Mexican populations, outlining a relatively homogeneous distribution for CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The exception is the Tarahumara group that displays a potentially increased risk for adverse reactions to CYP2C19-metabolized drugs. PMID:22913530

Salazar-Flores, Joel; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Sosa-Macías, Martha; Muñoz-Valle, José F.; González-González, César; Ramírez, Angélica; Román, Raquel; Méndez, José L.; Barrera, Andrés; Torres, Alfredo; Medina, Rafael




Microsoft Academic Search

La produccion de ganado de carne y lechero Estimated energy levels for growing en el tropico hurnedo de Costa Rica se basa en el cattle, in grasses of the humid tropics of uso intensivo de pasturas, y se caracteriza porque Costa Rica. Beef and dairy cattle production in los animates tienen indices de crecimiento media- the humid tropics of Costa

Jorge M. I. Sanchez; Henry Soto


Anti-malarials exert a protective effect while Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing SLE renal disease: data from a Latin-American cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the role of ethnicity and the use of anti-malarials (protective) on lupus renal disease. Methods. A nested case–control study (1:2 proportion, n?=?265 and 530) within GLADEL's (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort was carried out. The end-point was ACR renal criterion development after diagnosis. Cases and controls were matched for follow-up time (end-point or a comparable time, respectively). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable analyses. Additional analyses were done to determine if the protective effect of anti-malarials persisted after adjusting for intake-associated confounders. Results. Of the cases, 233 (87.9%) were women; their mean (s.d.) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years and their median (Q3–Q1 interquartile range) follow-up time for cases and controls was 8.3 months (Q3–Q1: 23.5); 56.6% of the cases and 74.3% of the controls were anti-malarial users. Mestizo ethnicity [odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48] and hypertension (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.38, 3.70) were independently associated with a higher risk of renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26, 0.58), older age at disease onset (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and female gender (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.99) were negatively associated with such occurrence. After adjusting for variables associated with their intake, the protective effect of anti-malarials on renal disease occurrence persisted (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25, 0.58). Conclusion. Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use protects patients from such an occurrence. PMID:22389125

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Soriano, Enrique R.; Saurit, Verónica; Cavalcanti, Fernando S.; Guzman, Renato A.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sauza del Pozo, Maria J.; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Alva, Magaly; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.



The 3'UTR 1188A/C polymorphism of IL-12p40 is not associated with susceptibility for developing plaque psoriasis in Mestizo population from western Mexico.  


Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects the skin and the joints. Psoriasis is characterized by the keratinocyte proliferation, which is induced by cytokines Th1 and Th17. Patients with plaque psoriasis present a chronic inflammatory response with high levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been identified in the IL12B gene, such as SNP 3' UTR 1188 A/C (SNP rs3212227), which has been associated with susceptibility to developing plaque psoriasis and with the production of IL-12 and IL-23 in individuals of different ethnic groups. In this study, we determined whether there is an association of SNP rs3212227 with the susceptibility of developing plaque psoriasis and with serum levels of IL-12 and IL-23 in Mestizo population in western Mexico. We included 112 patients with psoriasis and 112 clinical healthy individuals in the study. The frequencies of genotypes A/A, A/C, and C/C in patients with plaque psoriasis were 41, 53, and 6%, respectively, while in the control group, these were 37, 53, and 10%, respectively, without finding statistically significant differences between both groups (p>0.05). Although IL-12 and IL-23 serum levels were higher in patients than in controls, we found no significant differences. The group of patients with genotype CC presented the highest levels of IL-23 (p<0.05). These data suggest that the SNP rs3212227 phenotype is not associated with the risk of developing plaque psoriasis or with IL-12 and IL-23 levels in Mestizo population in western Mexico. PMID:25447399

Sandoval-Talamantes, Ana Karen; Brito-Luna, Myrian Johanna; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Villanueva-Quintero, Delfina Guadalupe; Graciano-Machuca, Omar; Ramírez-Dueñas, María Guadalupe; Alvarado-Navarro, Anabell



[Polymorphism of human HLA-DRB1 leukocyte antigen alleles and its association to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in a sample of Colombian mestizo children].  


Oligotypes of the human leukocyte antigen HLA Class II, DRB1 alleles were characterized at the molecular level in a group of Colombian children suffering juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). The distribution of these alleles was examined in a group of Colombian mestizo children (genetic admixture of Amerindians, Europeans and Africans) suffering from clinically distinct JRA subsets in order to detect HLA allele frequency differences in patients with different JRA subsets. A group of 65 patients with JRA and 65 controls were characterized for the subtypes of the HLA-DRB1 alleles using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP). The oligotyping protocol recommended by the 12th International Histocompatibility Workshop held in St. Malo, Paris, in 1996, was used. Subtype HLA-DRB1*1104 was the allele most strongly associated with susceptibility to JRA (Fisher's p = 0.013, odds ratio (OR) = 16.79, etiologic fraction (EF) = 0.93). HLA-DRB1*1602 was also associated with susceptibility to a lesser degree (Fisher's p = 0.016, OR = 8.98, EF = 0.88). HLA-DRB1 alleles participating in JRA protection were HLA-DRB1*1501 (preventive fraction (PF) = 0.466, p = 0.005) and HLA DRB1*1402 (PF = 0.49, p = 0.009). The relationship between some HLA-DRB1 alleles and clinical features was also compared. The presence of rheumatic factor was associated with the alleles HLA-DRB1*0407 (p = 0.05, OR = 11.2, EF = 0.45) and HLA-DRB1*1302 (p = 0.02, OR = 22.8, EF = 0.63). There was also an association between HLA-DRB1*0701 (p = 0.001, OR = 58, EF = 0.73) with expressing ANA +. We found that in the oligoarticular subset, the allele HLA-DRB1*1104 (p = 0.0034, OR = 41.53, EF = 0.97) was the one expressed most commonly. In the poliarticular group, the alleles most frequently expressed were HLA-DRB1*0404 (Fisher's p = 0.012, OR = 8.75, EF = 0.88). In patients with systemic JRA, the HLA-DRB1*1602 allele (p = 0.005, OR = 21.33, EF = 0.95) was most frequent. These results suggested that the MHC genes of mestizo children influence not only the clinical expression of the disease, but also the susceptibility to its development. PMID:14582328

Garavito, Gloria; Malagón, Clara; Ramírez, Luis A; De La Cruz, Oscar F; Uribe, Oscar; Navarro, Edgar; Iglesias, Antonio; Martínez, Paz; Jaraquemada, Dolores; Egea, Eduardo



Human leukocyte antigen class I, class II, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in a healthy elder Mexican Mestizo population  

PubMed Central

Background There is strong evidence that an individual's genetic background is an important predisposing factor to longevity. In the present study we analysed the frequency of HLA class I, class II, as well as the TNF-? -308 polymorphism that may be related to an increased life span in Mexican Mestizo healthy elders. Results HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR SSO) reverse dot blot. The TNF-? -308 polymorphism was assessed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found in elderly women whereas this allele was not present in elderly males. The TNF2 allele was also increased in the elder group when compared to young controls. The frequencies of the remaining alleles tested were not statistically different among groups. Conclusion These data suggest an ethnicity independent tendency of HLA-DRB1*11 in elder females to increase life span and a possible role of the TNF2 allele with the successful remodelling of senescent immune system. PMID:16269080

Soto-Vega, Elena; Richaud-Patin, Yvonne; Llorente, Luis



Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes (APEX1, XPD, XRCC1 and XRCC3) and Risk of Preeclampsia in a Mexican Mestizo Population  

PubMed Central

Variations in genes involved in DNA repair systems have been proposed as risk factors for the development of preeclampsia (PE). We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APEX1) Asp148Glu (rs1130409), Xeroderma Pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln (rs13181), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC) Arg399Gln (rs25487) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met (rs861539) polymorphisms with PE in a Mexican population. Samples of 202 cases and 350 controls were genotyped using RTPCR. Association analyses based on a ?2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each polymorphism. The allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed statistical significant differences between preeclamptic and normal women (p = 0.036). Although neither of the polymorphisms proved to be a risk factor for the disease, the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed a tendency of association (OR: 1.74, 95% CI = 0.96–3.14) and a significant trend (p for trend = 0.048). A subgroup analyses revealed differences in the allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism between women with mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia (p = 0.035). In conclusion, our results reveal no association between XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms and the risk of PE in a Mexican mestizo population; however, the results in the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism suggest the need for future studies using a larger sample size. PMID:24619222

Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M.; Vazquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo; Barraza-Salas, Marcelo; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X.; La Llave-León, Osmel; Salas-Pacheco, José M.



The Chinese Mestizo in Philippine History  

E-print Network

. 598; BR (Emma H. Blair and James A. Robertson, ed., The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 (55 vols; Cleve land, 1903-07), L, p. 200. 6. PNA, Gremios, 16-5-5; PNA, Provincial Documents, legajo 117, numero 70. legajo 56, numero 11. 7, Chinos. Sns... economic interest and political security. Early in the Spanish period laws were passed limiting the number of Chinese who could reside in the Philippines and restricting their areas of settlement. But ? at least until the mid-eighteenth century...

Wickberg, Edgar



Diagnostico de Prenez en Ganado Vacuno.  

E-print Network

poco despues de nacer debido a accidentes y enfei-inedades. HabrA una pequefia diferencia entre este porcentaje de becerros logrados y aquel calculado con el numero de l~ecerros nacidos. La tabla 1 indica el costo por libra de res pro- clucida... li~teo tanll,ii.n puetle ser p:ulp:ttlo en el ov:urio por una person;i con experienci;~. Un foliculo gr;uitle en el ovario indica que el animal se aproxim;~ it1 pcriodo de celo. Un cuerpo luteo en el ovxio indica que la vaca esti cerca del punto...

Sorensen, A. M. Jr.; Beverly, J. R.; Arias, A. A.



Perceived Institutional Support among Young Indigenous and Mestizo Students from Chiapas (México): A Group Vitality Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory (EVT) asserts that status, demographic and institutional support (IS) factors make up the vitality of ethnolinguistic groups within intergroup relations. Specifically, IS factor refers to the extent to which a language group enjoys representation in the various institutions of a society, in particular, mass media,…

Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Viladot, Maria Àngels; Giles, Howard



Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is developing the basis for genomic medicine to improve healthcare of its population. The extensive study of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium structure of different populations has made it possible to develop tagging and imputation strategies to comprehensively analyze common genetic variation in association studies of complex diseases. We assessed the benefit of a Mexican haplotype map to improve

Irma Silva-Zolezzi; Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda; Jesus Estrada-Gil; Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez; Laura Uribe-Figueroa; Alejandra Contreras; Eros Balam-Ortiz; Laura Del Bosque-Plata; David Velazquez-Fernandez; Cesar Lara; Rodrigo Goya; Enrique Hernandez-Lemus; Carlos Davila; Eduardo Barrientos; Santiago March; Gerardo Jimenez-Sanchez



Clan, Sage, and Sky: Indigenous, Hispano, and Mestizo Narratives of Learning in New Mexico Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities retain Native American and Latino college students at lower rates than other ethnic groups even when culturally based services, financial assistance, and support are provided. College teaching and conceptions of learning have yet to evolve on a widespread basis toward culturally diverse epistemologies and practice. This…

Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Ke, Fengfeng; Herrera, Felisha A.



Doble o Más: Doblar o Triplicar Una Receta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Escoja una receta para doblarla (o triplicarla, cuadruplicarla, o partirla). Enseñe la receta a todo el grupo y pregúnteles: Cuánto vamos a necesitar para incrementar la receta para que todos puedan comer? Cómo lo saben? Una vez el grupo ha decidido cómo modificar la receta, asigne un ingrediente para incrementar y medir. A medida que los chicos deciden cómo hacerlo, exploran fracciones, multiplicación, y suma. Pruebe esta actividad con comida, una “receta” para combinar pinturas para conseguir determinados colores, o para hacer masilla para modelar. Disponible en formato web, en formato pdf, y en inglés.




Transcranial Doppler in a Hispanic–Mestizo population with neurological diseases: a study of sonographic window and its determinants  

PubMed Central

Between 5% and 37% of patients are not suitable for transtemporal insonation with transcranial Doppler (TCD). This unsuitability is particularly frequent in elderly females and non-Caucasians. We aim to evaluate TCD efficiency in a mixed Hispanic population in Santiago, Chile and to determine whether factors associated with the presence of optimal windows depend exclusively on patient-related elements. Seven hundred forty-nine patients were evaluated with power mode TCD. Optimal temporal windows (TWs) included detection of the middle, anterior, posterior cerebral arteries and terminal carotid. The patient's age and sex, the location of the examination, the time of day, whether the test was conducted on weekends and whether mechanical ventilation was used were recorded. Percentages of optimal windows were calculated. Examinations were deemed ideal if both TWs were optimal. TWs were obtained in 82% of cases. In univariate analyses, male sex (P < 0.001), an age below 60 years (P < 0.0001) and mechanical ventilation (P= 0.04) correlated with ideal TWs. Using logistic regression where dependent variable was a non-ideal window only male sex odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (1.51–3.45) and age below 60 OR 13.8 (7.8–24.6) were statistically significant. Our findings indicate that Hispanic populations have detection rates for TWs similar to Europeans and are affected by patient-related elements. PMID:22741096

Brunser, Alejandro M; Silva, Claudio; Cárcamo, Daniel; Muñoz, Paula; Hoppe, Arnold; Olavarría, Verónica V; Díaz, Violeta; Abarca, Juan



Drag effect for a doble-layer charged Bose gas system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coulomb drag effect, which has previously been considered theoretically and experimentally for a system of two electron gas layers, is studied for a system of two charged Bose gas (CBG) layers within an analytically solvable model. We consider a bi-layer CBG in the presence of counterflow which, in superfluid mixtures and in spatially separated superconductors, leads to a drag effect. We investigate the effects of counterflow on the collective excitations, interaction energy, screened interactions, induced charge densities, and plasmon density of states in the bi-layer CBG. These quantities, many of which have not been considered in connection with Coulomb drag in a bi-layer electron gas, show how the many-body properties are affected, and thus provide new insights into the drag effect.

Tanatar, B.; Das, A. K.




Microsoft Academic Search

More information could be obtained from extracellular, field potentials, multicellular or oligocellular electrical recordings, if constituting waves were sorted for their analysis. Here a biosignal sorting device is described, based on a microcontroller circuit able to use two different and simultaneous sorting criteria (amplitude and refractory period), generating two TTL-type outputs. An ADC0834 A\\/D converter and two PIC16F84A-20 and PIC16F84A-10

Carlos Villanueva; Antonio Eblen-Zajjur


Errores en el cálculo de probabilidades en tablas de doble entrada en profesores en formación  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being able of correctly reading and interpreting two-way tables is a basic component of statistical literacy for all citizens. Therefore future teachers who will be responsible of teaching statistics to children at school level should acquire these abilities along their training. However, this capacity is taken for granted in Spain and its teaching is not usually included in the curriculum

Assumpta Estrada Roca; Carmen Díaz Batanero


Reformas Fiscales Verdes y la Hipótesis del Doble Dividendo: Un ejercicio aplicado a la economía colombiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediante un análisis enmarcado bajo el esquema de tasas retributivas, se propone una reforma fiscal verde para el caso colombiano como mecanismo para la reasignación de recursos fiscales en virtud de mejorar el bienestar social. Dicha reforma consiste en el financiamiento de disminuciones en la carga impositivita en el mercado laboral a partir del uso de recursos fiscales derivados de

Andrés Sánchez Jabba




E-print Network

Asignatura Profesor DAW Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Web EAS Evolución y Adaptación del Software IADOBLE GRADO INGENIERÍA INFORMÁTICA - INGENIERÍA DEL SOFTWARE Coordinador Titulación: Paloma Cáceres Software 1er Semestre (Aulario y Aula de 1º de GIS) Claves y profesores Clave Asignatura Profesor FFI

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Criollo, mestizo, mulato, LatiNegro, indígena, white, or black? The US Hispanic/Latino population and multiple responses in the 2000 census.  

PubMed Central

Current dialogues on changes in collecting race and ethnicity data have not considered the complexity of tabulating multiple race responses among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic identification--and its public reporting--among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is embedded in dynamic social factors. Ignoring these factors leads to significant problems in interpreting data and understanding the relationship of race, ethnicity, and health among Hispanics/Latinos. In the flurry of activity to resolve challenges posed by multiple race responses, we must remember the larger issue that looms in the foreground--the lack of adequate estimates of mortality and health conditions affecting Hispanics/Latinos. The implications are deemed important because Hispanics/Latinos will become the largest minority group in the United States within the next decade. PMID:11076239

Amaro, H; Zambrana, R E



Cardiovascular Health Status Among Caribbean Hispanics Living in Northern Manhattan and Ecuadorian Natives/Mestizos in Rural Coastal Ecuador: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of cardiovascular health (CVH) status of a given population is mandatory to reduce the burden of vascular diseases in the region. We compared CVH of two distinct populations having similar ethnic backgrounds to understand the role of lifestyle and environment on their CVH, and to provide insights in the planning of cost-effective health strategies. CVH status was compared in two Hispanic populations living in Northern Manhattan and Atahualpa (rural coastal Ecuador) using the health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association. Both studies used similar definitions of CVH and similar inclusion criteria for participating subjects (age ?40 years, cardiovascular disease-free status, and living at their respective localities for ?3 months). The studied populations consisted of 1,617 Caribbean Hispanics living in Northern Manhattan (mean age 66 ± 9 years), and 616 Atahualpa residents (mean age 59 ± 13 years). Atahualpa residents had significantly better metrics than Caribbean Hispanics, with the exception of fasting glucose levels. Likewise, the odds for having 5–7 ideal metrics were also better in Atahualpa residents, irrespective of age. CVH is better in Atahualpa residents than in Caribbean Hispanics living in Northern Manhattan. These differences are likely related to a healthier lifestyle in a rural setting and provide insights for setting cardiovascular prevention priorities. PMID:23456686

Dong, Chuanhui; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Del Brutto, Victor J.; Sacco, Ralph L.



Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, doble grado Matematicas-Informatica Curso 2013-14 ALGEBRA LINEAL Y GEOMETRIA  

E-print Network

LINEAL Y GEOMETR´IA Hoja 11. C´onicas y cu´adricas 1. Dada una circunferencia de centro C y radio r y un recta x + 2y = 3. Halla su ecuaci´on, su centro y su radio. 4. Encuentra las ecuaciones de las par cual la par´abola correspondiente pasa por el origen. 5. Encuentra las ecuaciones de las las elipses de

Fernández Gallardo, Pablo


WNT3A gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density variation in postmenopausal mestizo women of an urban Mexican population: findings of a pathway-based high-density single nucleotide screening.  


Osteoporosis (OP) is a common skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and is a common health problem in Mexico. To date, few genes affecting BMD variation in the Mexican population have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes of the Wnt pathway with BMD variation at various skeletal sites in a cohort of postmenopausal Mexican women. A total of 121 SNPs in or near 15 Wnt signaling pathway genes and 96 ancestry informative markers were genotyped in 425 postmenopausal women using the Illumina GoldenGate microarray SNP genotyping method. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in total hip, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and lumbar spine. Associations were tested by linear regression for quantitative traits adjusting for possible confounding factors. SNP rs752107 in WNT3A was strongly associated with decreased total hip BMD showing the highest significance under the recessive model (P?=?0.00012). This SNP is predicted to disrupt a binding site for microRNA-149. In addition, a polymorphism of the Wnt antagonist DKK2 was associated with BMD in femoral neck under a recessive model (P?=?0.009). Several LRP4, LRP5, and LRP6 gene variants showed site-specific associations with BMD. In conclusion, this is the first report associating Wnt pathway gene variants with BMD in the Mexican population. PMID:24584697

Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Valdés-Flores, Margarita; Orozco, Lorena; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Salmerón, Jorge



Beneficios económicos potenciales de tecnología bovina de doble propósito en el trópico mexicano Potential economic benefits of dual purpose livestock technology in the mexican tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess economic returns of dual-purpose cattle production technology in the tropics of Mexico. Benefits due to this technology were estimated through an economic surplus model, surmising a small country and with modeling of milk and beef markets for the tropics and the rest of Mexico. Two scenarios were considered: that of a net

José Antonio; Espinosa García; Steve Wiggins


Producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.) en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno Seed production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) in an intensive cattle fattening system  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a sialitic Brown soil of the calcic Cambisol subtype, located at the «Calixto García» Livestock Production Enterprise, in the Holguín province, the production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) was studied in an intensive cattle fattening system, with irrigation. The treatments were five varieties of Guinea grass: A) Common; B) Likoni; C) Mombasa; D) Tanzania; and E) Tobiatá. The

G. Oquendo; A. Pérez; A. Martínez; F. Ortega; E. Vieito; A. Rodríguez; M. Acosta; N. Rodríguez


El Dia de la Raza Module. Secondary Level. [The Day of the Race Module. Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"El Dia de la Raza", considered the birthday of the mestizo, is the topic of this unit for the secondary level. As unit objectives, the students are to demonstrate (1) their comprehension by stating 3 major areas of contributions the Indians and the Spaniards gave the mestizo culture and (2) their concept of mestizaje by participating in oral…

Herrera, Gloria; Lizcano, Jeanette


Improving Eleventh Graders' Reading Comprehension through Text Coding and Double Entry Organizer Reading Strategies (Mejoramiento de la comprensión lectora de estudiantes de grado once mediante las estrategias de lectura de codificación de texto y organizador de doble entrada)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we report on an innovation project developed with a group of eleventh graders at a public school in Bogotá. Its aim was to encourage students to improve reading comprehension of texts in English. It was conducted taking into account students' needs, interests and level of English. To do it, we implemented two reading…

Mahecha, Rocío; Urrego, Stella; Lozano, Erika



The GLAD Project Evaluation Summary: 1994 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the Ganado Learning Arts Development Project (GLAD), a program implemented at the Ganado Primary School in Arizona. The school serves K-2 students from the Navajo reservation and emphasizes integration of traditional Navajo teachings and culture with Western knowledge. The report covers the following data: (1) student average…

Boloz, Sigmund A.


Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Segment Specifications--Tuba City via Mt. Elden, Phoenix; Keams Canyon, Second Mesa, Low Mountain; Phoenix, San Carlos, Bylas; Keams Canyon via Ganado Mesa, Ft. Defiance; Tuba City via Black Mesa, Ft. Defiance; and Budgetary Cost Information--Pinal Peak via San Xavier, Tucson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The communication links of five different segments of the Arizona TeleMedicine Network (a telecommunication system designed to provide health services for American Indians in rurally isolated areas) and budgetary cost information for Pinal Peak via San Xavier and Tucson are described in this document. The five communication links are identified…

Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.


Libro Rojo de los Invertebrados de Espaa Categora UICN: Vulnerable  

E-print Network

ganado vacuno de las praderas du- rante la primavera y el otoño favorece la presen- cia de poblaciones primavera. La pupación se realiza en el interior del hormiguero en mayo-junio y los adultos emergen en el

García-Barros, Enrique


Let Jorge Do It: An Approach to Rural Nonformal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operating under the philosophy that people can learn from each other, the Nonformal Education Project trained 24 Ecuadorian campesinos in seven rural mestizo villages to instruct their peers in basic litaracy skills, negotiating techniques, and the development of self-esteem. Within a year of operation some of the original "facilitators" were…

Hoxeng, James


Teaching English Critically to Mexican Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present one significant part of a large-scale critical-ethnographic-action-research project (CEAR Project) carried out in Oaxaca, Mexico. The overall CEAR Project has been conducted since 2007 in different Oaxacan elementary schools serving indigenous and mestizo (mixed-race) children. In the CEAR Project, teacher…

López-Gopar, Mario E.



Discriminación étnica y de género en el proceso de contratación en el mercado de trabajo de Lima Metropolitana  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este estudio se investiga el rol de la discriminación por diferencias étnicas y de género en ocupaciones específicas utilizando información de postulaciones reales cuya información se recogió del sistema de colocaciones de la Red CIL-PROEMPLEO en el Ministerio de Trabajo y Promoción del Empleo (MTPE) de Perú. En suma, el experimento consiste en comparar el desempeño de individuos mestizos

Hugo R. Ñopo; Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví; Máximo Torero; Martín Moreno



Social Status, Race, and the Timing of Marriage in Cuba’s First Constitutional Era, 1902-1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the practice of marriage among whites, mestizos, blacks, Cubans, and Spaniards during the first constitutional era, focusing upon the reported ages of brides and grooms. The study consists of a quantitative examination of trends found in the records of 900 Catholic marriages celebrated in Havana during the opening decades of independence. The first major finding of the

Enid Lynette Logan



High prevalence of rheumatoid factor associated with clinical manifestations of rheumatic disease in Kaingang and Guarani Indians from Southern Brazil.  


The aim of the present study was to perform a screening for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-nuclear antibody in Kaingang, Guarani and Mestizos individuals from Mangueirinha Reservation, State of Paraná, Brazil, and associate it with demographic and clinical data. Serum samples from 321 aborigines (125 male and 196 female; 4-86 years old) and 180 non-Indians healthy individuals were analysed (62 male and 118 female; 2-81 years old). Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was tested by indirect immunofluorescence, and RF by agglutination in latex and turbidimetry. RF was higher in Kaingang when compared to Guarani (P = 0.009), Mestizos (P = 0.061) and non-Indians (P = 0.010). A significant increase of RF was observed in Kaingang women versus Kaingang men (P = 0.002) and, among the women, in Kaingang when compared to Mestizos and Guarani (P Mestizos. The differences observed among the investigated groups, suggest the influence of genetic and hormonal factors in the development of auto antibodies in these populations. PMID:18820931

Ribas, João Luiz Coelho; Utiyama, Shirley Ramos da Rosa; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Boeira, Maristela; Reason, Iara Taborda de Messias



Tumor necrosis factor-? promoter polymorphisms in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major histocompatibility (MHC) genes including TNF-?, HSP70 and HLA genes have been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in several populations. In this study we analyze the polymorphism of TNF-? promoter in 51 Mexican Mestizo SLE patients and 55 ethnically-matched healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction methods. No statistically significant differences were observed in the TNF ?308 allele and

J Zúñiga; G Vargas-Alarcón; G Hernández-Pacheco; C Portal-Celhay; JK Yamamoto-Furusho; J Granados



Cambie su cabeza por una importante: La ironía metafórica en Benito Fernández de Elena Garro  

E-print Network

se indigna cuando Julián le recuerda su mestizaje: BENITO: (Se levanta la manga y enseña una parte del brazo). Soy rubio como mi madre y queremos una cabeza de gente blanca. JULIAN: Bien dice el dicho que los mestizos o son de mala cabeza o que...

Rosas Lopá tegui, Patricia; Reed, James Casey



Ethnic Succession in a Highland Chiapas Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1950s, ethnic relations in Tenejapa (Chiapas, Mexico) have shifted toward greater equality and less antagonism between formerly dominant mestizos and formerly dominated "indigenas" (Maya Indians). An important cause is the long-term promotion of indigenous education by a national agency, Instituto Nacional Indigenista, imparting to…

Whitmeyer, Joseph M.



Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas Kari B. Schroeder,* Mattias Jakobsson, Michael H. Crawford, Theodore G. Schurr,k Simina  

E-print Network

Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily with other haplotypes in the Americas, and 3) in Latin American mestizo populations, the proportion of Native been isolated from other Asian populations prior to expanding into the Americas. Introduction Despite

Jakobsson, Mattias


Chicanos: Mexicans in the United States. A Stepping-Stone Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for second and third grade children, the book gives an account of Chicanos in the United States. Beginning with the Mayas, Toltecs, and Aztecs, it explains the history of Mexico, the Spanish conquest, and the northward movement of the "Mestizos". Subsequent chapters detail the immigration movement across the Rio Grande in search of work.…

Martin, Patricia Miles


The Hispanicization of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two strikingly contrasting culture groups, Latin Americans and Anglo Americans, overlap in a Borderlands that straddles the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. This overlap began with the Aztec conquest by Cortes which triggered the intermixing and miscegenation between Spaniards and Indians that produced a mestizo people…

Nostrand, Richard L.


Hernan Cortes; Conquistador and Colonizer. The Tinker Pamphlet Series for the Teaching of Mexican American Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conquest and colonization of Mexico initiated by Hernan Cortes resulted in the fusion of the Indian and Hispanic cultures. This fusion led to the "mestizo" culture. Cortes was the bearer of the Hispanic heritage just as the Aztecs and other Indians in Mexico and the Southwest were the carriers of the Indian heritage. In studying the life of…

Miller, Hubert J.


Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...


Historical Development of the Concept of the Multicultural Personality: A Mixed Ethnic Heritage Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mestizo (mixed ethnic heritage) Civil Rights Movement in the United States can be divided into five phases: Pre-Civil Rights, Civil Rights, Bilingual-Multicultural Education, Political Conservatism, and the current period, an Assault on Civil Rights. The paper describes how a personal research career has been influenced by the different stages…

Ramirez, Manuel, III


Resist This! Embodying the Contradictory Positions and Collective Possibilities of Transformative Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth participatory action research (YPAR) and arts-informed approaches reflect a source of critical resistance at the intersection of theory and practice (praxis). Our discussion draws upon "Mestizo Arts & Activism" ("MAA"), a participatory action research collective made up of young people who focused their research on the educational rights of…

Quijada Cerecer, David Alberto; Cahill, Caitlin; Bradley, Matt



Welcome to the Front Seat: Racial Identity and Mesoamerican Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I argue that mestizo immigrants from the Mesoamerica region experience a low socioeconomic tracking compounded by a racialized subordinating discourse in the United States. These immigrants come over to the United States from a region where social stratification and racial prejudice are based more on cultural and linguistic…

Arriaza, Gilberto




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey




E-print Network

estarán exentos del pago de inscripción y colegiaturas por el curso que se imparta. (Descargar Presupuesto. Con el fin de disminuir costos, serán hospedados en habitaciones dobles. El miércoles 25 de agosto

Islas, León



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. 800 H.P. WATER WHEEL UNIT (LEFT HAND) DIRECT CONNECTED TO A 500 K.W. G.E. CO. GENERATOR, SPEED 176 R.P.M., HEAD OF WATER 305 FT EFF., FOR SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PLANT. ABNER DOBLE CO., ENGINEERS, SAN FRANCISCO, AUG. 29, 1904. TRACED FROM DOBLE BLUE PRINT, SEPT. 9, 1911. SCE drawing no. 5698. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA


Obtaining Disaster Assistance (Spanish)  

E-print Network

, ganado, equipo agr?cola y establos, entre otros. Exenci?n de impuestos por la IRS Para las personas que viven en ?reas que han sido enormemente da?adas y que enfrentan plazos para la presentaci?n de declaraciones impositivas, el pago de impuestos y...

Cavanagh, Joyce



A Pressing Societal Issue: Livestock Welfare The School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis addresses welfare issues of livestock through education and research  

E-print Network

-Farm Livestock Euthanasia/La Eutanasia del Ganado en Granja · Euthanasia Action Plan/Plan de Acción de Euthanasia and producers in the proper use of captive bolt devices for humane euthanasia of cattle. The research of faculty, including UC Davis-developed guidelines for cattle transportation and on-farm euthanasia Veterinary Medicine

Schladow, S. Geoffrey


Apologize or Analyze: Measuring Academic Achievement in the Reservation School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three variables--student attendance, stability of enrollment, and socioeconomic status--can affect reservation students' performance on standardized tests as significantly as the quality of instruction. To test the impact of the three variables on academic achievement, the Ganado (Arizona) Unified School District No. 20 analyzed available…

Boloz, Sigmund A.; Varrati, Richard



Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se estudian las variables ambientales, económicas y sociales de la ciénaga continental más grande de Colombia, Zapatosa. Este ecosistema está repartido entre dos departamentos (Cesar y Magdalena) y cinco municipios (Chimichagua, Tamalameque, El Banco, Chiriguaná y Curumaní), en donde viven 150.000 personas y pastan 170.000 cabezas de ganado. La crítica situación ambiental de la ecorregión de Zapatosa




Revitalizing Hispanic and Native American Communities: Four Examples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes locally controlled economic development strategies used by Native American and Hispanic cooperatives and organizations: Ganados del Valle, Madera Forest Products Association, Seventh Generation Fund, and Ramah Navajo Weavers Association. Discusses the issues of cultural and economic survival in isolated rural communities. (SV)

Robinson, Paul; And Others



J. Field Ornithol. 82(2):140149, 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1557-9263.2011.00316.x Nest-site selection and productivity of Vesper Sparrows  

E-print Network

selection and productivity of ground-nesting Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) across sites productividad en Pooecetes gramineus anidando en h´abitats de pastoreo El pastoreo de ganado en pastos de estepa lugares de anidaci´on y productividad de Pooecetes gramineus que anida en el suelo a trav´es de lugares


La economía ganadera en el departamento de Córdoba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diferentes indicadores muestran a Córdoba como un departamento ganadero por excelencia: su hato representa el 10% del inventario ganadero nacional y el 30% del regional. Así mismo, el departamento es un exportador neto de ganado bovino a otras regiones de Colombia. Por ejemplo, en el período 1991 – 2002 se pudo constatar que por cada animal sacrificado, se movilizaron 3,8

Joaquín Viloria De La Hoz



Low Stress Cattle Handling in Dairy Environments (Spanish)  

E-print Network

; evite ruidos y chiflidos cuando maneje vacas de leche ya que ?stos las alteran. C?mo mover al ganado Las vacas de leche est?n acostumbradas al trato humano. Recuerde que las vacas tienen muy buena memoria y maneje adecuadamente a los animales desde j...

Villarino, Mario A.



When You Don't Know What's Important: Revitalizing Decision-Making in the Native American School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Ganado Public School District (K-12, 1,650 students), in the northeast corner of the Navajo Reservation, an administrative retreat structure has been used for 4 years to promote the team management concept and maintain the District's formal direction. Building from a comprehensive needs assessment by and for the District's Navajo…

Boloz, Sigmund A.; Brutz, Ronald A.


Human genetics. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits.  


Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; del Rio Navarro, Blanca; London, Stephanie J; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D



The Genetics of Mexico Recapitulates Native American Substructure and Affects Biomedical Traits  

PubMed Central

Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1,000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between sub-continental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E.; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M.; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G.; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R.; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Navarro, Blanca del Rio; London, Stephanie J.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D.



Periodontal microbiology in Latin America.  


This review article describes the microbiota associated with periodontal disease in Latin America. This vast territory includes 22 nations, which show great ethnic diversity, with large groups of White people, Black people, Mestizo people and Native people. Widespread poverty and limited access to education and health-care services, including periodontal care, are prominent predisposing factors for destructive periodontal disease in Latin America. Black people and Mestizo people seem to have particularly severe periodontal disease and are frequently colonized by the major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The 'red complex' bacterial pathogens and A. actinomycetemcomitans predominate in chronic and aggressive periodontitis, but gram-negative enteric rods and herpesviruses can also play important periodontopathic roles in Latin America. The key to minimizing the risk of periodontal disease is control of the pathogens, and new low-cost periodontal treatments deserve serious consideration in Latin America. PMID:25494598

Contreras, Adolfo; Moreno, Sandra M; Jaramillo, Adriana; Pelaez, Melissa; Duque, Andres; Botero, Javier E; Slots, Jørgen




Microsoft Academic Search

The Mestizo (rnixed ethnic heritage) Civil RightsMovernent in the United States can be divided into five phases: Pre-Civil Rights, Civil Rights, Bilingual-Multicultural Education, Political Conservatisrn, and the current period, an Assault on Civil Rights. The author's research career has been influenced by the different stages ofthe Movernent, and his work on the concept ofthe multiculturalpersonahty has closely reflected its various



Metabolic effects of the contraceptive skin patch and subdermal contraceptive implant in Mexican women: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The contraceptive skin patch (CSP) accepted by the U.S. FDA in 2001 includes ethinylestradiol and norelgestromine, whereas the subdermal contraceptive implant (SCI) has etonogestrel and is also approved by the FDA. In Mexico, both are now widely used for contraception but their effects on Mexican population are unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate if these treatments induce metabolic changes in a sample of indigenous and mestizo Mexican women. Methods An observational, prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study of women between 18 and 35 years of age assigned to CSP or SCI. We performed several laboratory tests: clinical chemistry, lipid profile, and liver and thyroid function tests. Also, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, IGF-1, leptin, adiponectin, and C reactive protein were assayed. Results Sixty-two women were enrolled, 25 used CSP (0 indigenous; 25 mestizos) and 37 used SCI (18 indigenous; 19 mestizos). Clinical symptoms were relatively more frequent in the SCI group. Thirty-four contraceptive users gained weight without other clinical significant changes. After 4 months of treatment, significant changes were found in some biochemical parameters in both treatment groups. Most were clinically irrelevant. Interestingly, the percentage of users with an abnormal atherogenic index diminished from 75% to 41.6% after follow-up. Conclusions The CSP slightly modified the metabolic variables. Most changes were nonsignificant, whereas for SCI users changes were more evident and perhaps beneficial. Results of this attempt to evaluate the effects of contraceptives in mestizo and native-American populations show that clinical symptoms are frequent in Mexican users of CSP and SCI. Although these medications may affect some metabolic variables, these changes seem clinically irrelevant. Induction of abnormalities in other physiological pathways cannot be ruled out. PMID:24767248



The process of acculturation: Theoretical perspectives and an empirical investigation in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide migratory patterns have led to an increasing interest in acculturation processes and their psychosocial and psychiatric sequelae. This paper reviews alternative theoretical approaches to the study of acculturation and identifies gaps in the current knowledge base. We then present empirical research of acculturation processes experienced by both Indian rural to urban migrants and White-Mestizo non-migrants in Lima, Peru. The

Judith A. Richman; Moises Gaviria; Joseph A. Flaherty; Susan Birz; Ronald M. Wintrob



Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 05, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

(sophisticated theatre with which Guatemalans identify culturally) coincides with freedom from dictatorship. Imita tion of European models diminished and the mestizo theatre flourished briefly after the fall of Estrada Cabrera; but the best period has been... of the Aztec empire. In this, Fuentes follows the ideas and techniques which can be called "historicismo simbólico" of Octavio Paz. The action revolves around Moctezuma, Cortés and Marina, and the interplay between the historical and symbolic meanings...



Actinic prurigo.  


Actinic prurigo is a chronic photodermatosis with onset in childhood or before 20 years of age. It is most prevalent in Amerindians and Latin American mestizos, although it has been reported worldwide. Patients present with photodistributed, erythematous excoriated papules, cheilitis, and conjunctivitis. There is strong association with human leukocyte antigen DR4, especially the DRB1*0407 subtype. Treatment consists of photoprotection and the use of thalidomide. PMID:24891055

Valbuena, Martha C; Muvdi, Sandra; Lim, Henry W



The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new, simple, quantitative technique for evaluating the relative usefulness of plants to people. The\\u000a technique is then compared to the quantitative approaches in ethnobotany that have been developed recently. Our technique\\u000a is used to calculate the importance of over 600 species of woody plants to non-indigenous mestizo people in Tambopata, Amazonian\\u000a Peru. Two general classes of

Oliver Phillips; Alwyn H. Gentry



HLA-E polymorphism in Amerindians from Mexico (Mazatecans), Colombia (Wayu) and Chile (Mapuches): evolution of MHC-E gene.  


Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a nonclassical class I (Ib) gene with a restricted polymorphism. Only eight DNA alleles and three proteins of this gene have been described and their frequencies analyzed in Caucasian, Oriental, Asian Indian, and Negroid populations. In the present study, HLA-E polymorphism has been analyzed in six Amerindian and Mestizo populations from North and South America and compared with previously described populations. HLA-E*0101 is the most frequent allele found in all populations except in Afrocolombian and Wayu Amerindians, in which blood group analyses show a high admixture with Caucasian and African populations. Mazatecan and Mapuche (two Amerindian groups from North and South America, respectively) presented similar HLA-E frequencies, whereas Wayu Indians are more similar to the Afrocolombian population. The Mexican and Colombian Mestizo show similar allele frequencies to Amerindians with high frequencies of HLA-E*0101 and HLA-E*010302 alleles. Also, frequencies in Negroids and Asian Indians present a similar distribution of HLA-E alleles. These data are in agreement with worldwide restricted polymorphism of HLA-E because no new allele was detected in the six populations studied. The allelic frequencies show differences among Caucasian, Oriental, Mestizo and Indian populations. Ape major histocompatibility complex-E allelism is also very restricted: common chimpanzee (one allele); bonobo (two alleles); gorilla (two alleles); orangutan (one allele); rhesus monkey (eight alleles); cynomolgus monkey (two alleles); and green monkey (two alleles). PMID:17445187

Arnaiz-Villena, A; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Serrano-Vela, J I; Reguera, R; Martinez-Laso, J; Silvera-Redondo, C; Granados, J; Moscoso, J



Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel



The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined. PMID:22941567

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Verónica; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, José L.; de la Torre, Ignacio García; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gómez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, María J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.



Effects of Ethnic Attributes on the Quality of Family Planning Services in Lima, Peru: A Randomized Crossover Trial  

PubMed Central

Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0·7% (p = 0·23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima. PMID:25671664

Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J.; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew



Relationship between genotypes of the Duffy blood groups and malarial infection in different ethnic groups of Choco, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy-) confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. Studies carried out in pursuing this direction in Colombia are scarce. Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities of La Italia (Chocó) and malarial infection. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with malaria. Sample size: Afro-Colombians 73; Amerindian (Emberá) 74, and Mestizo, 171. The presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene was studied by PCR and RFLP to help identify changes to T-46C and A131G which originate the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C and G/G, G/A, A/A. Results: Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% of cases with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% due to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated with ethnicity (p= 0.003). Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotypes were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas the other diplotypes were infected with either of the species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0.90-1.00, among Afro-Colombians this was 0.50, the same as with the C allele and with an absence of heterozygous. At locus 131, the maximum frequency of the G allele was 0.30 in Amerindians and the maximum of the A allele was 0.69 in Afro-Colombians. Conclusions: In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, there was a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+) but this was not observed with the P. vivax infection. P. vivax was ruled out in all FY- individuals. PMID:24893190

Vega, Jorge; Ramirez, Jose L; Bedoya, Gabriel; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda



Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in lima, peru: a randomized crossover trial.  


Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0·7% (p = 0·23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima. PMID:25671664

Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew



Genetic characterization of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, Mexico, and its relation to linguistic and geographic isolation.  


We used 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) to genetically characterize 361 individuals from 11 indigenous populations (Amuzgo, Chinanteco, Chontal, Huave, Mazateco, Mixe, Mixteco, Triqui, Zapoteco del Istmo, Zapoteco del Valle, and Zoque) from Oaxaca, Mexico. We also used previously published data from other Mexican peoples (Maya, Chol, Tepehua, Otomí, and Mestizos from northern and central Mexico) to delineate genetic relations, for a total of 541 individuals. Average heterozygosity (H) was lower in most populations from Oaxaca (range 0.687 in Zoque to 0.756 in Chontal) than values observed in Mestizo populations from Mexico (0.758 and 0.793 in central and northern Mestizo, respectively) but higher than values observed in other Amerindian populations from South America; the same relation was true for the number of alleles (n(a) ). We tested (using the software Structure) whether major geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow existed among the populations of Oaxaca and found that the populations appeared to constitute one or two genetic groups, suggesting that neither geographic location nor linguistics had an effect on the genetic structure of these culturally and linguistically highly diverse indigenous peoples. Moreover, we found a low but statistically significant between-population differentiation. In addition, the genetic structure of Oaxacan populations did not fit an isolation-by-distance model. Finally, using AMOVA and a Bayesian clustering approach, we did not detect significant geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow within Oaxaca. These results suggest that the indigenous communities of Oaxaca, although culturally isolated, can be genetically defined as a large, nearly panmictic population in which migration could be a more important population mechanism than genetic drift. Finally, compared with outgroups in Mexico (both indigenous peoples and Mestizos), three groups were apparent. Among them, only the Otomí population from Hidalgo has a different culture and language. PMID:21082910

Quinto-Cortés, Consuelo D; Arriola, Luis A; García-Hughes, Gianella; García-López, Rodrigo; Molina, Diana P; Flores, Margarita; Palacios, Rafael; Piñero, Daniel



julio-septiembre2006Cinvestav74 Resea del libro  

E-print Network

resultado de proyectos de investigación, cuyos conceptos y explicaciones de diferentes experimentos fueran (abundancia natural sorprendente por experimentos de transferencias cuánticas doble). En la lección 1 campo magnético, los procesos de relajación, los efectos de protección y desprotección que influyen en


Escasas Evidencias de las Bacterias Lácticas del Yo gur en Heces Humanas tras Consumo Diario de Yogur en Voluntarios Sanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

10 yogur (15 días) en 114 voluntarios sanos. Las técni cas empleadas han sido cultivos microbiológico clásicos, PCR con cebadores específi cos para estas bacterias e hibridación de ADN con sondas específicas. El diseño del estudio fue prospectivo y de doble ciego. Se obtuvieron resultados consistenteme nte negativos en los cultivos microbiológicos, así como en la detección específic a del

Rosa del Campo; Daniel Bravo; Rafael Cantón; Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa; Raimundo García-Albiach; Alejandra Montesi-Libois; Francisco-Javier Yuste; Victor Abraira; Fernando Baquero


September 1, 2002 / Vol. 27, No. 17 / OPTICS LETTERS 1537 Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics  

E-print Network

for adaptive optics in the human eye Nathan Doble Center for Visual Science, 274 Meliora Hall, University instrumentation equipped with adaptive optics offers the possibility of rapid and automated cor- rection the widespread implementation of adaptive optics is the cost of the wave-front corrector, such as a deformable

Bifano, Thomas


Spanish Language Use and Linguistic Attitudes in Laredo, Texas between 1860 and 1930  

E-print Network

mandaba. El te saluda y di- ce que le gustar?a mucho si en el a?o entran- te mudaras a Laredo porque el cree que ser? megor punto como ayas tanto en comercio como 45 para criar bienes por raz?n que pondr?n dobles fuersas aqu? y un camino [^de fiero...

Hickey, Concepcio?n Mari?e




E-print Network

/ Matemáticas E Enginyeria i Arquitectura / Ingeniería y Arquitectura Matemàtiques / Matemáticas (Marqueu 1 Arquitectura. * Los alumnos que se presenten a Matemáticas y Física tendrán automáticamente la doble vía de Ciencias e Ingeniería y Arquitectura. B) Marqueu l'idioma de la prova de llengua estrangera / Marcar el

Escolano, Francisco



E-print Network

architectures. It is proposed the analysis and design of hybrids antennas with an array and double reflector are implemented in specially designed software. The obtained results are contrasted with existing works híbridas con array y doble reflector de tipo Imaging" "Hybrid antennas with an array and double reflector

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad



Microsoft Academic Search

Croacia viene experimentando un auge turístico notable en los últimos diez años. Es crucial para su futuro desarrollo saber gestionar el sector hotelero de acuerdo con las nuevas exigencias del mercado. Este trabajo pretende analizar los hoteles de alta categoría de Croacia desde un doble enfoque hotel-huésped, centrándose en una nueva estrategia de marketing denominada Comunicación Integrada de Marketing (CIM),

Maja Šeric; Irene Gil Saura



A review of "John Donne's Professional Lives" by David Colclough.  

E-print Network

effective in showing?through a close reading of ?Holy Sonnet: Father, part of his doble [sic] Interest??the extent to which law and theology ?were disciplines in which an acute mind trained itself, . . . discourses in which prayer or plea are intricately...

Raymond-Jean Frontain



Evaluación de métodos de detección de contracción muscular en el músculo parético  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen—El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el desempeño de dos métodos de detección de cambios en la señal de electromiograma, uno de simple umbral y uno de doble umbral; durante la marcha libre en el intervalo comprendido entre el despegue y apoyo del talón en individuos sanos y hemiparéticos. Para ello se obtuvieron 130 registros y se comparó la

Claudia E. Bonell; Carolina B. Tabernig; Erika G. Spaich



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. S.A.R. #2 PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENT OF HOUSING FOR 800 HORSEPOWER WATER WHEEL UNIT, JUNE 7, 1904. TRACED ON SEPT. 6, 1911 BY E.P., FROM ABNER DOBLE CO'S. BLUE PRINT NO. 1663. SCE drawing no. 4611. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA


La creación de establecimientos y empleos en el sector de micro y pequeñas empresas (Mype) de México 1999-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de esta investigación es doble: a) estimar el efecto de la producción y el nivel de empleo en el número de establecimientos de pequeñas empresas en las diferentes industrias en México entre 1999 y 2003; y b) estimar el efecto de la producción y el número de establecimientos de pequeñas empresas en el nivel de empleo en las

Víctor Hugo Torres Preciado; Mayrén Polanco Gaytán




E-print Network


Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad



E-print Network


Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad



E-print Network


Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


25. Credit JTL. Detail of unit 4 (installed 190607) showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Credit JTL. Detail of unit 4 (installed 1906-07) showing single overhund Doble water wheel, with air duct and 2000 kVA Westinghouse generator in background. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA


Participación del sector privado en los sistemas de agua potable y saneamiento: Ventajas, riesgos y obstáculos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la incorporación del sector privado a los servicios de agua y saneamiento desde una doble perspectiva. De un lado, se discute en qué medida la incorporación del sector privado permite romper el círculo de ineficiencia en la que están atrapados la mayoría de los servicios de agua y alcantarillado en la región y

Paulina Beato




Microsoft Academic Search

Los precios que a continuación se detallan son especiales para los Socios de SHILAP. Estos precios incluyen el envío por correo aéreo y el embalaje. El pago se efectuará al CONTADO (en un doble sobre), GIRO POSTAL, WESTERN UNION, TARJETA DE CRÉDITO (VISA \\/ MASTERCARD), CHEQUE en euros a un Banco en España o por TRANSFERENCIA BANCARIA (IBAN: ES06 0182



Green Chemical and Energy Technologies (52:237); SPRING 20091 Syllabus Version 1 (January 19, 2009)  

E-print Network

Ahluwalia, Kidwai. New Trends in Green Chemistry. Kluwar, 2004. Boethling and Mackay. Handbook of Property Process Equipment ­ Selection and Design. Other Doble and Kruthiventi. Green Chemistry and Engineering. Elselvier, 2007. McGraw Hill 2001. Lancaster. Green Chemistry: An Introductory Text. Royal Society

Stanier, Charlie


The ?174G/C and ?572G/C Interleukin 6 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. There is a lack of information about the genotype frequencies of IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexicans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo with RA. Methods. We included 137 patients with RA and 102 healthy controls. Patients were assessed for clinical characteristics. IL-6 ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. Allele and genotype frequencies and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were computed. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed to identify the risk for RA associated with the presence of GG genotype in comparison with the GC or CC genotypes. Results. The genotype ?174GG occurred at a higher frequency in cases and controls (77.4% versus 78.4%, P = 0.845). We found similar results for the genotype ?572GG (54% in patients versus 60.8% in controls, P = 0.295). Conclusions. This is the first study to evaluate the association of ?174G/C and ?572G/C polymorphisms of the IL-6 gene with RA in Mexican mestizo patients. These two polymorphisms were not associated with RA in the studied sample. Additional studies are required to evaluate if these IL-6 polymorphisms have relevance to the development of more severe disease. PMID:24223608

Zavaleta-Muñiz, S. A.; Martín-Márquez, B. T.; Gonzalez-Lopez, L.; Gonzalez-Montoya, N. G.; Díaz-Toscano, M. L.; Ponce-Guarneros, J. M.; Ruiz-Padilla, A. J.; Mercado, M. Vázquez-Del; Maldonado-González, M.; Fafutis-Morris, M.; Flores-Martínez, S. E.; Martínez-García, E. A.; Gamez-Nava, J. I.



HLA polymorphism in a Guarani-Indian population from Paraguay and its usefulness for the Hispano-Indian admixture study in Paraguay.  


In this study we investigated the human leucocyte antigen-A (HLA-A), -B and DRB1 polymorphism of Native American population of Paraguay, the Guarani Indians. We found that the HLA variability consisted of 5 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 6 HLA-DRB1 groups of alleles and of several specific alleles (B*1504, B*3505, B*3912, B*4004, B*5104, DRB1*0411, DRB1*1413) common in other Native American populations. The comparison of the HLA polymorphism of the Guaranis from Paraguay with the «Mestizos» of Paraguay and the Spaniards showed that the «Mestizos» of Paraguay are genetically very distant from the Guarani Indians of Paraguay but much more close to the Spaniards. This can be explained, at least in part, by the history of the country. Our results are of importance in transplantation, in particular in the search for an unrelated donor for a Paraguayan patient requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:20670332

Benitez, O; Busson, M; Charron, D; Loiseau, P



Genetic Variability of Apolipoprotein E in Different Populations from Venezuela  

PubMed Central

The genetic variation at the Apolipoprotein E locus (APOE) is an important determinant of plasma lipids and has been implicated in various human pathological conditions. The objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution of APOE alleles in five Venezuelan communities: two Amerindian tribes (Bari and Yucpa), one Negroid population from Curiepe, one Caucasoid population from Colonia Tovar and the mestizo urban population living in Caracas. The APOE*3 allele was the most common allele in all populations studied. However, a significant increase in the APOE*2 allele frequency in the Mestizo (18.96%) and Negroid (16.25%) populations was found. Similar to results reported in other Native American populations we have found that the APOE*2 allele is completely absent in the Bari and Yucpa Amerindians. Frequencies found in the Colonia Tovar population are in agreement with those reported in the population of Germany, indicating a high degree of relatedness. The results support the notion that the distribution of the APOE alleles shows ethnic variability. PMID:15735320

Fernández-Mestre, M. T.; Yehirobi, Castro; Montagnani, S.; Balbas, O.; Layrisse, Z.



Analysis of ERCC1 and ERCC2 gene variants in osteosarcoma, colorectal and breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The Asn118Asn (rs11615) variant in the ERCC1 gene, and the Lys751Gln (rs13181) and Asp312Asn (rs1799793) variants in the ERCC2 gene have been associated with the development of varied types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to test for any association between the ERCC1 and ERCC2 gene variants and three different types of cancer in Mexican-mestizo patients. Patients and their respective controls were formed into three groups: The osteosarcoma group, with 28 patients and 97 controls; the colorectal group, with 108 patients and 119 controls; and the breast cancer group, with 71 patients and 74 controls. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using a ?2 test. Only one SNP (rs1799793) was found to be associated with breast cancer. This is the first study analyzing the SNPs in ERCC1 and ERCC2 genes and the susceptibility to cancer in Mexican-mestizo patients with osteosarcoma, and colorectal and breast cancer.




Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers (Spanish)  

E-print Network

sean muy susceptibles a las lesiones. A medida que envejecemos, la fuerza f?sica, la vista, la audici?n, el equilibrio y la velocidad de reacci?n disminuyen considerablemente; pero los peligros del equipo agr?cola, los tractores y del ganado t.... Debido a que la granja puede ser tam- bi?n el patrimonio familiar, cualquiera que trabaje con o alrededor de granjeros que operan maquinaria y equipo encara los mismos riesgos. Los siguientes son algunos de los factores m?s co- munes relacionados con la...

Smith, David



Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

Eagle Lake Ganado 1999 Mean 2000 Mean Grand Mean LQ:243 H 7895 8093 8139 8500 7784 8529 8157 LQ:39 H 7921 8664 7405 7639 7392 8422 7907 LQ:158 H 7039 9053 7936 7370 7955 7744 7850 Cocodrie - 6583 9706 7075 7288 6833 8492 7663 Teqing Parent 9138 8496 6902... Cypress - 5810 7649 6090 6805 5940 7236 6588 Lemont Parent 6017 8038 5959 6147 6005 7075 6540 LQ:217 L 6486 7853 5466 5173 6120 6369 6245 LQ:347 L 6424 8287 5450 4751 5918 6538 6228 LQ:3 L 5556 5894 5195 5647 5307 5839 5573 Average - 6821 8058 6743 6730...



The Exploration and Preliminary Colonization of the Seno Mexicano under don José de Escandón (1747-1749): An Analysis Based on Primary Spanish Manuscripts  

E-print Network

una buena poblacion a que combida la fertilidad de la tierra y commodidades que 30 franquea en el comercio de sal, pescado, semillas y todo genero de ganados que se pueden criar en abundancia. Folio 152v 21 ? Desde el citado dia diez hasta el... corpulentos, agiles, y buenos tiraderos 15 de flechas, que son las unicas armas que usan, y co- mo no han tenido ningun comercio en las fronteras, se mantienen bozales sin lei ni adoracion a cosa nin- guna, por lo que hago juizio entraran con gran fazi...

Cunningham, Debbie S.



Geographical clustering of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection in Honduras.  

PubMed Central

Geographical clustering of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection has been identified in the nonmestizo communities in several cities along the Atlantic coast of Honduras. Of the 2,651 serum samples tested, 122 samples were repeatedly reactive for HTLV-1 antibodies in two different enzyme immunoassays and 3 were indeterminate. These sera did not react in the HTLV-2-specific antibody tests. The presence of HTLV-1 antibodies was confirmed by HTLV-1 immunoblots or Western blots (immunoblots), and the infection was verified by the detection of HTLV-1-specific genetic sequences in the cellular DNA by PCR. Genomic DNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was first tested with generic primers and probes that identified both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Next, all DNA samples that showed HTLV reactivity were tested by PCR with specific primers and probes that distinguished HTLV-1 sequences from those of HTLV-2. Our results indicate that only HTLV-1 infection was present in the blood of both mestizo and nonmestizo residents of 15 cities in the Republic of Honduras. The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in the nonmestizo population was 8.1% (95% confidence limit, 6.6 to 9.7%). The mestizo population residing in the same geographical vicinities showed a HTLV-1 antibodies in 0.5% of serum samples tested (95% confidence limit, 0.6 to 1.7%), indicating a significantly greater prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in the nonmestizo population than in the mestizo ethnic groups living in Honduras (P = 0.0001). Since no HTLV-2 antibody reactivity or HTLV-2-specific genetic sequences were detected by PCR with different primers and probes, it was concluded that HTLV-2 infection was not present in the Honduran population groups we tested. Our study also suggested an endemic nature for this virus because there was no difference in the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 antibodies in the nonmestizo community living in the coastal towns of Honduras between 1989 and 1993. This is the first report of HTLV-1 cluster identification in Honduras, Central America. PMID:8576361

de Rivera, I L; Amador, L; Mourra, S; Li, Z; Rasheed, S



Ideología y grotesco en dos obras recientes de Adam Guevara  

E-print Network

estado quizá entre los autores de lectura obligatoria en el curso-taller de Adam Guevara, como si lo estuvo en el caso de Poquita fe. En esta obra y su respectiva puesta en escena hubo un doble tratamiento de los materiales dramáticos. El grotesco fue... la tónica de todo el tercer acto, con su tablado de marionetas que representaban la manipulación característica del mundo político mexicano. Pero los dos actos anteriores recibieron un tratamiento decididamente realista, con los típicos personajes...

Reyes Palacios, Felipe



Isolation and Partial Characterization of Halotolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria from Two Mexican Cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated strains of halotolerant or halophilic lactic acid bacteria (HALAB) from Cotija and doble crema cheeses were identified and partially characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods, and their technological abilities\\u000a were studied in order to test their potential use as dairy starter components. Humidity, aw, pH, and salt concentration of cheeses were determined. Genotypic diversity was evaluated by randomly amplified

Fredy Morales; Jesús I. Morales; César H. Hernández; Humberto Hernández-Sánchez



Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO FUNDAM.ARQUITECTURA-DISE�O INTEGRAL GESTION IMAGEN ARQUITECTURA I Ciencias Sociales Historia del Arte Río de la Hoz, Isabel del Si HISTORIA DEL ARTE Y DE LA ARQUITECTURA II CC. Educ., Lenguaje, Cultura y Artes Historia del Arte Martínez Peláez, Agustín Si MATEMATICAS

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network


Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN INGENIERIA QUIMICA-ING EN ORGANIZACION INDUSTRIAL INTRODUCCION A LA INGENIERIA QUIMICA (IQ) Tecno. Química y Energética Ingeniería Química Calleja Pardo, Guillermo Si INTRODUCCION A LA INGENIERIA QUIMICA (IQ) Tecno. Química y Energética Ingeniería Química

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN INGENIERIA QUIMICA E INGENIERIA AMBIENTAL % Doctores Paredes Martínez, Beatriz Si INTRODUCCION A LA INGENIERIA QUIMICA Tecno. Química y Energética Ingeniería Química Vizcaíno Madridejos, Arturo Javier Si INTRODUCCION A LA INGENIERIA QUIMICA Tecno. Química y

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

Profesorado - Curso Académico 2012-13 DOBLE GRADO EN INGENIERIA QUIMICA E INGENIERIA DE LA ENERGIA % Doctores Electrónica Malpica González, Norberto Antonio Si INTRODUCCION A LA INGENIERIA DE LA ENERGIA (IE) Tecno. Química y Energética Ingeniería Química Ruiz Navarro, Aida No INTRODUCCION A LA INGENIERIA DE LA ENERGIA

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network


Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands  

PubMed Central

Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L.; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M.; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin



Inca of the blood, Inca of the soul: embodiment, emotion, and racialization in the Peruvian mystical tourist industry.  


In the context of the globalizing New Age movement and of the "turismo mistico" (mystical tourism) industry emanating from Peru, white and mestizo New Age practitioners and tourists fashion ideologies emphasizing the spiritual energy which supposedly resides in Quechua bodies, even as they freely appropriate Quechua cosmology and ritual for a hybridized New Age Andean spirituality. This case shows how racialized structural inequalities are expressed and experienced by tourists and New Age movement leaders through particular, essentialist representations of the body and through a common repertoire of emotional responses to inequality, commodification, and privilege. The paper provides an ethnographic account of how racialization may be perpetuated, negotiated, and resisted through religious systems, particularly through the work of constructing ideologies and experiences of the body and of emotional subjectivity. PMID:20681090

Hill, Michael



Autosomal STR genetic variation in negroid Chocó and Bogotá populations.  


Genetic data for eight autosomal STRs were obtained from two different population samples from Colombia: the European Mestizo population of Bogotá and the African descent population of the Chocó region. The STRs were analysed in a multiplex system that includes the STR markers CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, VWA, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539 and D5S818. Separation of the fragments and fluorescent detection was carried out in an ABI 310 DNA sequencer and the typing was made by comparison with sequenced allelic ladders. Exact tests were used for testing linkage between the loci and for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Significant differences were found between both populations for all the loci. PMID:11724426

Bravo, M L; Moreno, M A; Builes, J J; Salas, A; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, A



Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.  


Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin



The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.  


Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups. PMID:11307201

Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H



Occult hepatitis B in the genotype H-infected Nahuas and Huichol native Mexican population.  


Mexico is considered to be a low endemic country for HBV infection. However, a high anti-HBc against a low hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence is the reported characteristic of native Mexicans. HBV diagnosis and genotype distribution was examined in native populations (Nahuas and Huichol, n = 306), and compared to a non-native population (Mestizos, n = 17). Overall, 6% of the natives were positive for HBsAg and 33% had detectable anti-HBc. HBsAg prevalence was lower in Nahuas compared to Huichols (1.4% vs. 9.4%, P < 0.002). Occult hepatitis B was detected in 14.2% (41/289) of natives, who either tested positive (5.88%, 17/289 HBsAg-negative) or negative for anti-HBc marker (8%, 24/289 HBsAg-negative). Age-adjusted anti-HBc seroprevalence and HBsAg quantitation revealed a sub-optimal sensitivity of conventional immunoassays. Nahuas had HBV/H and Huichol had HBV/A as the predominant genotypes followed by genotypes D, C, B, A, and D, G and H, respectively. A less variable HBV/H was characteristic in Mestizos, compared to a much variable HBV/H identified among the Nahuas. In conclusion, these findings indicate a high HBV endemicity among native Mexican groups where occult B infection is common. The different distribution of HBV genotypes among natives suggests multiple reservoirs of HBV from which these genotypes spread into the local communities. High anti-HBc seroprevalence against a low HBsAg prevalence rate may be due to the limited sensitivity of the immunoassays for the detection of HBsAg that are available in Mexico and/or unknown immunogenetic characteristics of native Mexicans. PMID:20648606

Roman, Sonia; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Khan, Anis; Kurbanov, Fuat; Kato, Hideaki; Mizokami, Masashi; Panduro, Arturo



Teatro en Lunes de Revolución  

E-print Network

última pieza elementos propios del "sainete" dentro de un contexto de crítica social, feliz integración de lo popular, lo social y el buen hacer escénico que determinó su éxito entre la crítica y el público habanero. Frente al realismo de Manuel... artículo es más definido y pide del Estado "una verdadera política del teatro" para que el movimiento habanero no se pierda en el vacío. Arma de doble filo, la campaña contra las salas se vuelve más persistente. El elitismo económico no me permitió...

Montes-Huidobro, Matí as



Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promoter polymorphisms (-794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C): association with MIF and TNF? in psoriatic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune disease with a complex interaction of gene and with a dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as Macrophage migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF?). Two polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the MIF gene have been described: the STR-794 CATT5-8 (rs5844572) and the SNP-173 G>C (rs755622), which are associated with increased MIF levels in circulation and with autoimmune diseases in several populations. In this case-control study we investigated whether commonly occurring functional MIF polymorphisms are associated with PsA susceptibility and clinical variables as well as with MIF and TNF? serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population. Genotyping of the -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP respectively in 50 PsA patients and 100 healthy subjects (HS). MIF and TNF? serum levels were determined by ELISA. A significant increase of MIF (PsA: 7.8 vs. HS: 5.25 ng/mL; p < 0.001) and TNF? (PsA: 24.6 vs. HS: 9.9 pg/mL; p < 0.001) levels was found in PsA patients, a significant correlation was observed between MIF and TNF? (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The 5,6 repeats genotype of the -794 CATT5-8 MIF was associated with protection to PsA (OR = 0.29; CI 0.77-0.98; p = 0.03), and the G/C genotype (OR = 7.5; CI 2.92-21.64; p < 0.001) and the -173*C allele (OR = 2.45; CI 1.43-4.20; p < 0.001) of the -173 G>C MIF were associated with susceptibility to PsA. In conclusion the -173*C allele is associated with susceptibility to PsA in Mexican-Mestizo population, whereas the correlation between MIF and TNF? soluble levels provided evidence that both cytokines are closely related in the pathophysiology of the PsA. PMID:25356116

Morales-Zambrano, Ramsés; Bautista-Herrera, Luis A; la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises De; Villanueva-Quintero, Guadalupe D; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge R; Valle, Yeminia; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Gutiérrez-Ureña, Sergio R; Muñoz-Valle, José F



Nonlinear Analysis of Time Series in Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical study of large scale genomic data has turned out to be a very important tool in population genetics. Quantitative methods are essential to understand and implement association studies in the biomedical and health sciences. Nevertheless, the characterization of recently admixed populations has been an elusive problem due to the presence of a number of complex phenomena. For example, linkage disequilibrium structures are thought to be more complex than their non-recently admixed population counterparts, presenting the so-called ancestry blocks, admixed regions that are not yet smoothed by the effect of genetic recombination. In order to distinguish characteristic features for various populations we have implemented several methods, some of them borrowed or adapted from the analysis of nonlinear time series in statistical physics and quantitative physiology. We calculate the main fractal dimensions (Kolmogorov's capacity, information dimension and correlation dimension, usually named, D0, D1 and D2). We also have made detrended fluctuation analysis and information based similarity index calculations for the probability distribution of correlations of linkage disequilibrium coefficient of six recently admixed (mestizo) populations within the Mexican Genome Diversity Project [1] and for the non-recently admixed populations in the International HapMap Project [2]. Nonlinear correlations showed up as a consequence of internal structure within the haplotype distributions. The analysis of these correlations as well as the scope and limitations of these procedures within the biomedical sciences are discussed.

Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Estrada-Gil, Jesús K.; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernández-López, J. Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jiménez-Sánchez, Gerardo



Lack of Association of the Polymorphisms IL-17A (?197G/A) and IL-17F (+7488A/G) with Multibacillary Leprosy in Mexican Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the intracellular acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium leprae; it has been determined that genetic factors of the host play an important role in the disease susceptibility. Thus, in this case-control study, we evaluated the possible association between the IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs and susceptibility to leprosy disease in Mexican population. Methods. Seventy-five leprosy patients and sixty-nine control subjects were included. Both SNPs were genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results. We found nonsignificant differences in genotype and allele frequencies related to IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs in MB as well as subclinical forms of leprosy disease versus healthy individuals. Conclusions. Since the sample size is not large enough, it is difficult to sustain an association of susceptibility to leprosy with genotypes or allele frequencies of IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780), suggesting that IL-17 polymorphisms have no significant role in the genetic susceptibility to development of this disease in the Mexican Mestizo population. PMID:25431761

Escamilla-Tilch, Mónica; Estrada-García, Iris; Granados, Julio; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Ramos-Payan, Rosalio; Pérez-Suárez, Thalía Gabriela; Salazar, Ma. Isabel; Pérez-Lucas, Riky Luis; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Torres-Carrillo, Nora Magdalena



G6PD deficient alleles and haplotype analysis of human G6PD locus in São Tomé e Príncipe (West Africa).  


A population sample from São Tomé e Príncipe (West Africa) was screened for the G6PD-deficient variants A- (376G/202A), Betica (376G/968C), and Santa Maria (376G/542T). G6PD locus haplotype diversity was also investigated using six intragenic RFLPs (FokI, PvuII, BspHI, PstI, BclI, NlaIII) and a (CTT)n microsatellite 18.61 kb within the G6PD locus. The estimated frequencies of the G6PD*B normal allele, the G6PD*A variant (376G), and the G6PD*A- allele were 0.698, 0.194, and 0.108, respectively. G6PD variants Betica and Santa Maria were not found. Similar levels of microsatellite diversity were found on variants G6PD*B and G6PD*A (H = 0.61 and 0.68, respectively), indicating a similar age for both alleles. All G6PD*A- alleles share the RFLP-microsatellite haplotype ++(-)+(-)+/195, the same haplotype described in nearly all the *A-alleles from sub-Saharan, Mexican Mestizo, and Portuguese populations, consistent with a single and recent origin of the G202A mutation on this *A haplotype. PMID:18494377

Manco, Licínio; Botigué, Laura R; Ribeiro, M Letícia; Abade, Augusto



Evidence that parent-of-origin affects birth-weight reductions at high altitude.  


Hypoxia exerts a profound depressant effect on fetal growth, lowering birth weight, and raising mortality risk. Multigenerational high-altitude populations are relatively protected from this birth-weight decline, leading us to hypothesize that genetic factors were involved. We asked if the amount of high- versus low-altitude ancestry influenced birth weight at high altitude and, specifically, whether such influences were affected by parent-of-origin effects (i.e., genomic imprinting). Medical records were reviewed from 1,343 consecutive, singleton deliveries in La Paz, Bolivia (3,600 m) of high- (Andean) or low- (European) altitude ancestry. Parental surnames were used to classify ancestry as Andean, European, Mestizo ("mixed") or some combination thereof. The effects of population ancestry on birth weight were determined by categorical, conditional linear regression. Babies born at altitude with two Andean parents weighed 252 g more than their European counterparts, with the protective effect being proportional to the amount of Andean parentage and independent of maternal parity, body size, smoking, or socioeconomic status. Paternal compared with maternal transmission raised birth weight 81 g for a given ancestry group. We concluded that indigenous high-altitude ancestry protected against hypoxia-associated fetal growth reduction in a dose-dependent fashion consistent with the involvement of genetic factors. Further, some of the genes involved appeared to be influenced by parent-of-origin effects, given that maternal transmission restricted and paternal transmission enhanced fetal growth. PMID:18449923

Bennett, Adam; Sain, Stephen R; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G



VNN1 Gene Expression Levels and the G-137T Polymorphism Are Associated with HDL-C Levels in Mexican Prepubertal Children  

PubMed Central

Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P?=?2.9 × 10?5), decreased HDL-C levels (??=??6.19, P?=?0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (??=?0.48, P?=?0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r?=?0.220; P?=?0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r?=??0.225; P?=?0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls. PMID:23185446

Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel



Ethnobotanical knowledge is vastly under-documented in northwestern South America.  


A main objective of ethnobotany is to document traditional knowledge about plants before it disappears. However, little is known about the coverage of past ethnobotanical studies and thus about how well the existing literature covers the overall traditional knowledge of different human groups. To bridge this gap, we investigated ethnobotanical data-collecting efforts across four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), three ecoregions (Amazon, Andes, Chocó), and several human groups (including Amerindians, mestizos, and Afro-Americans). We used palms (Arecaceae) as our model group because of their usefulness and pervasiveness in the ethnobotanical literature. We carried out a large number of field interviews (n?=?2201) to determine the coverage and quality of palm ethnobotanical data in the existing ethnobotanical literature (n?=?255) published over the past 60 years. In our fieldwork in 68 communities, we collected 87,886 use reports and documented 2262 different palm uses and 140 useful palm species. We demonstrate that traditional knowledge on palm uses is vastly under-documented across ecoregions, countries, and human groups. We suggest that the use of standardized data-collecting protocols in wide-ranging ethnobotanical fieldwork is a promising approach for filling critical information gaps. Our work contributes to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and emphasizes the need for signatory nations to the Convention on Biological Diversity to respond to these information gaps. Given our findings, we hope to stimulate the formulation of clear plans to systematically document ethnobotanical knowledge in northwestern South America and elsewhere before it vanishes. PMID:24416449

Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Balslev, Henrik; Macía, Manuel J



A new mutation of the PCNT gene in a Colombian patient with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a syndrome characterized by the presence of intrauterine growth restriction, post-natal growth deficiency and microcephaly. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is the most distinctive syndrome in this group of entities. Individuals affected by this disease present at an adult height of less than 100cm, a post-pubertal head circumference of 40cm or less, mild mental retardation, an outgoing personality and bone dysplasia. Case presentation We report the first case of a five-year-old Colombian boy of mixed race ancestry (mestizo), with clinical features of microcephaly, prominent and narrow nose, arched palate, amelogenesis imperfecta, short stature, tall and narrow pelvis, disproportionate shortening of fore-arms and legs, and mild coxa vara. Analysis of the PCNT gene by sequencing showed the presence of a nucleotide change in exon 10, c. 1468C>T, evidencing a new mutation not reported in the literature for microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism. Conclusion The new mutation identified in this case could be associated with the severity of the phenotypic expression of the disease, resulting in the extreme short stature of the patient. Further studies are required to reach an explanation that can justify such findings, and it is vital to emphasize the importance of detection and follow-up by the epidemiological surveillance groups in birth defects and rare diseases. PMID:24928221



NKG2C copy number variations in five distinct populations in mainland China and susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).  


In this study, copy number variation (CNV) of NKG2C gene was investigated in 1129 normal, unrelated individuals representing two southern Chinese Han populations (Hunan Han and Guangdong Han), two northern Chinese populations (Inner Mongolia Han and Inner Mongolia Mongol) and one southeastern Chinese Han population (Fujian Han) using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific priming (PCR-SSP) method. CNV of NKG2C gene did not vary significantly among the five Chinese populations, with NKG2C gene deletion showing a frequency ranging from 0.2031 to 0.2688. Compared with worldwide ethnic groups, very significant difference was observed between the five Chinese populations and the Mexican mestizos (all Pcorrected=0.0025), and between the Fujian Han population and the German population (Pcorrected=0.005). We further examined CNV of NKG2C and HLA-E allelic distribution in 653 patients afflicted with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Hunan province. Neither CNV of NKG2C nor HLA-E was associated with NPC. There was a trend of reduced NPC risk in individuals who were homozygous for both HLA-E(?)01:03 and NKG2C deletion (0.46% vs. 2.51%, P=0.0076, Pcorrected=0.0684, OR (95% CI)=0.1794 (0.0473-0.6809)). Taken together, our results suggest that NKG2C deletion and HLA-E signalling pathway does not play a major role in determining genetic susceptibility to NPC. PMID:25636564

Li, LiXin; Tian, Wei; Wang, WenYi; Liu, KangLong; Wang, JunLong; Jin, HeKun; Cai, JinHong; Wang, JunJie





Uruguay is a country of 176,000 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 96% are literate. Independence was gained on August 25, 1825. The terrain consists of plains and low hills, with a climate which is temperate. Spanish is spoken by White, Mestizo, and Black ethnic groups who are variously non-professing or of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 69-75 years. GDP is $11.3 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $3600. The country's natural resources include arable land, hydroelectric potential, gold, granite, and marble. Beef, wool, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat processing, would and hides, textiles, shoes, handbags, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, and petroleum refining are areas of economic production. Fuels, chemical, machinery, and metals are imported, and meat, wool, hides, leather and wool products, fish, rice and furs are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country. PMID:12178048



Ultrabiomicroscopic-Histopathologic Correlations in Individuals with Autosomal Dominant Congenital Microcoria: Three-Generation Family Report  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital microcoria (CMC) is due to a maldevelopment of the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris, with a pupil diameter of less than 2 mm. It is associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma and myopia. We report on a three-generation Mexican-Mestizo family with CMC. The eldest member's iris biopsy proved muscle anomalies. Further, we analyzed novel ultrasound biomicroscopy findings in the family members who did not require surgery. Patients and Methods A 62-year-old woman, her 41-year-old son and her 9-year-old grandson affected with microcoria since birth, documented by clinical examination and ultrasound biomicroscopy. The eldest member underwent phacoemulsification, and a biopsy of the iris and the anterior capsule of the lens was taken. Results Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the CMC diagnosis showing iris thinning and a pupil diameter of less than 2 mm. Histopathology of the iris showed a significant reduction of smooth muscle cells, but no alterations of the anterior lens capsule. Discussion Although CMC is a rare disorder, which is due to a maldevelopment of the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris, it could be associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma and myopia; therefore, precise diagnosis is required. Ultrasound biomicroscopy could be a great option to confirm the disorder. PMID:21677884

Ramirez-Miranda, Arturo; Paulin-Huerta, Juan M.; Chavez-Mondragón, Eduardo; Islas-de la Vega, Gilberto; Rodriguez-Reyes, Abelardo



Ethnography of fertility and menstruation in rural Mexico.  


In rural populations in Mexico, the system of ideas in relation to the reproductive cycle is built on a mestizo base, with pre-Colombian and Western elements. The objective of the study was the analysis of concepts and resources related to human reproduction in Morelos, in order to design a primary reproductive health care program. The use of ethnographic methods helped identify bio-cultural constructs on which the communities base their reproductive patterns. Our main research results reveal that these populations attribute great value to the extension of the family through descendants. Women's sexuality is directly linked to reproduction and blood is the supremely feminine substance. Great importance is consistently attributed to menstruation about which well-defined concepts exist in the community, where as pre-menarche changes are perceived as a state of bio-psychosocial maturity. Menarche beyond 14 years of age is considered abnormal and is attributed to an 'excess of cold' in the body, therapy is usually administered by traditional birth attendants. In the mythical explanations given for bleeding, the moon plays a fundamental role, as the first rupture of the hymen is attributed to it. A general lack of knowledge about ovulation and its relation to reproduction was observed, resulting in incorrect contraceptive practices. PMID:8745114

Castaneda, X; Garcia, C; Langer, A



El Salvador.  


The Central American republic of El Salvador lies on the Pacific with a south coast between Guatemala and Honduras. The climate rises from tropical maritime along the coast to subtropical hill and valley strip to a mountainous interior. The population consists of 98% Mestizo and 10% Indian, totaling 5.1 million, growing at 2.4 annually. Literacy varies from 40-60%; the infant mortality rate is 71/1000, and the life expectancy is 63-66 years. The economy is based on agricultural products as coffee, sugar and cotton and light industry such as textiles and petroleum refining, but due to political unrest, the 1986 earthquake, and fluctuating commodity prices, inflation runs about 36% and the per capita income is $700. El Salvador takes pride in its independence since 1821, but its history is marked by revolutions and control of government, military and ecclesiastical power by "the fourteen families." The current democratic government, considered to be the result of a fair election, is undertaking land reform and participates in the Central American peace process. PMID:12177956



Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.  


This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies. PMID:25563448

Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C



Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.  


This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility. PMID:25241484

Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W



Plasma triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk in young adults  

PubMed Central

Studies in mature adults suggest that the plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride (TG)/HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) provides a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals who are insulin resistant (IR) and at increased cardiometabolic risk. This study extends these observations by examining the clinical utility of the TG/HDL-C ratio and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 2,244 healthy college students (17–24 years old) of Mexican Mestizo ancestry. The TG/HDL-C ratio separating the 25% with the highest value was used to identify IR and increased cardiometabolic risk. Cardiometabolic risk factors were more adverse in men and women whose TG/HDL-C ratios exceeded 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, and approximately one third were identified as being IR. The MetS identified fewer individuals as being IR, but their risk profile was accentuated. In conclusion, both a higher TG/HDL-C ratio and a diagnosis of the MetS identify young IR individuals with an increased cardiometabolic risk profile. The TG/HDL-C ratio identified a somewhat greater number of “high risk” subjects, whereas the MetS found a group whose risk profile was somewhat magnified. These findings suggest that the TG/HDL-C ratio may serve as a simple and clinically useful approach to identify apparently healthy, young individuals who are IR and at increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:23863983

Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Jiménez-Flores, J. Rafael; Sigrist-Flores, Santiago C.; Espinoza-Camacho, Miguel A.; Jiménez-Morales, Mayra; Piña, Enrique; Méndez-Cruz, A. René; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Reaven, Gerald M.



The healing practices of a Peruvian shaman.  


The use of psychotropic plants among the mestizo population of the northwestern Amazon has already been the subject of some research. However, the field is far from fully investigated. Practitioners locally known by the name of "vegetalistas" or simply "maestros" have preserved considerable knowledge of plant lore, and still today contribute substantially to the health care of both rural and urban population. The present paper is based on field work with one particular such practitioner, Don Emilio Andrade Gómez, a 65-year-old shaman who lives in the vicinity of Iquitos (3 degrees 50S 73 degrees 15W), northeastern Peru. Some of the basic ideas of his cosmovision are presented. Special attention is given to the concept of "doctor" or "plant teacher", applied to certain plants which are supposed to "teach medicine", if the appropriate conditions of isolation and diet are observed. Some of these plants are added to the hallucinogenic beverage known in the region by the Quéchua name ayahuasca, made from the stem of Banisteriopsis species, and one or several additives. During the period of isolation the spirits of these plants teach the initiate certain melodies or "icaros" that he will later use when practising his shamanistic activities. During field work in 1981 and 1982 the author collected various specimens of "plant teachers", part of which have now been identified, and are also presented. PMID:6387284

Luna, L E



Bedrock and surficial geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles is the result of a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This map provides geologic information useful for range management, plant and animal studies, flood control, water resource investigations, and natural hazards associated with sand-dune mobility. The map provides connectivity to the regional geologic framework of the Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 314 km2 (123 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°37'30" to 35°30' N., long 109°45' to 110° W. The quadrangles lie within the southern Colorado Plateau geologic province and within the northeastern portion of the Hopi Buttes (Tsézhin Bií). Large ephemeral drainages, Pueblo Colorado Wash and Steamboat Wash, originate north of the map area on the Defiance Plateau and Balakai Mesa respectively. Elevations range from 1,930 m (6,330 ft) at the top of Satan Butte to about 1,787 m (5,860 ft) at Pueblo Colorado Wash where it exits the southwest corner of the Greasewood quadrangle. The only settlement within the map area is Greasewood, Arizona, on the north side of Pueblo Colorado Wash. Navajo Highway 15 crosses both quadrangles and joins State Highway 264 northwest of Ganado. Unimproved dirt roads provide access to remote parts of the Navajo Reservation.

Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret



Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (?31.1%), or were of mestizo (?24.6%) or black (?40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso





The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038



Declining Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin levels in Ecuadorian Andean Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate current lead (Pb) exposure in children living in Andean Ecuadorian communities. Blood Pb (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were used respectively as biomarkers of acute and chronic Pb poisoning. The current PbB-ZPP levels were compared with previous pediatric PbB-ZPP levels recorded over years in the study area. Design and Methods Samples of whole blood were collected from 22 Andean children of Quechua and Mestizo backgrounds and measured for PbB concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. ZPP/heme ratio and ZPP whole blood (ZPP WB) levels were measured with a hematofluorometer. Results The mean PbB level for children in the current study group was 14.5 ?g/dL, which was significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 41.1 ?g/dL found in the same study area in the 1996–2000 test period, and lower than the 22.2 ?g/dL mean level found in the 2003–2007 period. The current mean ZPP/heme ratio was 102.1 ?mol/mol, and the mean ZPP WB level was 46.3 ?g/dL, both lower than values previously found in children in the study area. Conclusion While the current pediatric PbB-ZPP levels in the study area remain elevated in some children, the overall levels indicate a decline relative to levels observed in the same Pb-contaminated area in the period between 1996 and 2007. The elevated ZPP levels suggest a history of chronic Pb exposure, and potential iron deficiency in some children. The overall reduction in PbB-ZPP levels suggests a positive outcome of a Pb-exposure education and prevention program, and the therapeutic intervention of succimer chelation therapy. PMID:23684775

Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Coronel Parra, Angelica M.; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.; Rifai, Nader; Hoover, Patricia Nolan



Lactobacillus species isolated from vaginal secretions of healthy and bacterial vaginosis-intermediate Mexican women: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus jensenii, L. iners, L. crispatus and L. gasseri are the most frequently occurring lactobacilli in the vagina. However, the native species vary widely according to the studied population. The present study was performed to genetically determine the identity of Lactobacillus strains present in the vaginal discharge of healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) intermediate Mexican women. Methods In a prospective study, 31 strains preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus species were isolated from 21 samples collected from 105 non-pregnant Mexican women. The samples were classified into groups according to the Nugent score criteria proposed for detection of BV: normal (N), intermediate (I) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). We examined the isolates using culture-based methods as well as molecular analysis of the V1–V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence analysis was performed to reject clones. Results Clinical isolates (25/31) were classified into four groups based on sequencing and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene: L. acidophilus (14/25), L. reuteri (6/25), L. casei (4/25) and L. buchneri (1/25). The remaining six isolates were presumptively identified as Enterococcus species. Within the L. acidophilus group, L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated species, followed by L. jensenii and L. crispatus. L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. brevis were also isolated, and were placed in the L. reuteri, L. casei and L. buchneri groups, respectively. ERIC profile analysis showed intraspecific variability amongst the L. gasseri and L. fermentum species. Conclusions These findings agree with previous studies showing that L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii are consistently present in the healthy vaginal ecosystem. Additional species or phylotypes were detected in the vaginal microbiota of the non-pregnant Mexican (Hispanic-mestizo) population, and thus, these results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonisation and richness in this particular population. PMID:23617246



Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene diversity in a population naturally exposed to malaria in Porto Velho, Northern Brazil.  


Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are expressed mainly in natural killer cells and specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. The repertoire of KIR genes and KIR-HLA pairs is known to play a key role in the susceptibilities to and the outcomes of several diseases, including malaria. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of KIR genes, KIR genotypes and KIR-HLA pair combinations in a population naturally exposed to malaria from Brazilian Amazon. All 16 KIR genes investigated were present in the studied population. Overall, 46 KIR genotypes were defined. The two most common genotypes in the Porto Velho communities, genotypes 1 and 2, were present at similar frequencies as in the Americas. Principal component analysis based on the frequencies of the KIR genes placed the Porto Velho population closer to the Venezuela Mestizos, USA California hispanic and Brazil Paraná Mixed in terms of KIR gene frequencies. This analysis highlights the multi-ethnic profile of the Porto Velho population. Most of the individuals were found to have at least one inhibitory KIR-HLA pair. Seventy-five KIR-HLA pair combinations were identified. The KIR-2DL2/3_HLA-C1, KIR3DL1_HLA-Bw4 and KIR2DL1_HLA-C2 pairs were the most common. There was no association between KIR genes, KIR genotypes or KIR-HLA pair combinations and malaria susceptibility in the studied population. This is the first report on the distribution of KIR and known HLA ligands in the Porto Velho population. Taken together, these results should provide baseline information that will be relevant to population evolutionary history, malaria and other diseases studies in populations of the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:25656387

Perce-da-Silva, D S; Silva, L A; Lima-Junior, J C; Cardoso-Oliveira, J; Ribeiro-Alves, M; Santos, F; Porto, L C M S; Oliveira-Ferreira, J; Banic, D M



Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Are Associated with Essential Hypertension and Increased ACE Enzyme Levels in Mexican Individuals  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels. Methods Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5? exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes. Results Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363) were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA), H2 (GGATG), H3 (AGATG), and H4 (AGACA). Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR?=?0.77, P?=?0.023 and OR?=?1.41, P?=?0.004 respectively). According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR?=?2.0; P?=?0.002 and OR?=?2.09; P?=?0.011, respectively). Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1) as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P?=?0.0048). Conclusion The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the “GGATG” haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels. PMID:23741507

Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Vallejo, Maite; Del-Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Ramírez-Bello, Julian; Valladares, Adan; Cruz-López, Miguel; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto



A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10?11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel



The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus forests in the area. PMID:24597704



Can Data Science Inform Environmental Justice and Community Risk Screening for Type 2 Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Background Having the ability to scan the entire country for potential “hotspots” with increased risk of developing chronic diseases due to various environmental, demographic, and genetic susceptibility factors may inform risk management decisions and enable better environmental public health policies. Objectives Develop an approach for community-level risk screening focused on identifying potential genetic susceptibility hotpots. Methods Our approach combines analyses of phenotype-genotype data, genetic prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and census/geographic information to estimate census tract-level population attributable risks among various ethnicities and total population for the state of California. Results We estimate that the rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotype, has a genetic prevalence of 56.3%, 47.4% and 37.0% in Mexican Mestizo, Caucasian, and Asian populations. Looking at the top quintile for total population attributable risk, 16 California counties have greater than 25% of their population living in hotspots of genetic susceptibility for developing type 2 diabetes due to this single genotypic susceptibility factor. Conclusions This study identified counties in California where large portions of the population may bear additional type 2 diabetes risk due to increased genetic prevalence of a susceptibility genotype. This type of screening can easily be extended to include information on environmental contaminants of interest and other related diseases, and potentially enables the rapid identification of potential environmental justice communities. Other potential uses of this approach include problem formulation in support of risk assessments, land use planning, and prioritization of site cleanup and remediation actions. PMID:25875676

Davis, J. Allen; Burgoon, Lyle D.



Prognostic significance of p21WAF1/CIP1, p27Kip1, p53 and E?cadherin expression in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric carcinoma is characterised by numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations that influence cell cycle progression, apoptosis and DNA repair. These alterations include down?regulation of the cyclin?dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27Kip1, and mutations of the tumour suppressor protein p53 and the cell adhesion molecule E?cadherin. Combined evaluation of the prognostic significance of these alterations has not been reported in Mexican Mestizo patients. Aims To evaluate p21WAF1/CIP1, p27Kip1, p53 and E?cadherin protein expression, including mutant E?cadherin variants with deletion of exon 8 (del 8) or 9 (del 9), in gastric cancer from Mexican patients. Methods Immunohistochemistry for the above?mentioned markers, including mutation?specific E?cadherin antibodies, was carried out in 69 gastric carcinomas; expression levels were correlated with histotype, tumour stage and prognosis. Results Expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 alone or in combination with p27Kip1 or in the absence of p53 was associated with favourable prognosis. Staining of del 8 and del 9 E?cadherin was found exclusively in patients negative for p53 and positive for p21WAF1/CIP1, suggesting that the p21WAF1/CIP1 regulatory function of p53 was intact. Conclusion Combined evaluation of the prognostic significance of cell cycle regulators and E?cadherin should be performed. Even though patients negative for p53 and positive for p21WAF1/CIP1 have a favourable prognosis, it may have a negative influence on prognosis if they acquire in addition E?cadherin mutations which have been shown previously to be associated with poor survival. PMID:17483253

Gamboa?Dominguez, Armando; Seidl, Stefan; Reyes?Gutierrez, Edgardo; Hermannstädter, Christine; Quintanilla?Martinez, Leticia; Busch, Raymonde; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko; Luber, Birgit



Socioeconomic and Nutritional Factors Account for the Association of Gastric Cancer with Amerindian Ancestry in a Latin American Admixed Population  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (<5%). We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group. PMID:22870209

Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C.; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M.; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A.; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo



African genetic ancestry is associated with a protective effect on Dengue severity in colombian populations.  


The wide variation in severity displayed during Dengue Virus (DENV) infection may be influenced by host susceptibility. In several epidemiological approaches, differences in disease outcomes have been found between some ethnic groups, suggesting that human genetic background has an important role in disease severity. In the Caribbean, It has been reported that populations of African descent present considerable less frequency of severe forms compared with Mestizo and White self-reported groups. Admixed populations offer advantages for genetic epidemiology studies due to variation and distribution of alleles, such as those involved in disease susceptibility, as well to provide explanations of individual variability in clinical outcomes. The current study analysed three Colombian populations, which like most of Latin American populations, are made up of the product of complex admixture processes between European, Native American and African ancestors; having as a main goal to assess the effect of genetic ancestry, estimated with 30 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs), on DENV infection severity. We found that African ancestry has a protective effect against severe outcomes under several systems of clinical classification: Severe Dengue (OR: 0.963 for every 1% increase in African ancestry, 95% confidence interval (0.934-0.993), p-value: 0.016), Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (OR: 0.969, 95% CI (0.947-0.991), p-value: 0.006), and occurrence of haemorrhages (OR: 0.971, 95% CI (0.952-0.989), p-value: 0.002). Conversely, decrease from 100% to 0% African ancestry significantly increases the chance of severe outcomes: OR is 44-fold for Severe Dengue, 24-fold for Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever, and 20-fold for occurrence of haemorrhages. Furthermore, several warning signs also showed statistically significant association given more evidences in specific stages of DENV infection. These results provide consistent evidence in order to infer statistical models providing a framework for future genetic epidemiology and clinical studies. PMID:25017656

Chacón-Duque, Juan Camilo; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Avendaño, Efren; Campo, Omer; Ramirez, Ruth; Rojas, Winston; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Bedoya, Gabriel



Carbohydrate intake modulates the effect of the ABCA1-R230C variant on HDL cholesterol concentrations in premenopausal women.  


The R230C variant of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene has been consistently associated with decreased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in several studies in the Mexican mestizo population. However, information on how diet composition modifies the effect of the ABCA1-R230C variant on HDL-C concentrations is very scarce. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the effect of ABCA1-R230C on HDL-C concentrations is modulated by dietary factors in a nationwide population sample of 3591 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted by the State's Employees' Social Security and Social Services Institute. All participants answered a validated questionnaire to assess health status and weekly food consumption. Fasting blood samples were drawn for biochemical analysis and DNA extraction, and the ABCA1-R230C variant was genotyped using TaqMan assays. Statistical analyses consisted of simple linear and multiple regression modeling adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The overall C risk allele frequency was 9.3% and the variant was significantly associated with low HDL-C concentrations in both sexes. A significant negative correlation between carbohydrate consumption and HDL-C concentrations was observed in women bearing the R230C variant (P = 0.021) and a significant gene-diet interaction was found only in premenopausal women (P = 0.037). In conclusion, the effect of the ABCA1-R230C gene variant on HDL-C concentrations is modulated by carbohydrate intake in premenopausal women. This finding may help design optimized dietary interventions according to sex and ABCA1-R230C genotype. PMID:22190032

Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; González-Barrios, Juan A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha E; Yañez-Velazco, Lucia B; Bernal-Alcantara, Demetrio A; Villa, Antonio R; Antuna-Puente, Barbara; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Merino-García, José L; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde N; Carnevale, Alessandra



Disease severity in patients infected with Leishmania mexicana relates to IL-1?.  


Leishmania mexicana can cause both localized (LCL) and diffuse (DCL) cutaneous leishmaniasis, yet little is known about factors regulating disease severity in these patients. We analyzed if the disease was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1? (-511), CXCL8 (-251) and/or the inhibitor IL-1RA (+2018) in 58 Mexican mestizo patients with LCL, 6 with DCL and 123 control cases. Additionally, we analyzed the in vitro production of IL-1? by monocytes, the expression of this cytokine in sera of these patients, as well as the tissue distribution of IL-1? and the number of parasites in lesions of LCL and DCL patients. Our results show a significant difference in the distribution of IL-1? (-511 C/T) genotypes between patients and controls (heterozygous OR), with respect to the reference group CC, which was estimated with a value of 3.23, 95% CI?=?(1.2, 8.7) and p-value?=?0.0167), indicating that IL-1? (-511 C/T) represents a variable influencing the risk to develop the disease in patients infected with Leishmania mexicana. Additionally, an increased in vitro production of IL-1? by monocytes and an increased serum expression of the cytokine correlated with the severity of the disease, since it was significantly higher in DCL patients heavily infected with Leishmania mexicana. The distribution of IL-1? in lesions also varied according to the number of parasites harbored in the tissues: in heavily infected LCL patients and in all DCL patients, the cytokine was scattered diffusely throughout the lesion. In contrast, in LCL patients with lower numbers of parasites in the lesions, IL-1? was confined to the cells. These data suggest that IL-1? possibly is a key player determining the severity of the disease in DCL patients. The analysis of polymorphisms in CXCL8 and IL-1RA showed no differences between patients with different disease severities or between patients and controls. PMID:22629474

Fernández-Figueroa, Edith A; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Espinosa-Mateos, Valeria; Carrillo-Sánchez, Karol; Salaiza-Suazo, Norma; Carrada-Figueroa, Georgina; March-Mifsut, Santiago; Becker, Ingeborg



Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations  

PubMed Central

Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo



Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. Methods: This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. Results: The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Conclusions: Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population. PMID:24893053

Rodríguez Sánchez, Diego Alejandro



[Injecting without getting infected: injectors' strategies to prevent HIV and HCV.  


OBJETIVO: Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. MATERIAL Y M#ENTITYSTARTX000E9;TODOS: Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. RESULTADOS: La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. CONCLUSIONES: Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

Mateu-Gelabert, P; Friedman, S; Sandoval, M



Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables  

PubMed Central

Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175




Moléculas orgánicas no-rígidas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se destaca la importancia del estudio espectroscópico ab initio de una serie de moléculas no-rígidas detectadas en el medio interestelar (acetona, dimetil-eter, etanol, metanol, metilamina, ldots), así como los últimos avances del desarrollo de la metodología para el tratamiento teórico de estas especies. Se describe, a modo de ejemplo, el análisis del espectro roto-torsional de la molécula de glicoaldehido que ha sido recientemente detectada en el centro Galáctico Sagitario B2 (N) [1]. Esta especie presenta dos movimientos de gran amplitud que interaccionan, descansan en el Infrarrojo Lejano y le confiere propiedades no-rígidas. La molécula puede existir en posiciones cis y trans y presenta cinco confórmeros estables, tres de simetría Cs (I, II y IV) y un doble mínimo trans de simetría C1 (III) . La conformación favorita, I, presenta simetría Cs y se estabiliza por la formación de un puente de hidrógeno entre los grupos OH y C=O. Los mínimos secundarios II, III, y IV se han determinado a 1278.2 cm-1 (trans, Cs), 1298.8 cm-1 (trans, C1) y 1865.2 cm-1 (cis, Cs) con cálculos MP4/cc-pVQZ que incluyen sustituciones triples. Para determinar que vibraciones interaccionan con las torsiones, se ha realizado un análisis armónico en los mínimos. Las frecuencias fundamentales armónicas correspondientes al mínimo I se han calculado en 213.4 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 425.7 cm-1 (torsión OH). Es de esperar que tan sólo dos vibraciones, la flexión del grupo C-C-O y el aleteo del hidrógeno del grupo aldehídico puedan desplazar el espectro torsional de la molécula aislada. Para determinar el espectro torsional, se ha determinado la superficie de potencial en dos dimensiones mediante el cálculo ab initio de las geometrías y energías de 74 conformaciones seleccionadas. Estas últimas se han ajustado a un doble serie de Fourier. A partir de la PES y de los parámetros cinéticos del Hamiltoniano vibracional se han obtenido frecuencias e intensidades. Las frecuencias fundamentales se han calculado en 208.0 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 349.9 cm-1 (torsión OH). Se discute el método de cálculo que se ha empleado para la clasificación de los niveles. Los niveles rotacionales se han determinado empleando el método desarrollado para el estudio del ácido acético [2]. Se emplean la base de funciones rotacionales de [3]. A partir de los niveles se han determinado las constantes rotacionales y las constantes de distorsión centrífuga que se comparan con las experimentales de Herbst et al [3].

Senent Díez, M. L.


Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65?±?2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and the Ocellated Turkey were extremely important for local hunters, representing around 40% of total prey taken. Final considerations Our results suggest that hunting is frequent in our study areas. Low human densities allow low hunting pressure on most game species and favor conservation of the tropical forest. We suggest that co-management may help regulating hunting, prioritizing cultural practices of sustainable use and conservation for benefiting local users and animal populations. PMID:23031274



Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas  

PubMed Central

Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat allele were identical by descent and that the geographic distribution of this allele had not been influenced by natural selection. To investigate whether these assumptions are satisfied, we genotyped 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms across ?500 kilobases (kb) around D9S1120 in 21 Native American and Western Beringian populations and 54 other worldwide populations. All chromosomes with the 9-repeat allele share the same haplotypic background in the vicinity of D9S1120, suggesting that all sampled copies of the 9-repeat allele are identical by descent. Ninety-one percent of these chromosomes share the same 76.26 kb haplotype, which we call the “American Modal Haplotype” (AMH). Three observations lead us to conclude that the high frequency and widespread distribution of the 9-repeat allele are unlikely to be the result of positive selection: 1) aside from its association with the 9-repeat allele, the AMH does not have a high frequency in the Americas, 2) the AMH is not unusually long for its frequency compared with other haplotypes in the Americas, and 3) in Latin American mestizo populations, the proportion of Native American ancestry at D9S1120 is not unusual compared with that observed at other genomewide microsatellites. Using a new method for estimating the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all sampled copies of an allele on the basis of an estimate of the length of the genealogy descended from the MRCA, we calculate the mean time to the MRCA of the 9-repeat allele to be between 7,325 and 39,900 years, depending on the demographic model used. The results support the hypothesis that all modern Native Americans and Western Beringians trace a large portion of their ancestry to a single founding population that may have been isolated from other Asian populations prior to expanding into the Americas. PMID:19221006

Schroeder, Kari B.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Crawford, Michael H.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Boca, Simina M.; Conrad, Donald F.; Tito, Raul Y.; Osipova, Ludmilla P.; Tarskaia, Larissa A.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Smith, David G.; Rosenberg, Noah A.





Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include the public sector deficit and high domestic interest rates. Further, the last quarter of 1987 saw the collapse of the Mexican stock market and the reappearance of capital flight. To cope with these and other problems, the President de la Madrid announced The Economic Solidarity Pact in mid-December 1987, which, among other things, raised the minimum wage rate, increased prices of some public goods and services, and reduced the maximum tariff on imports to 20%. Mexico and the US have maintained close and friendly relations since 1938, and these friendly relations were reinforced by US measured in the last several years to help Mexico deal with its economic problems. PMID:12177969



[The indigenous population of Sierra Norte de Puebla].  


The northern sierra region of Pueblo, Mexico, contains 1496 communities in 65 municipios and covers 1/4 of the area of the state of Puebla. The topography is steep and mountainous, and the area is inaccessible. The region contains the 3 principal zones of Mesoamerica, hot lands from sea level to 700 meters above sea level, temperate zones from 700-1500 meters, and cold country from 1500-2000 meters above sea level. Most of the population resides in the temperate and cold lands, but the hot zones are economically important. Little is known of the prehistory of the area. The Totonac were believed to have been the earliest settlers. In the mid-15th century numerous Nahua groups came to the area. In the late 15th century the region fell to the Aztecs, but their dominion was cut short by the arrival of the Spanish. Spanish penetration was relatively slow because of the difficult terrain and the lack of precious metals desired by the Spanish. The introduction of coffee cultivation in the late 19th century accelerated the adoption of urban-mestizo sociocultural and commercial elements by the indigenous population. The population of the northern sierra increased from 752,656 in 1980 to 965,976 in 1990. The 1980 census reported that 259,140 persons spoke indigenous languages, including 179,677 who spoke Nahuatl, 66,020 Totonaco, and 4921 Otomi. The most important cities are located on paved roads: Teziutland, Zacatlan, Hauachinango, and Zacapoaxtla. The municipios with predominantly monolingual indigenous populations are concentrated in the most difficult to reach areas of the central sierra massif. The region is characterized by temporary and permanent emigration of the indigenous population. The main reasons for emigration are lack of land and of alternative sources of employment, and desire for education. During the months August-December, known as the time of hunger, there is seasonal migration of household heads in search of work as laborers in cane cutting, tobacco, or fruit harvesting. The local economy is based on subsistence agriculture and production of coffee, fruits, and woods for export. The most isolated and inaccessible communities have preserved traditional cultural elements the most strongly. PMID:12284139

Marquez Gonzalez, G



[In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].  


Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make Indians actors in cultural, social, or political affairs at the regional or national level previously dominated by non-Indians. The peasant Indian movements are above all interested in issues of land and agrarian development, but they are not exclusively peasant. Some of the members are not agricultural workers, and their concerns exceed those of a simple peasant society. Diverse influences have been exercised on the formation and development of the movements. Progressive sectors of the Catholic Church were influential in almost all. The movements encountered opposition from class and national adversaries interested in maintaining the status quo, and also often experienced distrust, misunderstanding, or paternalistic attitudes on the part of nonpeasant organizations working for change. The future is uncertain for all of the movements, despite notable past successes for some of them. PMID:12317604

Le Bot, Y



Keywords to Recruit Spanish- and English-Speaking Participants: Evidence From an Online Postpartum Depression Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The English-speaking sample was also diverse with most participants residing in regions of Asia and Africa. Spanish-speaking participants were significantly more likely to be of Latino ethnic background, not married, completed fewer years of formal education, and were more likely to have accessed the Internet for depression information (P<.001). Conclusions The Internet is an effective method for reaching an international sample of pregnant women interested in online interventions to manage changes in their mood during the perinatal period. To increase efficiency, Internet advertisements need to be monitored and tailored to reflect the target population’s conceptualization of health issues being studied. Trial Registration NCT00816725; (Archived by WebCite at PMID:24407163

Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F



Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children  

PubMed Central

Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a) 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b) 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ? 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ? 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol < 40 mg/dL, obesity BMI ? 95th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ? 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ? 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015) and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015) were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02), decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03) and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01). The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02) in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with the increase of total cholesterol levels in Mexican children. PMID:22459021





Focus in this discussion of Nicaragua is on the following: geography; the people and history; government and polictical conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Nicaragua. Nicaragua's population is 2.9 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3% (1981). The infant mortality rate is 37/1000; life expectancy is 56 years. Most Nicaraguans are mestizo, a mix of European and Indian. Smaller ethnic groups also are recognizable. A large black minority of Jamaican origin is concentrated on the Caribbean coast, although migration to Managua is on the rise. Nicaragua borders Costa Rica to the south and El Salvador--across the Gulf of Fonseca--and Honduras to the north. The climate is tropical. About 40% of the population are urban; most live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands region. On July 19, 1979 the Government of National Reconstruction formed in exile as a coalition of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) and civic leaders, stepped into the power vacuum left by the Somoza government's collapse. The GRN was organized into a 5-member junta, the 19 member Council of Ministers, and the 33 member quasi legislative National Council. The GRN's July 19 Declaration of San Jose, promising a democratically elected government and an equitable pluralistic society, met with strong popular support. Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly are guaranteed by the declaration, yet the GRN's efforts at promoting political freedom have been less successful than its efforts at economic equity. At different times, the GRN has restricted operation of opposition newspapers on national security grounds, banned individual foreign films on political grounds, attempted to reduce the role of the Roman Catholic Church and tried to reduce the traditional autonomy of the national university. The country's resources are primarily agricultural. Some estimates indicate that 70% of Nicaragua's territory is usable for agriculture of livestock, though much is underutilized. Currently, more than half the country is covered in forest. The forest industry collapsed since it was nationalized, although its potential remains. Nicaragua's industrial sector is still small but grew rapidly following the formation of the Central American Common Market. Nicaragua's current economic problems stem from continued tension between the private sector and the revolutionary government, which has discouraged private investment. The GRN is committed to maintaining ties with all nations while espousing a policy of nonalignment. The FSLN has converted and expanded the military. The US has contributed $128 million in economic aid to Nicaragua. Nicaraguan support for the Salvadoran insurgents resulted in a US presidential determination in April 1981 to suspend US aid to Nicaragua. PMID:12178081



El Salvador.  


Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year period, human rights violations were tremendous. The war eroded the country's position as the most industrialized nation in Central America. As the 1990, there were still 150,000 landless, whom the government is committed to help in the transfer of land required by the peace accords. PMID:12178053



Characterization of a malaria outbreak in Colombia in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although malaria has presented a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality worldwide during the last decade, it remains a serious global public health problem. In Colombia, during this period, many factors have contributed to sustained disease transmission, with significant fluctuations in an overall downward trend in the number of reported malaria cases. Despite its epidemiological importance, few studies have used surveillance data to describe the malaria situation in Colombia. This study aims to describe the characteristics of malaria cases reported during 2010 to the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) of the National Institute of Health (INS) of Colombia. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using malaria information from SIVIGILA 2010. Cases, frequencies, proportions, ratio and measures of central tendency and data dispersion were calculated. In addition, the annual parasite index (API) and the differences between the variables reported in 2009 and 2010 were estimated. Results A total of 117,108 cases were recorded by SIVIGILA in 2010 for a national API of 10.5/1,000 habitants, with a greater number of cases occurring during the first half of the year. More than 90% of cases were reported in seven departments (=states): Antioquia: 46,476 (39.7%); Chocó: 22,493 (19.2%); Cordoba: 20,182 (17.2%); Valle: 6,360 (5.4%); Guaviare: 5,876 (5.0%); Nariño: 4,085 (3.5%); and Bolivar: 3,590 (3.1%). Plasmodium vivax represented ~71% of the cases; Plasmodium falciparum ~28%; and few infrequent cases caused by Plasmodium malariae. Conclusions Overall, a greater incidence was found in men (65%) than in women (35%). Although about a third of cases occurred in children <15 years, most of these cases occurred in children >5 years of age. The ethnic distribution indicated that about 68% of the cases occurred in mestizos and whites, followed by 23% in Afro-descendants, and the remainder (9%) in indigenous communities. In over half of the cases, consultation occurred early, with 623 complicated and 23 fatal cases. However, the overall incidence increased, corresponding to an epidemic burst and indicating the need to strengthen prevention and control activities as well as surveillance to reduce the risk of outbreaks and the consequent economic and social impact. PMID:24044437



Genotype frequencies of polymorphic GSTM1, GSTT1, and cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 in Mexicans.  


The genotype frequencies of three metabolic polymorphisms were determined in a sample of a typical community in central Mexico. CYP1A1*3, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms were studied in 150 donors born in Mexico and with Mexican ascendants; with respect to ethnicity the subjects can be considered Mestizos. PCR reactions were used to amplify specific fragments of the selected genes from genomic DNA. An unexpected 56.7% frequency of the CYP1A1*3 allele (which depends on the presence of a Val residue in the 462 position of the enzyme, instead of Ile) was found, the highest described for open populations of different ethnic origins (i.e., Caucasian, Asian, African, or African American). The GSTM1 null genotype was found with a frequency of 42.6%, which is not different from other ethnicities, whereas the GSTT1 null genotype had a frequency of 9.3%, one of the lowest described for any ethnic group but comparable to the frequency found in India (9.7%). The frequency of the combined genotype CYP1A1*3/*3 and the GSTM1 null allele is one of the highest observed to date (or perhaps the highest): 13.7% among all the ethnicities studied, including Caucasians and Asians, whereas the combination of CYP1A1*3/*3 with the GSTT1 null allele reached only 2.8%. The GSTM1 null allele combined with the GSTT1 null allele, on the other hand, has one of the lowest frequencies described, 4.24%, comparable to the frequencies found in African Americans and Indians. Finally, the combined CYP1A1*3/*3, GSTM1 null allele, and GSTT1 null allele genotype could not be found in the sample studied; it is assumed that the frequency of carriers of these combined genotypes is less than 1%. CYP1A1*3 and CYP1A1*2 polymorphisms were also evaluated in 50 residents in a community of northern Mexico; the CYP1A1*3 frequency was 54%, similar to that found in the other community studied, and the CYP1A1*2 frequency was 40%, which is high compared to Caucasians and Asians but comparable to the frequency found in Japanese and lower than the frequency found in Mapuche Indians. Haplotype frequencies for these CYP1A1 polymorphisms were estimated, and a linkage disequilibrium value (D) of 0.137 was calculated. PMID:18078203

Montero, Regina; Araujo, Antonio; Carranza, Paloma; Mejía-Loza, Vanessa; Serrano, Luis; Albores, Arnulfo; Salinas, Juan E; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael



La binaria LSS 3074 y su entorno: ?`una nueva asociación OB?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo análisis orbital de LSS~3074, junto con tipos espectrales y velocidades radiales de estrellas que podrían constituir con ella una nueva asociación OB. La estrella O4f LSS3074 fue descubierta como binaria espectroscópica de corto período y líneas dobles por Morrell & Niemela (1990, ASP Conf. Ser. 7, 57). Posteriormente, Haefner et~al.(1994, IBVS 3969) encontraron variaciones fotométricas, estimando una inclinación orbital entre 50o y 55o. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de obtener valores empíricos para las masas de estrellas O tempranas, y considerando la gran dispersión existente entre los valores observados y su discrepancia con los predichos por los modelos teóricos, hemos obtenido nuevas observaciones espectroscópicas de este sistema, con el propósito de mejorar los elementos orbitales derivados en la solución preliminar. Además, como las estrellas O tempranas suelen formar parte de cúmulos y asociaciones OB, hemos llevado a cabo una investigación espectroscópica de varias estrellas tempranas que podrían estar físicamente relacionadas con LSS~3074.

Niemela, V.; Morrell, N.; Corti, M.


La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II  

PubMed Central

Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco



Distribution of stable isotopes in arid storms . II. A double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mathematical method based on a double-component model of kinematic wave flow and approach assesses the dynamic isotopic distribution in arid rain storms and runoff. This model describes the transport and ?18O evolution of rainfall to overland flow and runoff in an arid rocky watershed with uniformly distributed shallow depression storage. The problem was solved numerically. The model was calibrated using a set of temporal discharge and ?18O distribution data for rainfall and runoff collected on a small rocky watershed at the Sede Boker Experimental Site, Israel. Simulation of a reliable result with respect to observation was obtained after parameter adjustment by trial and error. Sensitivity analysis and model application were performed. The model is sensitive to changes in parameters characterizing the depression storage zones. The model reflects the effect of the isotopic memory in the water within the depression storage between sequential rain spells. The use of the double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport provides an appropriate qualitative and quantitative fitting between computed and observed ?18O distribution in runoff. RésuméUne nouvelle méthode mathématique basée sur un modèle à double composante d'écoulement et de transport par une onde cinématique a été développée pour évaluer la distribution dynamique en isotopes dans les précipitations et dans l'écoulement en région aride. Ce modèle décrit le transport et les variations des ?18O de la pluie vers le ruissellement et l'écoulement de surface dans un bassin aride rocheux où le stockage se fait dans des dépressions peu profondes uniformément réparties. Le problème a été résolu numériquement. Le modèle a été calibré au moyen d'une chronique de débits et d'une distribution des ?18O dans la pluie et dans l'écoulement de surface sur un petit bassin versant rocheux du site expérimental de Sede Boker (Israël). La simulation d'un résultat crédible par rapport aux observations a été obtenu après un ajustement des paramètres par une méthode d'essais et d'erreurs. L'analyse de sensibilité et l'application du modèle ont ensuite été réalisés. Le modèle est plutôt sensible aux changements des paramètres caractérisant les zones de stockage dans les dépressions. Le modèle rend compte de l'effet de mémoire isotopique dans l'eau dans le stockage des dépressions entre les événements séquentiels de pluie. L'utilisation d'un modèle à double composante d'écoulement et de transport par onde cinématique permet un ajustement qualitatif et quantitatif adapté entre les distributions des ?18O calculées et observées dans l'écoulement de surface. Resumen Un nuevo método matemático basado en un modelo de doble componente de onda cinemática de flujo y transporte permite caracterizar la distribución isotópica dinámica de las tormentas en zonas áridas y la escorrentía. Este modelo describe el transporte y la evolución del ?18O en la lluvia, flujo superficial y escorrentía en una cuenca rocosa de clima árido con detención superficial distribuida uniformemente. El modelo se calibró numéricamente utilizando un conjunto de datos de descarga temporal y de distribución de ?18O para lluvia y escorrentía recogida en una pequeña cuenca rocosa en el Centro de Experimentación de Sede Boker, Israel. Se obtuvo un buen ajuste a los datos tras un ajuste de parámetros mediante prueba y error. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad que indicó que el modelo resulta ser bastante sensible a cambios en los parámetros que caracterizan las zonas de baja detención superficial. El modelo también refleja el efecto de la memoria isotópica en el agua de estas zonas de detención entre los distintos periodos de lluvias. El uso de un modelo de doble componente de onda cinemática de flujo y transporte proporciona un buen ajuste cualitativo y cuantitativo entre los datos medidos y calculados de ?18O en la escorrentía.

Yakirevich, Alexander; Dody, Avraham; Adar, Eilon M.; Borisov, Viacheslav; Geyh, Mebus



PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil





Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile. PMID:12177976



Tropical dry-forest mammals of Palo Verde: Ecology and conservation in a changing landscape  

E-print Network

More than 114 species of mammals originally were present in Costa Rica’s tropical dry forest, and perhaps 110 species are still found there today. Bats are the most diverse group, with more than 66 species, followed by 11 species of rodents, 7 species of marsupials, 6 species in the weasel family, 5 species of cats, 3 species in the raccoon family, 3 species of primates, 3 species of artiodactyls, 2 species of canids, 2 species of xenarthrans (edentates), 1 rabbit, and 1 tapir. Costa Rica has no endemic dry forest mammals. The species that have been extirpated from this region were either highly prized game species that have been eliminated by overhunting (white-lipped peccaries) or were specialists that either feed on specific foods or have very specific habitat requirements that have been eliminated by habitat destruction. In Costa Rica 10 of the 13 mammal species recognized as endangered and 7 of the 14 found in reduced populations are found within tropical dry forest habitat. Mammals that inhabit tropical dry forest areas must be capable of dealing with high temperatures, low precipitation in the dry season, and large fluctuations in the availability of food resources during the year. Most mammals of the dry forest can be characterized as resident generalists that shift their diets in order to utilize seasonally available food resources; as resident specialists that forage on insects, seeds, or fruit and nectar; or as migrants that occupy dry forests only seasonally and move to other habitats during periods of low food availability in their foraging area in search of food sources in other areas. Bats, some of which serve as pollinators and seed dispersers, are important components of the dry forest fauna. Some species of bats change habitats within the dry forest or migrate into and out of the dry forest seasonally. Hunting has been, and continues to be, an important threat to most large mammals in dry forest habitats. As early as 1880, large numbers of deer skins were exported from Costa Rica to Europe, the majority of which came from Guanacaste. Illegal poaching is still a serious problem in the protected areas of Guanacaste. Throughout Mesoamerica, deforestation to create pastures and, in recent years, for crop cultivation has negatively affected many populations of tropical dry forest mammals. Approximately 50% of the 250,000 ha area in the lower Tempisque Basin had been deforested by 1956 and by 1970 most of the dry forest had been converted into pastureland. The spread of introduced African grasses and seasonal fires have continued to eliminate mature dry forest in northern Costa Rica in the last decades. Contamination by pesticides from agricultural fields has become a serious threat to the mammalian fauna in the region. The use of cattle as a management tool also threatens the mammalian fauna in tropical dry forest due to their affect on the natural vegetation. Cattle were reintroduced into Parque Nacional Palo Verde in the 1980s in an attempt to control the rapidly expanding cattails in the marsh, which were eliminating habitat for aquatic birds. However, cattle have been ineffective at controlling cattails, and overgrazing of tree seedlings has hindered regeneration of the forest because cattle graze selectively on seedlings of native species. The mammals of the tropical dry forest are among the most poorly known of any of the bioclimatic life zones. Conservation measures for this endangered fauna should include expanded research, training and educational programs for park personnel, economic alternatives, and sustainable development. In addition, efforts should be made for the creation of additional protected areas with buffer zones and for the development of natural regeneration programs.... contaminación por pesticidas en los campos agrícolas se ha convertido en una seria amenaza para los mamíferos de la región. El uso de ganado como herramienta de manejo también es una amenaza para la fauna de mamíferos en el bosque tropical seco debido a su...

Stoner, Kathryn E.; Timm, Robert M.



Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands  

PubMed Central

Wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. We used a modified before–after control–impact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year study. We located 59 and 185 nests before and after development, respectively, of a 201 MW wind energy facility in Greater Prairie-Chicken nesting habitat and assessed nest site selection and nest survival relative to proximity to wind energy infrastructure and habitat conditions. Proximity to turbines did not negatively affect nest site selection (? = 0.03, 95% CI = ?1.2–1.3) or nest survival (? = ?0.3, 95% CI = ?0.6–0.1). Instead, nest site selection and survival were strongly related to vegetative cover and other local conditions determined by management for cattle production. Integration of our project results with previous reports of behavioral avoidance of oil and gas facilities by other species of prairie grouse suggests new avenues for research to mitigate impacts of energy development. Efectos del Desarrollo de la Energía Eólica sobre la Ecología de Anidación de Gallinas de la Gran Pradera en Pastizales Fragmentados Resumen Se calcula que la energía eólica aportará el 20% de las necesidades energéticas de los Estados Unidos para el 2030, pero nuevos sitios para el desarrollo de energía renovable pueden traslaparse con hábitats importantes de poblaciones declinantes de aves de pastizal. La gallina de la Gran Pradera (Tympanuchus cupido) es una especie de ave obligada de pastizal que se pronostica responderá negativamente al desarrollo energético. Usamos un diseño ADCI modificado para probar los impactos del desarrollo de la energía eólica sobre la ecología reproductiva de las gallinas en un estudio de 5 años. Ubicamos 59 y 185 nidos antes y después del desarrollo, respectivamente, de una instalación de energía eólica de 201 MW en el hábitat de anidación de las gallinas y estudiamos la selección de sitio de anidación y la supervivencia de nidos en relación con la proximidad a la infraestructura y las condiciones de hábitat. La proximidad con las turbinas no afectó negativamente a la selección de sitios de anidación (? = -0.3, 95% CI = -0.6–0.1). En su lugar, la selección de sitios de anidación y la supervivencia estuvieron fuertemente relacionadas con la cobertura vegetal y otras condiciones locales determinadas por el manejo de la producción de ganado. La integración de los resultados de nuestro proyecto con reportes previos de la evitación conductual de instalaciones de petróleo y gas por otras especies de pastizales sugiere nuevas vías para que la investigación mitigue los impactos del desarrollo energético. PMID:24628394

McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K



Migration of recharge waters downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson basin aquifer, Arizona, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams and playas within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins. The Tucson basin of southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (ca. 700mm/year) as does the basin itself (ca. 300mm/year). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through shallow joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs and runoff in the Santa Catalina Mountains and from wells in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes (?D and ?18O) and thermonuclear-bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterization of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable-isotope measurements show no direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs and wells discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960s or later. Résumé La recharge des aquifères des bassins alluviaux arides du sud-ouest des États-Unis est assurée surtout à partir des lits des cours d'eau et des playas dans les bassins, ainsi que par l'eau entrant à la bordure de ces bassins. Le bassin du Tucson, dans le sud-est de l'Arizona, est l'un de ceux-ci. La chaîne montagneuse de Santa Catalina constitue la limite nord de ce bassin et reçoit plus de deux fois plus de précipitations (environ 700mm/an) que le bassin (environ 300mm/an). Dans cette étude, les isotopes du milieu ont été utilisés pour analyser le déplacement de l'eau de pluie vers le bassin au travers des fissures et des fractures proches de la surface. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés dans les sources et dans l'écoulement de surface de la chaîne montagneuse et dans des puits au pied de la chaîne. Les isotopes stables (?D et ?18O) et le tritium d'origine thermonucléaire permettent de caractériser qualitativement les cheminements de l'eau et leurs vitesses. Les isotopes stables ne mettent pas en évidence un effet d'altitude. Les teneurs en tritium indiquent que quelques sources et certains puits fournissent une eau ancienne, alors que l'eau de la plupart des sources date des années soixante ou est plus récente. Resumen Los acuíferos en las cuencas aluviales áridas del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de América se recargan principalmente por la infiltración procedentes de los arroyos y playas de las propias cuencas y por entradas a lo largo de los límites de las mismas. La cuenca de Tucson, en el sudeste de Arizona es una de ellas. Las Montañas de Santa Catalina forman el contorno septentrional de esta cuenca y reciben una precipitación de más del doble (700mm/año) que la media de la propia cuenca (unos 300mm/año). En este estudio, se utilizaron isótopos ambientales para investigar la infiltración a través de fracturas y juntas superficiales. Se obtuvieron muestras de manantiales y de la escorrentía en las Montañas de Santa Catalina, así como de pozos ubicados al pie de las mismas. Los isótopos estables (Deuterio y Oxígeno-18) y el Tritio procedente de las bombas termonucleares permitieron la caracterización cualitativa de las líneas de flujo y de las velocidades. Los datos procedentes de la medida de isótopos estables no parecen presentar un efecto de altitud. Los valores de Tritio indican que aunque algunos pozos y manantiales descargan agua previa a los ensayos termonucleares, la mayoría descargan aguas de fecha posterior a 1960.

Cunningham, Erin E. B.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Chris; Bassett, R. L.


A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau de l'État s'est appliqué à développer une stratégie sur deux plans. Tout d'abord, des études hydrogéologiques de base et des modèles mathématiques d'écoulement et de transport de nappe ont été réalisés à partir d'un suivi d'ensemble des puits existants et d'une révision générale du contexte géologique de l'État. Ensuite, on a soutenu une structure de participation des usagers de l'eau aux actions de gestion de l'eau, à partir de la dissémination de l'information pour la mise en place de projets pilotes efficaces d'utilisation de l'eau, avec des aides financières, techniques et politiques de l'État. Simultanément, un effort coordonné en vue de l'achèvement de l'enregistrement des usagers de l'eau a été fait avec l'autorité fédérale, en même temps que d'autres mesures de soutien, telles que des programmes de formation et des campagnes de surveillance. Cet article présente une vue d'ensemble des réalisations de projets et des défis. Resumen El Estado de Guanajuato, situado en el centro de México, ocupa menos del 2% de la superficie del país. Tiene casi 17.000 pozos profundos, de los cuales se extrae cerca de 4.000 hm3/a, lo que supone un exceso de 1.000 hm3/a respecto a la recarga anual. Puesto que el agua es administrada a nivel federal en México, el gobierno del Estado afronta el reto de asegurar el desarrollo de la población sin disponer de medios formales de intervención. Dadas las limitaciones para aplicar políticas y medidas reguladoras, el programa del agua en el Estado tiene como objetivo principal la implantación de una doble estrategia. Por un lado, desarrollar estudios hidrogeológicos básicos y modelos matemáticos de flujo y transporte de los acuíferos, basándose en una campaña exhaustiva de pozos existentes y en una revisión del marco geológico del Estado. Por otro lado, promover-con soporte financiero, técnico y político-una estructura de participación de los usuarios en las acciones de gestión, incluyendo desde la difusión de la información hasta la implantación de proyectos piloto para un uso

Sandoval, Ricardo


Dual-porosity modeling of groundwater recharge: testing a quick calibration using in situ moisture measurements, Areuse River Delta, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method for calibrating the dual-porosity MACRO model via in situ TDR measurements during a brief infiltration run (2.8 h) is proposed with the aim of estimating local groundwater recharge (GR). The recharge was modeled firstly by considering the entire 3 m of unsaturated soil, and secondly by considering only the topsoil to the zero-flux plane (0-0.70 m). The modeled recharge was compared against the GR obtained from field measurements. Measured GR was 313 mm during a 1-year period (15 October 1990-15 October 1991). The best simulation results were obtained when considering the entire unsaturated soil under equilibrium conditions excluding the macropore flow effect (330 mm), whereas under non-equilibrium conditions GR was overestimated (378 mm). Sensitivity analyses showed that the investigation of the topsoil is sufficient in estimating local GR in this case, since the water stored below this depth appears to be below the typical rooting depth of the vegetation and is not available for evapotranspiration. The modeled recharge under equilibrium conditions for the 0.7-m-topsoil layer was found to be 364 mm, which is in acceptable agreement with measurements. Une méthode simple pour la calibration du modèle à double porosité MACRO par des mesures TDR in situ durant un bref essai d'infiltration (2.8 h) a été proposée pour l'estimation locale de la recharge de la nappe (RN). La RN a été d'abord simulée en tenant compte de toute la zone non saturée (3 m) et ensuite, en considérant uniquement la couverture du sol entre zéro et le plan du flux nul (0.70 m). La RN simulée a été comparée à la RN observée. La RN mesurée durant une année (15 octobre 1990-15 octobre 1991) était de 313 mm. Les meilleures simulations ont été obtenues en tenant compte de toute la zone non saturée sous les conditions d'équilibre excluant le flux préférentiel (330 mm). Sous les conditions de non équilibre, la RN a été surestimée (378 mm). Les analyses de sensitivité ont montré que l'investigation de la couverture du sol est suffisante pour l'estimation locale de la RN du fait que l'eau traversant le plan du flux nul se trouverait sous la zone des racines et échapperait à l'évapotranspiration. La RN simulée sur les 0.70 m du sol sous les conditions d'équilibre était de 364 mm, ce qui est comparable aux mesures. Se propone un método sencillo para calibrar el modelo de doble porosidad "MACRO" mediante medidas in-situ obtenidas por TDR durante un breve ensayo de infiltración (2,8 horas), con el objetivo de estimar la recarga local al acuífero. Ésta ha sido modelada de dos formas: considerando los 3 m de suelo no saturado y empleando sólo desde la capa superior hasta el plano de flujo nulo (de 0 a 0,70 m). Se compara la recarga modelada con la recarga local medida en campo, la cual fue de 313 mm durante un ciclo anual (del 15 de octubre de 1990 al 15 de octubre de 1991). Las mejores simulaciones corresponden a la hipótesis de columna entera no saturada en condiciones de equilibrio, excluyendo el efecto de macroporos (valor de 330 mm), mientras que el resultado obtenido para condiciones de no equilibrio en la recarga local está sobreestimado (378 mm). Los análisis de sensibilidad muestran que la investigación del horizonte superior del suelo es suficiente para estimar la recarga local en este caso, ya que el agua almacenada por debajo de esta profundidad parece estar fuera del alcance típico de las raíces de la vegetación y no puede ser evapotranspirada. La recarga modelada en condiciones de equilibrio para la capa superior de 0,70 m de espesor es de 364 mm, valor aceptable respecto a las medidas.

Alaoui, Abdallah; Eugster, Werner